WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft separation

  1. Probabilistic Modeling of Aircraft Trajectories for Dynamic Separation Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    With a proliferation of new and unconventional vehicles and operations expected in the future, the ab initio airspace design will require new approaches to trajectory prediction for separation assurance and other air traffic management functions. This paper presents an approach to probabilistic modeling of the trajectory of an aircraft when its intent is unknown. The approach uses a set of feature functions to constrain a maximum entropy probability distribution based on a set of observed aircraft trajectories. This model can be used to sample new aircraft trajectories to form an ensemble reflecting the variability in an aircraft's intent. The model learning process ensures that the variability in this ensemble reflects the behavior observed in the original data set. Computational examples are presented.

  2. Measurements of Aircraft Wake Vortex Separation at High Arrival Rates and a Proposed New Wake Vortex Separation Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, David; Donohue, George L.; Haynie, Rudolph C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents data and a proposed new aircraft wake vortex separation standard that argues for a fundamental re-thinking of international practice. The current static standard, under certain atmospheric conditions, presents an unnecessary restriction on system capacity. A new approach, that decreases aircraft separation when atmospheric conditions dictate, is proposed based upon the availability of new instrumentation and a better understanding of wake physics.

  3. Conflict Prevention and Separation Assurance Method in the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Carreno, Victor A.; Williams, Daniel M.; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A multilayer approach to the prevention of conflicts due to the loss of aircraft-to-aircraft separation which relies on procedures and on-board automation was implemented as part of the SATS HVO Concept of Operations. The multilayer system gives pilots support and guidance during the execution of normal operations and advance warning for procedure deviations or off-nominal operations. This paper describes the major concept elements of this multilayer approach to separation assurance and conflict prevention and provides the rationale for its design. All the algorithms and functionality described in this paper have been implemented in an aircraft simulation in the NASA Langley Research Center s Air Traffic Operation Lab and on the NASA Cirrus SR22 research aircraft.

  4. Prediction of flow separation from aircraft tails using a RSM turbulence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Andrea; Benton, Jeremy; Tucker, Paul G.

    2014-11-01

    Enhancing engineers' capability to predict flow separation would generate important benefits in aircraft design. In this study the attention is focused on the vertical tail plane (VTP), which consists of a fixed part (the fin) and a moveable control surface (the rudder). For standard two-engine aircraft configurations, the size of the VTP is driven by the condition of loss of an engine during takeoff and low speed climb: in this condition the fin and the rudder have to be sufficient in size to balance the aircraft. Due to uncertainties in prediction of VTP effectiveness, aircraft designers keep to a conservative approach, risking specifying a larger size for the VTP than it is probably necessary. Uncertainties come from difficulties in predicting the separation of the flow from the surfaces of the aircraft using current CFD techniques, which are based on the use of RANS equations with eddy viscosity turbulence models. The CFD simulations presented in this study investigate the use of a RSM turbulence model with RANS and URANS. The introduction of a time-dependency gives benefits in the accuracy of the flow solution in presence of massive flow separation. This leads to the investigation of hybrid RANS/LES techniques with the aim of improving the solution of the detached flow. EU FP7 project ANADE (Grant Agreement Number 289428).

  5. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Delegation of Separation in NextGen Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) performing delegated separation in the national airspace system (NAS). Delegated separation is the transfer of responsibility for maintaining separation between aircraft or vehicles from air navigation service providers to the relevant pilot or flight operator. The effects of delegated separation and traffic display information level were collected through performance, workload, and situation awareness measures. The results of this study show benefits related to the use of conflict detection alerts being shown on the UAS operator's cockpit situation display (CSD), and to the use of full delegation. Overall, changing the level of separation responsibility and adding conflict detection alerts on the CSD was not found to have an adverse effect on performance as shown by the low amounts of losses of separation. The use of conflict detection alerts on the CSD and full delegation responsibilities given to the UAS operator were found to create significantly reduced workload, significantly increased situation awareness and significantly easier communications between the UAS operator and air traffic controller without significantly increasing the amount of losses of separation.

  6. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  7. Aircraft deconfliction responsibility across en-route sectors in NextGen separation assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrall, Christopher D.

    The subject of the current research is a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept that involves automated separation assurance developed to enable controllers to provide both safe and efficient air traffic services at much higher traffic densities than possible today. The study investigated the issue of how responsibility should be handled between controllers for the resolution of a conflict that is predicted to occur in a sector other than where it was detected. Two possibilities, a De-Conflicting AirPlanes procedure (DCAP) versus a De-Conflicting AirSpace procedure (DCAS), were examined under human-in-the-loop simulations with scripted aircraft conflicts. Results showed that the DCAS procedure was preferred and that participants experienced less verbal coordination and took less time to resolve conflicts. The results, however, did not reveal significant differences among other plane performance metrics between DCAP and DCAS. These results indicate that the demands of NextGen separation assurance might still be met with ownership and coordination procedures (e.g., DCAP) similar to today. Reducing verbal coordination requirements, however, and allowing separation assurance responsibilities to extend more seamlessly across sector boundaries (e.g., DCAS) would evidently be more acceptable to controllers.

  8. A Risk Assessment Model for Reduced Aircraft Separation: A Quantitative Method to Evaluate the Safety of Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Rick; Smith, Alex; Connors, Mary; Wojciech, Jack; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    As new technologies and procedures are introduced into the National Airspace System, whether they are intended to improve efficiency, capacity, or safety level, the quantification of potential changes in safety levels is of vital concern. Applications of technology can improve safety levels and allow the reduction of separation standards. An excellent example is the Precision Runway Monitor (PRM). By taking advantage of the surveillance and display advances of PRM, airports can run instrument parallel approaches to runways separated by 3400 feet with the same level of safety as parallel approaches to runways separated by 4300 feet using the standard technology. Despite a wealth of information from flight operations and testing programs, there is no readily quantifiable relationship between numerical safety levels and the separation standards that apply to aircraft on final approach. This paper presents a modeling approach to quantify the risk associated with reducing separation on final approach. Reducing aircraft separation, both laterally and longitudinally, has been the goal of several aviation R&D programs over the past several years. Many of these programs have focused on technological solutions to improve navigation accuracy, surveillance accuracy, aircraft situational awareness, controller situational awareness, and other technical and operational factors that are vital to maintaining flight safety. The risk assessment model relates different types of potential aircraft accidents and incidents and their contribution to overall accident risk. The framework links accident risks to a hierarchy of failsafe mechanisms characterized by procedures and interventions. The model will be used to assess the overall level of safety associated with reducing separation standards and the introduction of new technology and procedures, as envisaged under the Free Flight concept. The model framework can be applied to various aircraft scenarios, including parallel and in

  9. The Two-Phase Flow Separator Experiment Breadboard Model: Reduced Gravity Aircraft Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, E; Sharp, L. M.; Chahine, G.; Kamotani, Y.; Gotti, D.; Owens, J.; Gilkey, K.; Pham, N.

    2015-01-01

    Life support systems in space depend on the ability to effectively separate gas from liquid. Passive cyclonic phase separators use the centripetal acceleration of a rotating gas-liquid mixture to carry out phase separation. The gas migrates to the center, while gas-free liquid may be withdrawn from one of the end plates. We have designed, constructed and tested a breadboard that accommodates the test sections of two independent principal investigators and satisfies their respective requirements, including flow rates, pressure and video diagnostics. The breadboard was flown in the NASA low-gravity airplane in order to test the system performance and design under reduced gravity conditions.

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Human-in-the-Loop Controller and Pilot Acceptability Study: Collision Avoidance, Self-Separation, and Alerting Times (CASSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Vincent, Michael J.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Munoz, Cesar; Chamberlain, James P.; Volk, Paul; Arthur, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been mandated by the Congressional funding bill of 2012 to open the National Airspace System (NAS) to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). With the growing use of unmanned systems, NASA has established a multi-center "UAS Integration in the NAS" Project, in collaboration with the FAA and industry, and is guiding its research efforts to look at and examine crucial safety concerns regarding the integration of UAS into the NAS. Key research efforts are addressing requirements for detect-and-avoid (DAA), self-separation (SS), and collision avoidance (CA) technologies. In one of a series of human-in-the-loop experiments, NASA Langley Research Center set up a study known as Collision Avoidance, Self-Separation, and Alerting Times (CASSAT). The first phase assessed active air traffic controller interactions with DAA systems and the second phase examined reactions to the DAA system and displays by UAS Pilots at a simulated ground control station (GCS). Analyses of the test results from Phase I and Phase II are presented in this paper. Results from the CASSAT study and previous human-in-the-loop experiments will play a crucial role in the FAA's establishment of rules, regulations, and procedures to safely, efficiently, and effectively integrate UAS into the NAS.

  11. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  12. The effect of viewing time, time to encounter, and practice on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display of traffic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E. A.; Baty, D.; Jago, S.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Two studies were conducted to develop a clear and concise display format for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Subjects were required to monitor a CDTI for specified periods of time and to make perceptual judgments concerning the future position of a single intruder aircraft in relationship to their own aircraft. Experimental variables included: type of predictor information displayed on the two aircraft symbols; time to encounter point; length of time subjects viewed the display; amount of practice; and type of encounter (straight or turning). Results show that length of viewing time had little or no effect on performance; time to encounter influenced performance with the straight predictor but did not with the curved predictor; and that learning occurred under all conditions.

  13. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and...

  14. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications of this division in aviation, data optimization and comparison has been quite an important task. The interest in using data acquisition boards is being driven by the technology and design standards in the new generation of aircraft and the ongoing efforts of reducing weight and, in some cases addressing the safety risks. This paper presents a sum of technical report data from post processing and diversification of data acquisition from Arinc 429 interface on a research aircraft platform. Arinc 429 is by far the most common data bus in use on civil transport aircraft, regional jets and executive business jets today. Since its introduction on the Boeing 757/767 and Airbus aircraft in the early 1980s hardly any aircraft has been produced without the use of this data bus. It was used widely by the air transport indu

  15. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  16. Aircraft Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  17. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  18. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  19. Method and device for landing aircraft dependent on runway occupancy time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalebsaz Jeddi, Babak (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A technique for landing aircraft using an aircraft landing accident avoidance device is disclosed. The technique includes determining at least two probability distribution functions; determining a safe lower limit on a separation between a lead aircraft and a trail aircraft on a glide slope to the runway; determining a maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate on the runway based on the safe lower limit and the probability distribution functions; directing the trail aircraft to enter the glide slope with a target separation from the lead aircraft corresponding to the maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate; while the trail aircraft is in the glide slope, determining an actual separation between the lead aircraft and the trail aircraft; and directing the trail aircraft to execute a go-around maneuver if the actual separation approaches the safe lower limit. Probability distribution functions include runway occupancy time, and landing time interval and/or inter-arrival distance.

  20. APPLICATION FOR AIRCRAFT TRACKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroumov, Ivan; Kuz’menko, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In the article the important problems of software development for aircraft tracking have beendiscussed. Position reports of ACARS have been used for aircraft tracking around the world.An algorithm of aircraft coordinates decoding and visualization of aircraft position on the map has beenrepresented.Keywords: ACARS, aircraft, internet, position, software, tracking.

  1. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel

    2011-01-01

    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  2. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  3. Active structural acoustic control of aircraft interior flow noise via the use of active trim panels

    OpenAIRE

    Mahnken, Brian W.

    1996-01-01

    Modem jet aircraft interior noise can be categorized into two main types: tonal noise caused by engine imbalance or blade passage, and mid frequency broadband noise resulting from turbulent flow. This project addresses aircraft interior flow noise caused by a flow separation over the crown of the aircraft. The noise control approach is to mount piezoelectric actuators to the aircraft interior cockpit crown trim panel and use them to actively control aircraft interior noise with...

  4. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  5. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  6. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  7. Designing A Conventional Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Sonei, Arash

    2014-01-01

    This paper is explaining the important design phases of dimensioning an unmanned conventional aircraft from scratch and will also design one according to a few chosen requirements. The design phases discussed will be all from wing dimensioning to stability and spin recovery, aircraft performance requirements and how to select a motor which overcomes these. As well as the optimal rate of climb for improved efficiency is discussed. In the end an aircraft which manages the set requirements and i...

  8. Lightning effects on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  9. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  10. Aircraft impact analysis for the HFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analysis performed to determine the annual frequency at which aircraft are expected to strike the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) complex, located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Since the HFBR is not hardened against light aircraft, this report considers the impact of military, commercial, twin engine and single engine aircraft operating in the vicinity of the HFBR. The large volume of light aircraft operating in this area contributes heavily to the estimated annual impact frequency of 3.54E-05 impacts per year. There are two chapters and seven appendices in this report. The first chapter describes the airspace in the vicinity of the HFBR. This includes five airports, two major airways, one standard arrival route, as well as a significant volume of radar vectored and air-taxi traffic. The second chapter of this report presents the calculations by which the expected impact frequency was derived, and an assessment of the uncertainty in those calculations. The calculations were performed using the method outlined in the NRC Standard Review Plan. A separate set of calculations is presented for each of three sources of aircraft: airway traffic, Brookhaven Airport, and Calverton Airport. The appendices contain discussions and side calculations ancillary to the presentation in the second section. This includes a discussion of the data used to estimate traffic counts, information on accident rates, and several other points which would have only been distracting if included in the main discussion

  11. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  12. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  13. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  14. Solar thermal aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  15. AEROSTATIC AND AERODYNAMIC MODULES OF A HYBRID BUOYANT AIRCRAFT: AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ul Haque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach is essential for the estimation of the requirements of aerodynamic and aerostatic lift for a hybrid buoyant aircraft. Such aircrafts have two different modules to balance the weight of aircraft; aerostatic module and aerodynamic module. Both these modules are to be treated separately for estimation of the mass budget of propulsion systems and required power. In the present work, existing relationships of aircraft and airship are reviewed for its further application for these modules. Limitations of such relationships are also disussed and it is precieved that it will provide a strating point for better understanding of design anatomy of such aircraft.

  16. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  17. Weighted Marginal Fisher Analysis with Spatially Smooth for aircraft recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhenzhong; Liu Chang; Li Nan

    2014-01-01

    Due to limitations to extract invariant features for recognition when the aircraft presents various poses and lacks enough samples for training, a novel algorithm called Weighted Marginal Fisher Analysis with Spatially Smooth (WMFA-SS) for extracting invariant features in aircraft recognition is proposed. According to the Graph Embedding (GE) framework, Heat Kernel function is firstly introduced to characterize the interclass separability when choosing the weights of penalty graph. Furthermor...

  18. Mathematical Models for Aircraft Trajectory Design : A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Delahaye, Daniel; Puechmorel, Stéphane; Tsiotras, Panagiotis; Féron, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Air traffic management ensures the safety of flight by optimizing flows and maintaining separation between aircraft. After giving some definitions, some typical feature of aircraft trajectories are presented. Trajectories are objects belonging to spaces with infinite dimensions. The naive way to address such problem is to sample trajectories at some regular points and to create a big vector of positions (and or speeds). In order to manipulate such objects with algorithms, one must reduce the ...

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  1. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  2. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  3. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  4. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  5. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  6. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  7. Ultracapacitor separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang; Jerabek, Elihu Calvin; LeBlanc, Jr., Oliver Harris

    2001-03-06

    An ultracapacitor includes two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. The electrolyte is a polar aprotic organic solvent and a salt. The porous separator comprises a wet laid cellulosic material.

  8. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, M.; Bertsch, E.L.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    A joint initiative of NLR, DLR, and TU Delft has been initiated to streamline the process of generating audible impressions of novel aircraft configurations. The integrated approach adds to the value of the individual tools and allows predicting the sound of future aircraft before they actually fly. Hence, an existing process for the aircraft design and system noise prediction at DLR has been upgraded to generate the required input data for an aircraft auralization framework developed by NLR ...

  9. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  10. A Performance Assessment of a Tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System using Realistic, Complex Traffic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of aspects of an Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) under varying demand levels using realistic traffic patterns. This study only addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (latitude, longitude, altitude, heading and speed) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. The main focus of this paper is to determine the extent to which sole reliance on the proposed tactical ASAS can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times current traffic. The effect of mixing ASAS equipped aircraft with non-equipped aircraft that do not have the capability to self-separate is also investigated.

  11. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  12. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  13. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in, the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers sad and traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control functions. This paper describes a conflict detection, and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm, which is often used for missile guidance during the terminal phase. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection, and the conflict resolution methods.

  14. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  15. Structural integrity in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardrath, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the current design philosophies for achieving long, efficient, and reliable service in aircraft structures. The strengths and weaknesses of these design philosophies and their demonstrated records of success are discussed. The state of the art has not been developed to the point where designing can be done without major test inspection and maintenance programs. A broad program of research is proposed through which a viable computerized design scheme will be provided during the next decade. The program will organize and correlate existing knowledge on fatigue and fracture behavior, identify gaps in this knowledge, and guide specific research to upgrade design capabilities.

  16. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  17. Altus aircraft on runway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  18. Radial cylinder aircraft engines

    OpenAIRE

    Šimíček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Práce je zaměřena na konstrukční řešení letadlových hvězdicových motorů. Úvod je pojednáním o historii letadlových hvězdicových motorů a jejich vývoji v historickém kontextu. Druhá část je zaměřena na konstrukci letadlových hvězdicových motorů, následně jsou uvedena některá zajímavá konstrukční řešení a porovnání s motorem jiného druhu konstrukce. The bachelor's thesis is focused on design of aircraft radial engines. Home is a treatise on the history of aircraft radial engines and their de...

  19. Aviation industry-research in aircraft finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenthal, Joachim C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft values are key to aircraft financing decisions: Aircraft values act as a source of security for providers of debt capital and lessors failing to re-place aircraft, and as a source of upside potential to equity investors. Yet, aircraft values cannot be precisely and continuously monitored. This is because neither actual primary nor secondary aircraft transaction prices are disclosed. Various types of third party valuation estimates exist, but relying solely on third party appraisa...

  20. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  1. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  2. Product separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  3. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  4. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  5. Aircraft impact analysis for the HFBR. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analysis performed to determine the annual frequency at which aircraft are expected to strike the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) complex, located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Since the HFBR is not hardened against light aircraft, this report considers the impact of military, commercial, twin engine and knee engine aircraft operating in the vicinity of the HFBR. The large volume of light aircraft operating in this area contributes heavily to the estimated annual impact frequency of 3.54E-05 impacts per year. There are two chapters and seven appendices in this report. The first chapter describes the airspace in the vicinity of the HFBR. This includes five airports, two major airways, one standard arrival route, as well as a significant volume of radar vectored and air-taxi traffic. The second chapter of this report presents the calculations by which the expected impact frequency was derived, and an assessment of the uncertainty in those calculations. The calculations were performed using the method outlined in the NRC Standard Review Plan. A separate set of calculations is presented for each of three sources of aircraft: airway traffic, Brookhaven Airport, and Calverton Airport. The appendices contain discussions and side calculations ancillary to the presentation in the second section. This includes a discussion of the data used to estimate traffic counts, information on accident rates, and several other points which would have only been distracting if included in the main discussion

  6. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  7. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  8. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  9. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  10. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard....

  11. Summary of measurement results of ozone, methane, and nonmethane hydrocarbons for C-54 aircraft. 1979 Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Purgold, G. C.; Gregory, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    Methane, nonmethane hydrocarbon, and ozone data collected in a C-54 aircraft during the 1979 Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study are presented. Three major aircraft experiments were flown on five separate days in August collecting 20 hours of flight data. Direct correlation between ozone and hydrocarbon plumes was observed on several occasions.

  12. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  13. Electromagnetic Interference In New Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews plans to develop tests and standards to ensure that digital avionics systems in new civil aircraft immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Updated standards reflect more severe environment and vulnerabilities of modern avionics.

  14. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  15. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  16. Challenges in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone A

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the problem of aircraft noise prediction using theoretical methods. The problem is set in context with the needs at several levels to produce noise characterisation from commercial aircraft powered by gas turbine engines. We describe very briefly the computational model (whilst referring the reader to the appropriate literature), and provide examples of noise predictions and comparisons with measured data, where possible. We focus on the issue of stochastic analysi...

  17. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  18. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  19. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  20. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  1. GPS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 70 degree ISOLDE GPS separator magnet MAG70 as well as the switchyard for the Central Mass and GLM (GPS Low Mass) and GHM (GPS High Mass) beamlines in the GPS separator zone. In the GPS20 vacuum sector equipment such as the long GPS scanner 482 / 483 unit, faraday cup FC 490, vacuum valves and wiregrid piston WG210 and WG475 and radiation monitors can also be seen. Also the RILIS laser guidance and trajectory can be seen, the GPS main beamgate switch box and the actual GLM, GHM and Central Beamline beamgates in the beamlines as well as the first electrostatic quadrupoles for the GPS lines. Close up of the GHM deflector plates motor and connections and the inspection glass at the GHM side of the switchyard.

  2. HRS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  3. Component Separations

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H.; Ramirez, Oscar M.

    2012-01-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-...

  4. Component separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  5. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.

    2005-01-01

    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  6. Cryocooler for Air Liquefaction Onboard Large Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedlove, J. J.; Magari, P. J.; Miller, G. W.

    2008-03-01

    Creare has developed a turbo-Brayton cryocooler for the Air Force that is designed to produce approximately 1 kW of refrigeration at 95 K. The cryocooler is intended to provide cryogenic cooling for an air separation system being developed to produce and store liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen onboard large aircraft. The oxygen will be used for high-altitude breathing and medical evacuation operations, while the nitrogen will be used to inert the ullage space inside the fuel tanks. The cryocooler utilizes gas bearings in the turbomachines for long life without maintenance, which is a critical requirement for this application. The mass of a flight version of this cryocooler is expected to be around 270 kg, while the input power is expected to be 21 to 25 kW. This paper describes the design and testing of the technology demonstration cryocooler that was constructed to establish the feasibility of the approach. In the future, the cryocooler will be integrated and tested with a distillation column subsystem. Subsequent testing may also be performed in-flight on an Air Force transport aircraft.

  7. Influence of Aircraft Flow Field on the Longitudinal Stability of a Missile

    OpenAIRE

    Konark Arora; Vaibhav Shah; K. Anandhanarayanan; R. Krishnamurthy; Debasis Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    An air-to-air missile launched from a fighter aircraft needs to be stable at launch to enable safe separation from the aircraft, and less stable in the terminal phase of its flight to become highly maneuverable to intercept the targets. A study has been carried out to estimate the effect of the aircraft flow field on the longitudinal stability of the missile using an in-house developed 3-D grid-free Euler solver. Initially, the missiles are placed in the captive location in the launcher of th...

  8. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1997-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  9. Multilevel optimization problem setting for the design of electric aircraft networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hadbi, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Within more electric aircraft context, electric systems and networks have to evolve. High energy density integration pushes designers to reconsider their systems, architectures and tools.An aircraft network contains a large number of multidisciplinary systems which come from different manufacturers. Each manufacturer designs its system separately following quality standards specified by the aggregator. The goal of this thesis is to provide system approaches which could deal with the high-leve...

  10. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  11. Magnetic separator

    OpenAIRE

    Křupka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh konstrukčního řešení magnetického separátoru určeného k separaci drobného průmyslového odpadu. Tato zpráva obsahuje přehled zařízení světových výrobců, která slouží k magnetické separaci ocelového odpadu. Dále pak posouzení variant technických řešení konstrukčních uzlů magnetického separátoru a následný výběr konkrétního řešení. Dle vstupních parametrů jsou vypočteny všechny parametry potřebné ke správnému návrhu stroje. Ve výpočtech jsou zahrnuty i odůvodnění ...

  12. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  13. Analysis of aircraft maintenance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed several organizational models of aircraft maintenance. All models presented so far have been in use in Air Forces, so that the advantages and disadvantages of different models are known. First it shows the current model of aircraft maintenance as well as its basic characteristics. Then the paper discusses two organizational models of aircraft maintenance with their advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages of different models are analyzed based on the criteria of operational capabilities of military units. In addition to operational capabilities, the paper presents some other criteria which should be taken into account in the evaluation and selection of an optimal model of aircraft maintenance. Performing a qualitative analysis of some models may not be sufficient for evaluating the optimum choice for models of maintenance referring to the selected set of criteria from the scope of operational capabilities. In order to choose the optimum model, it is necessary to conduct a detailed economic and technical analysis of individual tactical model maintenance. A high-quality aircraft maintenance organization requires the highest state and army authorities to be involved. It is necessary to set clear objectives for all the elements of modern air force technical support programs based on the given evaluation criteria.

  14. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    occurrence of rapid eye movements, sleep spindles, and slow wave sleep. Using these features an approach for classifying sleep stages every one second during the night was developed. From observation of the results of the sleep stage classification, it was determined how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic model. Slow and fast REM activity are modeled separately and the activity in the gamma frequency band of the EEG signal is used to model both spontaneous and noise-induced awakenings. The nonlinear model predicts changes in sleep structure similar to those found by other researchers and reported in the sleep literature and similar to those found in obtained survey data. To compare sleep disturbance model predictions, flight operations data from US airports were obtained and sleep disturbance in communities was predicted for different operations scenarios using the modified Markov model, the nonlinear dynamic model, and other aircraft noise awakening models. Similarities and differences in model predictions were evaluated in order to determine if the use of the developed sleep structure model leads to improved predictions of the impact of nighttime noise on communities.

  15. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is an ADS-B-enabled suite of applications that use ground and flight deck capabilities and procedures designed to support the relative spacing of aircraft (Barmore et al., 2004, Murdoch et al. 2009, Barmore 2009, Swieringa et al. 2011; Weitz et al. 2012). Relative spacing refers to managing the position of one aircraft to a time or distance relative to another aircraft, as opposed to a static reference point such as a point over the ground or clock time. This results in improved inter-aircraft spacing precision and is expected to allow aircraft to be spaced closer to the applicable separation standard than current operations. Consequently, if the reduced spacing is used in scheduling, IM can reduce the time interval between the first and last aircraft in an overall arrival flow, resulting in increased throughput. Because IM relies on speed changes to achieve precise spacing, it can reduce costly, low-altitude, vectoring, which increases both efficiency and throughput in capacity-constrained airspace without negatively impacting controller workload and task complexity. This is expected to increase overall system efficiency. The Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment provides speeds to the flight crew that will deliver them to the achieve-by point at the controller-specified time, i.e., assigned spacing goal, after the target aircraft crosses the achieve-by point (Figure 1.1). Since the IM and target aircraft may not be on the same arrival procedure, the FIM equipment predicts the estimated times of arrival (ETA) for both the IM and target aircraft to the achieve-by point. This involves generating an approximate four-dimensional trajectory for each aircraft. The accuracy of the wind data used to generate those trajectories is critical to the success of the IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the FIM equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather

  16. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Абрамова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation

  17. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje;

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures. The...... cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft/models to be...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the...

  18. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m3 LH2. This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  19. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  20. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  1. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  2. Nondestructive testing of aging aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft fleet in the US military is getting old, averaging over 40 years. These old planes are planned to be used for additional 20-30 years. Some commercial fleets are getting older as well, though not on the same level. Many NDT methods are in practice and new ones being developed. Corrosion and fatigue are the two main sources of damage to aircraft structures and require cost-effective NDT methods to detect and characterize the damage. Current approaches to this difficult task reviewed.

  3. System for determination of separation minima

    OpenAIRE

    Carranca, Mário Rui Silva

    2011-01-01

    In the current paradigm of Air Navigation, in which the increase in airspace density is accompanies by an increase in number and complexity of available Surveillance infrastructures, it becomes imperative to optimize all resources in order to continue to provide excellent services in Air Traffic Control. For this to happen, the separation between aircraft must be kept at a minimum, whilst still abiding by the worldwide security requirements that make us all feel safer on board an airpla...

  4. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  5. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  6. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion in a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Brown, Gerald V.; DaeKim, Hyun; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP), has been analyzed to see if it can meet the 70% fuel burn reduction goal of the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project for N+3 generation aircraft. The TeDP system utilizes superconducting electric generators, motors and transmission lines to allow the power producing and thrust producing portions of the system to be widely separated. It also allows a small number of large turboshaft engines to drive any number of propulsors. On the N3-X these new degrees of freedom were used to (1) place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to maximize thermal efficiency and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 15 motor driven propulsors on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge. That location maximizes the amount of the boundary layer ingested and thus maximizes propulsive efficiency. The Boeing B777-200LR flying 7500 nm (13890 km) with a cruise speed of Mach 0.84 and an 118100 lb payload was selected as the reference aircraft and mission for this study. In order to distinguish between improvements due to technology and aircraft configuration changes from those due to the propulsion configuration changes, an intermediate configuration was included in this study. In this configuration a pylon mounted, ultra high bypass (UHB) geared turbofan engine with identical propulsion technology was integrated into the same hybrid wing body airframe. That aircraft achieved a 52% reduction in mission fuel burn relative to the reference aircraft. The N3-X was able to achieve a reduction of 70% and 72% (depending on the cooling system) relative to the reference aircraft. The additional 18% - 20% reduction in the mission fuel burn can therefore be attributed to the additional degrees of freedom in the propulsion system configuration afforded by the TeDP system that eliminates nacelle and pylon drag, maximizes boundary

  7. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  8. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  9. For Spacious Skies: Self-Separation with "Autonomous Flight Rules" in US Domestic Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Cotton, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Rules (AFR) are proposed as a new set of operating regulations in which aircraft navigate on tracks of their choice while self-separating from traffic and weather. AFR would exist alongside Instrument and Visual Flight Rules (IFR and VFR) as one of three available flight options for any appropriately trained and qualified operator with the necessary certified equipment. Historically, ground-based separation services evolved by necessity as aircraft began operating in the clouds and were unable to see each other. Today, technologies for global precision navigation, emerging airborne surveillance, and onboard computing enable traffic conflict management to be fully integrated with navigation procedures onboard the aircraft. By self-separating, aircraft can operate with more flexibility and fewer flight restrictions than are required when using ground-based separation. The AFR concept proposes a practical means in which self-separating aircraft could share the same airspace as IFR and VFR aircraft without disrupting the ongoing processes of Air Traffic Control. The paper discusses the context and motivation for implementing self-separation in US domestic airspace. It presents a historical perspective on separation, the proposed way forward in AFR, the rationale behind mixed operations, and the expected benefits of AFR for the airspace user community.

  10. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  11. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  12. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  13. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  14. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  15. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  16. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  18. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  20. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  1. HUMAN FACTOR IMPACT IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    MARINKOVIC SRBOLJUB J.; DRENOVAC ALEKSANDAR Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance, as a specific field of military materiel maintenance, is characterized by high reliability standards, based on regulations and technical standards. A system approach to maintenance represents the key element of maintenance quality, while aircraft maintenance staff has a crucial influence on the final outcome of aircraft maintenance.

  2. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  3. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  4. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  5. Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

  6. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  7. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  8. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  9. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  10. Rapid evaluation of buildings and infrastructure to accidental and deliberate aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, D., E-mail: tennant@wai.com [Weidlinger Associates, Inc., 6301 Indian School Road NE, Suite 501, Albuquerque, NM 87122 (United States); Levine, H., E-mail: levine@ca.wai.com [Weidlinger Associates, Inc., 399 W. El Camino Real, Suite 200, Mountain View, CA 94040 (United States); Mould, J.; Vaughan, D. [Weidlinger Associates, Inc., 399 W. El Camino Real, Suite 200, Mountain View, CA 94040 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Recent events involving the impact of large transport aircraft such as the Boeing 767 and 757 into the World Trade Center Towers and the Pentagon have revealed the vulnerability of such structures to terrorist attack. Incidents involving smaller general aviation aircraft have shown the damage that this class of plane can do beyond a protected perimeter. These incidents have elicited inquiries with regard to the effects of impacts of these aircraft types into other critical facilities including aboveground and below ground storage facilities, nuclear power plants, damns and other military and civilian installations. A significant capability to evaluate these threats has been developed during the past 10 years. Small medium and large aircraft have been impacted into buried and aboveground reinforced concrete and light steel frame storage facilities. Both explicit aircraft models and Riera functions (a simplified aircraft impact loading function) have been used to generate an extensive data base. The effects of engines impacting have been studied separately as penetrators. Illustrated in this paper is validation of computational tools for impacts into structures and the initial development of a generalized evaluation tool for rapid evaluation of threats and consequence of aircraft impact into protected facilities.

  11. Rapid evaluation of buildings and infrastructure to accidental and deliberate aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent events involving the impact of large transport aircraft such as the Boeing 767 and 757 into the World Trade Center Towers and the Pentagon have revealed the vulnerability of such structures to terrorist attack. Incidents involving smaller general aviation aircraft have shown the damage that this class of plane can do beyond a protected perimeter. These incidents have elicited inquiries with regard to the effects of impacts of these aircraft types into other critical facilities including aboveground and below ground storage facilities, nuclear power plants, damns and other military and civilian installations. A significant capability to evaluate these threats has been developed during the past 10 years. Small medium and large aircraft have been impacted into buried and aboveground reinforced concrete and light steel frame storage facilities. Both explicit aircraft models and Riera functions (a simplified aircraft impact loading function) have been used to generate an extensive data base. The effects of engines impacting have been studied separately as penetrators. Illustrated in this paper is validation of computational tools for impacts into structures and the initial development of a generalized evaluation tool for rapid evaluation of threats and consequence of aircraft impact into protected facilities

  12. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  13. Erosion Testing of Coatings for V-22 Aircraft Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Richardson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity (183 m/sec sand erosion tests in a wind tunnel were conducted to evaluate developmental coatings from three separate companies under funding by the Navy's phase I small business innovative research program. The purpose of the coatings was to address a particular problem the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft (Osprey was having with regard to ingestion of sand particles by a titanium impeller that was associated with the aircraft's environmental control system. The three coatings that were deposited on titanium substrates and erosion-tested included (1 SixCy/DLC multilayers deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD; (2 WC/TaC/TiC processed by electrospark deposition; and (3 polymer ceramic mixtures applied by means of an aqueous synthesis. The erosion test results are presented; they provided the basis for assessing the suitability of some of these coatings for the intended application.

  14. Optimized Reconfigurable Control Design for Aircraft using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan H. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a Genetic Algorithm (GA based modular reconfigurable control scheme for an over-actuated non-linear aircraft model. The reconfiguration of the flight controller is achieved for the case of control surface faults/failures using a separate control distribution algorithm without modifying the base-line control law. The baseline Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR is optimized using GA to produce desired moment commands. Then, a GA based weighted pseudo-inverse method is used for effective distribution of commands between redundant control surfaces. Control surface effectiveness levels are used to redistribute the control commands to healthy actuators when a fault or failure occurs. Simulation results using ADMIRE aircraft model show the satisfactory performance in accommodating different faults, which confirm the efficiency of optimized reconfigurable design strategy.

  15. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  16. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  17. Aircraft emissions at Turkish airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with estimating aircraft landing and take-off (LTO) emissions (HC, CO, NOx, SO2) at 40 Turkish airports including the biggest airports, i.e. Ataturk International Airport (AIA) in Istanbul, Antalya Airport in Antalya and Esenboga Airport in Ankara in 2001. The calculation model is based on flight data recorded by the State Airports Authority. The flight data include the type and number of aircraft, number of passengers, amount of cargo etc., which depend on day-time and date. For the emission calculations the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)-Engine emission data bank, which includes minimum and maximum values for both fuel flow rates and emissions factors, is used. By using first the minimum and then the maximum values from the data bank, two estimations of aircraft LTO emissions at Turkish airports are calculated: i.e. minimum and maximum estimations. Total LTO emissions from aircraft at Turkish airports are estimated to be between 7614.34 and 8338.79 t/year. These results are comparable with those from USA airports. Approximately half of these amounts are produced at AIA. To predict future emissions, it is estimated that an increase of 25% in LTO cycles might cause a rise of between 31 and 33% in emissions. The estimations show that a decrease of 2 min in taxiing time results in a decrease of 6% in LTO emissions. The estimation model used in this study can be used for expansions and planning of airports from an environmental point of view. (author)

  18. Challenges of aircraft design integration

    OpenAIRE

    Kafyeke, F.; Abdo, M.; Pepin, F; Piperni, P.; Laurendeau, E.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a modern airplane brings together many disciplines: structures, aerodynamics, controls, systems, propulsion with complex interdependencies and many variables. Recent aircraft programs, such as Bombardier's Continental Jet program use participants located around the world and selected for their cost, quality and delivery capability. These participants share the risk on the program and must therefore be fully implicated in the design. A big challenge is to provide information on c...

  19. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  20. A Complexity Metric for Automated Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aweiss, Arwa

    2009-01-01

    A metric is proposed to characterize airspace complexity with respect to an automated separation assurance function. The Maneuver Option metric is a function of the number of conflict-free trajectory change options the automated separation assurance function is able to identify for each aircraft in the airspace at a given time. By aggregating the metric for all aircraft in a region of airspace, a measure of the instantaneous complexity of the airspace is produced. A six-hour simulation of Fort Worth Center air traffic was conducted to assess the metric. Results showed aircraft were twice as likely to be constrained in the vertical dimension than the horizontal one. By application of this metric, situations found to be most complex were those where level overflights and descending arrivals passed through or merged into an arrival stream. The metric identified high complexity regions that correlate well with current air traffic control operations. The Maneuver Option metric did not correlate with traffic count alone, a result consistent with complexity metrics for human-controlled airspace.

  1. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  2. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  3. Shoulder separation - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separated shoulder - aftercare; Acromioclavicular joint separation - aftercare; A/C separation - aftercare ... Shoulder separation is not an injury to the main shoulder joint itself. It is an injury to ...

  4. The Chorus Conflict and Loss of Separation Resolution Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    The Chorus software is designed to investigate near-term, tactical conflict and loss of separation detection and resolution concepts for air traffic management. This software is currently being used in two different problem domains: en-route self- separation and sense and avoid for unmanned aircraft systems. This paper describes the core resolution algorithms that are part of Chorus. The combination of several features of the Chorus program distinguish this software from other approaches to conflict and loss of separation resolution. First, the program stores a history of state information over time which enables it to handle communication dropouts and take advantage of previous input data. Second, the underlying conflict algorithms find resolutions that solve the most urgent conflict, but also seek to prevent secondary conflicts with the other aircraft. Third, if the program is run on multiple aircraft, and the two aircraft maneuver at the same time, the result will be implicitly co-ordinated. This implicit coordination property is established by ensuring that a resolution produced by Chorus will comply with a mathematically-defined criteria whose correctness has been formally verified. Fourth, the program produces both instantaneous solutions and kinematic solutions, which are based on simple accel- eration models. Finally, the program provides resolutions for recovery from loss of separation. Different versions of this software are implemented as Java and C++ software programs, respectively.

  5. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  6. Separation of aqueous two-phase polymer systems in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanalstine, J. M.; Harris, J. M.; Synder, S.; Curreri, P. A.; Bamberger, S. B.; Brooks, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Phase separation of polymer systems in microgravity is studied in aircraft flights to prepare shuttle experiments. Short duration (20 sec) experiments demonstrate that phase separation proceeds rapidly in low gravity despite appreciable phase viscosities and low liquid interfacial tensions (i.e., 50 cP, 10 micro N/m). Ostwald ripening does not appear to be a satisfactory model for the phase separation mechanism. Polymer coated surfaces are evaluated as a means to localize phases separated in low gravity. Contact angle measurements demonstrate that covalently coupling dextran or PEG to glass drastically alters the 1-g wall wetting behavior of the phases in dextran-PEG two phase systems.

  7. Aircraft and avionic related research required to develop an effective high-speed runway exit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, M. L.; Hosford, J. E.; Graham, J. M., Jr.; Preston, O. W.; Frankel, R. S.; Erickson, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to increase airport capacity by studying the feasibility of the longitudinal separation between aircraft sequences on final approach. The multidisciplinary factors which include the utility of high speed exits for efficient runway operations were described along with recommendations and highlights of these studies.

  8. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  9. Choice of Aircraft Size - Explanations and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Givoni, Moshe; Rietveld, Piet

    2006-01-01

    To keep load factors high while offering high frequency service, airlines tend to reduce the size of the aircraft they use. At many of the world’s largest airports there are fewer than 100 passengers per air transport movement, although congestion and delays are growing. Furthermore, demand for air transport is predicted to continue growing but aircraft size is not. This paper aims to investigate and explain this phenomenon, the choice of relatively small aircraft. It seems that this choice i...

  10. Neural Networks Based Aircraft Fault Tolerant Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lunlong; Mora-Camino, Félix

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to deal with the case in which an aerodynamic actuator failure occurs to an aircraft while it has to perform guidance maneuvers. The problem considered deals with the reallocation of redundant actuators to perform the required maneuvers and maintain the structural integrity of the aircraft. A Nonlinear Inverse Control technique is used to generate online nominal moment along the three axis of the aircraft. Then, taking into account all material and structu...

  11. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  12. Ozone-Initiated Chemistry in an Occupied Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wisthaler, Armin; Cowlin, Shannon;

    2007-01-01

    We have used multiple analytical methods to characterize the gas-phase products formed when ozone was added to cabin air during simulated 4-hour flights that were conducted in a reconstructed section of a B-767 aircraft containing human occupants. Two separate groups of 16 females were each exposed...... to four conditions: low air exchange (4.4 h-1), 55% of the ozone in the cabin. The observations made in this study have implications for other indoor settings. Whenever human beings and ozone are simultaneously present, one anticipates production of acetone, nonanal, decanal, 6-HO, geranyl acetone...

  13. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  14. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  15. An Initial Examination for Verifying Separation Algorithms by Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allan L.; Neogi, Natasha; Herencia-Zapana, Heber

    2012-01-01

    An open question in algorithms for aircraft is what can be validated by simulation where the simulation shows that the probability of undesirable events is below some given level at some confidence level. The problem is including enough realism to be convincing while retaining enough efficiency to run the large number of trials needed for high confidence. The paper first proposes a goal based on the number of flights per year in several regions. The paper examines the probabilistic interpretation of this goal and computes the number of trials needed to establish it at an equivalent confidence level. Since any simulation is likely to consider the algorithms for only one type of event and there are several types of events, the paper examines under what conditions this separate consideration is valid. This paper is an initial effort, and as such, it considers separation maneuvers, which are elementary but include numerous aspects of aircraft behavior. The scenario includes decisions under uncertainty since the position of each aircraft is only known to the other by broadcasting where GPS believes each aircraft to be (ADS-B). Each aircraft operates under feedback control with perturbations. It is shown that a scenario three or four orders of magnitude more complex is feasible. The question of what can be validated by simulation remains open, but there is reason to be optimistic.

  16. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  17. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the distribution of the frames in the population is dependent on structural variables related to the individual. To reveal subjects’ frames of aircraft noise a latent class model is estimated based on ...

  19. NDT applications in the aircraft industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) in the aircraft industry is used primarily to detect process defects in the manufacturing stage and failure defects in the in-service stage. Inspection techniques such as X- or gamma ray radiography are used for examination. Eddy current and ultrasonic are applied for examination, fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particles are applied for examination of aircraft and engine. With the wide scope of application, this paper discussed one type of NDT that is much used in aircraft being the latest technique in aircraft manufacturing. 1 fig

  20. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  1. Challenges for the aircraft structural integrity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six years ago the United States Air Force established the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) because flight safety had been degraded by fatigue failures of operational aircraft. This initial program evolved, but has been stable since the issuance of MIL-STD-1530A in 1975. Today, the program faces new challenges because of a need to maintain aircraft longer in an environment of reduced funding levels. Also, there is increased pressure to reduce cost of the acquisition of new aircraft. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the challenges for the ASIP and identify the changes in the program that will meet these challenges in the future.

  2. The Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of conclusions from the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Flight Experiment which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal conditions. The SATS HVO concept improves efficiency at non-towered, non-radar airports in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while achieving a level of safety equal to today s system. Reported are results from flight experiment data that indicate that the SATS HVO concept is viable. The success of the SATS HVO concept is based on acceptable pilot workload, performance, and subjective criteria when compared to the procedural control operations in use today at non-towered, non-radar controlled airfields in IMC. The HVO Flight Experiment, flown on NASA's Cirrus SR22, used a subset of the HVO Simulation Experiment scenarios and evaluation pilots in order to validate the simulation experiment results. HVO and Baseline (today s system) scenarios flown included: single aircraft arriving for a GPS non-precision approach; aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft; and aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft and then conducting a missed approach. Results reveal that all twelve low-time instrument-rated pilots preferred SATS HVO when compared to current procedural separation operations. These pilots also flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently without additional workload in comparison to today s system (Baseline). Detailed results of pilot flight technical error, and their subjective assessments of workload and situation awareness are presented in this paper.

  3. 75 FR 51953 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... applicability of these regulations to unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The proposed definition stated... unmanned aircraft system that takes place between the time that the system is activated with the purpose of... notification and reporting of aircraft accidents or incidents by adding a definition of ``unmanned......

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  5. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  6. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  7. Altus I aircraft on lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft climbs away after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the

  8. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  9. Ferrofluid separator for nonferrous scrap separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, R.; Mir, L.

    1974-01-01

    Behavior of nonmagnetic objects within separator is essentially function of density, and independent of size or shape of objects. Results show close agreement between density of object and apparent density of ferrofluid required to float it. Results also demonstrate that very high separation rates are achievable by ferrofluid sink-float separation.

  10. Autonomous Aircraft Operations using RTCA Guidelines for Airborne Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. Key guidelines from the RTCA Airborne Conflict Management (ACM) concept were applied to autonomous aircraft operations for this experiment. These concepts included the RTCA ACM definitions of distinct conflict detection and collision avoidance zones, and the use of a graded system of conflict alerts for the flight crew. Three studies were conducted in the course of the experiment. The first study investigated the effect of hazard proximity upon pilot ability to meet constraints and solve conflict situations. The second study investigated pilot use of the airborne tools when faced with an unexpected loss of separation (LOS). The third study explored pilot interactions in an over-constrained conflict situation, with and without priority rules dictating who should move first. Detailed results from these studies were presented at the 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar (ATM2003). This overview paper focuses on the integration of the RTCA ACM concept into autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained situations, and provides an overview of the results presented at the ATM2003 seminar. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

  11. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of 90Sr and one of 226Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, 90Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while 226Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source fall within the range of 25.1–40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52±4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing. - Highlights: ► Sealed radioactive sources (90Sr and 226Ra) were detected in aircraft scrap. ► No source was detected in heavy machine scrap. ► Radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source can be used to estimate exposure to public. Monitoring of scrap was found to be useful for protection (from orphan sources).

  12. Influence of Aircraft Flow Field on the Longitudinal Stability of a Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konark Arora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An air-to-air missile launched from a fighter aircraft needs to be stable at launch to enable safe separation from the aircraft, and less stable in the terminal phase of its flight to become highly maneuverable to intercept the targets. A study has been carried out to estimate the effect of the aircraft flow field on the longitudinal stability of the missile using an in-house developed 3-D grid-free Euler solver. Initially, the missiles are placed in the captive location in the launcher of the aircraft. One of the missiles is then moved to various pre-determined locations ahead of the wing of the aircraft, keeping the other missile at the captive location. The centre of pressure and stability margin of the missile is determined at these locations. It is observed that the presence of aircraft has a substantial effect on the longitudinal stability of the missile. The centre of pressure of the missile is seen to move aft as it leaves the launcher. As the missile moves, the centre of pressure reaches a maximum aft position and then moves forward till it reaches a position where the missile is free from the influence of the aircraft. It is observed that as the missile moves away from the region of strong influence of the aircraft, its aerodynamic characteristics approach asymptotically to that of the isolated missile.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.242-248, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2099

  13. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  14. Aircraft Emission Inventories of The Second Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ing. B.; Pabst, H.; Döpelheuer, Ing. A.; Plohr, M.

    Higher requirements of science and politics forced an additional temporal and bet- ter local allocation of air traffic and their emissions. Within the last years a pro- gram (FATE: Four-dimensional calculation of Aircraft Trajectories and Emissions) has been developed in the DLR Institute of Transport Research, which is able to pro- duce air traffic movements and emissions inventories with a four-dimensional reso- lution. To calculate an emission inventory FATE adapts fuel and emission profiles which were generated by the DLR Institute of Propulsion Technology to the real air traffic movements data. The emission profiles were calculated for each aircraft/engine- combination and include NOX, SOX, CO, UHC, and SOOT data. The results have been obtained with detailed variable reference calculation procedures. At the moment the most common resolutions are 1x1x1kmx1h or 0.5x0.5x1kmx1h (longitude and latitude in degree, one kilometre in height and one hour in time). The values for the flown distance, the fuel used up and the time needed, as well as the emitted gasses and particulate matter are indicated for each time coded air cell. The three- dimensional position calculation is the standard mode of this program. The possibility of time coding and emission allocation can be used -each separately or in conjunction- as an additional feature. This new calculation method replaces the simple great circle calculation (a great circle is the shortest way from point A to B on a spherical sur- face) of the first generation of air traffic inventories by flight trajectory calculation on waypoint basis using equations of spherical trigonometry. Selected work results shall give an impression of the versatility and the applica- tion possibilities of FATE. Depending on the request of the scientific research the various modes of the program have been used for: a) deviation from great circle without time and emission calculation, b) four-dimensional global inventory with a 2,8x2,8x1kmx2h

  15. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98.

  16. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  18. Laminar flow control for transport aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of laminar flow control into transport aircraft is discussed. Design concepts for the wing surface panel of laminar flow control transport aircraft are described. The development of small amounts of laminar flow on small commercial transports with natural or hybrid flow control is examined. Techniques for eliminating the insect contamination problem in the leading-edge region are proposed.

  19. Noise control mechanisms of inside aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, A. Ya.

    2016-07-01

    World trends in the development of methods and approaches to noise reduction in aircraft cabins are reviewed. The paper discusses the mechanisms of passive and active noise and vibration control, application of "smart" and innovative materials, new approaches to creating all fuselage-design elements, and other promising directions of noise control inside aircraft.

  20. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources to...

  1. Wireless Network Simulation in Aircraft Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, John H.; Youssef, Mennatoallah; Vahala, Linda

    2004-01-01

    An electromagnetic propagation prediction tool was used to predict electromagnetic field strength inside airplane cabins. A commercial software package, Wireless Insite, was used to predict power levels inside aircraft cabins and the data was compared with previously collected experimental data. It was concluded that the software could qualitatively predict electromagnetic propagation inside the aircraft cabin environment.

  2. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  3. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  4. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Separation logic formalizes the idea of local reasoning for heap-manipulating programs via the frame rule and the separating conjunction P * Q, which describes states that can be split into \\emph{separate} parts, with one satisfying P and the other satisfying Q. In standard separation logic......, separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...... overlap. We demonstrate, via a range of examples, how fictional separation logic can be used to reason locally and modularly about mutable abstract data types, possibly implemented using sophisticated sharing. Fictional separation logic is defined on top of standard separation logic, and both the meta...

  5. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. How Separation Anxiety Develops Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. ...

  6. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  7. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  8. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  9. Infrared thermographic diagnostic aid to aircraft maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delo, Michael; Delo, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Thermographic data can be used as a supplement to aircraft maintenance operations in both back shop and flight line situations. Aircraft systems such as electrical, propulsion, environmental, pitot static and hydraulic/pneumatic fluid, can be inspected using a thermal infrared (IR) imager. Aircraft systems utilize electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical, and electro-pneumatic mechanisms, which, if accessible, can be diagnosed for faults using infrared technology. Since thermographs are images of heat, rather than light, the measurement principle is based on the fact that any physical object (radiating energy at infrared wavelengths within the IR portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum), can be imaged with infrared imaging equipment. All aircraft systems being tested with infrared are required to be energized for troubleshooting, so that valuable baseline data from fully operational aircraft can be collected, archived and referenced for future comparisons.

  10. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  11. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is...

  12. A Performance Assessment of an Airborne Separation Assistance System Using Realistic Complex Traffic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of a tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) in en route airspace, under varying demand levels, with realistic traffic flows. The ASAS concept studied here allows flight crews of equipped aircraft to perform separation from other air traffic autonomously. This study addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (i.e. position and velocity) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. In addition, use of a conflict prevention system helps ASAS-equipped aircraft avoid maneuvers that may cause new conflicts. ASAS-capable aircraft are equipped with satellite-based navigation and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) for transmission and receipt of aircraft state data. In addition to tactical conflict detection and resolution (CD&R), a complete, integrated ASAS is likely to incorporate a strategic CD&R component with a longer look-ahead time, using trajectory intent information. A system-wide traffic flow management (TFM) component, located at the FAA command center helps aircraft to avoid regions of excessive traffic density and complexity. A Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), as used today is the system of last resort. This integrated approach avoids sole reliance on the use of the tactical CD&R studied here, but the tactical component remains a critical element of the complete ASAS. The focus of this paper is to determine to what extent the proposed tactical component of ASAS alone can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times that of current traffic. The study also investigates the effect of mixing ASAS-equipped aircraft with unequipped aircraft (i.e. current day) that do not have the capability to self-separate. Position and velocity data for unequipped aircraft needs to be available to ASASequipped. Most likely, for this future concept, state data would be available from instrument flight rules (IFR

  13. A process for the quantification of aircraft noise and emissions interdependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Jorge

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop a process to improve actual policy-making procedures in terms of aviation environmental effects. This research work expands current practices with physics based publicly available models. The current method uses solely information provided by industry members, and this information is usually proprietary, and not physically intuitive. The process herein proposed provides information regarding the interdependencies between the environmental effects of aircraft. These interdependencies are also tied to the actual physical parameters of the aircraft and the engine, making it more intuitive for decision-makers to understand the impacts to the vehicle due to different policy scenarios. These scenarios involve the use of fleet analysis tools in which the existing aircraft are used to predict the environmental effects of imposing new stringency levels. The aircraft used are reduced to a series of coefficients that represent their performance, in terms of flight characteristics, fuel burn, noise, and emissions. These coefficients are then utilized to model flight operations and calculate what the environmental impacts of those aircraft are. If a particular aircraft does not meet the stringency to be analyzed, a technology response is applied to it, in order to meet that stringency. Depending on the level of reduction needed, this technology response can have an effect on the fuel burn characteristic of the aircraft. Another important point of the current stringency analysis process is that it does not take into account both noise and emissions concurrently, but instead, it considers them separately, one at a time. This assumes that the interdependencies between the two do not exists, which is not realistic. The latest stringency process delineated in 2004 imposed a 2% fuel burn penalty for any required improvements on NOx, no matter the type of aircraft or engine, assuming that no company had the ability to produce a

  14. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  15. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  16. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  17. Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Richard H.; Criswell, Thomas L.; Ikegami, Roy; Nelson, James; Normand, Eugene; Rutherford, Paul S.; Shrader, John E.

    1995-07-01

    Monitoring aging aircraft for hidden corrosion is a significant problem for both military and civilian aircraft. Under a Wright Laboratory sponsored program, Boeing Defense & Space Group is investigating three novel methods for detecting and monitoring hidden corrosion: (1) atmospheric neutron radiography, (2) 14 MeV neutron activation analysis and (3) fiber optic corrosion sensors. Atmospheric neutron radiography utilizes the presence of neutrons in the upper atmosphere as a source for interrogation of the aircraft structure. Passive track-etch neutron detectors, which have been previously placed on the aircraft, are evaluated during maintenance checks to assess the presence of corrosion. Neutrons generated by an accelerator are used via activation analysis to assess the presence of distinctive elements in corrosion products, particularly oxygen. By using fast (14 MeV) neutrons for the activation, portable, high intensity sources can be employed for field testing of aircraft. The third novel method uses fiber optics as part of a smart structure technology for corrosion detection and monitoring. Fiber optic corrosion sensors are placed in the aircraft at locations known to be susceptible to corrosion. Periodic monitoring of the sensors is used to alert maintenance personnel to the presence and degree of corrosion at specific locations on the aircraft. During the atmospheric neutron experimentation, we identified a fourth method referred to as secondary emission radiography (SER). This paper discusses the development of these methods.

  18. Aircraft impact on a spherical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power plants located in the immediate vicinity of cities and airports safeguarding against an accidental aircraft strike is important. Because of the complexity of such an aircraft crash the building is ordinarily designed for loading by an idealized dynamical load F(t), which follows from measurements (aircraft striking a rigid wall). The extent to which the elastic displacements of a structure influence the impact load F(t) is investigatd in this paper. The aircraft is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination which can easily be treated in computations and which can suffer elastic as well as plastic deformations. This 'aircraft' normally strikes a spherical shell at the apex. The time-dependent reactions of the shell as a function of the unknown impact load F(t) are expanded in terms of the normal modes, which are Legendre functions. The continuity condition at the impact point leads to an integral equation for F(t) which may be solved by Laplace transformation. F(t) is computed for hemispheres with several ratios of thickness to radius, several edge conditions and several 'aircraft' parameters. In all cases F(t) differs very little from that function obtained for the case of the aircraft striking a rigid wall. (Auth.)

  19. Path Separability of Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diot, Emilie; Gavoille, Cyril

    In this paper we investigate the structural properties of k-path separable graphs, that are the graphs that can be separated by a set of k shortest paths. We identify several graph families having such path separability, and we show that this property is closed under minor taking. In particular we establish a list of forbidden minors for 1-path separable graphs.

  20. Processing infrared images of aircraft lapjoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Hazari; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for processing IR images of aging aircraft lapjoint data are discussed. Attention is given to a technique for detecting disbonds in aircraft lapjoints which clearly delineates the disbonded region from the bonded regions. The technique is weak on unpainted aircraft skin surfaces, but can be overridden by using a self-adhering contact sheet. Neural network analysis on raw temperature data has been shown to be an effective tool for visualization of images. Numerical simulation results show the above processing technique to be an effective tool in delineating the disbonds.

  1. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lerner, J.; Shie, R. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  2. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagam, Richard N.; Lerner, Jeremy M.; Shie, Rick

    1995-07-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser TM (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  3. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  4. Hydrogen fueled subsonic aircraft - A prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The performance characteristics of hydrogen-fueled subsonic transport aircraft are compared with those of aircraft using conventional aviation kerosene. Results of the Cryogenically Fueled Aircraft Technology Program sponsored by NASA indicate that liquid hydrogen may be particularly efficient for subsonic transport craft when ranges of 4000 km or more are involved; however, development of advanced cryogenic tanks for liquid hydrogen fuel is required. The NASA-sponsored program also found no major technical obstacles for international airports converting the liquid hydrogen fueling systems. Resource utilization efficiency and fuel production costs for hydrogen produced by coal gasification or for liquid methane or synthetic aviation kerosene are also assessed.

  5. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  6. Safety Performance of Airborne Separation: Preliminary Baseline Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wing, David J.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    The Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) study is a suite of Monte Carlo simulation experiments designed to analyze and quantify safety behavior of airborne separation. This paper presents results of preliminary baseline testing. The preliminary baseline scenario is designed to be very challenging, consisting of randomized routes in generic high-density airspace in which all aircraft are constrained to the same flight level. Sustained traffic density is varied from approximately 3 to 15 aircraft per 10,000 square miles, approximating up to about 5 times today s traffic density in a typical sector. Research at high traffic densities and at multiple flight levels are planned within the next two years. Basic safety metrics for aircraft separation are collected and analyzed. During the progression of experiments, various errors, uncertainties, delays, and other variables potentially impacting system safety will be incrementally introduced to analyze the effect on safety of the individual factors as well as their interaction and collective effect. In this paper we report the results of the first experiment that addresses the preliminary baseline condition tested over a range of traffic densities. Early results at five times the typical traffic density in today s NAS indicate that, under the assumptions of this study, airborne separation can be safely performed. In addition, we report on initial observations from an exploration of four additional factors tested at a single traffic density: broadcast surveillance signal interference, extent of intent sharing, pilot delay, and wind prediction error.

  7. Sensitivity of transport aircraft performance and economics to advanced technology and cruise Mach number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sensitivity data for advanced technology transports has been systematically collected. This data has been generated in two separate studies. In the first of these, three nominal, or base point, vehicles designed to cruise at Mach numbers .85, .93, and .98, respectively, were defined. The effects on performance and economics of perturbations to basic parameters in the areas of structures, aerodynamics, and propulsion were then determined. In all cases, aircraft were sized to meet the same payload and range as the nominals. This sensitivity data may be used to assess the relative effects of technology changes. The second study was an assessment of the effect of cruise Mach number. Three families of aircraft were investigated in the Mach number range 0.70 to 0.98: straight wing aircraft from 0.70 to 0.80; sweptwing, non-area ruled aircraft from 0.80 to 0.95; and area ruled aircraft from 0.90 to 0.98. At each Mach number, the values of wing loading, aspect ratio, and bypass ratio which resulted in minimum gross takeoff weight were used. As part of the Mach number study, an assessment of the effect of increased fuel costs was made.

  8. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.15 Detaining an...

  9. 42 CFR 71.44 - Disinsection of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disinsection of aircraft. 71.44 Section 71.44... Disinsection of aircraft. (a) The Director may require disinsection of an aircraft if it has left a foreign area that is infected with insect-borne communicable disease and the aircraft is suspected of...

  10. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used...

  11. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  12. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in §...

  13. 14 CFR 399.43 - Treatment of leased aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of leased aircraft. 399.43... Treatment of leased aircraft. In determining the appropriate treatment of leased aircraft for ratemaking... leased aircraft value (determined on a constructive depreciated basis) in relation to net book value...

  14. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  15. Estimation of Separation Buffers for Wind-Prediction Error in an Airborne Separation Assistance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Allen, B. Danette

    2009-01-01

    Wind prediction errors are known to affect the performance of automated air traffic management tools that rely on aircraft trajectory predictions. In particular, automated separation assurance tools, planned as part of the NextGen concept of operations, must be designed to account and compensate for the impact of wind prediction errors and other system uncertainties. In this paper we describe a high fidelity batch simulation study designed to estimate the separation distance required to compensate for the effects of wind-prediction errors throughout increasing traffic density on an airborne separation assistance system. These experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assurance systems. In this experiment, wind-prediction errors were varied between zero and forty knots while traffic density was increased several times current traffic levels. In order to accurately measure the full unmitigated impact of wind-prediction errors, no uncertainty buffers were added to the separation minima. The goal of the study was to measure the impact of wind-prediction errors in order to estimate the additional separation buffers necessary to preserve separation and to provide a baseline for future analyses. Buffer estimations from this study will be used and verified in upcoming safety evaluation experiments under similar simulation conditions. Results suggest that the strategic airborne separation functions exercised in this experiment can sustain wind prediction errors up to 40kts at current day air traffic density with no additional separation distance buffer and at eight times the current day with no more than a 60% increase in separation distance buffer.

  16. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  17. Smart structure application for the Challenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, L.; Blaha, Franz A.

    1994-09-01

    The Challenger aircraft fleet of the Canadian Forces will fly demanding missions, requiring the implementation of a fatigue management program based on the monitoring of in-flight aircraft load conditions. Conventional sensing techniques experience problems arising from severe electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper describes the development of an EMI- insensitive smart-structure sensing concept for loads monitoring. Fiber-optic strain sensors, incorporated at critical structural locations, are used to monitor the fatigue life of the aircraft wing, fuselage, and empennage. A fiber-optic accelerometer is also incorporated in the system. A long-term plan is presented for the development of an advanced smart-structure concept which can support the continuous monitoring of fatigue-prone components, and provide the aircraft with near real-time damage location and assessment.

  18. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  19. Directional monitoring terminal for aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genescà, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a concept of an aircraft noise monitoring terminal (NMT) that reduces background noise and the influence of ground reflection, in comparison with a single microphone. Also, it automatically identifies aircraft sound events based on the direction of arrival of the sound rather than on the sound pressure level (or radar data). And moreover, it provides an indicator of the quality of the sound pressure level measurement, i.e. if it is possibly disturbed by extraneous sources. The performance of this NMT is experimentally tested under real conditions in a measurement site close to Zurich airport. The results show that the NMT unambiguously identifies the noise events generated by the target aircraft, correctly detects those aircraft noise events that may be disturbed by the presence of other sources, and offers a substantial reduction in background and ground reflected sound.

  20. The drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program, which began in 1976, has mounted a development effort in four major transport aircraft technology fields: laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, flight controls, and composite structures. ACEE has explored two basic methods for achieving drag-reducing boundary layer laminarization: the use of suction through the wing structure (via slots or perforations) to remove boundary layer turbulence, and the encouragement of natural laminar flow maintenance through refined design practices. Wind tunnel tests have been conducted for wide bodied aircraft equipped with high aspect ratio supercritical wings and winglets. Maneuver load control and pitch-active stability augmentation control systems reduce fuel consumption by reducing the drag associated with high aircraft stability margins. Composite structures yield lighter airframes that in turn call for smaller wing and empennage areas, reducing induced drag for a given payload. In combination, all four areas of development are expected to yield a fuel consumption reduction of 40 percent.

  1. Engineering students win NASA aircraft design competition

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Centuria," a single-engine jet aircraft designed by undergraduate engineering students from Virginia Tech and their counterparts at Loughborough University in the U.K., has won the Best Overall Award in NASA's 2004 Revolutionary Vehicles and Concepts Competition.

  2. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  3. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  4. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  5. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  6. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft by illustrating the procedures for a long haul CTOL transport, a short haul VTOL transport, a long range SST, and a fighter aircraft. For the CTOL transport, it is shown that advances in noise technology and advanced turbine cooling technology will greatly reduce the airplane performance penalties associated with achieving low noise goals. A remote lift fan powered by a turbofan air generator is considered for the VTOL aircraft. In this case, the lift fan pressure ratio which maximizes payload also comes closest to meeting the noise goal. High turbine temperature in three different engines is considered for the SST. Without noise constraints it leads to an appreciable drop in DOC, but with noise constraints the reduction in DOC is very modest. For the fighter aircraft it is shown how specific excess power requirements play the same role in engine selection as noise constraints for commercial airplanes.

  7. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10-6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  8. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of...

  9. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered...

  10. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  11. Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Knowledge and support Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight Category: FAQ's Tags: Risks Archives Breast Cancer Survivors ... limb carefully) and apply pressure as needed. DURING FLIGHT Keep your seat belt loosely fastened so that ...

  12. Cooling system for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, P. L.; Pagel, L. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The system eliminates the necessity of shielding an aircraft airframe constructed of material such as aluminum. Cooling is accomplished by passing a coolant through the aircraft airframe, the coolant acting as a carrier to remove heat from the airframe. The coolant is circulated through a heat pump and a heat exchanger which together extract essentially all of the added heat from the coolant. The heat is transferred to the aircraft fuel system via the heat exchanger and the heat pump. The heat extracted from the coolant is utilized to power the heat pump. The heat pump has associated therewith power turbine mechanism which is also driven by the extracted heat. The power turbines are utilized to drive various aircraft subsystems, the compressor of the heat pump, and provide engine cooling.

  13. Incidence of Fungal attack on Aircraft Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of fungal attack on the fuselage of a few Vampire aircraft has been observed. The fungus isolated from the infected regions has been tentatively indentified as TorulaSp. Laboratory experiments have revealed that within four weeks this fungus causes about 44 percent loss in the tensile strength of the brich plywood used in the manufacture of the fuselage of the aircraft.

  14. Schlieren Imaging Of An Aircraft In Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Technique for making schlieren images of airplanes and missiles in supersonic flight devised to help understand physics of compressible aerodynamic flows about complicated aircraft shapes. Technique also used to study far-field sonic booms. Data obtained from schlieren images useful in optimizing designs of prototype aircraft. Technique incorporates elements of focusing schlieren photography, astronomical photography, and streak photography. Using sun or moon as source of light, apparatus forms image revealing gradients of density in air flow.

  15. Aircraft Noise: Annoyance, House Prices and Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2006-01-01

    “Nobody wants to buy your house. It’s the aircraft noise. You’ll have to reduce the price a lot.” Aircraft noise around airports causes annoyance, and tends to reduce the price of affected properties. Can annoyance be ‘costed’ by examining house price reductions? Are there other ways of valuing annoyance in monetary terms? This short paper summarises key research results and poses some questions.

  16. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė; Raimondas Grubliauskas

    2013-01-01

    Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.T...

  17. An Optimization Model for Aircraft Service Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus; Cheung; W; H; Ip; Angel; Lai; Eva; Cheung

    2002-01-01

    Scheduling is one of the most difficult issues in t he planning and operations of the aircraft services industry. In this paper, t he various scheduling problems in ground support operation of an aircraft mainte nance service company are addressed. The authors developed a set of vehicle rout ings to cover each schedule flights; the objectives pursued are the maximization of vehicle and manpower utilization and minimization of operation time. To obta in the goals, an integer-programming model with geneti...

  18. Anti-aircraft Missiles and Gun Control

    OpenAIRE

    BLOCK, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Gun control is a highly debatable topic both in the popular and scholarly media. But what about anti-aircraft missiles? Should they be banned? On the one hand, there are fewer of them around, so their challenge is more tractable. On the other hand, they can do far more damage than handguns. The present paper is an attempt to wrestle with this challenge.Keywords. Gun control, Second amendment, Libertarianism, Anti-aircraft missiles.JEL. K15.

  19. Aircraft Wake Vortex Evolution and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Holzäpfel, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices constitute both a kaleidoscope of instructive fluid dynamics phenomena and a challenge for the sustained development of safety and capacity of the air-transportation industry. The current manuscript gives an overview on the wake vortex issue which commences at its historical roots and concludes with the current status of knowledge regarding the nature and characteristics, and the modeling of aircraft wakes. The incentive of today's wake vortex research still re...

  20. Aging aircraft wiring: a proactive management methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Tambouratzis, Vasileios.

    2001-01-01

    During the last years, military budgets have been dramatically reduced and the services have been unable to acquire sufficient new systems. Military aviation is one of the areas that have been severely impacted. The result is that the current fleet faces significant aging aircraft problems. Aircraft wiring is one of the areas that have severely affected by the aging process. Recent accidents involving aging wiring problems and reduced operational readiness due to aging wiring have made clear ...

  1. Crashworthiness of composite seats for civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been conducted into the design of civil aircraft seats which are forward-facing and use the lap-belt method of restraint. Within these terms of reference, the response of the seat restraint occupant system (SROS) to impact loading has been analysed using physical (dynamic testing) and analytical (computer simulation) modelling techniques. With the increasing use of fibre-reinforced polymer composites in aircraft for weight efficiency, and the consequent appearance of composite se...

  2. Computer Aided Visual Inspection of Aircraft Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Rafia Mumtaz; Mustafa Mumtaz; Atif Bin Mansoor; Hassan Masood

    2012-01-01

    Non Destructive Inspections (NDI) plays a vital role in aircraft industry as it determines the structural integrity of aircraft surface and material characterization. The existing NDI methods are time consuming, we propose a new NDI approach using Digital Image Processing that has the potential to substantially decrease the inspection time. Automatic Marking of cracks have been achieved through application of Thresholding, Gabor Filter and Non Subsampled Contourlet transform. For a novel meth...

  3. Maintenance program developmentandImport /Export of Aircraft in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Takele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis thesis discuss how United Parcel Service (UPS) develop its aircraft maintenanceprogram after import of McDonnell Douglas MD-11aircraft and the process of exporting newMD-11 aircraft from manufacturer in USA to European operator as passenger aircraft. It alsodiscusses the process of importing the same types of aircraft as freight carrier. The aircraftundergo, through different modifications at Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA)conversion from passenger to freight carrier, a pr...

  4. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eikmann; Christin Peschel; Cara Kahl; Dirk Schreckenberg; Markus Meis

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft n...

  5. Predictive Health Monitoring for Aircraft Systems using Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Unscheduled aircraft maintenance causes a lot problems and costs for aircraft operators. This is due to the fact that aircraft cause significant costs if flights have to be delayed or canceled and because spares are not always available at any place and sometimes have to be shipped across the world. Reducing the number of unscheduled maintenance is thus a great costs factor for aircraft operators. This thesis describes three methods for aircraft health monitoring and prediction; one method fo...

  6. High altitude aircraft flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David

    1996-03-01

    In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.

  7. Intelligent control of agile aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohler, R.R.; Zakrzewski, R.R. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A brief overview of adaptive and computer-aided flight control is presented as background for the evolution of recent research on nonlinear intelligent control. Here, several nonlinear control algorithms are investigated but emphasis is given to nearly time-optimal, neural-net generated feedback control which is trained on ideal minimum-time, open-loop trajectories. The minimum-time policies are computed by a new version of the switching-line-variational method (gradient algorithm). Critical control constraints and a benchmark for performance as well as a basis for training are obtained for the system design. This further demonstrates the need for an integrated controls and aircraft system design for full utilization of nonlinear control capability. Complex nonlinear simulations show the effectiveness of the derived nonlinear feedback controller for the high-angle-of-attack research vehicle (HARV) with stabilator and thrust-vector control. For example, angle of attack is controlled from near zero to sixty degrees in about two seconds with appropriate trim conditions at both ends. Such control greatly enhances maneuverability and general flight envelope admissibility.

  8. Beamforming for aircraft noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Robert P.

    2003-10-01

    Phased array beamforming for aircraft noise source location has a long history, including early work on jet noise, wind tunnel measurements, and flyover testing. In the last 10 years, advancements in sparse 2-D and 3-D arrays, wind tunnel test techniques, and computer power have made phased array measurements almost common. Large aerospace companies and national research institutes have an advantage in access to major facilities and hundreds of measurement microphones, but universities and even consulting companies can perform tests with electret microphones and PC data acquisition systems. The type of testing remains a blend of science and art. A complex noise source is approximated by a mathematical model, and the microphones are deployed to evaluate the parameters of the model. For example, the simplest, but often the best, approach is to assume a distribution of mutually incoherent monopoles. This leads to an imaging process analogous to photography. Other models include coherent distributions of multipoles or duct modes. It is sometimes important to simulate the results that would have been obtained from single microphone measurements of part of the airplane in an ideal environment, had such measurements been feasible.

  9. Solar Radiation Measurements Onboard the Research Aircraft HALO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, I.; Bohn, B.; Werner, F.; Ehrlich, A.; Wendisch, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne measurements of the separated upward and downward components of solar spectral actinic flux densities for the determination of photolysis frequencies and of upward nadir spectral radiance were performed with the HALO Solar Radiation (HALO-SR) instrument package onboard the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO). The instrumentation of HALO-SR is characterized and first measurement data from the Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies (NARVAL) campaigns in 2013 and 2014 are presented. The measured data are analyzed in the context of the retrieved microphysical and optical properties of clouds which were observed underneath the aircraft. Detailed angular sensitivities of the two optical actinic flux receivers were determined in the laboratory. The effects of deviations from the ideal response are investigated using radiative transfer calculations of atmospheric radiance distributions under various atmospheric conditions and different ground albedos. Corresponding correction factors are derived. Example photolysis frequencies are presented, which were sampled in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Atlantic Ocean during the 2013/14 HALO NARVAL campaigns. Dependencies of photolysis frequencies on cloud cover, flight altitude and wavelength range of the photolysis process are investigated. Calculated actinic flux densities in the presence of clouds benefit from the measured spectral radiances. Retrieved cloud optical thicknesses and effective droplet radii are used as model input for the radiative transfer calculations. By comparison with the concurrent measurements of actinic flux densities the retrieval approach is validated. Acknowledgements: Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the priority program HALO (BO 1580/4-1, WE 1900/21-1) is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Capabilities of unmanned aircraft vehicles for low altitude weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflanz, Michael; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production and food security require a consumer and environmental safe plant protection. It is recently known, that precise weed monitoring approaches could help apply pesticides corresponding to field variability. In this regard the site-specific weed management may contribute to an application of herbicides with higher ecologically aware and economical savings. First attempts of precision agriculture date back to the 1980's. Since that time, remote sensing from satellites or manned aircrafts have been investigated and used in agricultural practice, but are currently inadequate for the separation of weeds in an early growth stage from cultivated plants. In contrast, low-cost image capturing at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) provides higher spatial resolution and almost real-time processing. Particularly, rotary-wing aircrafts are suitable for precise path or stationary flight. This minimises motion blur and provides better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and the recent increase in the availability of microcontrollers and powerful batteries for UAVs, it can be expected that the spatial mapping of weeds will be enhanced in the future. A six rotors microcopter was equipped with a modified RGB camera taking images from agricultural fields. The hexacopter operates within predefined pathways at adjusted altitudes (from 5 to 10 m) by using GPS navigation. Different scenarios of optical weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. Our experiences showed high capabilities for site-specific weed control. Image analyses with regard to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide application to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  11. Magnetic Separation in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Rezlescu, Nicolae; Bradu, Elena-Brandusa; Iacob, Gheorghe; Badescu, Vasile; Iacob, Lavinia

    1986-01-01

    The utilization of the magnetic separators of foreign and Romanian source is presented and the most important achievements in research, engineering design and manufacturing activity concerning the magnetic separation in Romania are reviewed.

  12. Magnetic Separation in Czechoslovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Hencl, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    The use of magnetic separation in various mineral processing facilities in Czechoslovakia is described. The manufacture of assorted types of magnetic separation machines is highlighted. Potential applications and research and development activities are discussed.

  13. Ionene membrane battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  14. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage during which ...

  15. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  16. Method Evaluating the Durability of Aircraft Piston Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca PIANCASTELLI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant issue in aircraft engines is quantifying residual life to overhaul. The algorithm described in this paper calculates with a good level of reliability the residual life of a petrol piston engine. The method was tested on small, latest-generation, naturally-aspirated aircraft and racing piston engines, and has been effective in several experiments. This method is implemented directly on the electronic control system of the engine with very few lines of C-code. The method can also be used in many industrial engines. This innovative method assumes that only two main factors (power level and wear affect engine durability or time between overhauls. These two factors are considered as separate and combined with worst case criteria. The wear is assumed to follow a logarithmic law and a formula similar to the Miner’s law for material fatigue is used, making it possible to calculate the power-level curve with knowledge of only two points. The wear-curve is also related to elapsed engine cycles. The algorithm is very simple and can be implemented with just a few lines of software code accessing data collected from existing sensors. The system is currently used to evaluate actual residual life of racing engines.

  17. Modelling and Evaluation of Aircraft Emissions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An application was developed to calculate the emissions and fuel consumption of a jet and turboprop powered aircraft in Finnair's scheduled and charter traffic both globally and in the Finnish flight information regions. The emissions calculated are nitrogen oxides, unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The study is based on traffic statistics of one week taken from three scheduled periods in 1993. Each flight was studied by dividing the flight profile into sections. The flight profile data are based on aircraft manufacturers' manuals, and they serve as initial data for engine manufacturers' emission calculation programs. In addition, the study includes separate calculations on air traffic emissions at airports during the so-called LTO cycle. The fuel consumption calculated for individual flights is 419,395 tonnes globally, and 146,142 tonnes in the Finnish flight information regions. According to Finnair's statistics the global fuel consumption is 0.97-fold compared with the result given by the model. The results indicate that in 1993 the global nitrogen oxide emissions amounted to 5,934 tonnes, the unburnt hydrocarbon emissions totalled 496 tonnes and carbon monoxide emissions 1,664 tonnes. The corresponding emissions in the Finnish flight information regions were as follows: nitrogen oxides 2,105 tonnes, unburnt hydrocarbons 177 tonnes and carbon monoxide 693 tonnes. (orig.)

  18. 41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts The Process for Budgeting to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.90 What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft transferred from another executive agency)? (a) The process for budgeting to acquire a...

  19. Meeting of Experts on NASA's Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace Systems (NAS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jean; Bauer, Jeff; Bixby, C.J.; Lauderdale, Todd; Shively, Jay; Griner, James; Hayhurst, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project; UAS Integration into the NAS Project; Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance; Pilot Aircraft Interface Objectives/Rationale; Communication; Certification; and Integrated Tests and Evaluations.

  20. Common factors in the withdrawal of European aircraft manufacturers from the regional aircraft market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Hans; Bruijn, de Erik J.; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the in

  1. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  2. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document...

  3. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Application part 3. Application of neutron imaging in aircraft, space rocket, car and gunpowder industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron imaging is applied to nondestructive test. Four neutron imaging facilities are used in Japan. The application examples of industries are listed in the table: space rocket, aircraft, car, liquid metal, and works of art. Neutron imaging of transportation equipments are illustrated as an application to industry. X-ray radiography testing (XRT) image and neutron radiography testing (NRT) image of turbine blade of aircraft engine, honeycomb structure of aircraft, helicopter rotor blade, trigger tube, separation nut of space rocket, carburetor of car, BMW engine, fireworks and ammunitions are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  4. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H; S. C. Olsen; Wuebbles, D. J.; D. Youn

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emi...

  5. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H; S. C. Olsen; Wuebbles, D. J.; D. Youn

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The large-scale effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of ...

  6. Safety shutdown separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  7. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  8. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  9. On the methods and examples of aircraft impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: Aircraft impact analysis can be performed today within feasible run times using PCs and available advanced commercial finite element software tools. Adequate element and material model technologies exist. Explicit time integration enables analysis of very large deformation Missile/Target impacts. Meshless/particle based methods may be beneficial for large deformation concrete “punching shear” analysis – potentially solves the “element erosion” problem associated with FE, but are not generally implemented yet in major commercial software. Verification of the complicated modeling technologies continues to be a challenge. Not much work has been done yet on ACI shock loading – redundant and physically separated safety trains key to success. Analysis approach and detail should be “balanced” - commensurate with the significant uncertainties - do not “over-do” details of some parts of the model (e.g., the plane) and the analysis

  10. Enhanced Imaging of Corrosion in Aircraft Structures with Reverse Geometry X-ray(registered tm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Cmar-Mascis, Noreen A.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2000-01-01

    The application of Reverse Geometry X-ray to the detection and characterization of corrosion in aircraft structures is presented. Reverse Geometry X-ray is a unique system that utilizes an electronically scanned x-ray source and a discrete detector for real time radiographic imaging of a structure. The scanned source system has several advantages when compared to conventional radiography. First, the discrete x-ray detector can be miniaturized and easily positioned inside a complex structure (such as an aircraft wing) enabling images of each surface of the structure to be obtained separately. Second, using a measurement configuration with multiple detectors enables the simultaneous acquisition of data from several different perspectives without moving the structure or the measurement system. This provides a means for locating the position of flaws and enhances separation of features at the surface from features inside the structure. Data is presented on aircraft specimens with corrosion in the lap joint. Advanced laminographic imaging techniques utilizing data from multiple detectors are demonstrated to be capable of separating surface features from corrosion in the lap joint and locating the corrosion in multilayer structures. Results of this technique are compared to computed tomography cross sections obtained from a microfocus x-ray tomography system. A method is presented for calibration of the detectors of the Reverse Geometry X-ray system to enable quantification of the corrosion to within 2%.

  11. Improving Aircraft Design Robustness with Scenario Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strohmayer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other industries, the aerospace sector is characterized by long product cycles in a very complex environment. The aircraft manufacturer has to base his product strategy on a long-term view of risks and opportunities in the transport industry but he cannot predict the development of relevant factors in this market environment with any certainty. In this situation, scenario methods offer a pragmatic way to limit the uncertainties and to work them up methodically, in order to derive recommendations for cost-intensive strategic decisions like for example the go-ahead for a new aircraft concept. By including scenario methods in the aircraft design cycle, the ‘design robustness’ can be improved, i.e. the design is not optimised for a prognosticated operating environment, but can cope with various possible future developments. The paper will explain the three fundamental aspects in applying scenario planning to the aircraft design process: requirement definition, design evaluation and technology identification. For each aspect, methods will be shown, which connect the rather qualitative results of a scenario process with aircraft design, which typically demands a qualitative input.

  12. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  13. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    With a growing demand for fast international freight service, the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use will soon find a substantial portion of their clients looking elsewhere. One candidate for filling this expected gap in the freight market is a span-loading aircraft (or 'flying wing') capable of long-range operation with extremely large payloads. This report summarizes the design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long-haul, high-capacity cargo mission. The spanloader seeks to gain advantage over conventional aircraft by eliminating the aircraft fuselage and thus reducing empty weight. The primary disadvantage of this configuration is that the cargo-containing wing tends to be thick, thus posing a challenge to the airfoil designer. It also suffers from stability and control problems not encountered by conventional aircraft. The result is an interesting, challenging exercise in unconventional design. The report that follows is a student written synopsis of an effort judged to be the best of eight designs developed during the year 1988-1989.

  14. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  15. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  16. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  17. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  18. Laser isotope separation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having examined the high cost and low efficiency of existing processes for separating uranium isotopes in comparison with the encouraging assessed figures for laser separation processes and having considered the high potential separation factors which make possibly very low 235U concentrations in the depleted tailings from laser separation processes, the design of such a system is considered. There are two essential features. Firstly, only one isotope must absorb laser radiation, and secondly that absorption must lead to a successful physical or chemical separation of that species which has been optically excited. Such a scheme is illustrated and discussed. The important aspect of loss mechanisms which can depopulate the selectively excited levels and the ways in which isotopes may exhibit differences in optical absorption frequencies are considered. Examples are given to illustrate techniques used in the separation stage. Finally a summary is presented of those elements in which some enrichment has been achieved by optical techniques. (U.K.)

  19. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  20. Requirements for the protection against aircraft noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, H; Ortscheid, J

    2004-01-01

    In preparation of the revised edition of the Air Traffic Noise Act the Federal Environmental Agency formulated targets for aircraft noise control. They were prepared oriented to the Federal Immission Control Act. The assessment periods were chosen analogously to the regulations on other traffic noise sources (rail traffic, road traffic). The control targets cover the following affected areas * aural, extra-aural health * night's sleep * annoyance * communication * recreation Considerable nuisance can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise(outside) to equivalent levels below 55 dB(A) by day and 45 dB(A) at night, and impairment of health can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise (outside) to equivalent levels below 60 dB(A) by day and 50 dB(A) at night. PMID:15703137

  1. Aircraft induced contrail cirrus over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Condensation trails (contrails) and aircraft induced cirrus are nowadays a common feature at the mid latitude skies. Previously the impact of aircraft induced cirrus changes has been roughly estimated from observed decadal trends in cirrus cover but the direct attribution of observed cirrus changes to changes in aviation activity remains uncertain. In this paper the amount of additional cirrus induced from spreading contrails in humid air is estimated from the direct correlation between observed cirrus cover derived with suitable methods from METEOSAT data and aviation flight density reported by EUROCONTROL at high spatial and temporal resolution from June 22 to July 27, 1998 and September 27 to October 21, 2000. The results indicate that the aircraft induced cirrus cover over Europe is about ten times larger than that of linear contrails in the same region. Radiative forcing from the additional cirrus may be more than 10 times higher than that of linear contrails and aviation induced CO{sub 2} increases. (orig.)

  2. Robotic aircraft scanner for neutron radiographic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robotic positioner and manipulator, a key component of a mobile neutron radiography system (MNRS) for aircraft inspection, is described. The MNRS is designed to inspect military aircraft for hidden corrosion in aluminum structures. The MNRS is comprised of an accelerator-based (Kaman A-711 sealed tube neutron generator using the deuterium-tritium reaction) thermal neutron source, electronic neutron imaging system, robotic positioner and manipulator for the source/imager, control trailer housing system control electronics and digital image processing system, mobile dark room for film processing, self-contained electrical power source, and radiation safety system. For in situ aircraft inspection, the robotic scanner is programmed (in a teach/learn mode) to scan a region of the components (e.g., wings, stabilizers, etc.) using a control pendant

  3. Water separators - reheaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the commencement of construction of light water reactors the need arose, because of the steam condition, for water separators and reheaters. In a brief chronological summary the various stages of development according to designs and specific performance data are compared and the advantages and disadvantages are contrasted. This paper describes cyclone separators and baffle plate separators and plain surface tube reheaters and finned tube elements in many different arrangements. (orig.)

  4. Radiochemical separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical separations make use of the traditional methods of separating elements: precipitation, ion exchange and solvent extraction, of which precipitation has been employed from the very beginning. A new method, accepted into wide use in the 1990s, is extraction chromatography, which combines solvent extraction as the separation method with column chromatography technology earlier used in ion exchange. These four methods are discussed in the paper. (author)

  5. Stem Cell Separation Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Beili; Murthy, Shashi K

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy and translational stem cell research require large-scale supply of stem cells at high purity and viability, thus leading to the development of stem cell separation technologies. This review covers key technologies being applied to stem cell separation, and also highlights exciting new approaches in this field. First, we will cover conventional separation methods that are commercially available and have been widely adapted. These methods include Fluorescence-activated cell so...

  6. Graph separators, with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Arnold L

    2001-01-01

    This text is devoted to techniques for obtaining upper and lower bounds on the sizes of graph separators - upper bounds being obtained via decomposition algorithms. The book surveys the main approaches to obtaining good graph separations, while its main focus is on techniques for deriving lower bounds on the sizes of graph separators. This asymmetry in focus reflects the perception that the work on upper bounds, or algorithms, for graph separation is much better represented in the standard theory literature than is the work on lower bounds, which we perceive as being much more scattered throug

  7. Particle separation by dielectrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoyne, Peter R.C.; Vykoukal, Jody

    2002-01-01

    The application of dielectrophoresis to particle discrimination, separation, and fractionation is reviewed, some advantages and disadvantages of currently available approaches are considered, and some caveats are noted.

  8. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  9. Entrainment separator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean and dust-loaded ACS entrainment separators mounted upstream of HEPA filters were exposed to a combination of fine water mist and steam at about 700C from one to four hours. In every trial, the ACS entrainment separator prevented measurable deterioration of performance in the following HEPA filter. Droplet size-efficiency evaluation of the ACS entrainment separators showed that, within the accuracy of the measurements, they meet all service requirements and are fully equal to the best separator units available for service on pressurized water reactors

  10. ANASE: measuring aircraft noise annoyance very unreliably.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Does anyone who lives under a flight-path like aircraft noise? It is a political hot potato as well as a peace-destroyer. Tens of thousands of people will hear the noise from any third runway at Heathrow. So, when a study commissioned by the government claimed that people are becoming less tolerant of aircraft noise, it made highly unpleasant reading for supporters of a third runway. But the Department for Transport rejected the report as unreliable. Peter Brooker senses the vibrations.

  11. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  12. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  13. Aircraft concepts for service to small communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Small communities are served by trunk, local-service, and commuter carriers having a wide variety in route structure, type of service, and economic character, operating over stage lengths less than 400 statute miles. NASA studies have investigated various aircraft concepts for short-haul that have potential in this market area. Aircraft concepts for this market require a careful balancing of performance, technology, and design-to-cost considerations. This paper summarizes some results of recent NASA sponsored air transportation system studies applicable to small community arenas.

  14. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  15. Modelling Lightning Initiation and Attachment to Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present initial calculations of the formation of streamers on an aircraft. A two-dimensional model has been used to determine electric field strengths and charge densities around solids of various geometries and electrical conductivities. The calculations take into account the distortion of the background electric fields by the solid material and the production and motion of charged species. Detailed time-dependent visualizations of the streamer initiation and propagation are presented. The effects of size and aspect ratio of the gross features of the aircraft on the development of the streamers is discussed

  16. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  17. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  18. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  19. The separation of adult separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent. PMID:27503572

  20. The contribution of aircraft emissions to the atmospheric sulfur budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Feichter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Sausen, R.; Hein, R. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model including the atmospheric sulfur cycle has been used to investigate the impact of aircraft sulfur emissions on the global sulfur budget of the atmosphere. The relative contribution from aircraft sulfur to the atmospheric sulfate burden is larger than the ratio between aircraft emissions and surface emissions due to the calculated long turn-over time of aircraft sulfate (about 12 days). However, in terms of the sulfate mass balance, aircraft emissions are small, contributing about 1% of the total sulfate mass north of 40 deg C where the aircraft emissions are largest. Despite this small contribution to sulfate mass, the aircraft emissions could potentially significantly enhance the background number concentration of aerosol particles. Based on the model calculations the increased stratospheric background aerosol mass observed during the last decades can not be explained by increased aircraft sulfur emissions 50 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We...

  2. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  3. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  4. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  5. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  6. Maintenance-free lead acid battery for inertial navigation systems aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Vutetakis, David G.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS) Batteries have utilized vented nickel-cadmium batteries for emergency DC power. The United States Navy and Air Force developed separate systems during their respective INS developments. The Navy contracted with Litton Industries to produce the LTN-72 and Air Force contracted with Delco to produce the Carousel IV INS for the large cargo and specialty aircraft applications. Over the years, a total of eight different battery national stock numbers (NSNs) have entered the stock system along with 75 battery spare part NSNs. The Standard Hardware Acquisition and Reliability Program is working with the Aircraft Battery Group at Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division, Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 536), Wright Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, and Concorde Battery Corporation to produce a standard INS battery. This paper discusses the approach taken to determine whether the battery should be replaced and to select the replacement chemistry. The paper also discusses the battery requirements, aircraft that the battery is compatible with, and status of Navy flight evaluation. Projected savings in avoided maintenance in Navy and Air Force INS Systems is projected to be $14.7 million per year with a manpower reduction of 153 maintenance personnel. The new INS battery is compatible with commercially sold INS systems which represents 66 percent of the systems sold.

  7. Auralization of NASA N+2 Aircraft Concepts from System Noise Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Burley, Casey L.; Thomas, Russel H.

    2016-01-01

    Auralization of aircraft flyover noise provides an auditory experience that complements integrated metrics obtained from system noise predictions. Recent efforts have focused on auralization methods development, specifically the process by which source noise information obtained from semi-empirical models, computational aeroacoustic analyses, and wind tunnel and flight test data, are used for simulated flyover noise at a receiver on the ground. The primary focus of this work, however, is to develop full vehicle auralizations in order to explore the distinguishing features of NASA's N+2 aircraft vis-à-vis current fleet reference vehicles for single-aisle and large twin-aisle classes. Some features can be seen in metric time histories associated with aircraft noise certification, e.g., tone-corrected perceived noise level used in the calculation of effective perceived noise level. Other features can be observed in sound quality metrics, e.g., loudness, sharpness, roughness, fluctuation strength and tone-to-noise ratio. A psychoacoustic annoyance model is employed to establish the relationship between sound quality metrics and noise certification metrics. Finally, the auralizations will serve as the basis for a separate psychoacoustic study aimed at assessing how well aircraft noise certification metrics predict human annoyance for these advanced vehicle concepts.

  8. Preliminary Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Consiglio, Maria; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. Initial results reveal that the concept provides reduced air traffic delays when compared to current operations without increasing pilot workload. Characteristic to the SATS HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA) which would be activated by air traffic control (ATC) around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. During periods of poor visibility, SATS pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft in the SCA. Using onboard equipment and simple instrument flight procedures, they would then be better able to approach and land at the airport or depart from it. This concept would also require a new, ground-based automation system, typically located at the airport that would provide appropriate sequencing information to the arriving aircraft. Further validation of the SATS HVO concept is required and is the subject of ongoing research and subsequent publications.

  9. Recent advance in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis and control of the aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Jinwu; Yan Yongju; Li Daochun

    2014-01-01

    A review on the recent advance in nonlinear aeroelasticity of the aircraft is presented in this paper. The nonlinear aeroelastic problems are divided into three types based on different research objects, namely the two dimensional airfoil, the wing, and the full aircraft. Different non-linearities encountered in aeroelastic systems are discussed firstly, where the emphases is placed on new nonlinear model to describe tested nonlinear relationship. Research techniques, especially new theoretical methods and aeroelastic flutter control methods are investigated in detail. The route to chaos and the cause of chaotic motion of two-dimensional aeroelastic system are summarized. Var-ious structural modeling methods for the high-aspect-ratio wing with geometric nonlinearity are dis-cussed. Accordingly, aerodynamic modeling approaches have been developed for the aeroelastic modeling of nonlinear high-aspect-ratio wings. Nonlinear aeroelasticity about high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) and fight aircrafts are studied separately. Finally, conclusions and the chal-lenges of the development in nonlinear aeroelasticity are concluded. Nonlinear aeroelastic problems of morphing wing, energy harvesting, and flapping aircrafts are proposed as new directions in the future.

  10. Recent advance in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis and control of the aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Jinwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A review on the recent advance in nonlinear aeroelasticity of the aircraft is presented in this paper. The nonlinear aeroelastic problems are divided into three types based on different research objects, namely the two dimensional airfoil, the wing, and the full aircraft. Different nonlinearities encountered in aeroelastic systems are discussed firstly, where the emphases is placed on new nonlinear model to describe tested nonlinear relationship. Research techniques, especially new theoretical methods and aeroelastic flutter control methods are investigated in detail. The route to chaos and the cause of chaotic motion of two-dimensional aeroelastic system are summarized. Various structural modeling methods for the high-aspect-ratio wing with geometric nonlinearity are discussed. Accordingly, aerodynamic modeling approaches have been developed for the aeroelastic modeling of nonlinear high-aspect-ratio wings. Nonlinear aeroelasticity about high-altitude long-endurance (HALE and fight aircrafts are studied separately. Finally, conclusions and the challenges of the development in nonlinear aeroelasticity are concluded. Nonlinear aeroelastic problems of morphing wing, energy harvesting, and flapping aircrafts are proposed as new directions in the future.

  11. Vertical separation for TCF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied an insertion for electrostatic separation of the electron and positron beams with the aims of: increasing luminosity by decreasing the minimum bunch spacing, matching the vertical dispersion function (not done in the Jowett lattice). The authors looked at three possibilities for the start of the insertion: a quadrupole doublet followed by the electrostatic separator (Jowett), a quadrupole doublet with the electrostatic separator between the two quadrupoles (Kamada), a separator followed by a quadrupole doublet. The third possibility was immediately discharged. Although possible for a B-factor with magnetic separation it is impractical for use with electrostatic separation because of the length and cross section of separator required. The Kamada scheme looked promising for getting very short inter-bunch spacing, but suffered from the disadvantage of requiring a very large ratio of beta functions at the Interaction Point (IP) (βx*/βy* = 100). (They would rather have a β* ratio closer to 20 to 1). They decided to persue the doublet scheme to see whether it could match the performance of Kamada insertion. They assumed superconducting magnets could be used for the insertion quadrupoles, and they used as strong an electrostatic field for the separator as Kamada

  12. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  13. Nonterminal Separating Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, A.; Verbeek, Leo A.M.

    1987-01-01

    We extend the concept of nonterminal separating (or NTS) context-free grammar to nonterminal separating $m$-macro grammar where the mode of derivation $m$ is equal to "unrestricted". "outside-in' or "inside-out". Then we show some (partial) characterization results for these NTS $m$-macro grammars.

  14. Method for separating isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-10-21

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.

  15. CAD SIMULATION & FEM ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh W. Nirwan; Dilip G. Gangwani,

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft landing gear supports the entire weight of an aircraft during landing and ground operations. They are attached to primary structural members of the aircraft. The type of gear depends on the aircraft design and its intended use. Most landing gear has wheels to facilitate operation to and from hard surfaces, such as airport runways. Other gear feature skids for this purpose, such as those found on helicopters, balloon gondolas, and in the tail area of some tail dragger airc...

  16. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  17. Actuation technology for flight control system on civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses the author’s Group Design Project (GDP) and Individual Research Project (IRP). The IRP is discussed primarily herein, presenting the actuation technology for the Flight Control System (FCS) on civil aircraft. Actuation technology is one of the key technologies for next generation More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and All Electric Aircraft (AEA); it is also an important input for the preliminary design of the Flying Crane, the aircraft designed in the author’s G...

  18. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  19. A measurement method to discriminate aircraft fly-over noise

    OpenAIRE

    Genesca Francitorra, Meritxell; Romeu Garbí, Jordi; Pàmies Gómez, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Currently aircraft noise monitoring systems use a mesh of single microphones distributed around an airport to continuously sample the noise level. This fact requires a manual process of aircraft noise event detection and classification in order to distinguish aircraft events from the rest of noise events in the recording. In the present paper a 3-meter-long 12-microphone linear array is used to automatically obtain a background noise free aircraft noise recording. The beamforming process sepa...

  20. Light shaping diffusers{trademark} improve aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shie, R.; Lerner, J. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Physical Optical Corporation has introduced a Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) for the specialized illumination requirements of aircraft inspection. Attached to a handheld, battery-powered flashlight, this light-weight, holographic diffuser element provides bright, even illumination as aircraft inspectors perform the important task of visually examining aircraft for possible structural defects. Field trials conducted by the Aging Aircraft Program at Sandia National Laboratories confirm that the LSD-equipped flashlights are preferred by visual inspectors over stock flashlights.

  1. Corrosion Sensor Development for Condition-Based Maintenance of Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gino Rinaldi; Trisha Huber; Heather McIntosh; Les Lebrun; Heping Ding; John Weber

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft routinely operate in atmospheric environments that, over time, will impact their structural integrity. Material protection and selection schemes notwithstanding, recurrent exposure to chlorides, pollution, temperature gradients, and moisture provide the necessary electrochemical conditions for the development and profusion of corrosion in aircraft structures. For aircraft operators, this becomes an important safety matter as corrosion found in a given aircraft must be assumed to be p...

  2. Separators for flywheel rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors.

  3. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... of provisions pertaining to integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY: Federal... be levied on the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site operators, but prior to the close of the...

  4. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... revision process. Background: Under the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule, 69 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004,...

  5. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft....

  6. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with Federal...

  7. 10 CFR 70.14 - Foreign military aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign military aircraft. 70.14 Section 70.14 Energy....14 Foreign military aircraft. The regulations in this part do not apply to persons who carry special nuclear material (other than plutonium) in aircraft of the armed forces of foreign nations subject to 49...

  8. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  9. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  10. Northwest to Accelerate Retirement of Dc10 Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Northwest Airlines announced that it will accelerate the retirement of its remaining 12DC10-30 aircraft in service. The airline said that during the next seven months,it will replace DC10 aircraft with new Airbus A330s and Boeing 747-400aircraft being returned to service.Currently, seven routes are served with the DC10.

  11. 77 FR 24251 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with...

  12. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards...

  13. 75 FR 9327 - Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 91 RIN 2120-AJ31 Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations... operating rules to require U.S. operators flying outside the United States to carry aircraft noise..., Subpart III, Section 44715, Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom. Under that section, the FAA...

  14. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract...

  16. Commercial Aircraft Emission Scenario for 2020: Database Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkus, Donald J., Jr.; Baughcum, Steven L.; DuBois, Douglas P.; Wey, Chowen C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel use and emissions (NO(x), CO, and hydrocarbons) for the commercial aircraft fleet projected to 2020. Global totals of emissions and fuel burn for 2020 are compared to global totals from previous aircraft emission scenario calculations.

  17. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft...

  18. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industrial Mecanico AMT-200......... 912 A2 Metalurgica tda.....

  19. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Engine model Aeromot-Industria Mecanico AMT-200 912 A2. Metalurgica ltda. Diamond Aircraft...

  20. Mission management for unmanned aircraft systems

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Arroyo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design and implement a mission manager for unmanned aircraft systems. The mission manager will work under the USAL architecture designed by the ICARUS UAV group at the EPSC. The student will be able to learn programming skills, working with a group, and research.

  1. Ultrawideband Electromagnetic Interference to Aircraft Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Shaver, Timothy W.

    2002-01-01

    A very recent FCC Final Rule now permits marketing and operation of new products that incorporate Ultrawideband (UWB) technology into handheld devices. Wireless product developers are working to rapidly bring this versatile, powerful and expectedly inexpensive technology into numerous consumer wireless devices. Past studies addressing the potential for passenger-carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to interfere with aircraft electronic systems suggest that UWB transmitters may pose a significant threat to aircraft communication and navigation radio receivers. NASA, United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated have performed preliminary testing that clearly shows the potential for handheld UWB transmitters to cause cockpit failure indications for the air traffic control radio beacon system (ATCRBS), blanking of aircraft on the traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) displays, and cause erratic motion and failure of instrument landing system (ILS) localizer and glideslope pointers on the pilot horizontal situation and attitude director displays. This paper provides details of the preliminary testing and recommends further assessment of aircraft systems for susceptibility to UWB electromagnetic interference.

  2. Tactical aircraft optical cable plant program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Murdock, John K.; Ide, James R.

    1995-05-01

    A program was created with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to tactical aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits, including increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability from redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits will only be realized if fiber optics meets the unique requirements of aircraft networks. The application of fiber optics to tactical aircraft presents challenges to physical components which can only be met by a methodical attention to what is required, what are the conditions of use, and how will the components be produced in the broad context of a fiber optics using economy. For this purpose, the FLASH program has outlined a plan, and developed a team to evaluate requirements, delineate environmental and use conditions, and design practical, low cost components for tactical aircraft fiber optic cable plants including cables, connectors, splices, backplanes, manufacturing and installation methods, and test and maintenance methods.

  3. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  4. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

  5. Aircraft noise: Changes of biochemical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, E.; Moese, J.R.; Gallasch, E.; Fueger, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of stress caused by aircraft noise was studied on 14 female and 11 male volunteers, who were of a age ranging from 21 to 42 years and of a mean age of 25 years. The volunteers were exposed to an aircraft simulator the simulated the lowlevel flight of an airforce plane and produced a maximum noise level of 105 dB(A) for 3 sec. in a short time. Before and immediately after the exposure, the concentration of ACTH was measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. The ACTH is a hormone, responsible for initiating a chain-reaction that is characteristic for a stress reaction. In 100% of the cases the concentration of this hormone increased. It reached a pathological level in 28% of the cases. The effect on the lipid metabolism was expressed by an increase of total cholesterol and a decrease of the triglycerides in the serum. A slight increase in blood sugar which, together with the free fatty acids, is relatively quickly reduced to energy, could determined. The aircraft noise did not influence the activity of the liver transaminases in any way. A short-term exposure to aircraft noise is able to stimulate a stress reaction, whereby, the determination of the ACTH offers valuable informations.

  6. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  7. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  8. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  9. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João;

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial...

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  11. Recognition of aircraft using HRR features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossen, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) based on high resolution radar (HRR) features can be used to increase the confidence in aircraft class. Standard radar systems are not designed for performing classification and uses additional identification systems. It is shown that with the use of features the a

  12. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...), and (d) published at 78 FR 14920 on March 8, 2013, are effective on November 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER...-161, published at 78 FR 14920, March 8, 2013. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1187. The Commission... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  13. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6... safety. (a) The provisions of this part will be revised if at any time the Administrator determines...

  14. Atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaust emissions from aircraft include oxides of nitrogen (NOx), water vapor (H2O), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particles (soot and sulfates). These emissions are small compared to industrial/urban surface emissions. However, because (1) atmospheric residence times of exhaust constituents are longer at altitude, particularly in the stratosphere, than they are in the boundary layer, (2) their background concentrations at altitude are lower than those near the surface, (3) the radiation balance is the more sensitive to atmospheric trace constituents the colder the temperature aloft and (4) inter-hemispheric mixing of aircraft effluents is inhibited, aircraft emissions near and above the tropopause and polewards of 40 degrees latitude can be environmentally critical. That's why atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions have again received scientific, economic and political scrutiny in the last few years, motivated by growth of subsonic traffic at about 5% per year over the past two decades and the advent of a technologically feasible operation of a supersonic high speed commercial transport (HSCT) fleet

  15. Incident response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Jacobs, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) was granted by ASHRAE (1306-RP) to conduct scientfic review and feasibility analysis of technologies and methods for measuring aircraft power system contaminants in the cabin air during unanticipated adverse incidents. In particular,

  16. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  17. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    OpenAIRE

    Наумов, А. В.

    1999-01-01

    Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  19. Computer Aided Visual Inspection of Aircraft Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Mumtaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Non Destructive Inspections (NDI plays a vital role in aircraft industry as it determines the structural integrity of aircraft surface and material characterization. The existing NDI methods are time consuming, we propose a new NDI approach using Digital Image Processing that has the potential to substantially decrease the inspection time. Automatic Marking of cracks have been achieved through application of Thresholding, Gabor Filter and Non Subsampled Contourlet transform. For a novel method of NDI, the aircraft imagery is analyzed by three methods i.e Neural Networks, Contourlet Transform (CT and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. With the help of Contourlet Transform the two dimensional (2-D spectrum is divided into fine slices, using iterated directional filterbanks. Next, directional energy components for each block of the decomposed subband outputs are computed. These energy values are used to distinguish between the crack and scratch images using the Dot Product classifier. In next approach, the aircraft imagery is decomposed into high and low frequency components using DCT and the first order moment is determined to form feature vectors.A correlation based approach is then used for distinction between crack and scratch surfaces. A comparative examination between the two techniques on a database of crack and scratch images revealed that texture analysis using the combined transform based approach gave the best results by giving an accuracy of 96.6% for the identification of crack surfaces and 98.3% for scratch surfaces.

  20. Aircraft engine performance and integration in a flying wing aircraft conceptual design

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Zhisong.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand of more economical and environmentally friendly aero engines leads to the proposal of a new concept – geared turbofan. In this thesis, the characteristics of this kind of engine and relevant considerations of integration on a flying wing aircraft were studied. The studies can be divided into four levels: GTF-11 engine modelling and performance simulation; aircraft performance calculation; nacelle design and aerodynamic performance evaluation; preliminar...

  1. The interference aerodynamics caused by the wing elasticity during store separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yang; Zheng-yin, Ye

    2016-04-01

    Air-launch-to-orbit is the technology that has stores carried aloft and launched the store from the plane to the orbit. The separation between the aircraft and store is one of the most important and difficult phases in air-launch-to-orbit technology. There exists strong aerodynamic interference between the aircraft and the store in store separation. When the aspect ratio of the aircraft is large, the elastic deformations of the wing must be considered. The main purpose of this article is to study the influence of the interference aerodynamics caused by the elastic deformations of the wing to the unsteady aerodynamics of the store. By solving the coupled functions of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, six degrees of freedom dynamic equations and structural dynamic equations simultaneously, the store separation with the elastic deformation of the aircraft considered is simulated numerically. And the interactive aerodynamic forces are analyzed. The study shows that the interference aerodynamics is obvious at earlier time during the separation, and the dominant frequency of the elastic wing determines the aerodynamic forces frequencies of the store. Because of the effect of the interference aerodynamics, the roll angle response and pitch angle response increase. When the store is mounted under the wingtip, the additional aerodynamics caused by the wingtip vortex is obvious, which accelerate the divergence of the lateral force and the lateral-directional attitude angle of the store. This study supports some beneficial conclusions to the engineering application of the air-launch-to-orbit.

  2. Materials separation by dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, A. D.; Rose, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of vacuum dielectrophoresis as a method for particulate materials separation in a microgravity environment was investigated. Particle separations were performed in a specially constructed miniature drop-tower with a residence time of about 0.3 sec. Particle motion in such a system is independent of size and based only on density and dielectric constant, for a given electric field. The observed separations and deflections exceeded the theoretical predictions, probably due to multiparticle effects. In any case, this approach should work well in microgravity for many classes of materials, with relatively simple apparatus and low weight and power requirements.

  3. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  4. On separable Pauli equations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhalij, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-1/2 particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the eleven classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is...

  5. Rotary drum separator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Michael R. (Inventor); Murdoch, Karen (Inventor); Scull, Timothy D. (Inventor); Fort, James H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rotary phase separator system generally includes a step-shaped rotary drum separator (RDS) and a motor assembly. The aspect ratio of the stepped drum minimizes power for both the accumulating and pumping functions. The accumulator section of the RDS has a relatively small diameter to minimize power losses within an axial length to define significant volume for accumulation. The pumping section of the RDS has a larger diameter to increase pumping head but has a shorter axial length to minimize power losses. The motor assembly drives the RDS at a low speed for separating and accumulating and a higher speed for pumping.

  6. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Procedures for Aircraft;'' Final Rule, 38 FR 19088, July 17, 1973. \\12\\ U.S. EPA, ``Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 62 FR 25356... Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 70 FR 2521, November 17, 2005. E....

  7. L-split marker for augmented reality in aircraft assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Zhao, Gang

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve the performance of conventional square markers widely used by marker-based augmented reality systems in aircraft assembly environments, an L-split marker is proposed. Every marker consists of four separate L-shaped parts and each of them contains partial information about the marker. Geometric features of the L-shape, which are more discriminate than the symmetrical square shape adopted by conventional markers, are used to detect proposed markers from the camera images effectively. The marker is split into four separate parts in order to improve the robustness to occlusion and curvature to some extent. The registration process can be successfully completed as long as three parts are detected (up to about 80% of the area could be occluded). Moreover, when we attach the marker on nonplanar surfaces, the curvature status of the marker can be roughly analyzed with every part's normal direction, which can be obtained since their six corners have been explicitly determined in the previous detection process. And based on the marker design, new detection and recognition algorithms are proposed and detailed. The experimental results show that the marker and the algorithms are effective.

  8. Kinematic GPS solutions for aircraft trajectories: Identifying and minimizing systematic height errors associated with atmospheric propagation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, S.; Bevis, M.; Kendrick, E.; Mader, G.L.; Raleigh, D.; Hudnut, K.; Sartori, M.; Phillips, D.

    2007-01-01

    When kinematic GPS processing software is used to estimate the trajectory of an aircraft, unless the delays imposed on the GPS signals by the atmosphere are either estimated or calibrated via external observations, then vertical height errors of decimeters can occur. This problem is clearly manifested when the aircraft is positioned against multiple base stations in areas of pronounced topography because the aircraft height solutions obtained using different base stations will tend to be mutually offset, or biased, in proportion to the elevation differences between the base stations. When performing kinematic surveys in areas with significant topography it should be standard procedure to use multiple base stations, and to separate them vertically to the maximum extent possible, since it will then be much easier to detect mis-modeling of the atmosphere. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  10. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  11. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  12. Monitored separation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George William (Inventor); Willson, Richard Coale (Inventor); Fox, George Edward (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A device for separating and purifying useful quantities of particles comprises: a. an anolyte reservoir connected to an anode, the anolyte reservoir containing an electrophoresis buffer; b. a catholyte reservoir connected to a cathode, the catholyte reservoir also containing the electrophoresis buffer; c. a power supply connected to the anode and to the cathode; d. a column having a first end inserted into the anolyte reservoir, a second end inserted into the catholyte reservoir, and containing a separation medium; e. a light source; f. a first optical fiber having a first fiber end inserted into the separation medium, and having a second fiber end connected to the light source; g. a photo detector; h. a second optical fiber having a third fiber end inserted into the separation medium, and having a fourth fiber end connected to the photo detector; and i. an ion-exchange membrane in the anolyte reservoir.

  13. On Separate Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liang; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The separate universe conjecture states that in General Relativity a density perturbation behaves locally (i.e. on scales much smaller than the wavelength of the mode) as a separate universe with different background density and curvature. We prove this conjecture for a spherical compensated tophat density perturbation of arbitrary amplitude and radius in $\\Lambda$CDM. We then use Conformal Fermi Coordinates to generalize this result to scalar perturbations of arbitrary configuration and scale in a general cosmology with a mixture of fluids, but to linear order in perturbations. In this case, the separate universe conjecture holds for the isotropic part of the perturbations. The anisotropic part on the other hand is exactly captured by a tidal field in the Newtonian form. We show that the separate universe picture is restricted to scales larger than the sound horizons of all fluid components. We then derive an expression for the locally measured matter bispectrum induced by a long-wavelength mode of arbitrary...

  14. Laser-Beam Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermid, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Train of prisms and optical stop separate fundamental beam of laser from second and higher order harmonics of beam produced in certain crystals and by stimulated Raman scattering in gases and liquids.

  15. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  16. Inductive Learning Approaches for Improving Pilot Awareness of Aircraft Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spikovska, Lilly; Iverson, David L.; Poll, Scott; Pryor, anna

    2005-01-01

    Neural network flight controllers are able to accommodate a variety of aircraft control surface faults without detectable degradation of aircraft handling qualities. Under some faults, however, the effective flight envelope is reduced; this can lead to unexpected behavior if a pilot performs an action that exceeds the remaining control authority of the damaged aircraft. The goal of our work is to increase the pilot s situational awareness by informing him of the type of damage and resulting reduction in flight envelope. Our methodology integrates two inductive learning systems with novel visualization techniques. One learning system, the Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), learns to detect when a simulation includes faulty controls, while two others, Inductive Classification System (INCLASS) and multiple binary decision tree system (utilizing C4.5), determine the type of fault. In off-line training using only non-failure data, IMS constructs a characterization of nominal flight control performance based on control signals issued by the neural net flight controller. This characterization can be used to determine the degree of control augmentation required in the pitch, roll, and yaw command channels to counteract control surface failures. This derived information is typically sufficient to distinguish between the various control surface failures and is used to train both INCLASS and C4.5. Using data from failed control surface flight simulations, INCLASS and C4.5 independently discover and amplify features in IMS results that can be used to differentiate each distinct control surface failure situation. In real-time flight simulations, distinguishing features learned during training are used to classify control surface failures. Knowledge about the type of failure can be used by an additional automated system to alter its approach for planning tactical and strategic maneuvers. The knowledge can also be used directly to increase the pilot s situational awareness and

  17. Distributed Turboelectric Propulsion for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting future goals for aircraft and air traffic system performance will require new airframes with more highly integrated propulsion. Previous studies have evaluated hybrid wing body (HWB) configurations with various numbers of engines and with increasing degrees of propulsion-airframe integration. A recently published configuration with 12 small engines partially embedded in a HWB aircraft, reviewed herein, serves as the airframe baseline for the new concept aircraft that is the subject of this paper. To achieve high cruise efficiency, a high lift-to-drag ratio HWB was adopted as the baseline airframe along with boundary layer ingestion inlets and distributed thrust nozzles to fill in the wakes generated by the vehicle. The distributed powered-lift propulsion concept for the baseline vehicle used a simple, high-lift-capable internally blown flap or jet flap system with a number of small high bypass ratio turbofan engines in the airframe. In that concept, the engine flow path from the inlet to the nozzle is direct and does not involve complicated internal ducts through the airframe to redistribute the engine flow. In addition, partially embedded engines, distributed along the upper surface of the HWB airframe, provide noise reduction through airframe shielding and promote jet flow mixing with the ambient airflow. To improve performance and to reduce noise and environmental impact even further, a drastic change in the propulsion system is proposed in this paper. The new concept adopts the previous baseline cruise-efficient short take-off and landing (CESTOL) airframe but employs a number of superconducting motors to drive the distributed fans rather than using many small conventional engines. The power to drive these electric fans is generated by two remotely located gas-turbine-driven superconducting generators. This arrangement allows many small partially embedded fans while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated

  18. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention provides a method for separating uranium isotopes comprising the steps of selectively irradiating a photochemically-reactive uranyl source material at a wavelength selective to a desired isotope of uranium at an effective temperature for isotope spectral line splitting below about 77 K, further irradiating the source material within the fluorescent lifetime of the selectively irradiated source material to selectively photochemically reduce the selectively excited isotopic species, and chemically separating the reduced isotope species from the remaining uranyl salt compound

  19. Separating isotopes by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope separation by laser radiation is proving a very promising method for obtaining large scale isotope production at low cost and is particularly relevant to the enrichment of 235U for the nuclear power industry. Various methods for laser separation, differing mainly in the way the selectively excited atoms or molecules are extracted, are discussed. The efficiency of the various methods, which is the controlling factor in determining their practical viability and some of the problems encountered are examined. (UK)

  20. Chiral separation in microflows

    OpenAIRE

    Kostur, Marcin; Schindler, Michael; Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Molecules that only differ by their chirality, so called enantiomers, often possess different properties with respect to their biological function. Therefore, the separation of enantiomers presents a prominent challenge in molecular biology and belongs to the ``Holy Grail'' of organic chemistry. We suggest a new separation technique for chiral molecules that is based on the transport properties in a microfluidic flow with spatially variable vorticity. Because of their size the thermal fluctua...

  1. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael; Xie, Xiaobing; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul; Wright, Harold

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  2. Towards Full Aircraft Airframe Noise Prediction: Detached Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a computational study on the aeroacoustic characteristics of an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulf-stream aircraft model are presented in this paper. NASA's FUN3D unstructured compressible Navier-Stokes solver was used to perform steady and unsteady simulations of the flow field associated with this high-fidelity aircraft model. Solutions were obtained for free-air at a Mach number of 0.2 with the flap deflected at 39 deg, with the main gear off and on (the two baseline configurations). Initially, the study focused on accurately predicting the prominent noise sources at both flap tips for the baseline configuration with deployed flap only. Building upon the experience gained from this initial effort, subsequent work involved the full landing configuration with both flap and main landing gear deployed. For the unsteady computations, we capitalized on the Detached Eddy Simulation capability of FUN3D to capture the complex time-dependent flow features associated with the flap and main gear. To resolve the noise sources over a broad frequency range, the tailored grid was very dense near the flap inboard and outboard tips and the region surrounding the gear. Extensive comparison of the computed steady and unsteady surface pressures with wind tunnel measurements showed good agreement for the global aerodynamic characteristics and the local flow field at the flap inboard tip. However, the computed pressure coefficients indicated that a zone of separated flow that forms in the vicinity of the outboard tip is larger in extent along the flap span and chord than measurements suggest. Computed farfield acoustic characteristics from a FW-H integral approach that used the simulated pressures on the model solid surface were in excellent agreement with corresponding measurements.

  3. HAI: A new TDLAS hygrometer for the HALO research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, Tim; Afchine, Armin; Barthel, Jochen; Höh, Matthias; Wagner, Steven; Witzel, Oliver; Saathoff, Harald; Schiller, Cornelius; Ebert, Volker

    2010-05-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere and a key component for several physical and chemical processes. Therefore it is a key parameter to be measured during most research campaigns. The Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations (HAI) is especially designed for operations on the research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft). HAI permits both, the in-situ measurement of water vapor with an open-path cell and the measurement of total water with an extractive close-path absorption cell. We are using TDLAS (Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy) in two water absorption bands with different line strength to increase the dynamical range. With this concept it is possible to measure from the middle troposphere up to the stratosphere. The open-path cell outside of the fuselage consists of a robust, aerodynamically designed aluminum structure with a single integrated White-cell for both laser beams. Although the mirror separation is only 15cm the cell allows an open absorption path of 4.8m. The detection of higher H2O concentrations is realized with a fiber coupled 1.4µm DFB diode laser. Inside the UTLS layer were small concentrations in the low ppm range are common, we employ up to 20 times stronger fundamental ro-vibration lines of the water molecule near 2.6µm. To supply this, the fiber coupled 2.6µm laser setup was developed and is a part of the HAI. Both detection wavelengths are introduced in the same open path cell via glass fibers which provide water measurements with a minimum of parasitic absorption. We will present the spectrometer design for high-quality airborne water measurements. Furthermore, first laboratory measurements will be shown.

  4. Intercomparison of aircraft instruments on board the C-130 and Falcon 20 over southern Germany during EXPORT 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huntrieser

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In the summer 2000 Export aircraft campaign (European eXport of Precursors and Ozone by long-Range Transport, two comprehensively instrumented research aircraft measuring a variety of chemical species flew wing tip to wing tip for a period of one and a quarter hours. During this interval a comparison was undertaken of the measurements of nitrogen oxide (NO, odd nitrogen species (NOy, carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3. The comparison was performed at two different flight levels, which provided a 10-fold variation in the concentrations of both NO (10 to 1000 parts per trillion by volume (pptv and NOy (200 to over 2500 pptv. Large peaks of NO and NOy observed from the Falcon 20, which were at first thought to be from the exhaust of the C-130, were also detected on the 4 channel NOx,y instrument aboard the C-130. These peaks were a good indication that both aircraft were in the same air mass and that the Falcon 20 was not in the exhaust plume of the C-130. Correlations and statistical analysis are presented between the instruments used on the two separate aircraft platforms. These were found to be in good agreement giving a high degree of correlation for the ambient air studied. Any deviations from the correlations are accounted for in the estimated inaccuracies of the instruments. These results help to establish that the instruments aboard the separate aircraft are reliably able to measure the corresponding chemical species in the range of conditions sampled and that data collected by both aircraft can be co-ordinated for purposes of interpretation.

  5. Intercomparison of aircraft instruments on board the C-130 and Falcon 20 over southern Germany during EXPORT 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brough

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the summer 2000 EXPORT aircraft campaign (European eXport of Precursors and Ozone by long-Range Transport, two comprehensively instrumented research aircraft measuring a variety of chemical species flew wing tip to wing tip for a period of one and a quarter hours. During this interval a comparison was undertaken of the measurements of nitrogen oxide (NO, odd nitrogen species (NOy, carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3. The comparison was performed at two different flight levels, which provided a 10-fold variation in the concentrations of both NO (10 to 1000 parts per trillion by volume (pptv and NOy (200 to over 2500 pptv. Large peaks of NO and NOy observed from the Falcon 20, which were at first thought to be from the exhaust of the C-130, were also detected on the 4 channel NOxy instrument aboard the C-130. These peaks were a good indication that both aircraft were in the same air mass and that the Falcon 20 was not in the exhaust plume of the C-130. Correlations and statistical analysis are presented between the instruments used on the two separate aircraft platforms. These were found to be in good agreement giving a high degree of correlation for the ambient air studied. Any deviations from the correlations are accounted for in the estimated inaccuracies of the instruments. These results help to establish that the instruments aboard the separate aircraft are reliably able to measure the corresponding chemical species in the range of conditions sampled and that data collected by both aircraft can be co-ordinated for purposes of interpretation.

  6. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  7. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  8. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  9. Aircraft testing of the new Blunt-body Aerosol Sampler (BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moharreri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is limited understanding of aerosol role in the formation and modification of clouds partly due to inadequate data on such systems. Aircraft-based aerosol measurements in the presence of cloud particles has proven to be challenging because of the problem of cloud-droplet/ice-particle shatter and the generation of secondary artifact particles that contaminate aerosol samples. Recently, design of a new aircraft inlet, called the blunt-body aerosol sampler (BASE, which enables sampling of interstitial aerosol particles, was introduced. Numerical modeling results and laboratory test data suggested that the BASE inlet should sample interstitial particles with minimal shatter particle contamination. Here, the sampling performance of the inlet is established from aircraft-based measurements. Initial aircraft test results obtained during the PLOWS campaign indicated two problems with the original BASE design: separated flows around the BASE at high altitudes; and a significant shatter problem when sampling in drizzle. The test data was used to improve the accuracy of flow and particle trajectory modeling around the inlet, and the results from the improved flow model informed several design modifications of BASE to overcome the problems identified from its initial deployment. The performance of the modified BASE was tested during the ICE-T campaign and the inlet was seen to provide near shatter-free measurements in a wide range of cloud conditions. The initial aircraft test results, design modifications, and the performance characteristics of BASE relative to another interstitial inlet, the sub-micron aerosol inlet (SMAI, are presented.

  10. Perceived Noise Analysis for Offset Jets Applied to Commercial Supersonic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Seidel, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    A systems analysis was performed with experimental jet noise data, engine/aircraft performance codes and aircraft noise prediction codes to assess takeoff noise levels and mission range for conceptual supersonic commercial aircraft. A parametric study was done to identify viable engine cycles that meet NASA's N+2 goals for noise and performance. Model scale data from offset jets were used as input to the aircraft noise prediction code to determine the expected sound levels for the lateral certification point where jet noise dominates over all other noise sources. The noise predictions were used to determine the optimal orientation of the offset nozzles to minimize the noise at the lateral microphone location. An alternative takeoff procedure called "programmed lapse rate" was evaluated for noise reduction benefits. Results show there are two types of engines that provide acceptable mission range performance; one is a conventional mixed-flow turbofan and the other is a three-stream variable-cycle engine. Separate flow offset nozzles reduce the noise directed toward the thicker side of the outer flow stream, but have less benefit as the core nozzle pressure ratio is reduced. At the systems level for a three-engine N+2 aircraft with full throttle takeoff, there is a 1.4 EPNdB margin to Chapter 3 noise regulations predicted for the lateral certification point (assuming jet noise dominates). With a 10% reduction in thrust just after clearing the runway, the margin increases to 5.5 EPNdB. Margins to Chapter 4 and Chapter 14 levels will depend on the cumulative split between the three certification points, but it appears that low specific thrust engines with a 10% reduction in thrust (programmed lapse rate) can come close to meeting Chapter 14 noise levels. Further noise reduction is possible with engine oversizing and derated takeoff, but more detailed mission studies are needed to investigate the range impacts as well as the practical limits for safety and takeoff

  11. On separable Pauli equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A0(t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

  12. Delayed detached eddy simulations of fighter aircraft at high angle of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoliang; Jiang, Xiong; Liu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    The massively separated flows over a realistic aircraft configuration at 40°, 50°, and 60° angles of attack are studied using the delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). The calculations are carried out at experimental conditions corresponding to a mean aerodynamic chord-based Reynolds number of 8.93× 105 and Mach number of 0.088. The influence of the grid size is investigated using two grids, 20.0× 106 cells and 31.0× 106 cells. At the selected conditions, the lift, drag, and pitching moment from DDES predictions agree with the experimental data better than that from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes. The effect of angle of attack on the flow structure over the general aircraft is also studied, and it is found that the dominated frequency associated with the vortex shedding process decreases with increasing angle of attack.

  13. Hybrid Genetic-cuckoo Search Algorithm for Solving Runway Dependent Aircraft Landing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peigang Guo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for air transportation continues to grow, some flights cannot land at their preferred landing times because the airport is near its runway capacity. Therefore, devising a method for tackling the Aircraft Landing Problem (ALP in order to optimize the usage of existing runways at airports is the focus of this study. This study, a hybrid Genetic-Cuckoo Search (GCS algorithm for optimization the ALP with runway is proposed. The numerical results showed that the proposed GCS algorithm can effectively and efficiently determine the runway allocation, sequence and landing time for arriving aircraft for the three test cases by minimizing total delays under the separation constraints in comparison with the outcomes yielded by previous studies.

  14. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eikmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  15. Power Generation and Distribution System of Modern Civil Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the aircraft industry is moving towards the all electric and More Electric Aircraft (MEA; is the future trend in adopting single power type for driving the non-propulsive aircraft systems; i.e. is the electrical power. The trend in the aircraft industry is to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems achieving more comfort and monitoring features. The structure of MEA distribution system improves aircraft maintainability, reliability, flight safety and efficiency. Moreover, MEA reduces the emissions of air pollutant gases from aircrafts, which can contribute in significantly solving some of the problems of climate change. However, the MEA puts some challenges on the aircraft electrical system, both in the amount of the required power and the processing and management of this power. MEA electrical distribution systems are mainly in the form of multi-converter power electronic system.

  16. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  17. Californium-based neutron radiography for corrosion detection in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of an overall program aimed at minimizing disassembly and reducing inspection time during aircraft maintenance, a series of projects has been carried out to determine the feasibility of applying neutron radiographic techniques to the nondestructive (NDT) inspection of aircraft and aircraft components. These investigations have clearly demonstrated the superiority of neutron radiography over all other NDT techniques in its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure. This capability is particularly significant where the corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in the wing tank of E-2C, C-130, and DC-9 aircraft; rear stabilators of F-4 and F-111 aircraft; aft spar, starboard and port wing, and rudder of the F-8; fuselage skin of the 727; rotary blades of AH-1 and SH-3 helicopters; rotary tail flaps of the UH-2 helicopter; and nose landing gear of A-7 aircraft

  18. The Physical Model of Magnetic Separation in a Plate Separator

    OpenAIRE

    Brożek, M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of magnetic separation depend on many factors, such as physical properties of particles of the separated mixture, magnetic intensity, particle sizes, separation conditions (constant or alternating field, dry or wet separation) and others. The formulae representing the dependence of separation results on the above mentioned factors are obtained from the model. The mathematical model presents only some general dependences of separations results on time or length of the separation pa...

  19. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  20. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lovejoy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to unavoidable vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is anisotropic not isotropic. In this paper, we show how this can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 tropospheric data following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k−5/3 (although smoothed by aircraft intertia at scales <3 km. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations with all of these effects occurring over the entire range of scales so that the trajectories influence the wind measurements over large ranges of scale. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have no apparent scale breaks and the corresponding coherencies and phases are low reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions we then estimate the small and large scale exponents finding that they are close to the Kolmogorov values (5/3, 1/3 and the vertical values (2.4, 0.73 respectively (for the spectral and real space scaling exponents (β, H the latter are close to those estimated by drop sondes (2.4, 0.75 in the vertical direction. In addition, for each leg we estimate the energy flux, the sphero

  1. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  2. Organic Separation Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  3. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  4. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  5. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  6. Effects of aircraft noise on human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Under controlled conditions in two test rooms, studies were made of the response of sleeping subjects to the stimuli of simulated sonic booms and subsonic jet aircraft noise. Children were relatively nonresponsive to the stimuli. In general, the older the subject, the more likely is behavioral awakening. The response rates to the two types of stimuli were essentially the same. The stimulus intensity had little, if any, effect on frequency of arousal, although other degrees of response did increase.

  7. Route optimization model for strike aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Steve H. K.

    1995-01-01

    A model is designed and implemented to construct a 'flyable,' least- risk route for strike aircraft from takeoff to target, through enemy radars, in a defined area of operations. A network is fust constructed by discretizing the airspace into a three-dimensional grid of nodes and then connecting adjacent nodes with arcs. A shortest-path model in this network is then constructed with arc lengths that are a function of the probability of detection by radars monitoring t...

  8. Force Feedback for Assembly of Aircraft Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marie; Murray, Tom; Robertsson, Anders; Stolt, Andreas; Ossbahr, Gilbert; Nilsson, Klas

    2010-01-01

    Variability in composite manufacture and the limitations in positional accuracy of common industrial robots have hampered automation of assembly tasks within aircraft manufacturing. One way to handle geometry variations and robot compliancy is to use force control. Force control technology utilizes a sensor mounted on the robot to feedback force data to the controller system so instead of being position driven, i.e. programmed to achieve a certain position with the tool, the robot can be prog...

  9. Study of hydrogen as an aircraft fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaravino, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The conversion to hydrogen as a naval aviation fuel would allow for independence on fuel cost and supply, as hydrogen is globally accessible. The biggest obstacle to using hydrogen is its very low density, a property that even combined with hydrogen's high heat of combustion still results in very large fuel tanks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) with its higher density would still require a larger volume than kerosene for the aircraft to achieve...

  10. Speed stress and the aircraft pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.T.V. Adiseshiah

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available When the human component in a man-machine system of pushed beyond the limits of human capacity in grasping information presented to senses or in executing a series of actions correctly, a condition of "speed stress" may be said to occur. Conditions encountered by aircraft at high speeds, make a consideration of the forms of speed stress, and of the measures to alleviate them, extremely important.

  11. Review Article: Influenza Transmission on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air travel is associated with the spread of influenza through infected passengers and potentially through in-flight transmission. Contact tracing after exposure to influenza is not performed systematically. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the evidence for influenza transmission aboard aircraft. Methods: Using PubMed and EMBASE databases, we identified and critically appraised identified records to assess the evidence of such transmission to passengers seated in close proximity to the index cases. We also developed a bias assessment tool to evaluate the quality of evidence provided in the retrieved studies. Results: We identified 14 peer-reviewed publications describing contact tracing of passengers after possible exposure to influenza virus aboard an aircraft. Contact tracing during the initial phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic was described in 11 publications. The studies describe the follow-up of 2,165 (51%) of 4,252 traceable passengers. Altogether, 163 secondary cases were identified resulting in an overall secondary attack rate among traced passengers of 7.5%. Of these secondary cases, 68 (42%) were seated within two rows of the index case. Conclusion: We found an overall moderate quality of evidence for transmission of influenza virus aboard an aircraft. The major limiting factor was the comparability of the studies. A majority of secondary cases was identified at a greater distance than two rows from the index case. A standardized approach for initiating, conducting, and reporting contact tracing could help to increase the evidence base for better assessing influenza transmission aboard aircraft. PMID:27253070

  12. Trajectory management for aircraft noise mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2009-01-01

    Comunicació convidada This paper gives an overview of aircraft trajectory management aimed at producing noise abatementprocedures. Area Navigation (RNAV) concepts play an important role in the design of flexible and, therefore, noise friendly depart or approach procedures. In addition, the lowest dispersion of RNAV tracks help to contain noise footprints in a smaller area if compared with footprints that are produced when conventional procedures are flown. However, RNAV turns still produce...

  13. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  14. Digital adaptive control laws for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.

    1979-01-01

    Honeywell has designed a digital self-adaptive flight control system for flight test in the VALT Research Aircraft (a modified CH-47). The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts: one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs are compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  15. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.

  16. Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Sven; Claesson, Ingvar

    2001-01-01

    A noisy environment dominated by low frequency noise can often be improved through the use of active noise control. This situation arises naturally in propeller aircraft where the propellers induce periodic low frequency noise inside the cabin. The cabin noise is typically rather high, and the passenger flight comfort could be improved considerably if this level were significantly reduced. This paper addresses same design aspects for multiple-reference active noise control systems based on th...

  17. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AS COMPLEX MULTISTRUCTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abufanas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The principles of constructing mathematical models of unmanned aircraft systems as complex systems consisting of a plurality ofsubsystems, each of which is considered as a system. In this case, the relationship between the subsystems are described by equations based on the topological graph theory, and for the preparation of component equations describing the dynamics of the subsystems is proposed to use differential equations discontinuous type based on systems theory of random structure.

  18. Aircraft System Simulation for Preliminary Design

    OpenAIRE

    Krus, Petter; Braun, Robert; Nordin, Peter; Eriksson, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Developments in computational hardware and simulation software have come to a point where it is possible to use whole mission simulation in a framework for conceptual/preliminary design. This paper is about the implementation of full system simulation software for conceptual/preliminary aircraft design. It is based on the new Hopsan NG simulation package, developed at the Linköping University. The Hopsan NG software is implemented in C++. Hopsan NG is the first simulation software that has su...

  19. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. The reactor auxiliary system building allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioctivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. In order not to increase the construction cost, and yet to assure the safety of the plant, some dynamic tests of conventionally reinforced slabs have to be performed all the way to collapse. These calculations have assumptions of achieving the maximum velocity instantaneously after impact, and take into account the kinetic energy in the broken wall. Nonlinear equations of motion are also formulated and solved. The results indicate that the phantom jet would go through the first wall. The second wall would stop the jet, but would sustain some permanent deformation and damage

  20. Structural ballistic armour for transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I; Austin, S J; Bishop, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the structural response of a current ceramic-faced composite armour system and a proposed structural armour system for aircraft use. The proposed structural ballistic armour system is shown to be capable of providing significant structural integrity even after ballistic impact whilst providing ballistic protection equivalent to an existing applique system. The addition of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic front panel to the existing ceramic faced composite armour system i...

  1. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Pelliccioni, M; Villari, R

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H*(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. PMID:14978289

  2. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H *(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. (authors)

  3. Immunoassay separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

  4. Method for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inventor proposes a method for separating isotopes from gaseous compounds by selective excitation by means of laser beams for such cases where the reaction partners each consist of several isotopes. For example, separation of 235U and 238U in the form of UCl6 is mentioned with 35Cl and 37Cl existing in the natural composition of 76:24. According to the invention, after isolating the reaction product obtained in a way already known, the remaining fraction of the compound mixture is brought together with the reaction partner present in the natural isotope composition, in a heated flow path. Thereby by isotope exchange of the latter regeneration will take place, and the mixture can pass again through the separation plant in initial composition. (orig./PW)

  5. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  6. Mass Separation by Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices.

  7. Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

  8. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem. The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article. The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise. Of the three main areas of the noise problem, i.e. generation, propagation, and radiation, propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation. Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model. Of the various classes of propagation equations, linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain. The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques, bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations, e.g. acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed, with differing degrees of success.

  9. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  10. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  11. Aircraft measurement of organic aerosols over China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Takami, Akinori; Li, Hong; Wang, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Lower to middle (0.5-3.0 km altitude) tropospheric aerosols (PM2.5) collected by aircraft over inland and east coastal China were, for the first time, characterized for organic molecular compositions to understand anthropogenic, natural, and photochemical contribution to the air quality. n-Alkanes, fatty acids, sugars, polyacids are detected as major compound classes, whereas lignin and resin products, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalic acids are minor species. Average concentrations of all the identified compounds excluding malic acid correspond to 40-50% of those reported on the ground sites. Relative abundances of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components such as malic acid are much higher in the aircraft samples, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production over China. Organic carbon (OC) concentrations in summer (average, 24.3 microg m(-3)) were equivalent to those reported on the ground sites. Higher OC/EC (elemental carbon) ratios in the summer aircraft samples also support a significant production of SOA over China. High loadings of organic aerosols in the Chinese troposphere may be responsible to an intercontinental transport of the pollutants and potential impact on the regional and global climate changes. PMID:17539513

  12. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingtao Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematical explanation of RISM is presented in this paper. The efficiency of RISM can be improved by four times compared with traditional static aeroelastic analysis. General purpose computing on graphical processing units (GPGPU is adopted to accelerate the RISM further, and GPU-accelerated RISM is constructed. The efficiency of GPU-accelerated RISM can be raised by about 239 times compared with that of the loosely coupled aeroelastic analysis. Test shows that the fidelity of GPU-accelerated RISM is high enough for optimization. Optimization framework based on Kriging model is constructed. The efficiency of the proposed optimization system can be improved greatly with the aid of GPU-accelerated RISM. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is optimized using this framework and the range is improved by 4.67% after optimization, which shows effectiveness and efficiency of this framework.

  13. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S. [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Seibersdorf (Austria); Latocha, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  14. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  15. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem.The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article.The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise.Of the three main areas of the noise problem,i.e.generation,propagation,and radiation,propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation.Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model.Of the various classes of propagation equations,linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain.The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques,bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations,e.g.acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed,with differing degrees of success.

  16. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  17. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  18. Spiral Flow Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed liquid-separating device relies on centrifugal force in liquid/liquid or liquid/solid mixture in spiral path. Operates in continuous flow at relatively high rates. Spiral tubes joined in sequence, with outlet tubes connected to joints. Cross-sectional areas of successive spiral tubes decreases by cross-sectional areas of outlet tubes. Centrifugal force pushes denser particles or liquids to outer edge of spiral, where removed from flow. Principle exploited to separate solids from wastewater, oil from fresh or salt water, or contaminants from salt water before evaporation. Also used to extract such valuable materials as precious metals from slurries.

  19. Spiral fluid separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  20. A New Cryogenic Air Separation Process with Flash Separator

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Taj Alasfia M.; Rabah, Ali A.; Khalel, Zeinab A. M.

    2013-01-01

    A new cryogenic air separation process with flash separator is developed. A flash separator is added to the conventional double-column cryogenic air separation process. The flash separator is used to replace the turbine required to recover a portion of the energy in the double-column air separation process. The flash separator served dual purposes of throttling and separation. Both the conventional and the new processes are simulated using Aspen Plus version 11.1 the model air flow rate and c...

  1. Gas centrifugal separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To enhance separating performance by jointly using separating action of impulse wave without increasing peripheral speed of a gas centrifugal separator and lengthening a cylindrical portion thereof. Structure: A mixed gas is introduced into a rotating cylinder from a mixed gas pipe and is separated into gas rich in light component and gas decreased in light component, these gases being taken outside the rotating cylinder through a product opening and a fixed waste pipe, respectively. A fixed product recycling pipe is disposed between an upper end plate and an upper buffer plate of the rotating cylinder the recycling pipe having an opening formed at the leading end so as to oppose to the rotating mixed gas, and the gas introduced from the opening is re-introduced into the central portion of the rotating cylinder for recirculation. A waste pipe is disposed between a lower end plate and a lower buffer plate of the rotating cylinder, and the gas not introduced into the opening of the waste pipe is circulated within the rotating cylinder. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Separation of Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Separation of concerns is a crucial concept in discussions about software engineering consequences of programming language design decisions, especially in AOSD. This paper proposes a way to formalize this concept, and argues that the given formalization is useful even if it is used primarily in an...

  3. Fathering After Marital Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)

  4. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  5. Unity Through Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Hans B.

    This PhD thesis asks how we can conceptualize the current separation doctrine of religion and politics in a country like Denmark, where the structure of the established church and peoplehood overlap. In order to answer this question, Hans Bruun Dabelsteen maps the current discussion of secularism...

  6. Mixed gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To separate xenon and krypton from cover gas in a reactor. Structure: The gas to be separated from a source of mixed gas is increased in pressure by a compressor and introduced into a first cell chamber. The gas to be separated passes through a silicon rubber film and a cellulose acetate film and is separated into the enriching side and the diluting side. The gas on the enriching side is introduced into a successive first cell. On the other hand, the gas on the doluting side is introduced into a second cell passing through pipe. The second cell has its discharge side divided into two ways, one of which is connected to a bypass flow pipe circulated to the fourth compressor passing through a flow and pressure regulator, while the other is connected to a flow pipe to be fed to the third compressor. Likewise operation is carried out in each stage to take out the gas as the pure enriching system gas from the enriching side of the seventh cell. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002. ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025

  8. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi

    1996-01-01

    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  9. Superconducting magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initially high hopes of a speedy replacement of conventional magnetic separators by superconducting ones have not been realised. The reasons for this are complex, ranging from the conservative nature of the mineral processing industry to insufficient cryogenic reliability and poor magnet design. The major systems delivered to industry will be described and some possible future developments will be outlined

  10. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  11. Electrostatically Enhanced Vortex Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Earl R.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed device removes fine particles from high-pressure exhaust gas of chemical reactor. Negatively charged sectors on rotating disks in vortex generator attracts positively charged particles from main stream of exhaust gas. Electrostatic charge enhances particle-separating action of vortex. Gas without particles released to atmosphere.

  12. Separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO2 thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO2 films in reaction with chlorophenol

  13. Separation science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-12-31

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO{sub 2} thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO{sub 2} films in reaction with chlorophenol.

  14. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  15. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  16. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  17. Passenger life-saving in a badly damaged aircraft scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A

    2007-01-01

    Offered is a new method for saving passenger lives in any catastrofic situation, including total failure of aircraft control, extreme damage and loss aircraft wings, tail, breakdown all propelling engines, etc. It shown here that previous works which have proposed using only parachutes are useless because their proposers failed to consider the likely overload of the parachute jerk stress (at the moment of parachute release) and the impact of aircraft on Earth surface. These jeck and impact destroy aircraft and kill passengers. Offered is a connected series of related technical innovations which overcome these obvious difficalties and allow for a soft, near zero speed landing in any topographically suitable place, allowing potential to save aircraft. This method may be applied to all existing airplanes and increases their weight only about 1.5 - 2.5%. Also, the method may be used for vertically landing the already built aircraft, for example, when any runway is damaged or would become overloaded.

  18. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  19. Antifreeze Polysaccharide Coating Study for De-icing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Katsuaki; Sakaue, Hirotaka; Ando, Azuma; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Kawahara, Hidehisa

    2015-11-01

    Anti-icing or deicing of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Mechanical processes, such as heating and deicer boot, are widely used. Deicing fluids, such as propyrene glycol and ethylene glycol, are used to coat the aircraft. However, these should be coated every time before the take-off, since the fluids come off from the aircraft while cruising. We study an antifreeze polysaccharide (AFPS) coating as a deicer for an aircraft. It is designed to coat on the aircraft without removal. Since an AFPS coating removes ice by reducing the interfacial energy, it would be an alternative way to prevent ice on the aircraft. We provide a temperature-controlled room, which can control its temperature under icing conditions (-8 and -4 °C). Ice adhesion tests are performed for AFPS coating and compared with a fundamental specimen without the coating.

  20. Study on nuclear power plant aircraft accidents impacts PSA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) can be divided to internal events PSA and external events PSA. Because of the nature of aircraft accidents impacts, extreme in destroy degree and low frequency, analysts usually treat aircraft impacts as a special external event. There is not any mature method for NPP aircraft impacts PSA. The paper titled Accident For Aircraft Crash Into Analysis Hazardous Facilities is published by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE guide could be the main base for this paper, referring to the demand for aircraft impact in NUREG-0800, seeking to develop a particular method for NPP aircraft impacts PSA in China. The method and content in this paper can be applied in similar work and may provide some advices for the future work. (authors)

  1. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for supplying particles (20) to said separator drum (4), and a splitter element (14) provided downstream of the separator drum (4) for splitting the respective fractions (21,23), wherein the apparatus (...

  2. Separation of UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with theoretical approach to separation process and describes the constructed separator with liquid medium. The separator was calibrated and tested with Al3O3 and UO2. it has been concluded that it can be used for separation of powders with sufficient accuracy if the separation is performed for a longer period of time. The separated fractions were characterised by microscopic method and the UO2 fraction additionally by sedimentation method

  3. Dedicated Solutions for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Components

    OpenAIRE

    Pitropakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft structures, like any other mechanical structure, are subjected to various external factors that influence their lifetime. Mechanicalnbsp;and the environment are only some of the factors that can degrade the structure of aircraft components. Monitoring of these degradations by regular inspections or automated data recording is vital for the structural health of the critical components of an aircraft. This research proposes a number of dedicated solutions for structural health monitori...

  4. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  5. UNOLS now oversees research aircraft facilities for ocean science

    OpenAIRE

    Bane, John M.; Bluth, Robert; Flagg, Charles; Jonsson, Haflidi; Melville, W. Kendall; Prince, Mike; Riemer, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    In recognition of the increasing importance and value of aircraft as observational platforms in oceanographic research, the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) has established the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR).SCOAR aims to establish procedures for research aircraft that follow the present UNOLS practices for research vessel use, with the goal of making it understandable, and easy, and thus desirable, for...

  6. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Jordan, Jay D.; Kim, Theodore J.

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  7. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and adva...

  8. Modelling and stability analysis of aircraft power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areerak, Kongpan

    2009-01-01

    The more-electric aircraft concept is a major trend in aircraft electrical power system engineering and results in an increase in electrical loads based on power electronic converters and motor drive systems. Unfortunately, power electronic driven loads often behave as constant power loads having the small-signal negative impedance that can significantly degrade the power system stability margin. Therefore, the stability issue of aircraft power systems is of great importance. The research of ...

  9. Investigation of cross flow fan propulsion for lightweight VTOL aircraft.

    OpenAIRE

    Gossett, Dean H.

    2000-01-01

    As world population increases, road and airport congestion will become increasingly prevalent. A small, cheap vTOL aircraft which can be flown from a driveway to the workplace parking lot would reduce traffic congestion and travel time. A lightweight, single seat commuter type VTOL aircraft is envisioned as the solution to this problem. To achieve a goal of minimum weight, the aircraft aerodynamic design should be optimized for forward flight. Vertical thrust augmentation from a propulsion un...

  10. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  11. Impact of Aircraft Performance Characteristics on Air Traffic Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Aydan CAVCAR; CAVCAR, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Air transportation has been suffering for decades from delays caused by air traffic congestion. This paper presents the effect of aircraft performance differences on air traffic delays. Rate of climb and cruising speeds of 70 different aircraft types are compared to demonstrate performance differences in the current transport aircraft fleet. The effect of these performance differences on air traffic delays is proved by a deterministic calculation of delays for a departure queue cons...

  12. Structural resource of the aircraft IAR-99 SOIM

    OpenAIRE

    Radu BISCA; Dorin LOZICI-BRINZEI

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft structure fatigue monitoring has been developed over decades presently reaching the stage where it became mandatory for all combat aircraft to be equipped with an airborne fatigue monitoring system. These systems usually collect operational data for calculating the safe fatigue life or inspection interval for the aircraft structure. This paper presents an analysis of the current state of fatigue monitoring systems on the IAR-99 SOIM based on the experience of international fatigue mo...

  13. Aircraft fault tolerant control based on active set method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lunlong; Mora-Camino, Félix

    2013-01-01

    This communication considers the case in which an aerodynamic actuator failure occurs to an aircraft while it has to perform a guidance manoeuver. The problem considered deals with the reassignment of the remaining actuators to continue to perform the maneuver while maintaining the structural integrity of the aircraft. A nonlinear inverse control technique is used to generate online nominal moments along the three main axes of the aircraft. Then, taking into account all material and structura...

  14. Collection and valuation of numerical models with the aim to investigate the impact of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical models which are used to simulate the dynamics and chemistry of the Earth atmosphere are an important expedient to improve the knowledge of atmospheric processes. With such models it is possible to investigate single effects separately and to estimate their meaning for the whole system. It is possible to make sensitivity studies as well as calculations of different scenarios. This paper aims to describe different models which are available in the present time and which can be used for investigations dealing with the impact of aircraft emission on the Earth climate. Actual deficits of the modelling of atmospheric processes are discussed and the subsequent conclusions are presented. (orig.) 49 refs

  15. Unsteady features of jets in lift and cruise modes for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibens, V.; Saripalli, K. R.; Wlezien, R. W.; Kegelman, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were performed to simulate jet plume effects associated with VTOL aircraft in takeoff and cruise modes. A water facility was used to investigate the influence of inclination angle and separation distance on the three-dimensional fountain flowfield generated by two impinging jets operating at a jet Reynolds number of 250,000. Substantial differences in the flow features were observed for different spacings between the jets. Plume effects in cruise mode were simulated by a supersonic unheated jet parallel to a wall. Variation of the distance between the wall and the edge of the plume is shown to have a major controlling effect on the supersonic screech instability.

  16. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  17. Considerations of Unmanned Aircraft Classification for Civil Airworthiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Morris, A. Terry; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS) has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. Although use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in military and public service operations is proliferating, civil use of UAS remains limited in the United States today. This report focuses on one particular regulatory challenge: classifying UAS to assign airworthiness standards. Classification is useful for ensuring that meaningful differences in design are accommodated by certification to different standards, and that aircraft with similar risk profiles are held to similar standards. This paper provides observations related to how the current regulations for classifying manned aircraft, based on dimensions of aircraft class and operational aircraft categories, could apply to UAS. This report finds that existing aircraft classes are well aligned with the types of UAS that currently exist; however, the operational categories are more difficult to align to proposed UAS use in the NAS. Specifically, the factors used to group manned aircraft into similar risk profiles do not necessarily capture all relevant UAS risks. UAS classification is investigated through gathering approaches to classification from a broad spectrum of organizations, and then identifying and evaluating the classification factors from these approaches. This initial investigation concludes that factors in addition to those currently used today to group manned aircraft for the purpose of assigning airworthiness standards will be needed to adequately capture risks associated with UAS and their operations.

  18. Generalised Model for Aircraft Vulnerability by Different Weapon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Singh

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors earlier model for the vulnerability of aircraft where aircraft was considered as a combination of cylinder, cones and wedges has been extended to the case when structural data of aircraft as well as its vital parts are given in the form of three-dimensional curvilinear triangles. In the case of VT -fused ammunition, spherical normal distribution has been used to estimate the landing probability of the shell in a cylindrical vicinity region around the aircraft. Kill criteria of vital parts have been redefined.

  19. Aircraft Structural Analysis, Design Optimization, and Manufacturing Tool Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative research is proposed in integrating fundamental aircraft design processes with an emphasis on composite structures. Efficient, lightweight composite...

  20. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda;

    , satellites and manned aircraft are the traditional platforms on which scientists gather data of the atmosphere, sea ice, glaciers, fauna and vegetation. However, significant data gaps still exist over much of the Arctic because there are few research stations, satellites are often hindered by cloud cover......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS...

  1. Disruption Management for an Airline - Rescheduling of aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis;

    2002-01-01

    The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through a...... series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article demonstrates an effective method to solve ARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of a good quality in less than 10 seconds. This article is...

  2. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms for many aircraft subsystems are steadily maturing. Unfortunately there is little experience integrating these technologies...

  3. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  4. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A. [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1997-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  5. Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue,...

  6. Disruption Management for an Airline - Rescheduling of aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis; Clausen, Jens

    The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through a...... series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article demonstrates an effective method to solve ARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of a good quality in less than 10 seconds. This article is...

  7. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required

  8. Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project advanced acoustic blankets for improved low frequency interior noise control in aircraft will be developed and demonstrated. The improved...

  9. Aerodynamic Modeling of Transonic Aircraft Using Vortex Lattice Coupled with Transonic Small Disturbance for Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Daniel; Fujiwara, Gustavo E. C.; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan

    2016-01-01

    The need to rapidly scan large design spaces during conceptual design calls for computationally inexpensive tools such as the vortex lattice method (VLM). Although some VLM tools, such as Vorview have been extended to model fully-supersonic flow, VLM solutions are typically limited to inviscid, subcritical flow regimes. Many transport aircraft operate at transonic speeds, which limits the applicability of VLM for such applications. This paper presents a novel approach to correct three-dimensional VLM through coupling of two-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) solutions along the span of an aircraft wing in order to accurately predict transonic aerodynamic loading and wave drag for transport aircraft. The approach is extended to predict flow separation and capture the attenuation of aerodynamic forces due to boundary layer viscosity by coupling the TSD solver with an integral boundary layer (IBL) model. The modeling framework is applied to the NASA General Transport Model (GTM) integrated with a novel control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF).

  10. Assessment of aircraft impact possibilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on the INEL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    The concern of this study was the possibility of an aircraft collision with facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Two sets of data were combined in calculating the probability of this event. The first was from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission data is used to check the adequacy of nuclear power plant location relative to aircraft crashes. For neighboring airport scenarios, the accepted rate unit is fatal crashes per square mile. For in-flight crash scenarios, a total loss of control crash rate (where the pilot was completely out of control) is used for evaluating nuclear reactors. Numbers were given per linear mile of flight. The other set of data was obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board`s annual review. These data points show higher crash frequencies because crashes in which the pilot maintained some control have not been excluded. By including this data set, the evaluation gained two advantages. First, the data are separated by type of aircraft, which makes frequencies for specific flight paths more meaningful. Second, the data are given year by year over a ten-year time span. Therefore, it is possible to gain a sense of the variability in crash frequencies from one year to another.

  11. Aircraft panel with sensorless active sound power reduction capabilities through virtual mechanical impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulandet, R.; Michau, M.; Micheau, P.; Berry, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with an active structural acoustic control approach to reduce the transmission of tonal noise in aircraft cabins. The focus is on the practical implementation of the virtual mechanical impedances method by using sensoriactuators instead of conventional control units composed of separate sensors and actuators. The experimental setup includes two sensoriactuators developed from the electrodynamic inertial exciter and distributed over an aircraft trim panel which is subject to a time-harmonic diffuse sound field. The target mechanical impedances are first defined by solving a linear optimization problem from sound power measurements before being applied to the test panel using a complex envelope controller. Measured data are compared to results obtained with sensor-actuator pairs consisting of an accelerometer and an inertial exciter, particularly as regards sound power reduction. It is shown that the two types of control unit provide similar performance, and that here virtual impedance control stands apart from conventional active damping. In particular, it is clear from this study that extra vibrational energy must be provided by the actuators for optimal sound power reduction, mainly due to the high structural damping in the aircraft trim panel. Concluding remarks on the benefits of using these electrodynamic sensoriactuators to control tonal disturbances are also provided.

  12. A Belief-Based Model of Air Traffic Controllers Performing Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model s performance.

  13. High gradient magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a process in which magnetic material is trapped in a filter disposed in a magnetic field, and is unloaded by passing a fluid through the filter in the absence of the initial magnetic field, the magnetic field is first reduced to an intermediate value to allow unloading of the more weakly magnetic particles, the more strongly magnetic particles being retained and subsequently unloaded by further reduction of the magnetic field. Stage by stage reduction of the magnetic field during unloading allows separation of different species from the mixture. As an example the method can be applied to the separation of uranium compounds from mine ores. The uranium compounds are magnetic, while most of the other constituents of the ore are non-magnetic. The starting material is a suspension of the ore. Water is used for unloading. The filter material in this case is stainless steel balls. (author)

  14. HRS Separator HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  15. GPS Separator HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 70 degree ISOLDE GPS separator magnet MAG70 as well as the switchyard for the Central Mass and GLM (GPS Low Mass) and GHM (GPS High Mass) beamlines in the GPS separator zone. In the GPS20 vacuum sector equipment such as the long GPS scanner 482 / 483 unit, faraday cup FC 490, vacuum valves and wiregrid piston WG210 and WG475 and radiation monitors can also be seen. Also the RILIS laser guidance and trajectory can be seen, the GPS main beamgate switch box and the actual GLM, GHM and Central Beamline beamgates in the beamlines as well as the first electrostatic quadrupoles for the GPS lines. Close up of the GHM deflector plates motor and connections and the inspection glass at the GHM side of the switchyard.

  16. Selective separation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for the selective separation of uranium from elements accompanying it in a uranium-containing ore is claimed. It comprises preparing a uranium-containing solution; adding hydrochloric acid in an amount sufficient to form complex anions of the type (UO2Clsub(n))sup(2-n) where n is 3 or 4, or sulfuric acid in an amount sufficient to form complex anions of the type UO2(SO4)sub(m)sup(2-2m) where m is 2 or 3; adding a cationic surface active agent which forms a difficultly soluble precipitate with the complex anion; subjecting the solution to a gas flotation step to produce a foam fraction containing the pecipitate and a liquid fraction; separating the two fractions; and recovering uranium from the foam fraction

  17. Battery separator manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, N.I.; Sugarman, N.

    1974-12-27

    A battery with a positive plate, a negative plate, and a separator of polymeric resin having a degree of undesirable hydrophobia, solid below 180/sup 0/F, extrudable as a hot melt, and resistant to degradation by at least either acids or alkalies positioned between the plates is described. The separator comprises a nonwoven mat of fibers, the fibers being comprised of the polymeric resin and a wetting agent in an amount of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight based on the weight of the resin with the amount being incompatible with the resin below the melting point of the resin such that the wetting agent will bloom over a period of time at ambient temperatures in a battery, yet being compatible with the resin at the extrusion temperature and bringing about blooming to the surface of the fibers when the fibers are subjected to heat and pressure.

  18. Steam separator latch assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  19. Composite battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A composite battery separator comprises a support element (10) having an open pore structure such as a ribbed lattice and at least one liquid permeable sheet (20,22) to distribute the compressive force evenly onto the surfaces of the layers (24, 26) of negative active material and positive active material. In a non-flooded battery cell the compressible, porous material (18), such as a glass mat which absorbs the electrolyte, is compressed into a major portion of the pores or openings (16) in the support element. The unfilled pores in the material (18) form a gas diffusion path as the channels (41) formed between adjacent ribs in the lattice element (30,36). Facing two lattice elements (30, 31) with acute angled cross-ribs (34, 38) facing each other prevents the elements from interlocking and distorting a porous, separator (42) disposed between the lattice elements.

  20. Lithium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published methods for 6Li-7Li lithium isotope separation have been reviewed. Future demand for 6Li, whose main use will be as a tritium breeder in blankets surrounding the core of DT fusion power reactors, is likely to exceed 5 Mg/a in the next century. The applicability of the various available methods to such a large scale production rate has been assessed. Research on improving the effectiveness of current lithium isotope separation processes has been carried out worldwide in several major areas during the past decade; these include two-phase chemical exchange systems, ion exchange resin chromatography, highly isotope-selective techniques like laser photoactivation and radiofrequency spectroscopy. Chemical exchange systems appear to offer good potential in the near term for 6Li enrichment