WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft requiring no-chromate

  1. Systematic analysis of aircraft separation requirements

    Ennis, Rachelle Lea

    2005-12-01

    Minimum separation standards are necessary for safety in the air traffic control system. At the same time, minimum separation standards constrain the flow of air traffic and cause delays that translate to millions of dollars in fuel costs. Two necessary separation standards are defined. Then, practical methods for calculating the minimum required size of these separation standards are presented. First, the protected zone is considered. The protected zone represents a region around a given aircraft that no other aircraft should penetrate for the safety of both aircraft. It defines minimum separation requirements. Three major components of the protected zone and their interplays are identified: a vortex region, a safety buffer region, and a state-uncertainty region. A systematic procedure is devised for the analysis of the state-uncertainty region. In particular, models of trajectory controls are developed that can be used to represent different modes of pilot and/or autopilot controls, such as path feedback and non-path feedback. Composite protected zones under various conditions are estimated, and effective ways to reduce sizes of protected zones for advanced air traffic management are examined. In order to maintain minimum separation standards between two aircraft, proper avoidance maneuvers must be initiated before their relative separation reaches the minimum separation due to aircraft dynamics, controller and pilot response delays, etc. The concept of the required action threshold is presented. It is defined as the advanced time for which the conflict resolution process must begin in order to maintain minimum separation requirements. Five main segments in the process of conflict resolution are identified, discussed, and modeled: state information acquisition, comprehension and decision, communication, pilot response, and aircraft maneuver. Each of the five segments is modeled via a time constant. Time estimates for the first four segments are obtained from

  2. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  3. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  4. Churn in the Aircraft Spares Requirements Process.

    1988-04-01

    compute the BY and EY (198.4 and 1935 ) requi rements. The EY requirement woDuld have been Used forY the-_ 1985 budget reque-st submit ted tc...ami ne thws _ hanges ~a~dby chu..rn, a sample was ad cc ,Led. Thixsrrpiewas no--t r andc:m and c an no.:t be assumed to- be r epr e- en t t iye of...in the FY86, Apprpriations Act, and the budglet r eqUest was reduc-ed 3(. - mill ion dcll1ar s based on a HO’’ E? Surveys aind Investigation : epr that

  5. Parameterized Flight Mission for Secondary Power Requirement Estimations of Commercial Transport Aircraft

    Lampl, Thomas; Muschkorgel, Sandra; Hornung, Mirko;

    2018-01-01

    The trend towards More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) and the introduction of new system technologies lead to considerable changes at the system level of commercial transport aircraft. Because the number of systems and power requirements are increasing, the consideration and integration of aircraft systems in early aircraft design phases is important. The objective of this contribution is to develop a characteristic flight mission with modelled aircraft systems to estimate the secondary power requir...

  6. Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements

    Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

  7. Minimum power requirement for environmental control of aircraft

    Ordonez, Juan Carlos; Bejan, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Four models are proposed and optimized. In the first, the ECS operates reversibly, the air stream in the cabin is mixed to one temperature, and the cabin experiences heat transfer with the ambient, across its insulation. The cabin temperature is fixed. In the second model, the fixed cabin temperature is assigned to the internal solid surfaces of the cabin, and a thermal resistance separates these surfaces from the air mixed in the cabin. In the third model, the ECS operates irreversibly, based on the bootstrap air cycle. The fourth model combines the ECS features of the third model with the cabin-environment interaction features of the second model. It is shown that in all models the temperature of the air stream that the ECS delivers to the cabin can be optimized for operation at minimal power. The effect of other design parameters and flying conditions is documented. The optimized air delivery temperature is relatively insensitive to the complexity of the model; for example, it is insensitive to the size of the heat exchanger used in the bootstrap air cycle. This study adds to the view that robustness is a characteristic of optimized complex flow systems, and that thermodynamic optimization results can be used for orientation in the pursuit of more complex and realistic designs

  8. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  9. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    2010-01-01

    ... operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS... operated over water. No person may operate a land aircraft carrying passengers over water unless— (a) It is...

  10. Comparison of Requirements for Composite Structures for Aircraft and Space Applications

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Elliot, Kenny B.; Hampton, Roy W.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Aggarwal, Pravin; Engelstad, Stephen P.; Chang, James B.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the aircraft and space vehicle requirements for composite structures are compared. It is a valuable exercise to study composite structural design approaches used in the airframe industry and to adopt methodology that is applicable for space vehicles. The missions, environments, analysis methods, analysis validation approaches, testing programs, build quantities, inspection, and maintenance procedures used by the airframe industry, in general, are not transferable to spaceflight hardware. Therefore, while the application of composite design approaches from aircraft and other industries is appealing, many aspects cannot be directly utilized. Nevertheless, experiences and research for composite aircraft structures may be of use in unexpected arenas as space exploration technology develops, and so continued technology exchanges are encouraged.

  11. Common display performance requirements for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    Hoener, Steven J.; Behrens, Arthur J.; Flint, John R.; Jacobsen, Alan R.

    2001-09-01

    Obtaining high quality Active Matrix Liquid Crystal (AMLCD) glass to meet the needs of the commercial and military aerospace business is a major challenge, at best. With the demise of all domestic sources of AMLCD substrate glass, the industry is now focused on overseas sources, which are primarily producing glass for consumer electronics. Previous experience with ruggedizing commercial glass leads to the expectation that the aerospace industry can leverage off the commercial market. The problem remains, while the commercial industry is continually changing and improving its products, the commercial and military aerospace industries require stable and affordable supplies of AMLCD glass for upwards of 20 years to support production and maintenance operations. The Boeing Engineering and Supplier Management Process Councils have chartered a group of displays experts from multiple aircraft product divisions within the Boeing Company, the Displays Process Action Team (DPAT), to address this situation from an overall corporate perspective. The DPAT has formulated a set of Common Displays Performance Requirements for use across the corporate line of commercial and military aircraft products. Though focused on the AMLCD problem, the proposed common requirements are largely independent of display technology. This paper describes the strategy being pursued within the Boeing Company to address the AMLCD supply problem and details the proposed implementation process, centered on common requirements for both commercial and military aircraft displays. Highlighted in this paper are proposed common, or standard, display sizes and the other major requirements established by the DPAT, along with the rationale for these requirements.

  12. Videopanorama Frame Rate Requirements Derived from Visual Discrimination of Deceleration During Simulated Aircraft Landing

    Furnstenau, Norbert; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the required visual frame rate (FR) for minimizing prediction errors with out-the-window video displays at remote/virtual airport towers, thirteen active air traffic controllers viewed high dynamic fidelity simulations of landing aircraft and decided whether aircraft would stop as if to be able to make a turnoff or whether a runway excursion would be expected. The viewing conditions and simulation dynamics replicated visual rates and environments of transport aircraft landing at small commercial airports. The required frame rate was estimated using Bayes inference on prediction errors by linear FRextrapolation of event probabilities conditional on predictions (stop, no-stop). Furthermore estimates were obtained from exponential model fits to the parametric and non-parametric perceptual discriminabilities d' and A (average area under ROC-curves) as dependent on FR. Decision errors are biased towards preference of overshoot and appear due to illusionary increase in speed at low frames rates. Both Bayes and A - extrapolations yield a framerate requirement of 35 game scores the model based d'(FR)-extrapolation exhibits the best agreement and indicates even higher FRmin > 40 Hz for minimizing decision errors. Definitive recommendations require further experiments with FR > 30 Hz.

  13. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  14. Requirements for facilities and measurement techniques to support CFD development for hypersonic aircraft

    Sellers, William L., III; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    1992-01-01

    The design of a hypersonic aircraft poses unique challenges to the engineering community. Problems with duplicating flight conditions in ground based facilities have made performance predictions risky. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been proposed as an additional means of providing design data. At the present time, CFD codes are being validated based on sparse experimental data and then used to predict performance at flight conditions with generally unknown levels of uncertainty. This paper will discuss the facility and measurement techniques that are required to support CFD development for the design of hypersonic aircraft. Illustrations are given of recent success in combining experimental and direct numerical simulation in CFD model development and validation for hypersonic perfect gas flows.

  15. Applying Required Navigation Performance Concept for Traffic Management of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Jung, Jaewoo; D'Souza, Sarah N.; Johnson, Marcus A.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Modi, Hemil C.; Nikaido, Ben; Hasseeb, Hashmatullah

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of a rapid increase in the number of civil Unmanned Aircraft System(UAS) operations, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that will investigate airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. One aspect a UTM system must consider is the correlation between UAS operations (such as vehicles, operation areas and durations), UAS performance requirements, and the risk to people and property in the operational area. This paper investigates the potential application of the International Civil Aviation Organizations (ICAO) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concept to relate operational risk with trajectory conformance requirements. The approach is to first define a method to quantify operational risk and then define the RNP level requirement as a function of the operational risk. Greater operational risk corresponds to more accurate RNP level, or smaller tolerable Total System Error (TSE). Data from 19 small UAS flights are used to develop and validate a formula that defines this relationship. An approach to assessing UAS-RNP conformance capability using vehicle modeling and wind field simulation is developed to investigate how this formula may be applied in a future UTM system. The results indicate the modeled vehicles flight path is robust to the simulated wind variation, and it can meet RNP level requirements calculated by the formula. The results also indicate how vehicle-modeling fidelity may be improved to adequately verify assessed RNP level.

  16. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    . This paper addresses simulation modeling requirements that are unique to turboprop transport aircraft and highlights the growing need for aerodynamic models suitable for stall training for these configurations. A review of prominent accidents that involved aerodynamic stall is used to illustrate various modeling features unique to turboprop configurations and the impact of stall behavior on susceptibility to loss of control that has led to new training requirements. This is followed by an overview of stability and control behavior of straight-wing turboprops, the related aerodynamic characteristics, and a summary of recent experimental studies on icing effects. In addition, differences in flight dynamics behavior between swept-wing jets and straight-wing turboprop configurations are discussed to compare and contrast modeling requirements. Specific recommendations for aerodynamic models along with further research needs and data measurements are also provided. 1

  17. Identification of emergent off-nominal operational requirements during conceptual architecting of the more electric aircraft

    Armstrong, Michael James

    Increases in power demands and changes in the design practices of overall equipment manufacturers has led to a new paradigm in vehicle systems definition. The development of unique power systems architectures is of increasing importance to overall platform feasibility and must be pursued early in the aircraft design process. Many vehicle systems architecture trades must be conducted concurrent to platform definition. With an increased complexity introduced during conceptual design, accurate predictions of unit level sizing requirements must be made. Architecture specific emergent requirements must be identified which arise due to the complex integrated effect of unit behaviors. Off-nominal operating scenarios present sizing critical requirements to the aircraft vehicle systems. These requirements are architecture specific and emergent. Standard heuristically defined failure mitigation is sufficient for sizing traditional and evolutionary architectures. However, architecture concepts which vary significantly in terms of structure and composition require that unique failure mitigation strategies be defined for accurate estimations of unit level requirements. Identifying of these off-nominal emergent operational requirements require extensions to traditional safety and reliability tools and the systematic identification of optimal performance degradation strategies. Discrete operational constraints posed by traditional Functional Hazard Assessment (FHA) are replaced by continuous relationships between function loss and operational hazard. These relationships pose the objective function for hazard minimization. Load shedding optimization is performed for all statistically significant failures by varying the allocation of functional capability throughout the vehicle systems architecture. Expressing hazards, and thereby, reliability requirements as continuous relationships with the magnitude and duration of functional failure requires augmentations to the traditional

  18. REQUIREMENT VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM

    2017-09-01

    VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM by Theresa L. Thomas September... ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Theresa L. Thomas 7...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) systems engineering technical review (SETR) process does not

  19. 14 CFR 382.97 - To which aircraft does the requirement to provide boarding and deplaning assistance through the...

    2010-01-01

    ... provide boarding and deplaning assistance through the use of lifts apply? 382.97 Section 382.97... REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.97 To which aircraft does the requirement to provide boarding and deplaning assistance...

  20. Aircraft Loss-of-Control: Analysis and Requirements for Future Safety-Critical Systems and Their Validation

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex, resulting from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or more often in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper summarizes recent analysis results in identifying worst-case combinations of loss-of-control accident precursors and their time sequences, a holistic approach to preventing loss-of-control accidents in the future, and key requirements for validating the associated technologies.

  1. Mechanical Testing of Polymeric Composites for Aircraft Applications: Standards, Requirements and Limitations

    Chinchan, Levon; Shevtsov, Sergey; Soloviev, Arcady; Shevtsova, Varvara; Huang, Jiun-Ping

    The high-loaded parts of modern aircrafts and helicopters are often produced from polymeric composite materials. Such materials consist of reinforcing fibers, packed by layers with the different angles, and resin, which uniformly distributes the structural stresses between fibers. These composites should have an orthotropic symmetry of mechanical properties to obtain the desirable spatial distribution of elastic moduli consistent to the external loading pattern. Main requirements to the aircraft composite materials are the specified elastic properties (9 for orthotropic composite), long-term strength parameters, high resistance against the environmental influences, low thermal expansion to maintain the shape stability. These properties are ensured by an exact implementation of technological conditions and many testing procedures performed with the fibers, resin, prepregs and ready components. Most important mechanical testing procedures are defined by ASTM, SACMA and other standards. However in each case the wide diversity of components (dimensions and lay-up of fibers, rheological properties of thermosetting resins) requires a specific approach to the sample preparation, testing, and numerical processing of the testing results to obtain the veritable values of tested parameters. We pay the special attention to the cases where the tested specimens are cut not from the plates recommended by standards, but from the ready part manufactured with the specific lay-up, tension forces on the reinforcing fiber at the filament winding, and curing schedule. These tests can provide most useful information both for the composite structural design and to estimate a quality of the ready parts. We consider an influence of relation between specimen dimensions and pattern of the fibers winding (or lay-up) on the results of mechanical testing for determination of longitudinal, transverse and in-plane shear moduli, an original numerical scheme for reconstruction of in-plane shear

  2. Power Requirements Determined for High-Power-Density Electric Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    Future advanced aircraft fueled by hydrogen are being developed to use electric drive systems instead of gas turbine engines for propulsion. Current conventional electric motor power densities cannot match those of today s gas turbine aircraft engines. However, if significant technological advances could be made in high-power-density motor development, the benefits of an electric propulsion system, such as the reduction of harmful emissions, could be realized.

  3. A study to define the research and technology requirements for advanced turbo/propfan transport aircraft

    Goldsmith, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the propfan relative to the turbofan is summarized, using the Douglas DC-9 Super 80 (DS-8000) as the actual operational base aircraft. The 155 passenger economy class aircraft (31,775 lb 14,413 kg payload), cruise Mach at 0.80 at 31,000 ft (8,450 m) initial altitude, and an operational capability in 1985 was considered. Three propfan arrangements, wing mounted, conventional horizontal tail aft mounted, and aft fuselage pylon mounted are selected for comparison with the DC-9 Super 80 P&WA JT8D-209 turbofan powered aircraft. The configuration feasibility, aerodynamics, propulsion, structural loads, structural dynamics, sonic fatigue, acoustics, weight maintainability, performance, rough order of magnitude economics, and airline coordination are examined. The effects of alternate cruise Mach number, mission stage lengths, and propfan design characteristics are considered. Recommendations for further study, ground testing, and flight testing are included.

  4. Exploration of the Trade Space Between Unmanned Aircraft Systems Descent Maneuver Performance and Sense-and-Avoid System Performance Requirements

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the United States' National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements, focusing on a descent avoidance maneuver. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, near-term UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how to know in which group an aircraft belongs for a given flight condition and encounter is included. The groups are airplane, flight condition, and encounter specific, rather than airplane-only specific. Results and methodology for developing UAS maneuver performance requirements are presented for a descent avoidance maneuver. Results for the descent maneuver indicate that a minimum specific excess power magnitude can assure a minimum CPA for a given time-to-go prediction. However, smaller amounts of specific excess power may achieve or exceed the same CPA if the UAS has sufficient speed to trade for altitude. The results of this study will

  5. An assessment of tailoring of lightning protection design requirements for a composite wing structure on a metallic aircraft

    Harwood, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Navy A-6E aircraft is presently being modified with a new wing which uses graphite/epoxy structures and substructures around a titanium load-bearing structure. The ability of composites to conduct electricity is less than that of aluminum. This is cause for concern when the wing may be required to conduct large lightning currents. The manufacturer attempted to solve lightning protection issues by performing a risk assessment based on a statistical approach which allows relaxation of the wing lightning protection design levels over certain locations of the composite wing. A sensitivity study is presented designed to define the total risk of relaxation of the design levels.

  6. U.S. aerospace industry opinion of the effect of computer-aided prediction-design technology on future wind-tunnel test requirements for aircraft development programs

    Treon, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the U.S. aerospace industry in late 1977 suggests that there will be an increasing use of computer-aided prediction-design technology (CPD Tech) in the aircraft development process but that, overall, only a modest reduction in wind-tunnel test requirements from the current level is expected in the period through 1995. Opinions were received from key spokesmen in 23 of the 26 solicited major companies or corporate divisions involved in the design and manufacture of nonrotary wing aircraft. Development programs for nine types of aircraft related to test phases and wind-tunnel size and speed range were considered.

  7. 14 CFR 61.45 - Practical tests: Required aircraft and equipment.

    2010-01-01

    ... limited, primary, or light-sport category. (2) At the discretion of the examiner who administers the..., or light-sport category, but that otherwise meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this... in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section, at least two pilot stations with adequate visibility for...

  8. Linking Technology Capabilities to Marketing Requirements: Case of Indonesian Aircraft Industry

    Yulianto Suharto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The relationship between strategic technology planning and the overall business strategy has been one of the growing fields that attract much interest both from academics and industrials point of view. The increasingly important role that technology plays in today’s business success is well established.Strategic technology planning activities--within a corporate level--are often implemented by applying integrated planning instrument, which allow firms to consider both technology-oriented and product-oriented aspects. This paper is an attempt to explore the role of strategic planning in the high tech industry using a specific case of aerospace industry in Indonesia.  In order to compete effectively inthe open global marketplace, the company must learn to integrate technology managementwith strategic planning. In other words, all top managers have to linktheir technology capabilities to marketing requirements.Keywords:  technology planning; business strategy; technology capability; marketing requirement; strategic mix 

  9. Investigation of high-alpha lateral-directional control power requirements for high-performance aircraft

    Foster, John V.; Ross, Holly M.; Ashley, Patrick A.

    1993-01-01

    Designers of the next-generation fighter and attack airplanes are faced with the requirements of good high angle-of-attack maneuverability as well as efficient high speed cruise capability with low radar cross section (RCS) characteristics. As a result, they are challenged with the task of making critical design trades to achieve the desired levels of maneuverability and performance. This task has highlighted the need for comprehensive, flight-validated lateral-directional control power design guidelines for high angles of attack. A joint NASA/U.S. Navy study has been initiated to address this need and to investigate the complex flight dynamics characteristics and controls requirements for high angle-of-attack lateral-directional maneuvering. A multi-year research program is underway which includes groundbased piloted simulation and flight validation. This paper will give a status update of this program that will include a program overview, description of test methodology and preliminary results.

  10. 19 CFR 122.49c - Master crew member list and master non-crew member list requirement for commercial aircraft...

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard... sections, must electronically transmit to Customs and Border Protection (CBP), by means of an electronic...

  11. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    2010-04-01

    ...” means air carrier employees and their family members and persons traveling onboard a commercial aircraft...), air carrier employees, their family members, and persons onboard for the safety of the flight are...) Date of birth; (iii) Place of birth (city, state—if applicable, country); (iv) Gender (F = female; M...

  12. Analysis of technology requirements and potential demand for general aviation avionics systems in the 1980's. [technology assessment and technological forecasting of the aircraft industry

    Cohn, D. M.; Kayser, J. H.; Senko, G. M.; Glenn, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The trend for the increasing need for aircraft-in-general as a major source of transportation in the United States is presented (military and commercial aircraft are excluded). Social, political, and economic factors that affect the aircraft industry are considered, and cost estimates are given. Aircraft equipment and navigation systems are discussed.

  13. Aircraft operations management manual

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  14. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for...

  15. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for crew members... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial...

  16. 77 FR 49710 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-08-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A helicopters to require modifying the electric rotor brake (ERB... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  17. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/Remotely Piloted Aircraft Design Selection Based on Service-Stated Meteorological/Oceanographic Requirements

    Stanton, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... (written in Structured Query Language) links RPA flight performance parameters to individualized METOC Elements of Measurement, a subset of a larger Joint Service METOC Requirements database table, presented elsewhere in the thesis in full...

  19. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    2010-04-01

    ... operations, all-cargo flight operations, and dual flight operations involving the transport of both cargo and... capacity required for normal operation and service of the flight. In addition, the definition of “crew... problem affecting the flight, or to an urgent situation affecting the non-U.S. port of destination that...

  20. Amphibious Aircraft

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  1. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.

  2. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.

  3. Requirement analysis of testers qualified for aircraft compatibility test x-ray diagnostic and interventional radiology in Indonesia

    Diah Astuti Indarwati; Haendra Subekti

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the need of Qualified Tester by calculating the number of test team to perform conformance test of diagnostic and interventional X-ray equipment has been done. This analysis was conducted in order to map the needs of Qualified Testers in Indonesia. As the conformance test certificate will be used in the licensing process, the availability of Tester will greatly affect the continuity and smoothness of the licensing process. The result shows the number of required test team is currently as much as 49 teams, while the availability of the test team is 7 test team. Thus there is still a large gap between the need and availability of the test team to perform conformance test. For the central and eastern of Indonesia on the scope of CT Scan, Mammography, Fluoroscopy and can only be met by tester in Java. (author)

  4. Comparison of Commercial Aircraft Fuel Requirements in Regards to FAR, Flight Profile Simulation, and Flight Operational Techniques

    Heitzman, Nicholas

    There are significant fuel consumption consequences for non-optimal flight operations. This study is intended to analyze and highlight areas of interest that affect fuel consumption in typical flight operations. By gathering information from actual flight operators (pilots, dispatch, performance engineers, and air traffic controllers), real performance issues can be addressed and analyzed. A series of interviews were performed with various individuals in the industry and organizations. The wide range of insight directed this study to focus on FAA regulations, airline policy, the ATC system, weather, and flight planning. The goal is to highlight where operational performance differs from design intent in order to better connect optimization with actual flight operations. After further investigation and consensus from the experienced participants, the FAA regulations do not need any serious attention until newer technologies and capabilities are implemented. The ATC system is severely out of date and is one of the largest limiting factors in current flight operations. Although participants are pessimistic about its timely implementation, the FAA's NextGen program for a future National Airspace System should help improve the efficiency of flight operations. This includes situational awareness, weather monitoring, communication, information management, optimized routing, and cleaner flight profiles like Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). Working off the interview results, trade-studies were performed using an in-house flight profile simulation of a Boeing 737-300, integrating NASA legacy codes EDET and NPSS with a custom written mission performance and point-performance "Skymap" calculator. From these trade-studies, it was found that certain flight conditions affect flight operations more than others. With weather, traffic, and unforeseeable risks, flight planning is still limited by its high level of precaution. From this

  5. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  6. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  7. Aircraft Carriers

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  8. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    Gottlieb, P.

    1978-01-01

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  9. Aircraft cybernetics

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  11. Robust Aircraft Squadron Scheduling in the Face of Absenteeism

    Gokcen, Osman B

    2008-01-01

    Air Force fighter aircraft squadrons the world over share a unique problem. Each requires complex training schedules coupling aircraft to pilots, the duo to missions and airspaces, and then the entire combination to a feasible time slot...

  12. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  13. Beryllium in aircraft brakes - a summary

    Zenczak, S.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium has been in use in aircraft brakes for ten years. During the original design phases of the several aircraft programs using beryllium a number of problems requiring solution confronted the designers. In actual service the solution to these problems performed much better than had been anticipated. A summary is presented. (author)

  14. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter...

  15. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. [67 FR 8350, Feb. 22, 2002] ...

  16. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  17. 76 FR 70379 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2011-11-14

    ...) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code Fuel, 28...-1245; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-033-AD; RIN 2120-AA64] Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 172R and 172S airplanes. The existing AD requires you to...

  18. 78 FR 60656 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main...

  19. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  20. Fettered aircraft for using wind energy

    Hoeppner, H.; Horvath, E.; Ulrich, S.

    1980-08-28

    The invention concerns an aircraft tethered by cables, whose balloon-shaped central body produces static and aerodynamic upthrust and which carries turbines, which are used to convert wind energy and to drive the aircraft. The purpose of the invention is to provide an aircraft, which will keep wind energy plant at the optimum height. A new type of aircraft is used to solve the problem, which, according to the invention, combines static upthrust, the production of aerodynamic upthrust, wind energy conversion, energy transport and forward drive in a technically integrated aircraft. If the use of windpower is interrupted, then if necessary the drive together with a remote control system provides controlled free flight of the aircraft. One variant of the object of the invention consists of a central, balloon-shaped body for upthrust, in which there are wind turbines driving electrical generators. According to the invention the motors required to start the wind turbines are of such dimensions that they will drive the turbines in free flight of the aircraft and thus provide forward drive of the aircraft. A power generating unit, consisting of an internal combustion engine and the starter motors switched over to generator operation is used to provide house service supplies for control and regulation of the aircraft.

  1. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  2. Database on aircraft accidents

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  3. Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft

    Namgoong, Howoong

    Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations and optimization strategies to design an airfoil for morphing aircraft that include the energy required for shape change. A morphing aircraft can deform its wing shape, so the aircraft wing has different optimum shapes as the flight condition changes. The actuation energy needed for moving the airfoil surface is modeled and used as another design objective. Several multi-objective approaches are applied to a low-speed, incompressible flow problem and to a problem involving low-speed and transonic flow. The resulting solutions provide the best tradeoff between low drag, high energy and higher drag, low energy sets of airfoil shapes. From this range of solutions, design decisions can be made about how much energy is needed to achieve a desired aerodynamic performance. Additionally, an approach to model aerodynamic work, which would be more realistic and may allow using pressure on the airfoil to assist a morphing shape change, was formulated and used as part of the energy objective. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a morphing airfoil that exploits the airflow to reduce actuator energy.

  4. Database on aircraft accidents

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  5. Alternate aircraft fuels prospects and operational implications

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.

  6. Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls,...

  7. Design for aircraft impact

    Kar, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft impact against nuclear power plant structures leads to both local and overall effects on the structure. Among the local effects, backface spalling is most important. The overall effects of impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the adequacy of the structure in flexure and shear. Empirical formulas are presented for the determination of local effects of aircraft impact on nuclear power plant facilities. The formulas lead to easy and reasonable estimates of the thickness required to prevent backface spalling. The impactive load depends upon the collapse load of the fuselage, its collapse mechanism, mass distribution and the impact velocity. A simplified method is given for evaluating the design load. The time history, obtained by the proposed method, closely resembles those obtained by more rigorous methods. Procedures for obtaining shear and flexural strengths of concrete walls or roofs, subjected to impact, are provided. The span-to-depth ratio is considered. Recommendations are made on the available ductility ratio and structural behavior. (Author)

  8. Improvement of Aircraft Crash Effective Areas for Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant

    Momoti, S.; Dongmo, G.B.; Combrink, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA): Tool for determining safe functioning of nuclear power plant to meet regulatory requirements; One of the inputs to the PSA are the frequency and consequences of an aircraft crash. Overview: Frequency of Aircraft Crash; Effective Area of an Aircraft Crashing into Koeberg - Aviation Categories, - Shielding of sensitive target buildings; Impact of refining the Effective AreaFrequency of Aircraft Crash

  9. Small transport aircraft technology

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  10. Aircraft Carrier Exposure Testing of Aircraft Materials

    Lee, Eui

    2004-01-01

    .... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...

  11. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2007-09-27

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers. (author)

  12. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  13. Aircraft 4D trajectories planning under uncertainties

    Chaimatanan , Supatcha; Delahaye , Daniel; Mongeau , Marcel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; To sustain the rapidly increasing air traffic demand, the future air traffic management system will rely on a concept, called Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO), that will require aircraft to follow an assigned 4D trajectory (time-constrained trajectory) with high precision. TBO involves separating aircraft via strategic (long-term) trajectory deconfliction rather than the currently-practicing tactical (short-term) conflict resolution. In this context, this paper presen...

  14. Thermal design of linear induction and synchronous motor for electromagnetic launch of civil aircraft

    Bertola, Luca; Cox, Tom; Wheeler, Patrick; Garvey, Seamus D.; Morvan, Herve

    2017-01-01

    The engine size of modern passenger transport aircraft is principally determined by take-off conditions, since initial acceleration requires maximum engine power. An elec¬tromagnetic launch (EML) system could provide some or all of the energy required at takeoff so that the aircraft engine power requirement and fuel consumption may be significantly reduced. So far, EML for aircraft has been adopted only for military applications to replace steam catapults on the deck of aircraft carriers. Thi...

  15. Measuring compliance during aircraft (Component) redeliveries at KLM engineering & maintenance

    Burhani, Shahir; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft and aircraft components are redelivered to the next operator or owner during the phase-out process. During this process the operator is required by law and contract requirements to show compliance with maintenance procedures. At KLM E&M the phase-out documentation process is under

  16. 76 FR 39259 - Manual Requirements

    2011-07-06

    ... established new requirements for the certification, operation, and maintenance of light-sport aircraft under...-6474; e-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA published a final rule entitled ``Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft,'' in the Federal...

  17. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  18. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  19. Retooling CFD for hypersonic aircraft

    Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Kutler, Paul; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1987-01-01

    The CFD facility requirements of hypersonic aircraft configuration design development are different from those thus far employed for reentry vehicle design, because (1) the airframe and the propulsion system must be fully integrated to achieve the desired performance; (2) the vehicle must be reusable, with minimum refurbishment requirements between flights; and (3) vehicle performance must be optimized for a wide range of Mach numbers. An evaluation is presently made of flow resolution within shock waves, transition and turbulence phenomenon tractability, chemical reaction modeling, and hypersonic boundary layer transition, with state-of-the-art CFD.

  20. Adaptive and Online Health Monitoring System for Autonomous Aircraft

    Mokhtar, Maizura; Zapatel-Bayo, Sergio Z.; Hussein, Saed; Howe, Joe M.

    2012-01-01

    Good situation awareness is one of the key attributes required to maintain safe flight, especially for an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). Good situation awareness can be achieved by incorporating an Adaptive Health Monitoring System (AHMS) to the aircraft. The AHMS monitors the flight outcome or flight behaviours of the aircraft based on its external environmental conditions and the behaviour of its internal systems. The AHMS does this by associating a health value to the aircraft's behaviour b...

  1. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  2. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    1987-01-01

    autopilot that could be used on high altitude or human powered aircraft, and determining the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft. The research flights began in late December 1987 with a shake-down of the Light Eagle instrumentation and data transfer links. The first flight of the Daedalus 87 also occurred during this time. On February 7, 1988, the Daedalus 87 aircraft crashed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The Daedalus 88, which later set the world record, was then shipped from MIT to replace the 87's research flights, and for general checkout procedures. Due to the accident, flight testing was extended four weeks and thus ended in mid-March 1988 after having achieved the major goals of the program; exploring the dynamics of low Reynolds number aircraft, and investigating the aeroelastic behavior of lightweight aircraft. The information obtained from this program had direct applications to the later design of many high-altitude, long endurance aircraft.

  3. Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Aircraft Requirement Study

    Mercher, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force Audit Agency (AFAA) concluded in its Report of Audit EB0980013 (13 May 98), Air Force Oversight of CY 1996 Civil Air Patrol Corporation Activities, CAP-USAF, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6323...

  4. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  5. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  6. Automated Inspection of Aircraft

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the development of a robotic system designed to assist aircraft inspectors by remotely deploying non-destructive inspection (NDI) sensors and acquiring, processing, and storing inspection data. Carnegie Mellon University studie...

  7. Aircraft Depainting Technology

    Kozol, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    ... of aircraft and component stripping at various levels of maintenance. Under this program, the Navy pursued development of non-HAP chemical paint strippers as alternatives for methylene chloride based strippers...

  8. The Aircraft Industry, 2006

    Daniel, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... and global economic growth. The overall outlook for the industry is positive. Orders for commercial aircraft are up from a boom in air travel that is likely to continue well into the next decade...

  9. The Aircraft Industry

    Fitzgerald, Tim; Baiche, Noureddine; Brewer, Mike; Collins, Al; Knapp, Kathy; Kott, Marilyn; McGill, Duncan; Mensah, Dunstan; Neighbors, Mark; Reardon, Dee

    2005-01-01

    .... As the airline companies prepare to buy new Boeing and Airbus passenger jets, they remain under intense pressure to cut costs in order to remain profitable, forcing aircraft and engine manufacturers...

  10. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  11. Solar thermal aircraft

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  12. Depreciation of aircraft

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  13. PRINCIPLE "EARLY MATCHING" AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AIRCRAFT WITH LANDING GEAR HOVERCRAFT

    V. P. Morozov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of "early matching" aircraft aerohydrodynamic layouts with air cushion landing gear is suggested. Application of this principle is considered as an example of adaptation to the ball screw base circuit of light transport aircraft. The principle, other than weight, aerodynamic, technological and operational requirements includes additional project activities related to the installation of ball screws.

  14. 78 FR 37701 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    2013-06-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC- 6/350-H1, PC-6/350-H2... components and the flap actuator could result in loss of control. We are issuing this proposed AD to require...

  15. 77 FR 68057 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This AD requires installing an improved... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  16. 77 FR 68061 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  17. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  18. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  19. 2002 Industry Studies: Aircraft

    2002-01-01

    aircraft to a defense electronics, systems integration and information technology company.39 Northrop Grumman no longer seeks a position as a prime...between the military and civil market . Though also upgrading the H-1 helicopter series for the USMC, Bell has mortgaged its future on tiltrotor technology ...business in export dollars, the industry has been forced to look for new markets as worldwide aircraft sales have dropped. Because the U.S. national

  20. Aircraft to aircraft intercomparison during SEMAPHORE

    Lambert, Dominique; Durand, Pierre

    1998-10-01

    During the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, performed in the Azores region in 1993, two French research aircraft were simultaneously used for in situ measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present the results obtained from one intercomparison flight between the two aircraft. The mean parameters generally agree well, although the temperature has to be slightly shifted in order to be in agreement for the two aircraft. A detailed comparison of the turbulence parameters revealed no bias. The agreement is good for variances and is satisfactory for fluxes and skewness. A thorough study of the errors involved in flux computation revealed that the greatest accuracy is obtained for latent heat flux. Errors in sensible heat flux are considerably greater, and the worst results are obtained for momentum flux. The latter parameter, however, is more accurate than expected from previous parameterizations.

  1. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  2. Transport aircraft loading and balancing system: Using a CLIPS expert system for military aircraft load planning

    Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.

  3. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule... must include the following requirements for procedures for disinfection and flushing of aircraft water system. (i) The air carrier must conduct disinfection and flushing of the aircraft water system in...

  4. 75 FR 26885 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S-76A, B, and C Helicopters

    2010-05-13

    ... aircraft.'' They state that we should require overhauling any affected servo actuator at intervals of 2,000... (servo actuator), Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) part number (P/N) 76650-09805-109 or -110... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S- 76A, B, and C Helicopters AGENCY: Federal...

  5. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  6. Shimmy of Aircraft Main Landing Gears

    Besselink, I.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The landing gear is an important aircraft system, which has to meet many different design requirements. It is a highly loaded structure, which is designed for minimum weight. Shimmy is a dynamic instability of the landing gear, which is caused by the interaction of the dynamic behaviour of the

  7. Aircraft impact design for SGHWR containment

    Bartley, R.; Davies, I.Ll.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the influence on the design of the containment structure to meet the recent safety requirements in the UK of specified external hazards. Methods of preliminary design for the case of aircraft impact are described to enable structural sizes to be determined. (author)

  8. An Overview of NASA's Subsonic Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.

  9. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required

  10. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  12. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  13. AEROSTATIC AND AERODYNAMIC MODULES OF A HYBRID BUOYANT AIRCRAFT: AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Anwar Ul Haque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach is essential for the estimation of the requirements of aerodynamic and aerostatic lift for a hybrid buoyant aircraft. Such aircrafts have two different modules to balance the weight of aircraft; aerostatic module and aerodynamic module. Both these modules are to be treated separately for estimation of the mass budget of propulsion systems and required power. In the present work, existing relationships of aircraft and airship are reviewed for its further application for these modules. Limitations of such relationships are also disussed and it is precieved that it will provide a strating point for better understanding of design anatomy of such aircraft.

  14. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  15. Aircraft gas turbines

    Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.

  16. Hazards from aircraft

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  17. Windhover Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Software Ecosystem, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The safety of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flights is currently the responsibility of the pilot who is required to keep the vehicle within their line of sight...

  18. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  19. Combat aircraft noise

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  20. 77 FR 6704 - Exemptions From Entry Requirements and Report of Arrival Requirements for Certain Department of...

    2012-02-09

    ... requirements and thus also subject to advanced electronic presentation of cargo information requirements. Under..., Aircraft, Airports, Alcohol and alcoholic beverages, Cigars and cigarettes, Cuba, Customs duties and...

  1. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  2. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  3. Aircraft Capability Management

    Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.

  4. Aircrafts' taxi noise emission

    Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; López, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted, with the objective of creating a database of inputs that can be used with noise prediction software, to evaluate noise of aircraft taxing movements and community noise exposure levels. The acoustic consultant can use these data with any of the software packages,

  5. Aircraft parameter estimation

    With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not ...

  6. Load event: Aircraft crash

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Extractive Sampling and Optical Remote Sensing of F-100 Aircraft Engine Emissions (PREPRINT)

    Cowen, Kenneth; Goodwin, Bradley; Satola, Jan; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram; Spicer, Chester; Holdren, Michael; Mayfield, Howard T

    2008-01-01

    ... from military aircraft, in order to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. This paper describes the results of a recent field study using extractive and optical remote sensing (ORS...

  8. Utilizing High Fidelity Simulations in Multidisciplinary Optimization of Aircraft Systems, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls,...

  9. The Impact of Rising Temperatures on Aircraft Takeoff Performance

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; Thompson, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    Steadily rising mean and extreme temperatures as a result of climate change will likely impact the air transportation system over the coming decades. As air temperatures rise at constant pressure, air density declines, resulting in less lift generation by an aircraft wing at a given airspeed and potentially imposing a weight restriction on departing aircraft. This study presents a general model to project future weight restrictions across a fleet of aircraft with different takeoff weights operating at a variety of airports. We construct performance models for five common commercial aircraft and 19 major airports around the world and use projections of daily temperatures from the CMIP5 model suite under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios to calculate required hourly weight restriction. We find that on average, 10-30% of annual flights departing at the time of daily maximum temperature may require some weight restriction below their maximum takeoff weights, with mean restrictions ranging from 0.5 to 4% of total aircraft payload and fuel capacity by mid- to late century. Both mid-sized and large aircraft are affected, and airports with short runways and high tempera- tures, or those at high elevations, will see the largest impacts. Our results suggest that weight restriction may impose a non-trivial cost on airlines and impact aviation operations around the world and that adaptation may be required in aircraft design, airline schedules, and/or runway lengths.

  10. Aircraft Landing and Attitude Control Using Dynamic Matrix Control

    George Cristian Calugaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for an efficient control of the aircraft landing and attitude through Dynamic Matrix Control. The idea of MPC structures used in aircraft control has been well established during the last few years, but some aspects require further investigation. With this in mind, the paper proposes structures for aircraft landing and aircraft attitude control by using single DMC controllers for landing and respectively one DMC controller for each of the attitude axis (pitch attitude hold, bank angle hold and heading hold. The model used for analysis of the aircraft landing structure is based on the last phase of landing. Also, the model used to illustrate the attitude control is that of a pitch attitude hold system of a N250-100 aircraft. Simulations are performed for a variety of control and prediction horizons, taking into account the possibility of adding a weighting factor for the control actions. Apart from separate studies on step reference variations, for some use cases, a generic reference trajectory is provided as a control purpose of the system. Results show a better performance of the proposed method in terms of control surface transition and protection of the actuators involved and a better time response in stabilizing the aircraft attitude. Overall, the aspects shown ensure an improved aircraft attitude control and landing stabilization.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  12. Nonparametric method for failures detection and localization in the actuating subsystem of aircraft control system

    Karpenko, S. S.; Zybin, E. Yu; Kosyanchuk, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a nonparametric method for failures detection and localization in the aircraft control system that uses the measurements of the control signals and the aircraft states only. It doesn’t require a priori information of the aircraft model parameters, training or statistical calculations, and is based on algebraic solvability conditions for the aircraft model identification problem. This makes it possible to significantly increase the efficiency of detection and localization problem solution by completely eliminating errors, associated with aircraft model uncertainties.

  13. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  14. Aircraft Impact Assessment of APR1400 Reactor Containment Building

    Moon, Il Hwan; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Jae Hee; Kim, Sang Yun

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of a protection to withstand aircraft impact on safety-related structures and systems is basically based on a probabilistic evaluation for each site, if the licensing body doesn't require a deterministic approach. Existing nuclear power plants in Korea were designed based on the probabilistic approach, and the aircraft impact hazard remained less than a probability of 10 -7 . However, a man-made aircraft impact have been considered as a possible external accident for the nuclear power plant. New plant designs that are to be constructed in the U.S. after July 2009 must consider the effect of impact from a large commercial aircraft according to the requirements of 10 CFR 50.150. Especially, Reactor Containment Building (RCB) housing the safety-related equipment and fuels should be protected safely against aircraft crash without perforation and scabbing failure of external wall. APR1400 RCB is constructed as a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) which is surrounded by the auxiliary building housing additional safety-related equipment and other systems. In this study, the aircraft impact analyses for the RCB are carried out using Riera forcing function and aircraft model. Considered external wall thickness is 4 ft 6 in. for the cylindrical wall and 4 ft for the dome. Actual strengths of concrete and steel are considered as the material properties. For these analyses, the dynamic increment factor and concrete aging effect are considered in accordance with NEI 07-13(2011)

  15. Aircraft engines. IV

    Ruffles, P C

    1989-01-01

    Configurational design and thermodynamic performance gain trends are projected into the next 50 years, in view of the growing interest of aircraft manufacturers in both larger and more efficient high-bypass turbofan engines for subsonic flight and variable cycle engines for supersonic flight. Ceramic- and metal-matrix composites are envisioned as the key to achievement of turbine inlet temperatures 300 C higher than the 1400 C which is characteristic of the state-of-the-art, with the requisite high stiffness, strength, and low density. Such fiber-reinforced materials can be readily tailored to furnish greatest strength in a specific direction of loading. Large, low-density engines are critical elements of future 1000-seat aircraft.

  16. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  17. Aircraft Design Software

    1997-01-01

    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  18. Combat Aircraft Maneuverability.

    1981-12-01

    rodynamique, propulsion, rdsistance den structures, etc ... - lea m~thodes d’essaia an soufflerie, aur banca au aol, sur simulateurs. A un niveau de synthbse...Dunstan Graham, "Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control," Princeton University Press , Princeton, N.J., 1973. 9. Hoh, Roger H., Thomas T. Myers...discussion of the roll coupling problem" Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol 15, Pergamon Press , Oxford 1974 17-8 (6] R.W. KLOPPENSTEIN "Zeroes of

  19. Accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities: DOE standard

    1996-10-01

    This standard provides the user with sufficient information to evaluate and assess the significance of aircraft crash risk on facility safety without expending excessive effort where it is not required. It establishes an approach for performing a conservative analysis of the risk posed by a release of hazardous radioactive or chemical material resulting from an aircraft crash into a facility containing significant quantities of such material. This can establish whether a facility has a significant potential for an aircraft impact and whether this has the potential for producing significant offsite or onsite consequences. General implementation guidance, screening and evaluation guidelines, and methodologies for the evaluations are included

  20. Probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact

    Birbraer, A.N.; Roleder, A.J.; Arhipov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    Methodology of probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact is described below. The assessment is made taking into account not only the fact of aircraft fall onto the NPP building, but another casual parameters too, namely an aircraft class, velocity and mass, as well as point and angle of its impact with the building structure. This analysis can permit to justify the decrease of the required structure strength and dynamic loads on the NPP equipment. It can also be especially useful when assessing the safety of existing NPP. (author)

  1. Preliminary Design of a LSA Aircraft Using Wind Tunnel Tests

    Norbert ANGI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results concerning the design and aerodynamic calculations of a light sport aircraft (LSA. These were performed for a new lightweight, low cost, low fuel consumption and long-range aircraft. The design process was based on specific software tools as Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA, XFlr 5 aerodynamic and dynamic stability analysis, and Catia design, according to CS-LSA requirements. The calculations were accomplished by a series of tests performed in the wind tunnel in order to assess experimentally the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane.

  2. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  3. Superconducting and conventional electromagnetic launch system for civil aircraft assisted take-off

    Bertola, Luca; Cox, Thomas; Wheeler, Patrick; Garvey, Seamus D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares three possible linear motor topologies for an electromagnetic launch system to assist civil aircraft take-off. Assisted launch of civil aircraft has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise and emissions near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. A comparison is made of practical designs of a linear induction motor, a linear permanent magnet synchronous motor and a superconducting linear ...

  4. Aircraft gas turbines

    Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.

  5. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards

  6. Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization

    Roth, Brian Douglas

    Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component

  7. 78 FR 41285 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    2013-07-10

    ... AIRCRAFT LTD., Customer Technical Support (MCC), P.O. Box 992, CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland; telephone: +41... relevant data and determined that air safety and the public interest require adopting the AD as proposed... requirements of this AD. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Required parts will cost about $10 per...

  8. 78 FR 58874 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    2013-09-25

    ... identified in this AD, contact Pilatus Aircraft Ltd., Customer Service Manager, CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland... data and determined that air safety and the public interest require adopting this AD as proposed except... requirements of this AD. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Required parts would cost about $40 per...

  9. Estimation of aircraft aerodynamic derivatives using Extended Kalman Filter

    Curvo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Design of flight control laws, verification of performance predictions, and the implementation of flight simulations are tasks that require a mathematical model of the aircraft dynamics. The dynamical models are characterized by coefficients (aerodynamic derivatives) whose values must be determined from flight tests. This work outlines the use of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) in obtaining the aerodynamic derivatives of an aircraft. The EKF shows several advantages over the more traditional...

  10. Advanced Airborne Defensive Laser for Incorporation on Strike Fighter Aircraft

    2017-09-01

    Systems within the Pod The Cyclops pod contains several systems working together to perform the high - level functions. The status of these systems must be...by the aircraft is limited, and Cyclops power requirements are high . commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Ram Air Turbines are available and are...Supply Subsystem The Cyclops pod must generate its own power due to lack of available power from the aircraft; therefore, the Power supply has high

  11. The Exergy of Lift and Aircraft Exergy Flow Diagrams

    Paulus, Jr., David; Gaggioli, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aside from incidental, auxiliary loads, in level flight the principal load on the aircraft propulsion engine is the power required to provide the continuous lift. To construct an exergy flow diagram for an aircraft – for example, for the purpose of pinpointing inefficiencies and for costing – an expression is needed for the exergy delivered to and by the wings. That is, an expression is needed for the exergy of lift. The purpose of this paper is to present an expression de...

  12. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft,

    1987-08-01

    flying markets. The wing incorporates the drooped leading edge technology developed by NASA for more stability and spin resistance and its aerodynamic ...composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by

  13. Decentralized flight trajectory planning of multiple aircraft

    Yokoyama, Nobuhiro; 横山 信宏

    2008-01-01

    Conventional decentralized algorithms for optimal trajectory planning tend to require prohibitive computational time as the number of aircraft increases. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel decentralized trajectory planning algorithm adopting a constraints decoupling approach for parallel optimization. The constraints decoupling approach is formulated as the path constraints of the real-time trajectory optimization problem based on nonlinear programming. Due to the parallel...

  14. 14 CFR 129.17 - Aircraft communication and navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft communication and navigation....S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.17 Aircraft communication and... accuracy required for ATC; (ii) One marker beacon receiver providing visual and aural signals; and (iii...

  15. Design for air-to-air refuelling operations; new passenger and tanker aircraft design for AAR scenarios

    Li, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Air-to-air refuelling is a way to improve fuel efficiency of the overall transport system without waiting for the improvement of basic aviation technology. To take full advantage of such an operation, both passenger aircraft and tanker aircraft (which deliver required fuel to the passenger aircraft

  16. Principles for Aircraft Energy Mapping

    Berg, Frederick T N

    2013-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on energy eciency in aircraft systems has in recentyears led to greater interest in integrated design and optimisation withinthe industry. New tools are needed to understand, compare and manage energyuse of an aircraft throughout its design and operation. This thesis describes a new methodology to meet this need: aircraft exergy mapping.The choice of exergy, a 2nd law metric, to describe the energy ows is fundamental to the methodology, providing numerous advantages ove...

  17. Improving aircraft accident forecasting for an integrated plutonium storage facility

    Rock, J.C.; Kiffe, J.; McNerney, M.T.; Turen, T.A.

    1998-06-01

    Aircraft accidents pose a quantifiable threat to facilities used to store and process surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently published its first aircraft accident analysis guidelines: Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities. This document establishes a hierarchy of procedures for estimating the small annual frequency for aircraft accidents that impact Pantex facilities and the even smaller frequency of hazardous material released to the environment. The standard establishes a screening threshold of 10 -6 impacts per year; if the initial estimate of impact frequency for a facility is below this level, no further analysis is required. The Pantex Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) calculates the aircraft impact frequency to be above this screening level. The DOE Standard encourages more detailed analyses in such cases. This report presents three refinements, namely, removing retired small military aircraft from the accident rate database, correcting the conversion factor from military accident rates (accidents per 100,000 hours) to the rates used in the DOE model (accidents per flight phase), and adjusting the conditional probability of impact for general aviation to more accurately reflect pilot training and local conditions. This report documents a halving of the predicted frequency of an aircraft impact at Pantex and points toward further reductions

  18. Parallel Aircraft Trajectory Optimization with Analytic Derivatives

    Falck, Robert D.; Gray, Justin S.; Naylor, Bret

    2016-01-01

    Trajectory optimization is an integral component for the design of aerospace vehicles, but emerging aircraft technologies have introduced new demands on trajectory analysis that current tools are not well suited to address. Designing aircraft with technologies such as hybrid electric propulsion and morphing wings requires consideration of the operational behavior as well as the physical design characteristics of the aircraft. The addition of operational variables can dramatically increase the number of design variables which motivates the use of gradient based optimization with analytic derivatives to solve the larger optimization problems. In this work we develop an aircraft trajectory analysis tool using a Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto based collocation scheme, providing analytic derivatives via the OpenMDAO multidisciplinary optimization framework. This collocation method uses an implicit time integration scheme that provides a high degree of sparsity and thus several potential options for parallelization. The performance of the new implementation was investigated via a series of single and multi-trajectory optimizations using a combination of parallel computing and constraint aggregation. The computational performance results show that in order to take full advantage of the sparsity in the problem it is vital to parallelize both the non-linear analysis evaluations and the derivative computations themselves. The constraint aggregation results showed a significant numerical challenge due to difficulty in achieving tight convergence tolerances. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of applying analytic derivatives to trajectory optimization problems and lay the foundation for future application of this collocation based method to the design of aircraft with where operational scheduling of technologies is key to achieving good performance.

  19. 77 FR 58103 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Corporate Aircraft Costs

    2012-09-19

    ... is determined that an upward adjustment is not required at this time. The historical estimates remain...; Submission for OMB Review; Corporate Aircraft Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning corporate aircraft costs. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 20012...

  20. Manned and Unmanned Aircraft Effectiveness in Fast Attack Craft / Fast Inshore Attack Craft ASUW Kill Chain Execution

    2016-09-01

    aircraft: the MH-60S Knighthawk, the MQ-8C Fire Scout and the RQ-21A Blackjack . We choose the aircraft configurations based on unclassified Naval Air...unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in support of operational and tactical requirements. This analysis evaluates the life cycle costs and combat...reduced. The scope of this benefit is significantly greater for UAVs versus manned aircraft due to the lack of life support and in-aircraft control

  1. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...

  2. Aircraft Icing Weather Data Reporting and Dissemination System

    Bass, Ellen J.; Minsk, Brian; Lindholm, Tenny; Politovich, Marcia; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The long-term operational concept of this research is to develop an onboard aircraft system that assesses and reports atmospheric icing conditions automatically and in a timely manner in order to improve aviation safety and the efficiency of aircraft operations via improved real-time and forecast weather products. The idea is to use current measurement capabilities on aircraft equipped with icing sensors and in-flight data communication technologies as a reporting source. Without requiring expensive avionics upgrades, aircraft data must be processed and available for downlink. Ideally, the data from multiple aircraft can then be integrated (along with other real-time and modeled data) on the ground such that aviation-centered icing hazard metrics for volumes of airspace can be assessed. As the effect of icing on different aircraft types can vary, the information should be displayed in meaningful ways such that multiple types of users can understand the information. That is, information must be presented in a manner to allow users to understand the icing conditions with respect to individual concerns and aircraft capabilities. This research provides progress toward this operational concept by: identifying an aircraft platform capable of digitally capturing, processing, and downlinking icing data; identifying the required in situ icing data processing; investigating the requirements for routing the icing data for use by weather products; developing an icing case study in order to gain insight into major air carrier needs; developing and prototyping icing display concepts based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research's existing diagnostic and forecast experimental icing products; and conducting a usability study for the prototyped icing display concepts.

  3. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  4. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Kraabol, A G; Stordal, F; Knudsen, S [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  5. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  6. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  7. Electromagnetic launch systems for civil aircraft assisted take-off

    Bertola Luca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the feasibility of different technologies for an electromagnetic launcher to assist civil aircraft take-off. This method is investigated to reduce the power required from the engines during initial acceleration. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. The research compares two possible linear motor topologies which may be efficaciously used for this application. The comparison is made on results from both analytical and finite element analysis (FEA.

  8. Probabilistic Modeling of Aircraft Trajectories for Dynamic Separation Volumes

    Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    With a proliferation of new and unconventional vehicles and operations expected in the future, the ab initio airspace design will require new approaches to trajectory prediction for separation assurance and other air traffic management functions. This paper presents an approach to probabilistic modeling of the trajectory of an aircraft when its intent is unknown. The approach uses a set of feature functions to constrain a maximum entropy probability distribution based on a set of observed aircraft trajectories. This model can be used to sample new aircraft trajectories to form an ensemble reflecting the variability in an aircraft's intent. The model learning process ensures that the variability in this ensemble reflects the behavior observed in the original data set. Computational examples are presented.

  9. Cryogenic system options for a superconducting aircraft propulsion system

    Berg, F; Dodds, Graham; Palmer, J; Bertola, L; Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is a perceived need in the future for a move away from traditional aircraft designs in order to meet ambitious emissions and fuel burn targets. High temperature superconducting distributed propulsion may be an enabler for aircraft designs that have better propulsive efficiency and lower drag. There has been significant work considering the electrical systems required, but less on the cryogenics to enable it. This paper discusses some of the major choices to be faced in cryocooling for aircraft. The likely need for a disposable cryogen to reduce power demand is explained. A set of cryocooling methods are considered in a sensitivity study, which shows that the feasibility of the cryogenic system will depend strongly on the superconducting technology and the aircraft platform. It is argued that all three aspects must be researched and designed in close collaboration to reach a viable solution. (paper)

  10. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    Young, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  11. Robotics and Automation for Flight Deck Aircraft Servicing

    Chesser, J.B.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.

    1999-03-01

    One of the missions of the Future Aircraft Carriers Program is to investigate methods that would improve aircraft turnaround servicing activities on carrier decks. The major objectives and criteria for evaluating alternative aircraft servicing methods are to reduce workload requirements, turnaround times (TAT), and life-cycle costs (LCC). Technologies in the field of Robotics and Automation (R and A) have the potential to significantly contribute to these objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate aircraft servicing functions on carrier decks which would offer the potentially most significant payoff if improved by various R and A technologies. Improvement in this case means reducing workload, time and LCC. This objective was accomplished using a ''bottom-up'' formalized approach as described in the following.

  12. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The typical approach on recent projects has been the hardening of safety-related buildings and/or protection of redundant safety-related equipment through separation. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. Conservatively calculated loads resulting from these are in some cases quite severe. The reactor auxiliary system building (Soft Shell Hardcore design) allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioactivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. This investigation determines the feasibility of two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model. (Auth.)

  13. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    2010-01-01

    ... maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics.1 The assessment must be based on the beyond-design-basis... capabilities identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section meet the assessment requirements in paragraph (a)(1... modified design features and functional capabilities continue to meet the assessment requirements in...

  14. Toward New Horizons. Volume 8. Guided Missiles and Pilotless Aircraft

    1946-05-01

    wings required for sustentation at high speeds than for normal aircraft in which take-off and landing requirements must be met. Thus aerodynamic data...the Langley Memorial Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. 13 (2) Free-flight tests of missiles instrumented to give

  15. Study of V/STOL aircraft implementation. Volume 1: Summary

    Portenier, W. J.; Webb, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A high density short haul air market which by 1980 is large enough to support the introduction of an independent short haul air transportation system is discussed. This system will complement the existing air transportation system and will provide relief of noise and congestion problems at conventional airports. The study has found that new aircraft, exploiting V/STOL and quiet engine technology, can be available for implementing these new services, and they can operate from existing reliever and general aviation airports. The study has also found that the major funding requirements for implementing new short haul services could be borne by private capital, and that the government funding requirement would be minimal and/or recovered through the airline ticket tax. In addition, a suitable new short haul aircraft would have a market potential for $3.5 billion in foreign sales. The long lead times needed for aircraft and engine technology development will require timely actions by federal agencies.

  16. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    Winblade, R L

    1980-06-01

    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  17. Optimizing height presentation for aircraft cockpit displays

    Jordan, Chris S.; Croft, D.; Selcon, Stephen J.; Markin, H.; Jackson, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an experiment conducted to investigate the type of display symbology that most effectively conveys height information to users of head-down plan-view radar displays. The experiment also investigated the use of multiple information sources (redundancy) in the design of such displays. Subjects were presented with eight different height display formats. These formats were constructed from a control, and/or one, two, or three sources of redundant information. The three formats were letter coding, analogue scaling, and toggling (spatially switching the position of the height information from above to below the aircraft symbol). Subjects were required to indicate altitude awareness via a four-key, forced-choice keyboard response. Error scores and response times were taken as performance measures. There were three main findings. First, there was a significant performance advantage when the altitude information was presented above and below the symbol to aid the representation of height information. Second, the analogue scale, a line whose length indicated altitude, proved significantly detrimental to performance. Finally, no relationship was found between the number of redundant information sources employed and performance. The implications for future aircraft and displays are discussed in relation to current aircraft tactical displays and in the context of perceptual psychological theory.

  18. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  19. Strategic Conflict Detection and Resolution Using Aircraft Intent Information

    Porretta, Marco; Schuster, Wolfgang; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington

    A number of automated decision support tools will be required in the future air traffic management system to enable continued provision of safe and efficient services in increasingly congested skies. In particular, Conflict Detection and Resolution (CDR) tools should allow for early detection of possible conflicts and propose safe and efficient resolution manoeuvres to avoid loss of separation. However, current approaches in the open literature not only use different levels of aircraft intent information but also make a number of assumptions on models of aircraft motion. Furthermore, information relevant to aircraft performance is often not considered with the consequence of the resulting resolution strategies being potentially unreliable. This paper presents an enhanced, strategic, pairwise, performance-based and distributed CDR algorithm. It accounts for the weaknesses of current approaches by using the maximum level of aircraft intent information together with a novel trajectory prediction model. Numerical results for representative conflict scenarios show that the proposed CDR method is able to generate conflict-free trajectories for participating aircraft while taking into account the actual aircraft capabilities to perform the recommended resolution manoeuvres.

  20. Corrosion Sensor Development for Condition-Based Maintenance of Aircraft

    Gino Rinaldi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft routinely operate in atmospheric environments that, over time, will impact their structural integrity. Material protection and selection schemes notwithstanding, recurrent exposure to chlorides, pollution, temperature gradients, and moisture provide the necessary electrochemical conditions for the development and profusion of corrosion in aircraft structures. For aircraft operators, this becomes an important safety matter as corrosion found in a given aircraft must be assumed to be present in all of that type of aircraft. This safety protocol and its associated unscheduled maintenance requirement drive up the operational costs of the fleet and limit the availability of the aircraft. Hence, there is an opportunity at present for developing novel sensing technologies and schemes to aid in shifting time-based maintenance schedules towards condition-based maintenance procedures. In this work, part of the ongoing development of a multiparameter integrated corrosion sensor is presented. It consists of carbon nanotube/polyaniline polymer sensors and commercial-off-the-shelf sensors. It is being developed primarily for monitoring environmental and material factors for the purpose of providing a means to more accurately assess the structural integrity of aerospace aluminium alloys through fusion of multiparameter sensor data. Preliminary experimental test results are presented for chloride ion concentration, hydrogen gas evolution, humidity variations, and material degradation.

  1. Intelligent Aircraft Damage Assessment, Trajectory Planning, and Decision-Making under Uncertainty

    Lopez, Israel; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    Situational awareness and learning are necessary to identify and select the optimal set of mutually non-exclusive hypothesis in order to maximize mission performance and adapt system behavior accordingly. This paper presents a hierarchical and decentralized approach for integrated damage assessment and trajectory planning in aircraft with uncertain navigational decision-making. Aircraft navigation can be safely accomplished by properly addressing the following: decision-making, obstacle perception, aircraft state estimation, and aircraft control. When in-flight failures or damage occur, rapid and precise decision-making under imprecise information is required in order to regain and maintain control of the aircraft. To achieve planned aircraft trajectory and complete safe landing, the uncertainties in system dynamics of the damaged aircraft need to be learned and incorporated at the level of motion planning. The damaged aircraft is simulated via a simplified kinematic model. The different sources and perspectives of uncertainties in the damage assessment process and post-failure trajectory planning are presented and classified. The decision-making process for an emergency motion planning and landing is developed via the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The objective of the trajectory planning is to arrive at a target position while maximizing the safety of the aircraft given uncertain conditions. Simulations are presented for an emergency motion planning and landing that takes into account aircraft dynamics, path complexity, distance to landing site, runway characteristics, and subjective human decision.

  2. Assessment of sensors and aircraft for oil spill remote sensing

    Fingas, M.F.; Fruhwirth, M.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada has assessed sensors and aircraft suitable for remote sensing, particularly the capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets. The assessment was based on past experience and technical considerations. The first sensor recommended for use is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This recommendation is based on the system's ability to detect oil and discriminate this from the background, and the low cost of these sensors. The laser fluorosensor is recommended as the second device, as it is the only unit capable of positively discriminating oil on water, among weeds, and in sediment or beach material. Cameras operating in the visible region of the spectrum are recommended for two functions: documentation and providing background or location imagery for other sensors. Imaging radars, be they SAR or SLAR, are recommended for long-range searches or for oil spill work at night or when fog is present. Radars are expensive and require dedicated aircraft. Passive microwave devices are currently being developed but have not been proven as an alternative to radar or for measuring slick thickness. A laser based thickness sensor is under development. Satellite systems were also assessed. Satellite sensors operating in the visible spectrum have only limited application to major oil spills. New radar sensors show limited potential. The major limitation of any satellite system is the limited coverage time that is a function of its orbit. A study of aircraft and aircraft modifications was carried out to catalog aircraft modifications necessary to operate oil spill remote sensors. A potential user could select modifications that are already approved and thus save the high costs of aircraft modification design. The modifications already approved in Canada and the US for a given aircraft provide criteria for the selection of an aircraft

  3. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. ...

  4. Aircraft Flight Modeling During the Optimization of Gas Turbine Engine Working Process

    Tkachenko, A. Yu; Kuz'michev, V. S.; Krupenich, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    The article describes a method for simulating the flight of the aircraft along a predetermined path, establishing a functional connection between the parameters of the working process of gas turbine engine and the efficiency criteria of the aircraft. This connection is necessary for solving the optimization tasks of the conceptual design stage of the engine according to the systems approach. Engine thrust level, in turn, influences the operation of aircraft, thus making accurate simulation of the aircraft behavior during flight necessary for obtaining the correct solution. The described mathematical model of aircraft flight provides the functional connection between the airframe characteristics, working process of gas turbine engines (propulsion system), ambient and flight conditions and flight profile features. This model provides accurate results of flight simulation and the resulting aircraft efficiency criteria, required for optimization of working process and control function of a gas turbine engine.

  5. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  6. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  7. Flow Control Enabled Aircraft Design

    Nangia, Rajendar

    2004-01-01

    ...: Many future advanced aircraft concepts being considered by the Air Force fall outside the current aerodynamic design practice and will rely heavily on the use of flow control technology to optimize flight performance...

  8. 75 FR 29568 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aircraft Operator Security

    2010-05-26

    ... all passengers. The passenger watch list checks currently conducted by aircraft operators will soon be.... These programs require aircraft operators to maintain and update records to ensure compliance with... information collected to determine compliance with 49 CFR part 1544 and to ensure the freedom of movement for...

  9. STOL terminal area operating systems (aircraft and onboard avionics, ATC, navigation aids)

    Burrous, C.; Erzberger, H.; Johnson, N.; Neuman, F.

    1974-01-01

    Operational procedures and systems onboard the STOL aircraft which are required to enable the aircraft to perform acceptably in restricted airspace in all types of atmospheric conditions and weather are discussed. Results of simulation and flight investigations to establish operational criteria are presented.

  10. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An index is required by paragraph (c) of this section for each certificate holder. The Index is determined...

  11. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  12. Aircraft Evaluation Using Stochastic Duels

    2017-09-01

    for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and...Fighter aircraft systems and weapons designs are known to involve substantial capital investment . Due to possible budget constraints in the U.S. Navy, the...of fighter aircraft to analysts and decision-makers before they invest further resources into larger-scale, higher-resolution simulations for

  13. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  14. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  15. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  16. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  17. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    2009-09-01

    52 Stratofortress, C/ KC -135 Stratotanker, E-3 Sentry and contractor logistics support aircraft; as well as a substantial jet engine inventory...www.hqda.army.mil/ teo /Sutability%20Terms%20MOA%20Oct%2005.pdf q. ISO 9241-11, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs

  18. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  19. Optimal trajectories of aircraft and spacecraft

    Miele, A.

    1990-01-01

    Work done on algorithms for the numerical solutions of optimal control problems and their application to the computation of optimal flight trajectories of aircraft and spacecraft is summarized. General considerations on calculus of variations, optimal control, numerical algorithms, and applications of these algorithms to real-world problems are presented. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is examined for the numerical solution of optimal control problems of the Bolza type. Both the primal formulation and the dual formulation are discussed. Aircraft trajectories, in particular, the application of the dual sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (DSGRA) to the determination of optimal flight trajectories in the presence of windshear are described. Both take-off trajectories and abort landing trajectories are discussed. Take-off trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak deviation of the absolute path inclination from a reference value. Abort landing trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak drop of altitude from a reference value. Abort landing trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak drop of altitude from a reference value. The survival capability of an aircraft in a severe windshear is discussed, and the optimal trajectories are found to be superior to both constant pitch trajectories and maximum angle of attack trajectories. Spacecraft trajectories, in particular, the application of the primal sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (PSGRA) to the determination of optimal flight trajectories for aeroassisted orbital transfer are examined. Both the coplanar case and the noncoplanar case are discussed within the frame of three problems: minimization of the total characteristic velocity; minimization of the time integral of the square of the path inclination; and minimization of the peak heating rate. The solution of the second problem is called nearly-grazing solution, and its merits are pointed out as a useful

  20. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    K. Ashley

    2006-10-24

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards.

  1. 15 CFR 740.15 - Aircraft and vessels (AVS).

    2010-01-01

    ... that foreign country. (3) Criteria. The following nine criteria each must be met if the flight is to...) Selection of routes. Right to determine the aircraft's routes (except for contractual commitments entered... supplies for both port and voyage requirements; (ii) Medical and surgical supplies; (iii) Food stores; (iv...

  2. 77 FR 29863 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-05-21

    ... found free of cracks or incorporating an FAA-approved modification. This AD also requires reporting the... consequent loss of control. Relevant Service Information We reviewed Cessna Aircraft Company Single Engine... regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this AD. We will consider all comments received by...

  3. Aircraft-crash-protected roof design for the European SBWR

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I.; Rao, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The European utility requirement document (EURD) places significant emphasis on aircraft crash protection of the reactor building - Alternative concepts were evaluated for protecting the dry-well head and the fuel pool from the effect of the spalling concrete for the General Electric Company's European simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) designs

  4. 78 FR 1155 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2013-01-08

    ... for the parts to be inspected and clarifies the inspection. FAA's Determination We are proposing this... the 100-hour TIS interval repetitive inspections as required in paragraph (h) of this AD. (2) If...-18033; Directorate Identifier 2004-CE-16-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft...

  5. Threat aircraft intent estimation in joint air defence within operations

    Oosthuizen, R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available is required to determine the intent of an aircraft to assist in classification of airborne threats/targets. Throughout all military operations Intent is used to plan and execute operations. Knowledge of the enemy’s Intent will be useful to predict his actions...

  6. 77 FR 57534 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-09-18

    ... flanges of the exhaust system (which mate with the transition), the transition, the tail pipe, and the... requires a detailed repetitive inspection of the exhaust system downstream of the turbochargers and repair... occurred due to exhaust system failures upstream of aircraft turbochargers and between recurring detailed...

  7. 78 FR 23698 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-04-22

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward firewall center... Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street...

  8. 77 FR 28328 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-05-14

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters, which requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R) pylon for a... service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.195 - Do we need an automated system to account for aircraft costs?

    2010-07-01

    ... for the Cost of Government Aircraft § 102-33.195 Do we need an automated system to account for... automated system to account for aircraft costs by collecting the cost data elements required by the Federal... through FAIRS, but are not required to have an automated system (see §§ 102-33.435 and 102-33.440 for the...

  10. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  11. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer for measuring columnar atmospheric ozone from aircraft

    Hanser, F. A.; Sellers, B.; Briehl, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UVS) to measure downward solar fluxes from an aircraft or other high altitude platform is described. The UVS uses an ultraviolet diffuser to obtain large angular response with no aiming requirement, a twelve-position filter wheel with narrow (2-nm) and broad (20-nm) bandpass filters, and an ultraviolet photodiode. The columnar atmospheric ozone above the UVS (aircraft) is calculated from the ratios of the measured ultraviolet fluxes. Comparison with some Dobson station measurements gives agreement to 2%. Some UVS measured ozone profiles over the Pacific Ocean for November 1976 are shown to illustrate the instrument's performance.

  12. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  13. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST

  14. 75 FR 5203 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    2010-02-01

    ... training courses approved under part 141. 22. Revise the minimum safe-altitude requirements for powered... that glider pilots are permitted to fly at that altitude. One commenter suggested that training in the... pilots receive training in reduced aircraft performance at high-density altitudes and in the effect of...

  15. An Improved Wake Vortex Tracking Algorithm for Multiple Aircraft

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate tracking of vortex evolution from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data is a complex and computationally intensive problem. The vortex tracking requires the analysis of very large three-dimensional and time-varying datasets. The complexity of the problem is further compounded by the fact that these vortices are embedded in a background turbulence field, and they may interact with the ground surface. Another level of complication can arise, if vortices from multiple aircrafts are simulated. This paper presents a new technique for post-processing LES data to obtain wake vortex tracks and wake intensities. The new approach isolates vortices by defining "regions of interest" (ROI) around each vortex and has the ability to identify vortex pairs from multiple aircraft. The paper describes the new methodology for tracking wake vortices and presents application of the technique for single and multiple aircraft.

  16. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  17. Evaluation of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight Trajectory Accuracy

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today small unmanned aircraft are being more widely adapted for practical tasks. These tasks require high reliability and flight path accuracy. For such aircraft we have to deal with the chalenge how to compensate external factors and how to ensure the accuracy of the flight trajectory according to new regulations and standards. In this paper, new regulations for the flights of small unmanned aircraft in Lithuanian air space are discussed. Main factors, which affect errors of the autonomous flight path tracking, are discussed too. The emphasis is on the wind factor and the flight path of Dubbin’s trajectories. Research was performed with mathematical-dynamic model of UAV and it was compared with theoretical calculations. All calculations and experiments were accomplished for the circular part of Dubbin’s paths when the airplane was trimmed for circular trajectory flight in calm conditions. Further, for such flight the wind influence was analysed.

  18. Propulsion Study for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT)

    Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Staton, D. V.; Stolp, P. C.; Huelster, D. S.; Zolezzi, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    Propulsion requirements were determined for 0.5 and 0.7 Mach aircraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted on both these aircraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size and direct operating cost (DOC). Candidate technology elements and design features were identified and parametric studies conducted to select the STAT advanced engine cycle. Trade off studies were conducted to determine those advanced technologies and design features that would offer a reduction in DOC for operation of the STAT engines. These features were incorporated in the two STAT engines. A benefit assessment was conducted comparing the STAT engines to current technology engines of the same power and to 1985 derivatives of the current technology engines. Research and development programs were recommended as part of an overall technology development plan to ensure that full commercial development of the STAT engines could be initiated in 1988.

  19. Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Deo, Ravi B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Holzwarth, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of current applications of composite materials and structures in military, transport and General Aviation aircraft is presented to assess the maturity of composites technology, and the payoffs realized. The results of the survey show that performance requirements and the potential to reduce life cycle costs for military aircraft and direct operating costs for transport aircraft are the main reasons for the selection of composite materials for current aircraft applications. Initial acquisition costs of composite airframe components are affected by high material costs and complex certification tests which appear to discourage the widespread use of composite materials for aircraft applications. Material suppliers have performed very well to date in developing resin matrix and fiber systems for improved mechanical, durability and damage tolerance performance. The next challenge for material suppliers is to reduce material costs and to develop materials that are suitable for simplified and inexpensive manufacturing processes. The focus of airframe manufacturers should be on the development of structural designs that reduce assembly costs by the use of large-scale integration of airframe components with unitized structures and manufacturing processes that minimize excessive manual labor.

  20. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  1. A manpower scheduling heuristic for aircraft maintenance application

    Sze, San-Nah; Sze, Jeeu-Fong; Chiew, Kang-Leng

    2012-09-01

    This research studies a manpower scheduling for aircraft maintenance, focusing on in-flight food loading operation. A group of loading teams with flexible shifts is required to deliver and upload packaged meals from the ground kitchen to aircrafts in multiple trips. All aircrafts must be served within predefined time windows. The scheduling process takes into account of various constraints such as meal break allocation, multi-trip traveling and food exposure time limit. Considering the aircrafts movement and predefined maximum working hours for each loading team, the main objective of this study is to form an efficient roster by assigning a minimum number of loading teams to the aircrafts. We proposed an insertion based heuristic to generate the solutions in a short period of time for large instances. This proposed algorithm is implemented in various stages for constructing trips due to the presence of numerous constraints. The robustness and efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated in computational results. The results show that the insertion heuristic more efficiently outperforms the company's current practice.

  2. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    Schmidtchen, U.; Behrend, E.; Pohl, H.-W.; Rostek, N.

    1997-01-01

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m 3 LH 2 . This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  3. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of the Braking System of Wheeled Mainline Aircraft

    I. S. Shumilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The braking system of the landing gear wheels of a mainline aircraft has to meet mandatory requirements laid out in the Aviation Regulations AP-25 (Para 25.735. «Brakes and brake systems". These requirements are essential when creating the landing gear wheel brake control system (WBCS and are used as main initial data in its mathematical modeling. The WBCS is one of the most important systems to ensure the safe completion of the flight. It is a complex of devices, i.e. units (hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical, connected through piping, wiring, mechanical constraints. This complex should allow optimizing the braking process when a large number of parameters change. The most important of them are the following: runway friction coefficient (RFC, lifting force, weight and of the aircraft, etc. The main structural elements involved in braking the aircraft are: aircraft wheels with pneumatics (air tires and brake discs, WBCS, and cooling system of gear wheels when braking.To consider the aircraft deceleration on the landing run is of essence at the stage of design, development, and improvement of brakes and braking systems. Based on analysis of equation of the aircraft motion and energy balance can be determined energy loading and its basic design parameters, braking distances and braking time.As practice and analysis of energy loading show, they (brake + wheel absorb the aircraftpossessed kinetic energy at the start of braking as much as 60-70%, 70-80%, and 80-90%, respectively, under normal increased, and emergency operating conditions. The paper presents a procedure for the rapid calculation of energy loading of the brake wheel.Currently, the mainline aircrafts use mainly electrohydraulic brake systems in which there are the main, backup, and emergency-parking brake systems. All channels are equipped with automatic anti-skid systems. Their presence in the emergency (the third reserve channel significantly improves the reliability and safety of

  5. Financial Management, DoD's Liability for Aircraft Disposal Can Be Estimated

    1997-01-01

    DOD has not yet implemented the federal accounting standard that requires recognizing and reporting liabilities such as those associated with aircraft disposal, nor has it provided guidance to the military services...

  6. Effects of Shift Work and Sustained Operations: Operator Performance in Remotely Piloted Aircraft (OP-REPAIR)

    Thompson, William T; Lopez, Nadia; Hickey, Patrick; DaLuz, Christina; Caldwell, J. L; Tvaryanas, Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) with "inhuman endurance" has led to operational requirements for extended duty days and varying shift schedules which are likely to reduce operator effectiveness because of fatigue...

  7. Durable Icephobic Cellulose Nanopaper Composite for Aircraft Icing Mitigation, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing aircraft ice protection systems operate at the expense of other payload and add significant weight, power requirements, system complexity, or cost. A...

  8. Participant Assessments of Aviation Safety Inspector Training for Technically Advanced Aircraft

    Chidester, Thomas; Hackworth, Carla; Knecht, William

    2007-01-01

    .... Currently, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation safety inspectors are required to inspect technically advanced aircraft, check certified flight instructors, and conduct surveillance of designated pilot examiners who are certifying pilots...

  9. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  10. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  11. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  12. Total aircraft flight-control system - Balanced open- and closed-loop control with dynamic trim maps

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of the airborne digital computer has made possible a Total Aircraft Flight Control System (TAFCOS) that uses virtually the complete nonlinear propulsive and aerodynamic data for the aircraft to construct dynamic trim maps that represent an inversion of the aircraft model. The trim maps, in series with the aircraft, provide essentially a linear feed-forward path. Basically, open-loop trajectory control is employed with only a small perturbation feedback signal required to compensate for inaccuracy in the aircraft model and for external disturbances. Simulation results for application to an automatic carrier-landing system are presented. Flight-test results for a STOL aircraft operating automatically over a major portion of its flight regime are presented. The concept promises a more rapid and straightforward design from aerodynamic principles, particularly for highly nonlinear configurations, and requires substantially less digital computer capacity than conventional automatic flight-control system designs.

  13. Nonparametric method for failures diagnosis in the actuating subsystem of aircraft control system

    Terentev, M. N.; Karpenko, S. S.; Zybin, E. Yu; Kosyanchuk, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a nonparametric method for failures diagnosis in the aircraft control system that uses the measurements of the control signals and the aircraft states only. It doesn’t require a priori information of the aircraft model parameters, training or statistical calculations, and is based on analytical nonparametric one-step-ahead state prediction approach. This makes it possible to predict the behavior of unidentified and failure dynamic systems, to weaken the requirements to control signals, and to reduce the diagnostic time and problem complexity.

  14. Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-based Modeling and Simulation

    Reed, John A.; Follen, Gregory J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2003-01-01

    Designing and developing new aircraft systems is time-consuming and expensive. Computational simulation is a promising means for reducing design cycle times, but requires a flexible software environment capable of integrating advanced multidisciplinary and muitifidelity analysis methods, dynamically managing data across heterogeneous computing platforms, and distributing computationally complex tasks. Web-based simulation, with its emphasis on collaborative composition of simulation models, distributed heterogeneous execution, and dynamic multimedia documentation, has the potential to meet these requirements. This paper outlines the current aircraft design process, highlighting its problems and complexities, and presents our vision of an aircraft design process using Web-based modeling and simulation.

  15. LH2 airport requirements study

    Brewer, G. D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the facilities and equipment which will be required at a representative airport is provided so liquid hydrogen LH2 can be used as fuel in long range transport aircraft in 1995-2000. A complete facility was conceptually designed, sized to meet the projected air traffic requirement. The facility includes the liquefaction plant, LH2, storage capability, and LH2 fuel handling system. The requirements for ground support and maintenance for the LH2 fueled aircraft were analyzed. An estimate was made of capital and operating costs which might be expected for the facility. Recommendations were made for design modifications to the reference aircraft, reflecting results of the analysis of airport fuel handling requirements, and for a program of additional technology development for air terminal related items.

  16. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 5. Aircraft Postcrash Survival

    1980-01-01

    neck Access door toprille capm enrFuel tank Figue 3. Fangblefiler eckinsalgbelati n. A-j L)n wal Aircraft skin Frangible filler neck Failure plane...This is because a number of major assumptions must be made in the extrapolation: the smoke generated is uniformly distri- buted and is independent

  17. Cosmic Radiation - An Aircraft Manufacturer's View

    Hume, C.

    1999-01-01

    The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)

  18. NASA Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division

    Bakalyar, John A.

    2018-01-01

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of JSC aircraft and missions. The capabilities, including previous missions and support team, for the Super Guppy Transport (SGT) aircraft are highlighted.

  19. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  20. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy; Stanislav Stanislavovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is ...

  1. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  2. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ...

  3. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  4. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  5. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate

  6. Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject Overview

    Fernandez, Hamilton; Nark, Douglas M.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The material presents highlights of propulsion and airframe noise research being completed for the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project. The basis of noise reduction plans along with representative work for the airframe, propulsion, and propulsion-airframe integration is discussed for the Aircraft Noise reduction Subproject.

  7. Radar Detectability of Light Aircraft

    1976-04-01

    a vestigial blind speed at 121 knots. Aircraft radial velocity compon- ents for the flights discussed here varied between zero and 125 knots. Typi.cal...the contributions of Mr. D.M. Selwyn who designed the digital recording equipment and organized the flight tests, and Dr. A.W.R. Gilchrist who edited

  8. CFD for hypersonic airbreathing aircraft

    Kumar, Ajay

    1989-01-01

    A general discussion is given on the use of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in analyzing the hypersonic flow field around an airbreathing aircraft. Unique features of the hypersonic flow physics are presented and an assessment is given of the current algorithms in terms of their capability to model hypersonic flows. Several examples of advanced CFD applications are then presented.

  9. A low cost maritime control aircraft-ship-weapons system. [antiship missile defense

    Fluk, H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the long-range antiship standoff missile is emerging as the foremost threat on the seas. Delivered by high speed bombers, surface ships, and submarines, a missile attack can be mounted against selected targets from any point on the compass. An investigation is conducted regarding the configuration of a system which could most efficiently identify and destroy standoff threats before they launch their weapons. It is found that by using ships for carrying and launching missiles, and employing aircraft with a powerful radar only for search and missile directing operations, aircraft cost and weight can be greatly reduced. The employment of V/STOL aircraft in preference to other types of aircraft makes it possible to use ships of smaller size for carrying the aircraft. However, in order to obtain an all-weather operational capability for the system, ships are selected which are still big enough to display the required stability in heavy seas.

  10. Development of Nonlinear Flight Mechanical Model of High Aspect Ratio Light Utility Aircraft

    Bahri, S.; Sasongko, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The implementation of Flight Control Law (FCL) for Aircraft Electronic Flight Control System (EFCS) aims to reduce pilot workload, while can also enhance the control performance during missions that require long endurance flight and high accuracy maneuver. In the development of FCL, a quantitative representation of the aircraft dynamics is needed for describing the aircraft dynamics characteristic and for becoming the basis of the FCL design. Hence, a 6 Degree of Freedom nonlinear model of a light utility aircraft dynamics, also called the nonlinear Flight Mechanical Model (FMM), is constructed. This paper shows the construction of FMM from mathematical formulation, the architecture design of FMM, the trimming process and simulations. The verification of FMM is done by analysis of aircraft behaviour in selected trimmed conditions.

  11. Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft: finding ways to train staff for unmanned aircraft operations

    Burger, CR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available - unmanned aircraft; pilot training. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft offer flexibility not found in manned aircraft. They can be made smaller and cheaper to operate. They offer payload advantages relative to small manned aircraft. They can also perform... certificate to non-state users. To facilitate useful operations by UAs, future operations must be subject to no more than routine notification (e.g. an ATC flight plan), just like manned aircraft already are. Before such operations can be established, some...

  12. Critical joints in large composite aircraft structure

    Nelson, W. D.; Bunin, B. L.; Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical structural joints of composite wing structure that meets design requirements for a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The prime objective of the program was to demonstrate the ability to reliably predict the strength of large bolted composite joints. Ancillary testing of 180 specimens generated data on strength and load-deflection characteristics which provided input to the joint analysis. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted joints was computed by the nonlinear analysis program A4EJ. This program was used to predict strengths of 20 additional large subcomponents representing strips from a wing root chordwise splice. In most cases, the predictions were accurate to within a few percent of the test results. In some cases, the observed mode of failure was different than anticipated. The highlight of the subcomponent testing was the consistent ability to achieve gross-section failure strains close to 0.005. That represents a considerable improvement over the state of the art.

  13. Artificial intelligence and its impact on combat aircraft

    Ott, Lawrence M.; Abbot, Kathy; Kleider, Alfred; Moon, D.; Retelle, John

    1987-01-01

    As the threat becomes more sophisticated and weapon systems more complex to meet the threat, the need for machines to assist the pilot in the assessment of information becomes paramount. This is particularly true in real-time, high stress situations. The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) technology offers the opportunity to make quantum advances in the application of machine technology. However, if AI systems are to find their way into combat aircraft, they must meet certain criteria. The systems must be responsive, reliable, easy to use, flexible, and understandable. These criteria are compared with the current status used in a combat airborne application. Current AI systems deal with nonreal time applications and require significant user interaction. On the other hand, aircraft applications require real time, minimum human interaction systems. In order to fill the gap between where technology is now and where it must be for aircraft applications, considerable government research is ongoing in NASA, DARPA, and three services. The ongoing research is briefly summarized. Finally, recognizing that AI technology is in its embryonic stage, and the aircraft needs are very demanding, a number of issues arise. These issues are delineated and findings are provided where appropriate.

  14. NASA Electric Aircraft Test Bed (NEAT) Development Plan - Design, Fabrication, Installation

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2016-01-01

    As large airline companies compete to reduce emissions, fuel, noise, and maintenance costs, it is expected that more of their aircraft systems will shift from using turbofan propulsion, pneumatic bleed power, and hydraulic actuation, to instead using electrical motor propulsion, generator power, and electrical actuation. This requires new flight-weight and flight-efficient powertrain components, fault tolerant power management, and electromagnetic interference mitigation technologies. Moreover, initial studies indicate some combination of ambient and cryogenic thermal management and relatively high bus voltages when compared to state of practice will be required to achieve a net system benefit. Developing all these powertrain technologies within a realistic aircraft architectural geometry and under realistic operational conditions requires a unique electric aircraft testbed. This report will summarize existing testbed capabilities located in the U.S. and details the development of a unique complementary testbed that industry and government can utilize to further mature electric aircraft technologies.

  15. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  16. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  17. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 2: Technology aircraft

    1975-01-01

    Technology flight vehicles were defined for three different approaches which demonstrate the concept and characteristics of the multipurpose aircraft established for Navy missions. The propulsion system used for the various technology flight vehicles was representative of that established for the multipurpose aircraft. Existing J97-GE100 gas generators were selected based on cost, availability and exhaust characteristics. The LF459 fans were also selected and are compatible with both technology and operational vehicles. To comply with the design guideline safety criteria, it was determined that three gas generators were required to provide engine out safety in the hover flight mode. The final propulsion system established for the technology aircraft was three existing J97 gas generators powering three LF459 fans. Different aircraft candidates were evaluated for application to the three designated design approaches. Each configuration was evaluated on the basis of (1) propulsion system integration, (2) modification required, (3) pilot's visibility, (4) payload volume, and (5) adaptability to compatible location of center-of-gravity/aerodynamic center and thrust center.

  18. METHOD IMPROVEMENT FOR DETERMINING THE TECHNICAL LEVEL OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft are high-tech engineering products which are characterized by a wide range of properties including the two most important groups that respectively characterize the efficiency and technical level.Improving the aircraft efficiency is an essential factor for air transport development, but the efficiency can not be fully describe the technical system, especially in forecasting and new technology requirements development. Aircraft de- signer must evaluate the prospects of a technical solution, but it’s not always possible to calculate the efficiency accuratelyat the design stage. The operator should be able to choose the most technically-advanced aircraft available in the market inorder not to let it grow obsolete quickly. This determines the need for non-economic evaluation of technical systems that can be done by assessment of their technical level.The technical level is a general index that includes a set of technical perfection indicators. Technical perfection is reflected in terms of material and energy intensity, in terms of ergonomics, safety, etc. and is achieved as a result of origi- nal design solutions, the use of new high-strength low-density materials, the introduction of advanced technological pro-cesses, calculation methods, verification, testing, etc.There is a tight connection between the product properties and its weight, because weight is the material reflection of these properties. Therefore, improvement of the product properties usually leads to an intense increase of its weight. To deal with this phenomenon is only possible with widely using scientific and technical progress results. In accordance with this, the technical perfection can be interpreted as a major component of quality that is created without the weight increase. This approach requires investment in research and testing new technical solutions.The method was developed to determine the technical level of civil long-haul aircraft which has been modified to

  19. 19 CFR 122.25 - Exemption from special landing requirements.

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. (a) Request. Any company or individual that has operational control over an aircraft required to... requests shall be signed by an officer of the company or by the requesting individual and be notarized or... operating the aircraft, if the applicant is a business entity, the address of the headquarters of the...

  20. Aircraft operational reliability—A model-based approach and a case study

    Tiassou, Kossi; Kanoun, Karama; Kaâniche, Mohamed; Seguin, Christel; Papadopoulos, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The success of an aircraft mission is subject to the fulfillment of some operational requirements before and during each flight. As these requirements depend essentially on the aircraft system components and the mission profile, the effects of failures can be very severe if they are not anticipated. Hence, one should be able to assess the aircraft operational reliability with regard to its missions in order to be able to cope with failures. We address aircraft operational reliability modeling to support maintenance planning during the mission achievement. We develop a modeling approach, based on a meta-model that is used as a basis: (i) to structure the information needed to assess aircraft operational reliability and (ii) to build a stochastic model that can be tuned dynamically, in order to take into account the aircraft system operational state, a mission profile and the maintenance facilities available at the flight stop locations involved in the mission. The aim is to enable operational reliability assessment online. A case study, based on an aircraft subsystem, is considered for illustration using the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism

  1. Some trends in aircraft design: Structures

    Brooks, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Trends and programs currently underway on the national scene to improve the structural interface in the aircraft design process are discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration shares a partnership with the educational and industrial community in the development of the tools, the criteria, and the data base essential to produce high-performance and cost-effective vehicles. Several thrusts to build the technology in materials, structural concepts, analytical programs, and integrated design procedures essential for performing the trade-offs required to fashion competitive vehicles are presented. The application of advanced fibrous composites, improved methods for structural analysis, and continued attention to important peripheral problems of aeroelastic and thermal stability are among the topics considered.

  2. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures....../models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same...

  3. The microburst - Hazard to aircraft

    Mccarthy, J.; Serafin, R.

    1984-01-01

    In encounters with microbursts, low altitude aircraft first encounter a strong headwind which increases their wing lift and altitude; this phenomenon is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component, a downdraft, and finally a strong tailwind that catastrophically reduces wing lift and precipitates a crash dive. It is noted that the potentially lethal low altitude wind shear of a microburst may lie in apparently harmless, rain-free air beneath a cloud base. Occasionally, such tell-tale signs as localized blowing of ground dust may be sighted in time. Microbursts may, however, occur in the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, where they will be totally obscured from view. Wind shear may be detected by an array of six anemometers and vanes situated in the vicinity of an airport, and by Doppler radar equipment at the airport or aboard aircraft.

  4. A piloted simulation investigation of several command concepts for transport aircraft in the approach and landing

    Field, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    With the introduction of modern fly-by-wire aircraft, the response of an aircraft to a pilot’s input can be augmented to something other than that for a conventional aircraft, with the resultant benefits and problems. The issue of what commanded response a pilot desires has received considerable attention, however no clear conclusions have yet emerged. The requirements for up and away flight and for the flare and landing seem to be different. Away from the ground rate command systems such...

  5. Configuration management and automatic control of an augmentor wing aircraft with vectored thrust

    Cicolani, L. S.; Sridhar, B.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced structure for automatic flight control logic for powered-lift aircraft operating in terminal areas is under investigation at Ames Research Center. This structure is based on acceleration control; acceleration commands are constructed as the sum of acceleration on the reference trajectory and a corrective feedback acceleration to regulate path tracking errors. The central element of the structure, termed a Trimmap, uses a model of the aircraft aerodynamic and engine forces to calculate the control settings required to generate the acceleration commands. This report describes the design criteria for the Trimmap and derives a Trimmap for Ames experimental augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  6. Design and evaluation of aircraft heat source systems for use with high-freezing point fuels

    Pasion, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives were the design, performance and economic analyses of practical aircraft fuel heating systems that would permit the use of high freezing-point fuels on long-range aircraft. Two hypothetical hydrocarbon fuels with freezing points of -29 C and -18 C were used to represent the variation from current day jet fuels. A Boeing 747-200 with JT9D-7/7A engines was used as the baseline aircraft. A 9300 Km mission was used as the mission length from which the heat requirements to maintain the fuel above its freezing point was based.

  7. Office of Inspector General audit report on aircraft and air service management programs

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) owns seven aircraft that support defense programs, research and development efforts, emergency response programs, and official travel of Government and contractor employees. An Office of Inspector General (OIG) report, issued in 1994, identified concerns with Albuquerque`s cost for air service. Since that report, there have been reductions in cost and personnel indicating changes in air service requirements. This audit was conducted to determine (1) whether costs to operate Albuquerque`s aircraft were excessive and (2) if individual aircraft in the fleet were justified.

  8. Multiobjective Optimization of Aircraft Maintenance in Thailand Using Goal Programming: A Decision-Support Model

    Yuttapong Pleumpirom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop the multiobjective optimization model in order to evaluate suppliers for aircraft maintenance tasks, using goal programming. The authors have developed a two-step process. The model will firstly be used as a decision-support tool for managing demand, by using aircraft and flight schedules to evaluate and generate aircraft-maintenance requirements, including spare-part lists. Secondly, they develop a multiobjective optimization model by minimizing cost, minimizing lead time, and maximizing the quality under various constraints in the model. Finally, the model is implemented in the actual airline's case.

  9. Application of high-brightness LEDs in aircraft position lights

    Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey M.

    2004-10-01

    Solid state lighting devices have made their way into a number of niche markets and continue to make inroads into other markets as their price / performance ratios improve. One of these markets is aviation lighting. Although this paper will focus on the use of LEDs for aircraft position lights, much of the discussion is applicable to other installations on the interior and exterior of the aircraft. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for a position light are all closely regulated through Code of Federal Regulation (CFR; formerly Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR)) documents. These lighting requirements, along with harsh thermal and environmental requirements, drive the design. In this paper, we will look at these requirements and discuss what is required in order to use LEDs for this type of application. We will explore the optical, thermal and electrical issues associated with the use of LEDs for position lights and examine the specific case study of the Astreon forward position lights. Finally, we will discuss some of the challenges that we see with solid state lighting in current and future aircraft applications.

  10. OPTIMAL AIRCRAFT TRAJECTORIES FOR SPECIFIED RANGE

    Lee, H.

    1994-01-01

    cruise cost is specified, an optimum trajectory can easily be generated; however, the range obtained for a particular optimum cruise cost is not known a priori. For short range flights, the program iteratively varies the optimum cruise cost until the computed range converges to the specified range. For long-range flights, iteration is unnecessary since the specified range can be divided into a cruise segment distance and full climb and descent distances. The user must supply the program with engine fuel flow rate coefficients and an aircraft aerodynamic model. The program currently includes coefficients for the Pratt-Whitney JT8D-7 engine and an aerodynamic model for the Boeing 727. Input to the program consists of the flight range to be covered and the prevailing flight conditions including pressure, temperature, and wind profiles. Information output by the program includes: optimum cruise tables at selected weights, optimal cruise quantities as a function of cruise weight and cruise distance, climb and descent profiles, and a summary of the complete synthesized optimal trajectory. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 100K (octal) of 60 bit words. This aircraft trajectory optimization program was developed in 1979.

  11. Regulatory Analysis on the Safety Assessment of NPPs against Aircraft Crash

    Kim, Sang Yun; Park, Jong Seuk; Chung, Yun Suk; Jung, Rae Young

    2011-01-01

    Following the 9/11 terror, a new regulation (10CFR 50.150) was enacted in June 2009 in the United States mandating the assessment of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) against intentional aircraft crashes, along with a regulation (10CFR 50.54 (h)(h)) in March 2009 that requires the establishment of accident mitigation measures for NPPs in operation. The UAE requested that the Korean NPP (APR 1400) design meet the U.S.'s new requirements related to the intentional aircraft crash. During the UAE NPP contract bidding process, France claimed that the Korean NPP is vulnerable to aircraft crashes comparing with the French NPP (EPR). Under these international and domestic environments, the necessity to establish a domestic regulation concerning the intentional aircraft crash was raised. This paper proposes a draft regulatory position on this issue through a comprehensive analysis of various influencing factors

  12. Plotting the Flight Envelope of an Unmanned Aircraft System Air Vehicle

    Glīzde Nikolajs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on the development of an Unmanned Aircraft System. One of the design process steps in the preliminary design phase is the calculation of the flight envelope for the Unmanned Aircraft System air vehicle. The results obtained will be used in the further design process. A flight envelope determines the minimum requirements for the object in Certification Specifications. The present situation does not impose any Certification Specification requirements for the class of the Unmanned Aircraft System under the development of the general European Union trend defined in the road map for the implementation of the Unmanned Aircraft System. However, operation in common European Aerospace imposes the necessity for regulations for micro class systems as well.

  13. An Algorithm for Managing Aircraft Movement on an Airport Surface

    Giuseppe Maresca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the development of an algorithm for safely and optimally managing the routing of aircraft on an airport surface in future airport operations. This tool is intended to support air traffic controllers’ decision-making in selecting the paths of all aircraft and the engine startup approval time for departing ones. Optimal routes are sought for minimizing the time both arriving and departing aircraft spend on an airport surface with engines on, with benefits in terms of safety, efficiency and costs. The proposed algorithm first computes a standalone, shortest path solution from runway to apron or vice versa, depending on the aircraft being inbound or outbound, respectively. For taking into account the constraints due to other traffic on an airport surface, this solution is amended by a conflict detection and resolution task that attempts to reduce and possibly nullify the number of conflicts generated in the first phase. An example application on a simple Italian airport exemplifies how the algorithm can be applied to true-world applications. Emphasis is given on how to model an airport surface as a weighted and directed graph with non-negative weights, as required for the input to the algorithm.

  14. Controller Requirements for Uncoupled Aircraft Motion. Volume 2.

    1984-09-01

    Turning X3 4.80 In. 4bD X4 7.20 InAbJ sym M, iX 12 InAblg Lateral A On 2X 24in.-IblgjMane, gradient Tracking 6 0 21 Off 3 36 in4blg Error o11 Standard...Evaluation," Air Force Flight Test Center AFFTC- TD -75-1, May 1975. 9 163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ...- REFERENCES (Continued) 48

  15. Handling Quality Requirements for Advanced Aircraft Design: Longitudinal Mode

    1979-08-01

    true integracion of a variety of subsystems. The motivation for digital control is simply stated: expensive hardware-intensive control logic and...control. The discussions of system: "architecture" (bus structure, single vs multiple central processing units (CPUs), input/output design, etc.) are...more complex than multiplication by’a constant. This would occur, for example, if one * 22 4 .. -. wished to mechanize a pitch damper. How does one

  16. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  17. Fuel cell climatic tests designed for new configured aircraft application

    Begot, Sylvie; Harel, Fabien; Candusso, Denis; Francois, Xavier; Pera, Marie-Cecile; Yde-Andersen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of Fuel Cell (FC) systems in transportation systems, as aircrafts, requires some better understanding and mastering of the new generator behaviours in low temperature environments. To this end, a PEMFC stack is tested and characterised in a climatic chamber. The impacts of the low temperatures over different FC operation and start-up conditions are estimated using a specific test bench developed in-lab. Some descriptions concerning the test facilities and the experimental set-up are given in the paper, as well as some information about the test procedures applied. Some examples of test results are shown and analysed. The experiments are derived from aircraft requirements and are related with different scenarios of airplane operation. Finally, some assessments concerning the FC system behaviour in low temperature conditions are made, especially with regard to the constraints to be encountered by the next embedded FC generators.

  18. Fuel cell climatic tests designed for new configured aircraft application

    Begot, Sylvie; Pera, Marie-Cecile [FC LAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Franche-Comte Electronique Mecanique Thermique et Optique - Sciences et Technologies (FEMTO-ST), Departement energie et ingenierie des systemes multiphysiques (ENISYS), Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) 6174, University of Franche-Comte (UFC) (France); Harel, Fabien; Candusso, Denis [FC LAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research (INRETS), Transports and Environment Laboratory (LTE), Laboratory for New Technologies (LTN) (France); Francois, Xavier [FC LAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); FC LAB, University of Technology Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM) (France); Yde-Andersen, Steen [IRD Fuel Cells A/S, Kullinggade 31, 5700 Svendborg (Denmark)

    2010-07-15

    The implementation of Fuel Cell (FC) systems in transportation systems, as aircrafts, requires some better understanding and mastering of the new generator behaviours in low temperature environments. To this end, a PEMFC stack is tested and characterised in a climatic chamber. The impacts of the low temperatures over different FC operation and start-up conditions are estimated using a specific test bench developed in-lab. Some descriptions concerning the test facilities and the experimental set-up are given in the paper, as well as some information about the test procedures applied. Some examples of test results are shown and analysed. The experiments are derived from aircraft requirements and are related with different scenarios of airplane operation. Finally, some assessments concerning the FC system behaviour in low temperature conditions are made, especially with regard to the constraints to be encountered by the next embedded FC generators. (author)

  19. Requirements of titanium alloys for aeronautical industry

    Ghiban, Brânduşa; Bran, Dragoş-Teodor; Elefterie, Cornelia Florina

    2018-02-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aeronatical components made from Titanium based alloys. Asignificant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  20. Aeronautical Industry Requirements for Titanium Alloys

    Bran, D. T.; Elefterie, C. F.; Ghiban, B.

    2017-06-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aviation components made from Titanium based alloys. A significant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys).For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  1. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  2. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY OF THE COMPOSITE WING OF A LIGHT PLANE DAMAGED DURING AN AIRCRAFT CRASH

    Andrzej ŚWIĄTONIOWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of composite structures in aircraft constructions has made it necessary to develop repair methods that will restore the component’s original design strength without compromising its structural integrity. In this paper, the complex repair technology of the composite wing of a light plane, which was damaged during an aircraft crash, is described. The applied repair scheme should meet all the original design requirements for the plane structure.

  3. The design of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany as regards aircraft accidents

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of investigation results of aircraft crashes for the Federal territory and site assessment data of the Ministry of the Interior, air traffic does not present a notable hazard for a nuclear power plant. As a precautionary measure for reducing the remaining risk, design requirements for LWRs were developed which, independently of existing aircraft types, contain mainly an abstract predetermination of an idealized impact load - time diagramme. (HP) [de

  4. Teaching Risk Analysis in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Design Capstone Course

    2016-01-01

    support the required performance specifications (Brandt, 2004) ( Raymer , 1989). There is no specific step to treat a selected design performance...a Design Perspective, 2nd ed.: AIAA Education Series, 2004. Raymer , Daniel P. 1989. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach.: AIAA Educational...Mattingly, Jack D., Heiser, William H., Pratt, David T. 2002. Aircraft Engine Design, 2nd ed.: AIAA Education Series, 2002. Drews, Robert W. 2006. The

  5. Integration of Predictive Display and Aircraft Flight Control System

    Efremov A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of predictive display information and direct lift control system are considered for the path control tracking tasks (in particular landing task. The both solutions are based on pilot-vehicle system analysis and requirements to provide the highest accuracy and lowest pilot workload. The investigation was carried out for cases with and without time delay in aircraft dynamics. The efficiency of the both ways for the flying qualities improvement and their integration is tested by ground based simulation.

  6. Coordinated Optimization of Aircraft Routes and Locations of Ground Sensors

    2014-09-17

    2007), although solution methods are sub- stantially distinct in these two areas. Khardi and Abdallah (2012) applied the variational calculus ...aircraft may face a problem encircling both the outer and inner corner space. To make the problem geometrically feasible, the requirement of having an...problem can be easily determined analytically : it should be a single route with the widest possible coverage. The latter can be inferred from Figure 11(d

  7. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  8. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    Pang Liping; Qin Yue; Liu Dong; Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS) that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV) model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft ...

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Roadmap 2014

    Cress, Jill J.; Hutt, Michael E.; Sloan, Jeff L.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Goplen, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is responsible for protecting the natural resources and heritage contained on almost 20 percent of the land in the United States. This responsibility requires acquisition of remotely sensed data throughout vast lands, including areas that are remote and potentially dangerous to access. One promising new technology for data collection is unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), which may be better suited (achieving superior science, safety, and savings) than traditional methods. UAS, regardless of their size, have the same operational components: aircraft, payloads, communications unit, and operator control unit. The aircraft is the platform that flies and carries any required payloads. For Department of the Interior missions these payloads will be either a sensor or set of sensors that can acquire the specific type of remotely sensed data that is needed. The aircraft will also carry the payload that is responsible for transmitting live airborne video images, compass headings, and location information to the operator control unit. The communications unit, which transfers information between the aircraft and the operator control unit, consists of the hardware and software required to establish both uplink and downlink communications. Finally, the operator control unit both controls and monitors the aircraft and can be operated either by a pilot on the ground or autonomously.

  10. UTM TCL2 Software Requirements

    Smith, Irene S.; Rios, Joseph L.; McGuirk, Patrick O.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 software implements the UTM TCL 2 software requirements described herein. These software requirements are linked to the higher level UTM TCL 2 System Requirements. Each successive TCL implements additional UTM functionality, enabling additional use cases. TCL 2 demonstrated how to enable expanded multiple operations by implementing automation for beyond visual line-of-sight, tracking operations, and operations flying over sparsely populated areas.

  11. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  12. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  13. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Soft Shell-Hardcore approach to nuclear power plant auxiliary structure design was developed to attenuate the crash effects of impacting aircraft. This report is an initial investigation into defining the important structural features involved that would allow the Soft Shell-Hardcore design to successfully sustain the postulated aircraft impact. Also specified for purposes of this study are aircraft impact locations and the type and velocity of impacting aircraft. The purpose of this initial investigation is to determine the feasibility of the two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model

  14. NDT applications in the aircraft industry

    Aguilar, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) in the aircraft industry is used primarily to detect process defects in the manufacturing stage and failure defects in the in-service stage. Inspection techniques such as X- or gamma ray radiography are used for examination. Eddy current and ultrasonic are applied for examination, fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particles are applied for examination of aircraft and engine. With the wide scope of application, this paper discussed one type of NDT that is much used in aircraft being the latest technique in aircraft manufacturing. 1 fig

  15. Estimate of aircraft crash hit frequencies on to facilities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 200

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities are required by DOE Order 5480.23, Section 8.b.(3)(k) to consider external events as initiating events to accidents within the scope of their Safety Analysis Reports (SAR). One of the external initiating events which should be considered within the scope of a SAR is an aircraft accident, i.e., an aircraft crashing into the nuclear facility with the related impact and fire leading to penetration of the facility and to the release of radioactive and/or hazardous materials. This report presents the results of an Aircraft Crash Frequency analysis performed for the Materials Management Area (MMA), and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 200. The analysis estimates only the aircraft crash hit frequency on to the analyzed facilities. No initial aircraft crash hit frequency screening structural response calculations of the facilities to the aircraft impact, or consequence analysis of radioactive/hazardous materials released following the aircraft impact are performed. The method used to estimate the aircraft crash hit frequencies on to facilities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) generally follows the procedure given by the DOE Standard 3014-96 on Aircraft Crash Analysis. However, certain adjustments were made to the DOE Standard procedure because of the site specific fight environment or because of facility specific characteristics

  16. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  17. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  18. ESTIMATING AIRCRAFT HEADING BASED ON LASERSCANNER DERIVED POINT CLOUDS

    Z. Koppanyi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using LiDAR sensors for tracking and monitoring an operating aircraft is a new application. In this paper, we present data processing methods to estimate the heading of a taxiing aircraft using laser point clouds. During the data acquisition, a Velodyne HDL-32E laser scanner tracked a moving Cessna 172 airplane. The point clouds captured at different times were used for heading estimation. After addressing the problem and specifying the equation of motion to reconstruct the aircraft point cloud from the consecutive scans, three methods are investigated here. The first requires a reference model to estimate the relative angle from the captured data by fitting different cross-sections (horizontal profiles. In the second approach, iterative closest point (ICP method is used between the consecutive point clouds to determine the horizontal translation of the captured aircraft body. Regarding the ICP, three different versions were compared, namely, the ordinary 3D, 3-DoF 3D and 2-DoF 3D ICP. It was found that 2-DoF 3D ICP provides the best performance. Finally, the last algorithm searches for the unknown heading and velocity parameters by minimizing the volume of the reconstructed plane. The three methods were compared using three test datatypes which are distinguished by object-sensor distance, heading and velocity. We found that the ICP algorithm fails at long distances and when the aircraft motion direction perpendicular to the scan plane, but the first and the third methods give robust and accurate results at 40m object distance and at ~12 knots for a small Cessna airplane.

  19. Estimating Aircraft Heading Based on Laserscanner Derived Point Clouds

    Koppanyi, Z.; Toth, C., K.

    2015-03-01

    Using LiDAR sensors for tracking and monitoring an operating aircraft is a new application. In this paper, we present data processing methods to estimate the heading of a taxiing aircraft using laser point clouds. During the data acquisition, a Velodyne HDL-32E laser scanner tracked a moving Cessna 172 airplane. The point clouds captured at different times were used for heading estimation. After addressing the problem and specifying the equation of motion to reconstruct the aircraft point cloud from the consecutive scans, three methods are investigated here. The first requires a reference model to estimate the relative angle from the captured data by fitting different cross-sections (horizontal profiles). In the second approach, iterative closest point (ICP) method is used between the consecutive point clouds to determine the horizontal translation of the captured aircraft body. Regarding the ICP, three different versions were compared, namely, the ordinary 3D, 3-DoF 3D and 2-DoF 3D ICP. It was found that 2-DoF 3D ICP provides the best performance. Finally, the last algorithm searches for the unknown heading and velocity parameters by minimizing the volume of the reconstructed plane. The three methods were compared using three test datatypes which are distinguished by object-sensor distance, heading and velocity. We found that the ICP algorithm fails at long distances and when the aircraft motion direction perpendicular to the scan plane, but the first and the third methods give robust and accurate results at 40m object distance and at ~12 knots for a small Cessna airplane.

  20. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  1. Aircraft Icing Handbook. Volume 1

    1991-03-01

    Maryland - . . . Kohiman Aviation, Lawrence , Kansas Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio .I --- t-r 1-- - -t I.Q,,- t ../e . Pratt and Whitney...lower; about six percent at -22 ’F (-30 *C). 1.2.3 Variations with Season The summer or warm season months create large warm air masses which can...on Aircraft Surfaces," NASA TM 87184, May 1986. 2-54 Hausman , R.J. and Turnock, S.R., "Investigation of Surface Water Behavior During Glaze Ice

  2. Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing

    Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

  3. Social-Ecological Soundscapes: Examining Aircraft-Harvester-Caribou Conflict in Arctic Alaska

    Stinchcomb, Taylor R.

    time. Understanding the long-term impacts to traditional harvest practices will require integrated, cross-disciplinary efforts that collaborate with communities and other relevant stakeholders. Finally, my research will likely spark efforts to monitor and mitigate aircraft impacts to wildlife populations and traditional harvest practices across Alaska, helping to inform a decision-making process currently hindered by an absence of objective data.

  4. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is realized in Maintenance and Repair System which does not include maintenance organization and planning and is a set of related elements: aircraft, Maintenance and Repair measures, executors and documentation that sets rules of their interaction for maintaining of the aircraft reliability and readiness for flight. The aircraft organizational and technical states are considered, their characteristics and heuristic estimates of connection in knots and arcs of graphs and of aircraft organi- zational states during regular maintenance and at technical state failure are given. It is shown that in real conditions of air- craft maintenance, planned aircraft technical state control and maintenance control through it, is only defined by Mainte- nance and Repair conditions at a given Maintenance and Repair type and form structures, and correspondingly by setting principles of Maintenance and Repair work types to the execution, due to maintenance, by aircraft and all its units mainte- nance and reconstruction strategies. The realization of planned Maintenance and Repair process determines the one of the constant maintenance component. The proposed graphical models allow to reveal quantitative correlations between graph knots to improve maintenance processes by statistical research methods, what reduces manning, timetable and expenses for providing safe civil aviation aircraft maintenance.

  5. New entrants and overcapacity: lessons from regional aircraft manufacturing

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial aircraft manufacturing industry has been largely dominated by the advanced economies in North America and Western Europe. During recent decades, several emerging economies have invested heavily in the commercial aircraft industry, notably in regional aircraft manufacturing. This paper

  6. 77 FR 23382 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-04-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the manufacturer's..., contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, Mailstop s581a, 6900...

  7. 77 FR 41889 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-07-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  8. Aircraft

    2003-01-01

    xml Internet . Teal Group Corp. Aviation Week and Space Technology , 18 March 2003, 1. 62 Babak Minovi, “Turbine Industry Struggles with Weak Markets ...xml Internet . Teal Group Corp. Aviation Week and Space Technology , 18 March 2003, 1. 64 Babak Minovi, “Turbine Industry Struggles with Weak Markets ...what several executives referred to as the “perfect storm” now blowing through the aviation market . With this information many questions remain: Will

  9. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  10. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  11. Full-scale testing, production and cost analysis data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft, volume 2

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parson, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The development, testing, production activities, and associated costs that were required to produce five-and-one-half advanced-composite stabilizer shipsets for Boeing 737 aircraft are defined and discussed.

  12. An Enhanced Vacuum Cure Technique for On-Aircraft Repair of Carbon-Bismaleimide Composites

    Rider, Andrew N.; Baker, Alan A.; Wang, Chun H.; Smith, Graeme

    2011-06-01

    Carbon/bismaleimide (BMI) composite is increasingly employed in critical load carrying aircraft structures designed to operate at temperatures approaching 180°C. The high post-cure temperature (above 220°C) required to fully react the BMI resin, however, renders existing on-aircraft prepreg or wet layup repair methods invalid. This paper presents a new on-aircraft repair technique for carbon/BMI composites. The composite prepregs are first warm-staged to improve the ability to evacuate entrapped air. Then the patch is cured in the scarf cavity using the vacuum bag technique, followed by off-aircraft post-cure. The fully cured patch then can be bonded using a structural adhesive.

  13. Flying without fuel. Minimalism in aircraft construction; Fliegen ohne Sprit. Minimalisten im Flugzeugbau

    Knapp, W.

    1997-05-01

    The article describes the solar aircraft `Icare`` which was constucted in a joint project by engineers and scientists of Stuttgart university. The aircraft requires slightly more than one kW for staying up. The theoretical fundamentals are presented in the dissertation of Peer Frank, ``Aircraft design for minimum fuel consumption` (Institute of Aircraft Engineering, Stuttgart, 1992). (orig.) [Deutsch] Allein mit Sonnenkraft kann das Flugzeug `Icare` fliegen. Es entstand in Gemeinschaftsarbeit von Ingenieuren und Wissenschaftlern der Stuttgarter Universitaet. Das Solarflugzeug Icare benoetigt etwas ueber ein Kilowatt, um oben zu bleiben. In seiner Doktorarbeit `Die Auslegung von Flugzeugen mit geringstem Antriebsleistungsbedarf` (Institut fuer Flugzeugbau, Stuttgart, 1992) hat der Duesseldorfer Peer Frank die theoretischen Grundlagen dazu behandelt. (orig.)

  14. Dynamic Model and Analysis of Asymmetric Telescopic Wing for Morphing Aircraft

    Chen Lili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphing aircraft has been the research hot topics of new concept aircrafts in aerospace engineering. Telescopic wing is an important morphing technology for morphing aircraft. This paper describes the dynamic equations and kinematic equations based on theorem of momentum and theorem of moment of momentum, which are available for all morphing aircrafts. Meanwhile,as simplified , dynamic equations for rectangular telescopic wing are presented. In order to avoid the complexity using aileron to generate rolling moment , an new idea that asymmetry of wings can generate roll moment is introduced. Finally, roll performance comparison of asymmetric wing and aileron deflection shows that asymmetric telescopic wing can provide the required roll control moment as aileron, and in some cases, telescopic wing has the superior roll performance.

  15. The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

  16. Application of powered lift and mechanical flap concepts for civil short-haul transport aircraft design

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine various design and performance parameters, including wing loading and thrust loading requirements, for powered-lift and mechanical flap conceptual aircraft constrained by field length and community noise impact. Mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) were found for optimum designs. As a baseline, the design and performance parameters were determined for the aircraft using engines without noise suppression. The constraint of the 90 EPNL noise contour being less than 2.6 sq km (1.0 sq mi) in area was then imposed. The results indicate that for both aircraft concepts the design gross weight, DOC, and required mission block fuel decreased with field length. At field lengths less than 1100 m (3600 ft) the powered lift aircraft had lower DOC and block fuel than the mechanical flap aircraft but produced higher unsuppressed noise levels. The noise goal could easily be achieved with nacelle wall treatment only and thus resulted in little or no performance or weight penalty for all studied aircraft.

  17. A novel integrated self-powered brake system for more electric aircraft

    Yaoxing SHANG

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional hydraulic brake systems require a complex system of pipelines between an aircraft engine driven pump (EDP and brake actuators, which increases the weight of the aircraft and may even cause serious vibration and leakage problems. In order to improve the reliability and safety of more electric aircraft (MEA, this paper proposes a new integrated self-powered brake system (ISBS for MEA. It uses a hydraulic pump geared to the main wheel to recover a small part of the kinetic energy of a landing aircraft. The recovered energy then serves as the hydraulic power supply for brake actuators. It does not require additional hydraulic source, thus removing the pipelines between an EDP and brake actuators. In addition, its self-powered characteristic makes it possible to brake as usual even in an emergency situation when the airborne power is lost. This paper introduces the working principle of the ISBS and presents a prototype. The mathematical models of a taxiing aircraft and the ISBS are established. A feedback linearization control algorithm is designed to fulfill the anti-skid control. Simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility of the ISBS, and experiments are conducted on a ground inertia brake test bench. The ISBS presents a good performance and provides a new potential solution in the field of brake systems for MEA. Keywords: Hydraulic, Feedback linearization control, More electric aircraft, Novel brake system, Self-powered

  18. Time to retire : Indicators for aircraft fleets

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aircraft fleets are aging alongside rising operations and support costs. Logisticians and fleet managers who better understand the milestones and timeline of an aging fleet can recognise potential savings. This paper outlines generalised milestones germane to military aircraft

  19. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... business of the Federal Government or used in emergency rescue in accordance with the directions of the...

  20. A study of low-cost reliable actuators for light aircraft. Part A: Chapters 1-8

    Eijsink, H.; Rice, M.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis involving electro-mechanical, electro-pneumatic, and electro-hydraulic actuators was performed to study which are compatible for use in the primary and secondary flight controls of a single engine light aircraft. Actuator characteristics under investigation include cost, reliability, weight, force, volumetric requirements, power requirements, response characteristics and heat accumulation characteristics. The basic types of actuators were compared for performance characteristics in positioning a control surface model and then were mathematically evaluated in an aircraft to get the closed loop dynamic response characteristics. Conclusions were made as to the suitability of each actuator type for use in an aircraft.

  1. Lightweight, fire-retardant, crashworthy aircraft seat cushioning

    Haslim, Leonard A.; Mcdonough, Paul T.

    1991-01-01

    A two page discussion of non-aerospace seating applications and the design of NASA's safety seat cushioning (SSC) is presented. The SSC was designed for both safety and comfort in order to replace polyurethane cushioning which is flammable and produces lethal fumes upon combustion. The SSC is composed of advanced fabric reinforced composites and is lightweight, fire-retardent, and crashworthy. The seat design consists of central elliptical tubular spring supports made of fire-resistant and fatigue-durable composites surrounded by a fire-blocking sheath. The cushioning is made crashworthy by incorporating energy-absorbing, viscoelastic layers between the nested, elliptical-hoop springs. The design is intended to provide comfortable seating that meets aircraft-loading requirements without using the conventional polyurethane materials. The designs of an aircraft seat and structural components of the SSC are also presented.

  2. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  3. Flight control optimization from design to assessment application on the Cessna Citation X business aircraft =

    Boughari, Yamina

    New methodologies have been developed to optimize the integration, testing and certification of flight control systems, an expensive process in the aerospace industry. This thesis investigates the stability of the Cessna Citation X aircraft without control, and then optimizes two different flight controllers from design to validation. The aircraft's model was obtained from the data provided by the Research Aircraft Flight Simulator (RAFS) of the Cessna Citation business aircraft. To increase the stability and control of aircraft systems, optimizations of two different flight control designs were performed: 1) the Linear Quadratic Regulation and the Proportional Integral controllers were optimized using the Differential Evolution algorithm and the level 1 handling qualities as the objective function. The results were validated for the linear and nonlinear aircraft models, and some of the clearance criteria were investigated; and 2) the Hinfinity control method was applied on the stability and control augmentation systems. To minimize the time required for flight control design and its validation, an optimization of the controllers design was performed using the Differential Evolution (DE), and the Genetic algorithms (GA). The DE algorithm proved to be more efficient than the GA. New tools for visualization of the linear validation process were also developed to reduce the time required for the flight controller assessment. Matlab software was used to validate the different optimization algorithms' results. Research platforms of the aircraft's linear and nonlinear models were developed, and compared with the results of flight tests performed on the Research Aircraft Flight Simulator. Some of the clearance criteria of the optimized H-infinity flight controller were evaluated, including its linear stability, eigenvalues, and handling qualities criteria. Nonlinear simulations of the maneuvers criteria were also investigated during this research to assess the Cessna

  4. AIRCRAFT POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM DESIGN PROCESS AS AN AUTOMATION OBJECT

    Boris V. Zhmurov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of designing aviation electrical power systems (EPS is related to the need to fulfill a number of requirements of normative and technical documents and to conduct a large number of calculations. Experience has shown that it is not possible to obtain reliable initial data on the nature and magnitude of electricity consumption by electricity receivers (end users at the early stages of design. The composition of the electric power receivers and the power consumption of electricity during the design process are repeatedly changed. This leads to the need to repeatedly perform tasks related to the synthesis of primary and secondary systems of generation and calculation.The desire to improve the efficiency of EPS led to the emergence of new standardized types of electrical energy - 270 V DC and 380 V three-phase AC of stable and unstable frequency. It follows that it is possible to implement a rather large number of options for EPS structures, and there may be several secondary EPS or, in general, EPS of a third or higher level.The lack of ready-made aviation energy converters implies the impossibility of using ready-made components, and the development of specific devices should be coordinated with the development of EPS. In this case, one of the results of EPS design will be a set of requirements for the devices and units of the EPS projected.In any case, the design process for EPS aircraft requires a lot of iterations that take into account the change in both the raw data and the constraints on the EPS elements and the design process itself.The traditional approach to the design of EPS aircraft, assuming the knowledge of the designer of dozens of GOSTs (State All-Union standards and OSTs (All-Union standarts regulating the design stages of EPS, as well as the existence of standard EPS structures, from which a specific choice is made, is practically impossible at present. The only way to consciously approach the problem of designing EPS

  5. 75 FR 50869 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes

    2010-08-18

    .... Conclusion We reviewed the available data and determined that air safety and the public interest require... basic requirements of this AD. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Based on these figures, we... identified in this AD, contact PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD., Customer Service Manager, CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland...

  6. Governance mode vs. governance fit? : Performance implications of make-or-ally choices for product innovation in the worldwide aircraft industry, 1942-2000

    Castaner, X.; Mulotte, L.; Garrette, B.; Dussauge, P.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of governance mode and governance fit on performance in make-or-ally decisions. We argue that while horizontal collaboration and autonomous governance have direct and countervailing performance implications, the alignment of make-or-ally choices with the focal firm's resource endowment and the activity's resource requirements leads to better performance. Data on the aircraft industry show that relative to aircraft developed autonomously, collaborative aircraft exhibit gr...

  7. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  8. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved airborne...

  9. Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?

    A. Stenke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. In case of the combined fleet, part of the subsonic fleet is replaced by supersonic aircraft. The combined air traffic scenario reveals a reduction in contrail cover at subsonic cruise levels (10 to 12 km in the northern extratropics, especially over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. At supersonic flight levels (18 to 20 km, contrail formation is mainly restricted to tropical regions. Only in winter is the northern extratropical stratosphere above the 100 hPa level cold enough for the formation of contrails. Total contrail coverage is only marginally affected by the shift in flight altitude. The model simulations indicate a global annual mean contrail cover of 0.372% for the subsonic and 0.366% for the combined fleet in 2050. The simulated contrail radiative forcing is most closely correlated to the total contrail cover, although contrails in the tropical lower stratosphere are found to be optically thinner than contrails in the extratropical upper troposphere. The global annual mean contrail radiative forcing in 2050 (2025 amounts to 24.7 mW m−2 (9.4 mW m−2 for the subsonic fleet and 24.2 mW m−2 (9.3 mW m−2 for the combined fleet. A reduction of the supersonic cruise speed from Mach 2.0 to Mach 1.6 leads to a downward shift in contrail cover, but does not affect global mean total contrail cover and contrail radiative forcing. Hence the partial substitution of subsonic air traffic leads to a shift of contrail occurrence from mid to low latitudes, but the resulting change in

  10. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  11. Energy management strategy for solar-powered high-altitude long-endurance aircraft

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Jian-Xia; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for high-altitude solar-powered aircraft is purposed. ► The simulations show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS. ► The proposed EMS is capable to alleviate the power consumed for aircraft during night. ► The main technologies to improve the flight performance of aircraft are analyzed. - Abstract: Development of solar-powered High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) aircraft has a great impact on both military and civil aviation industries since its features in high-altitude and energy source can be considered inexhaustible. Owing to the development constraints of rechargeable batteries, the solar-powered HALE aircraft must take amount of rechargeable batteries to fulfill the energy requirement in night, which greatly limits the operation altitude of aircraft. In order to solve this problem, a new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) is proposed based on the idea that the solar energy can be partly stored in gravitational potential in daytime. The flight path of HALE aircraft is divided into three stages. During the stage 1, the solar energy is stored in both lithium–sulfur battery and gravitational potential. The gravitational potential is released in stage 2 by gravitational gliding and the required power in stage 3 is supplied by lithium–sulfur battery. Correspondingly, the EMS is designed for each stage. The simulation results show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS, and the power consumed during night can be also alleviated. Comparing with the current EMS, about 23.5% energy is remained in batteries with the proposed EMS during one day–night cycle. The sensitivities of the improvement of crucial technologies to the performance of aircraft are also analyzed. The results show that the enhancement of control and structural system, lithium–sulfur battery, and solar cell are ranked in descending order for the

  12. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    Taylor, G. C.; Bentley, R. D.; Horwood, N. A.; Hunter, R.; Iles, R. H.; Jones, J. B. L.; Powell, D.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  13. Aircraft crash protection from a military engineering point of view

    Lynch, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The general problem is to investigate the situation of an aircraft crash on a reactor building. One aspect of the problem is to determine if the structural conditions required to protect the environment against the results of an impact at the center of a 10 m by 10 m reinforced concrete wall slab are reasonable. This paper discusses the dynamic structural response problem, using the analytical methods developed for military structures designed to resist blast loading. The military protection problem is quite similar to reactor protection in that extensive analysis is required to define the threat or loading conditions. The post-dynamic-loading structural requirements must also be defined, since every possible source of resistance is used to obtain a structure which protects against the stated threat at the lowest cost. Such a structural design contains the lowest possible factor of safety, using reasonable analytical techniques, and is more properly called collapse design. If more protection is provided than required, the cost will be greater than necessary. An aircraft jet engine impact is selected as the loading condition for the protection requirements of the reactor wall panel. Analytical investigation of the impact indicates that the load function can be reasonably well approximated by the half sine wave pressure-time curve. Thus, the maximum pressure and duration of the half sine pressure pulse completely define the load-time history. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions

    Fortuin, J.P.F.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Dorland, R. van; Kelder, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ranges for direct and indirect greenhouse effects due to present day aircraft emissions are quantified for northern midlatitudes, using the concept of fixed temperature (FT) radiative forcing as calculated with a radiative transfer model. The direct greenhouse effects considered here are from emissions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide. To calculate the concentration increases of carbon dioxide and stratospheric water vapor, an analytical expression is developed based on a linear approximation of global fuel burn versus time. Unlike the expressions currently used in the literature, the authors' expression does not account for emission rates only, but also for a loss term--hence making it more suitable for shorter lived emittants. For midlatitude summer conditions, a total radiative forcing ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 Wm -2 is calculated for the direct greenhouse effects, whereas for midlatitude winter the range is 0.07 to 0.26 Wm -2 . The indirect greenhouse effects considered here are sulfate aerosol formation from sulfur dioxide emissions, contrail formation from emitted water vapor and condensation nuclei, and ozone formation from NO x emissions. The total radiative forcing coming from these indirect effects range from -0.67 to 0.25 Wm -2 in summer a/nd from -0.36 to 0.21 Wm -2 in winter. Further, the global distribution of NO x and ozone increases from aircraft emissions world-wide are simulated with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model for January and July. The geographical distribution of the radiative forcing associated with the simulated ozone increases is also calculated for these months

  15. Autonomous search and surveillance with small fixed wing aircraft

    McGee, Timothy Garland

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have the potential to act as low cost tools in a variety of both civilian and military applications including traffic monitoring, border patrol, and search and rescue. While most current operational UAV systems require human operators, advances in autonomy will allow these systems to reach their full potential as sensor platforms. This dissertation specifically focuses on developing advanced control, path planning, search, and image processing techniques that allow small fixed wing aircraft to autonomously collect data. The problems explored were motivated by experience with the development and experimental flight testing of a fleet of small autonomous fixed wing aircraft. These issues, which have not been fully addressed in past work done on ground vehicles or autonomous helicopters, include the influence of wind and turning rate constraints, the non-negligible velocity of ground targets relative to the aircraft velocity, and limitations on sensor size and processing power on small vehicles. Several contributions for the autonomous operation of small fixed wing aircraft are presented. Several sliding surface controllers are designed which extend previous techniques to include variable sliding surface coefficients and the use of spatial vehicle dynamics. These advances eliminate potential singularities in the control laws to follow spatially defined paths and allow smooth transition between controllers. The optimal solution for the problem of path planning through an ordered set of points for an aircraft with a bounded turning rate in the presence of a constant wind is then discussed. Path planning strategies are also explored to guarantee that a searcher will travel within sensing distance of a mobile ground target. This work assumes only a maximum velocity of the target and is designed to succeed for any possible path of the target. Closed-loop approximations of both the path planning and search techniques, using the sliding

  16. Inlet Trade Study for a Low-Boom Aircraft Demonstrator

    Heath, Christopher M.; Slater, John W.; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion integration for low-boom supersonic aircraft requires careful inlet selection, placement, and tailoring to achieve acceptable propulsive and aerodynamic performance, without compromising vehicle sonic boom loudness levels. In this investigation, an inward-turning streamline-traced and axisymmetric spike inlet are designed and independently installed on a conceptual low-boom supersonic demonstrator aircraft. The airframe was pre-shaped to achieve a target ground under-track loudness of 76.4 PLdB at cruise using an adjoint-based design optimization process. Aircraft and inlet performance characteristics were obtained by solution of the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Isolated cruise inlet performance including total pressure recovery and distortion were computed and compared against installed inlet performance metrics. Evaluation of vehicle near-field pressure signatures, along with under- and off-track propagated loudness levels is also reported. Results indicate the integrated axisymmetric spike design offers higher inlet pressure recovery, lower fan distortion, and reduced sonic boom. The vehicle with streamline-traced inlet exhibits lower external wave drag, which translates to a higher lift-to-drag ratio and increased range capability.

  17. Schweizer RU-38A Twin-Condor: covert surveillance aircraft

    O'Toole, Michael J.; Schweizer, Paul H.

    1997-11-01

    The world order has changed and with it, governments are now faced with waging a new type of `ware.' Regional instability, drug trafficking, environmental issues, international terrorism, and illegal immigration are examples of escalating problems that cross international boundaries and threaten the security of nations. The first and most important element in coping with these illegal activities is the ability to detect and monitor events in a timely and secure fashion. Conventional means of gathering intelligence such as large airborne collection systems and satellites lack the flexibility, dwell times, and cost effectiveness to meet many of today's needs. There is a growing requirement for airborne platforms that can covertly perform surveillance missions during either day or night and in a cost effective manner. To meet this need, Schweizer Aircraft has recently developed the RU-38A twin-engine surveillance aircraft. This paper discusses the evolution and principle design concepts of this aircraft and how its unique performance enables the RU-38A to achieve new levels of surveillance capability.

  18. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Yun Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can eliminate the oscillations. The characteristics of momentum drag of the single-stage fans in transition are similar to that of the two-stage fans, but with the peak of drag lowered from 0.63 to 0.4 of the aircraft weight. The strategy to start transition from a negative angle of attack −21° further reduces the peak of drag to 0.29 of the weight. The strategy also reduces the peak of pitching torque, which needs upward extra thrusts of 0.39 of the weight to eliminate. The peak of rolling moment in transition needs differential upward thrusts of 0.04 of the weight to eliminate. The requirements for extra thrusts in transition lead to a total thrust–weight ratio of 0.7, which makes the aircraft more efficient for high speed cruise flight (higher than 0.7 Ma.

  19. Lightning protection technology for small general aviation composite material aircraft

    Plumer, J. A.; Setzer, T. E.; Siddiqi, S.

    1993-01-01

    An on going NASA (Small Business Innovative Research) SBIR Phase II design and development program will produce the first lightning protected, fiberglass, General Aviation aircraft that is available as a kit. The results obtained so far in development testing of typical components of the aircraft kit, such as the wing and fuselage panels indicate that the lightning protection design methodology and materials chosen are capable of protecting such small composite airframes from lightning puncture and structural damage associated with severe threat lightning strikes. The primary objective of the program has been to develop a lightening protection design for full scale test airframe and verify its adequacy with full scale laboratory testing, thus enabling production and sale of owner-built, lightning-protected, Stoddard-Hamilton Aircraft, Inc. Glasair II airplanes. A second objective has been to provide lightning protection design guidelines for the General Aviation industry, and to enable these airplanes to meet lightening protection requirements for certification of small airplanes. This paper describes the protection design approaches and development testing results obtained thus far in the program, together with design methodology which can achieve the design goals listed above. The presentation of this paper will also include results of some of the full scale verification tests, which will have been completed by the time of this conference.

  20. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation aboard aircraft: the SIEVERT system

    Bottolier-Depois, J.F.; Clairand, I.; Blanchard, P.; Dessarps, P.; Lantos, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The study of naturally-occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on board aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and frequent flyers may receive an annual dose of some milliSieverts. This is why the European directive adopted in 1996 requires the aircraft operators to assess the dose and to inform their flight crews about the risk. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation means. In France, the computerized system for flight assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (SIEVERT) is delivered to airlines for assisting them in the application of the European directive. This dose assessment tool was developed by the French General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGAC) and partners: the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), the Paris Observatory and the French Institute for Polar Research - PaulEmile Victor (IPEV). This professional service is available since more than two years on an Internet server accessible to companies with a public section. The system provides doses that consider the routes flown by aircraft. Various results obtained are presented: experimental validation, in particular for the ground level event model (large solar eruption), and statistics on routes and personal doses. (author)

  1. PROBLEMS OF FLIGHT PERSONNEL PREPARATION FOR MODERN AIRCRAFTS

    B. Харченко

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the problem who can and who should solve the question concerning the preparationand recurrent training of pilots of Ukrainian civil aviation is not solved. The necessity of updatingof aircraft’s park in aviation branch and aircraft operation, which was ripened 10 years ago,demands a corresponding infrastructure. It is necessary to understand, that the pilots ready toperform the flights on modern aircrafts, will not appear by themselves, therefore the real actions onmodernization of existing system of aircrew and the aviation personnel preparation as a whole arerequired. Main objective of this work is the determination of the basic components concerning thesolving of the problematic questions on preparation of aircrew on modern types of aircrafts. Duringthe problem analysis it was specified that the present development of system of aircrew preparationin Ukraine is not perfect, and does not correspond the ICAO and EU requirements, therefore needsan immediate intervention at the highest State level. Trainings are not complex, as do not containthe elements of selection of aircrew members cooperation. Programs of recurrent training ofaircrew, courses of pilots training flight preparation were not reconsidered for many years

  2. Application of AI methods to aircraft guidance and control

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Mcmanus, John W.

    1988-01-01

    A research program for integrating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques with tools and methods used for aircraft flight control system design, development, and implementation is discussed. The application of the AI methods for the development and implementation of the logic software which operates with the control mode panel (CMP) of an aircraft is presented. The CMP is the pilot control panel for the automatic flight control system of a commercial-type research aircraft of Langley Research Center's Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) program. A mouse-driven color-display emulation of the CMP, which was developed with AI methods and used to test the AI software logic implementation, is discussed. The operation of the CMP was enhanced with the addition of a display which was quickly developed with AI methods. The display advises the pilot of conditions not satisfied when a mode does not arm or engage. The implementation of the CMP software logic has shown that the time required to develop, implement, and modify software systems can be significantly reduced with the use of the AI methods.

  3. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation aboard aircraft: the Sievert system

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Biau, A.; Clairand, I.; Saint-Lo, D.; Valero, M.; Blanchard, P.; Dessarps, P.; Lantos, P.

    2003-01-01

    The study of naturally-occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on board aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and frequent flyers may receive an annual dose of some milli-sieverts. This is why the European directive adopted in 1996 requires the aircraft operators to assess the dose and to inform their flight crews about the risk. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation means. In France, the computerized system for flight assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (SIEVERT) is delivered to airlines for assisting them in the application of the European directive. This dose assessment tool was developed by the French General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGAC) and partners: the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), the Paris Observatory and the French Institute for Polar Research - Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV). This professional service is available on an Internet server accessible to companies with a public section. The system provides doses that consider the routes flown by aircraft Various results obtained are presented. (authors)

  4. Development and testing of airfoils for high-altitude aircraft

    Drela, Mark (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Specific tasks included airfoil design; study of airfoil constraints on pullout maneuver; selection of tail airfoils; examination of wing twist; test section instrumentation and layout; and integrated airfoil/heat-exchanger tests. In the course of designing the airfoil, specifically for the APEX test vehicle, extensive studies were made over the Mach and Reynolds number ranges of interest. It is intended to be representative of airfoils required for lightweight aircraft operating at extreme altitudes, which is the primary research objective of the APEX program. Also considered were thickness, pitching moment, and off-design behavior. The maximum ceiling parameter M(exp 2)C(sub L) value achievable by the Apex-16 airfoil was found to be a strong constraint on the pullout maneuver. The NACA 1410 and 2410 airfoils (inverted) were identified as good candidates for the tail, with predictable behavior at low Reynolds numbers and good tolerance to flap deflections. With regards to wing twist, it was decided that a simple flat wing was a reasonable compromise. The test section instrumentation consisted of surface pressure taps, wake rakes, surface-mounted microphones, and skin-friction gauges. Also, a modest wind tunnel test was performed for an integrated airfoil/heat-exchanger configuration, which is currently on Aurora's 'Theseus' aircraft. Although not directly related to the APEX tests, the aerodynamics or heat exchangers has been identified as a crucial aspect of designing high-altitude aircraft and hence is relevant to the ERAST program.

  5. Experimental evaluation of the exposure level onboard Czech Airlines aircraft - measurements verified the routine method

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Kovar, I.

    2008-01-01

    Air-crew members are exposed to ionizing radiation due to their work on board of air-crafts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1990 recommends that exposure to cosmic radiation in the operation of jet aircraft should be recognised as occupational exposure. Czech air transport operators are therefore obliged to ensure: - Air-crew members to be well informed about the exposure level and health risks; - An analysis of complete exposure level of aircraft crew and its continuing monitoring in cases of exceeding the informative value 1 mSv; - A compliance of limit 1 mSv during pregnancy Since 1998, after receiving a proper accreditation, the Department of Radiation Dosimetry of Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Academy of Sciences (DRD) is the competent dosimetric service realized requirements of Notice No.307 of the State Office for Nuclear Safety concerning air-crew exposure (paragraphs 87-90). The DRD has developed routine method of personal dosimetry of aircraft crew in 1998 which has been applied after receiving a proper accreditation in the same year. DRD therefore helps Czech airlines a.s. (CSA) with their legislative obligations mentioned above, and in return, once per four years, in terms of business contract, CSA allows scientific measurements performed by DRD onboard its air-crafts with the aim to verify the method of routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure. (authors)

  6. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  7. PREDICTIVE ASSESSMENT OF AN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE BEHAVIOUR FOR PASSENGER AND CREW SECURITY

    Daniela BARAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace industry one of the most important requirements in the aircraft design andoperation is the high level of fiability under various atmosphere and environmental conditions. Thedesign and validation of such a system is a great challenge. It must meet several requirements suchas: high resistence, low weight and a small occupied volume. The stresses that occur during theaircraft operation are extremely complex, being the result of the interaction of differentsystems.Consequently, in order to obtain an optimal design of the whole system, the design, testingand operating processes require a combination of laborious analysis and experimental data. As upto 90% of the structure failures are du to the fatigue, high performance methods of fatigue analysisare needed to estimate the aircraft ressources. These methods must enable a precise determinationof the static and dynamic strains inder to correctly estimate the aircraft ressource. The projectproposes an approach of some aspects of the aircraft/ aircraft subassemblies simulation and testingand develop o calculation methodology of experimental data and high performance numericmethods integration in order to establish the ressource.

  8. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum

  9. Development of Textile Reinforced Composites for Aircraft Structures

    Dexter, H. Benson

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been a leader in development of composite materials for aircraft applications during the past 25 years. In the early 1980's NASA and others conducted research to improve damage tolerance of composite structures through the use of toughened resins but these resins were not cost-effective. The aircraft industry wanted affordable, robust structures that could withstand the rigors of flight service with minimal damage. The cost and damage tolerance barriers of conventional laminated composites led NASA to focus on new concepts in composites which would incorporate the automated manufacturing methods of the textiles industry and which would incorporate through-the-thickness reinforcements. The NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program provided the resources to extensively investigate the application of textile processes to next generation aircraft wing and fuselage structures. This paper discusses advanced textile material forms that have been developed, innovative machine concepts and key technology advancements required for future application of textile reinforced composites in commercial transport aircraft. Multiaxial warp knitting, triaxial braiding and through-the-thickness stitching are the three textile processes that have surfaced as the most promising for further development. Textile reinforced composite structural elements that have been developed in the NASA ACT Program are discussed. Included are braided fuselage frames and window-belt reinforcements, woven/stitched lower fuselage side panels, stitched multiaxial warp knit wing skins, and braided wing stiffeners. In addition, low-cost processing concepts such as resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI), and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are discussed. Process modeling concepts to predict resin flow and cure in textile preforms are also discussed.

  10. Autonomous Aircraft Operations using RTCA Guidelines for Airborne Conflict Management

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. Key guidelines from the RTCA Airborne Conflict Management (ACM) concept were applied to autonomous aircraft operations for this experiment. These concepts included the RTCA ACM definitions of distinct conflict detection and collision avoidance zones, and the use of a graded system of conflict alerts for the flight crew. Three studies were conducted in the course of the experiment. The first study investigated the effect of hazard proximity upon pilot ability to meet constraints and solve conflict situations. The second study investigated pilot use of the airborne tools when faced with an unexpected loss of separation (LOS). The third study explored pilot interactions in an over-constrained conflict situation, with and without priority rules dictating who should move first. Detailed results from these studies were presented at the 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar (ATM2003). This overview paper focuses on the integration of the RTCA ACM concept into autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained situations, and provides an overview of the results presented at the ATM2003 seminar. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

  11. Aircraft Surveys of the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone

    Morison, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) is a program of repeated ocean, ice, and atmospheric measurements across the Beaufort-Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights of opportunity. The SIZ is the region between maximum winter sea ice extent and minimum summer sea ice extent. As such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water. The increasing size and changing air-ice-ocean properties of the SIZ are central to recent reductions in Arctic sea ice extent. The changes in the interplay among the atmosphere, ice, and ocean require a systematic SIZ observational effort of coordinated atmosphere, ice, and ocean observations covering up to interannual time-scales, Therefore, every year beginning in late Spring and continuing to early Fall, SIZRS makes monthly flights across the Beaufort Sea SIZ aboard Coast Guard C-130H aircraft from USCG Air Station Kodiak dropping Aircraft eXpendable CTDs (AXCTD) and Aircraft eXpendable Current Profilers (AXCP) for profiles of ocean temperature, salinity and shear, dropsondes for atmospheric temperature, humidity, and velocity profiles, and buoys for atmosphere and upper ocean time series. Enroute measurements include IR imaging, radiometer and lidar measurements of the sea surface and cloud tops. SIZRS also cooperates with the International Arctic Buoy Program for buoy deployments and with the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory atmospheric chemistry sampling program on board the aircraft. Since 2012, SIZRS has found that even as SIZ extent, ice character, and atmospheric forcing varies year-to-year, the pattern of ocean freshening and radiative warming south of the ice edge is consistent. The experimental approach, observations and extensions to other projects will be discussed.

  12. 14 CFR 49.11 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11... AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for recording, a conveyance must be mailed to the FAA Aircraft Registry, Department of Transportation, Post Office...

  13. 77 FR 70114 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-11-23

    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel... Modification Do not incorporate Cessna Aircraft Company Engine Fuel Return System Modification Kit MK 172-28-01...

  14. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-08-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach...

  15. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-05-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and..., contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone: (772) 567-4361...

  16. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the... that its value is less than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for...

  17. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of... than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for violation of section...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve... residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access to...

  19. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Aircraft Industry

    Smith, John; Dedecker, Craig; Doerer, Robert; Dols, Jonathan; Ekwall, Bengt; Heck, Mark; Jungco, Rolando; Koch, David; Lolley, James; Matyi, Kyle; McCaffrey, Terrance; Provost, Carla; Snyder, Daniel; Szucs, Jozsef; Truhn, Harry; Tyler, J. R

    2008-01-01

    .... With the exception of the relatively less mature unmanned aircraft systems sector, significant changes to the number and identity of competing firms are not likely in the next few years, although...

  20. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  1. Aircraft Vortex Wake Decay Near the Ground

    1977-05-01

    A multi-faceted experimental and analytical research program was carried out to explore the details of aircraft wake vortex breakdown under conditions representative of those which prevail at low altitudes in the vicinity of airports. Three separate ...

  2. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  3. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  4. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    Jordan, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10 -6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  5. Safety of Cargo Aircraft Handling Procedure

    Daniel Hlavatý

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.

  6. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  7. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  8. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    2010-07-01

    ..., helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or waters...

  9. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    S P Govinda Raju. Aircraft of various types are necessary for meeting the ... configuration is thoroughly evaluated for performance, stabil- ity and controllability .... Specialised tests, like those for measuring various stability de- rivatives involve ...

  10. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    2010-07-01

    ...— (i) Travel on a scheduled commercial airline; (ii) Travel on a Federal aircraft; (iii) Travel on a Government aircraft hired as a commercial aviation service (CAS); and (iv) Travel by other available modes of... non-travel related governmental function or for required use travel, using any space available for...

  11. New capability for ozone dial profiling measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from aircraft

    Hair, Johnathan; Hostetler, Chris; Cook, Anthony; Harper, David; Notari, Anthony; Fenn, Marta; Newchurch, Mike; Wang, Lihua; Kuang, Shi; Knepp, Travis; Burton, Sharon; Ferrare, Richard; Butler, Carolyn; Collins, Jim; Nehrir, Amin

    2018-04-01

    Recently, we successfully demonstrated a new compact and robust ozone DIAL lidar for smaller aircraft such as the NASA B200 and the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. This is the first NASA airborne lidar to incorporate advanced solid-state lasers to produce the required power at the required ultraviolet wavelengths, and is compact and robust enough to operate nearly autonomously on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. This technology development resulted in the first new NASA airborne ozone DIAL instrument in more than 15 years. The combined ozone, aerosol, and clouds measurements provide valuable information on the chemistry, radiation, and dynamics of the atmosphere. In particular, from the ER-2 it offers a unique capability to study the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  12. New capability for ozone dial profiling measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from aircraft

    Hair Johnathan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we successfully demonstrated a new compact and robust ozone DIAL lidar for smaller aircraft such as the NASA B200 and the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. This is the first NASA airborne lidar to incorporate advanced solid-state lasers to produce the required power at the required ultraviolet wavelengths, and is compact and robust enough to operate nearly autonomously on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. This technology development resulted in the first new NASA airborne ozone DIAL instrument in more than 15 years. The combined ozone, aerosol, and clouds measurements provide valuable information on the chemistry, radiation, and dynamics of the atmosphere. In particular, from the ER-2 it offers a unique capability to study the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  13. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  14. Full-scale aircraft tire pressure tests

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...

  15. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft

    Daggett, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  16. Pathfinder-Plus aircraft in flight

    1998-01-01

    The Pathfinder-Plus solar-powered aircraft is shown taking off from a runway, then flying at low altitude over the ocean. The vehicle, which looks like a flying ruler, operates at low airspeed. Among the missions proposed for a solar-powered aircraft are communications relay, atmospheric studies, pipeline monitoring and gas leak detection, environmental monitoring using thermal and radar images, and disaster relief and monitoring.

  17. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    Stanislav Fábry; Marek Češkovič

    2017-01-01

    In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections...

  18. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-01-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories – policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop sever...

  19. Maintenance program developmentandImport /Export of Aircraft in USA

    Takele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis thesis discuss how United Parcel Service (UPS) develop its aircraft maintenanceprogram after import of McDonnell Douglas MD-11aircraft and the process of exporting newMD-11 aircraft from manufacturer in USA to European operator as passenger aircraft. It alsodiscusses the process of importing the same types of aircraft as freight carrier. The aircraftundergo, through different modifications at Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA)conversion from passenger to freight carrier, a pr...

  20. Industrial approach to piezoelectric damping of large fighter aircraft components

    Simpson, John; Schweiger, Johannes

    1998-06-01

    Different concepts to damp structural vibrations of the vertical tail of fighter aircraft are reported. The various requirements for a vertical tail bias an integrated approach for the design. Several active vibrations suppression concepts had been investigated during the preparatory phase of a research program shared by Daimler-Benz Aerospace Military Aircraft (Dasa), Daimler-Benz Forschung (DBF) and Deutsche Forschungsandstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt (DLR). Now in the main phase of the programme, four concepts were finally chosen: two concepts with aerodynamic control surfaces and two concepts with piezoelectric components. One piezo concept approach will be described rigorously, the other concepts are briefly addressed. In the Dasa concept, thin surface piezo actuators are set out carefully to flatten the dynamic portion of the combined static and dynamic maximum bending moment loading case directly in the shell structure. The second piezo concept by DLR involves pre-loaded lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-block actuators at host structure fixtures. To this end a research apparatus was designed and built as a full scale simplified fin box with carbon fiber reinformed plastic skins and an aluminium stringer-rib substructure restrained by relevant aircraft fixtures. It constitutes a benchmark 3D-structural impedance. The engineering design incorporates 7kg of PZT surface actuators. The structural system then should be excited to more than 15mm tip displacement amplitude. This prepares the final step to total A/C integration. Typical analysis methods using cyclic thermal analogies adapted to induced load levels are compared. Commercial approaches leading onto basic state space model interpretation wrt. actuator sizing and positioning, structural integrity constraints, FE-validation and testing are described. Both piezoelectric strategies are aimed at straight open-loop performance related to concept weight penalty and input electric power. The required actuators, power

  1. Feasibility study for a microwave-powered ozone sniffer aircraft. B.S. Thesis

    Botros, David F.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Forden, Noah P.; Helsing, Martin A.; Jutras, Thomas H.; Kim, Dohoon; Labarre, Christopher; Odin, Ethan M.; Sandler, Scott B.

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary design of a high-altitude, remotely-piloted, atmospheric-sampling aircraft powered by microwave energy beamed from ground-based antenna was completed. The vehicle has a gross weight of 6720 pounds and is sized to carry a 1000 pound payload at an altitude of 100,000 feet. The underside of the wing serves as the surface of a rectenna designed to receive microwave energy at a power density of 700 watts per square meter and the wing has a planform area of 3634 square feet to absorb the required power at an optimum Mach number M = 0.44. The aircraft utilizes a horizontal tail and a canard for longitudinal control and to enhance the structural rigidity of the twin fuselage configuration. The wing structure is designed to withstand a gust-induced load factor n = 3 at cruise altitude but the low-wing loading of the aircraft makes it very sensitive to gusts at low altitudes, which may induce load factors in excess of 20. A structural load alleviation system is therefore proposed to limit actual loads to the designed structural limit. Losses will require transmitted power on the order of megawatts to be radiated to the aircraft from the ground station, presenting environmental problems. Since the transmitting antenna would have a diameter of several hundred feet, it would not be readily transportable, so we propose that a single antenna be constructed at a site from which the aircraft is flown. The aircraft would be towed aloft to an initial altitude at which the microwave power would be utilized. The aircraft would climb to cruise altitude in a spiral flight path and orbit the transmitter in a gentle turn.

  2. Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an ‘antifreeze’ solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40–50% — and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15–30% lower footprint than using ‘bio’ de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: ► Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. ► Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40–50%. ► Recycling ‘fossil’ de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling ‘bio’ de-icer.

  3. VASCOMP 2. The V/STOL aircraft sizing and performance computer program. Volume 6: User's manual, revision 3

    Schoen, A. H.; Rosenstein, H.; Stanzione, K.; Wisniewski, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the use of the V/STOL Aircraft Sizing and Performance Computer Program (VASCOMP II). The program is useful in performing aircraft parametric studies in a quick and cost efficient manner. Problem formulation and data development were performed by the Boeing Vertol Company and reflects the present preliminary design technology. The computer program, written in FORTRAN IV, has a broad range of input parameters, to enable investigation of a wide variety of aircraft. User oriented features of the program include minimized input requirements, diagnostic capabilities, and various options for program flexibility.

  4. Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala

    2006-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.

  5. The Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS): A system integration approach

    Benoit, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mercer Engineering Research Center (MERC), under contract to the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1989, has been actively involved in providing the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (WR-ALC) with a robotic workcell designed to perform rework automated defastening and hole location/transfer operations on F-15 wings. This paper describes the activities required to develop and implement this workcell, known as the Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS). AARS is scheduled to be completely installed and in operation at WR-ALC by September 1994.

  6. A Lightweight Loudspeaker for Aircraft Communications and Active Noise Control

    Warnaka, Glenn E.; Kleinle, Mark; Tsangaris, Parry; Oslac, Michael J.; Moskow, Harry J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of new, lightweight loudspeakers for use on commercial aircraft has been developed. The loudspeakers use NdFeB magnets and aluminum alloy frames to reduce the weight. The NdFeB magnet is virtually encapsulated by steel in the new speaker designs. Active noise reduction using internal loudspeakers was demonstrated to be effective in 1983. A weight, space, and cost efficient method for creating the active sound attenuating fields is to use the existing cabin loudspeakers for both communication and sound attenuation. This will require some additional loudspeaker design considerations.

  7. Fluid-structure interaction by the mixed SPH-FE method with application to aircraft ditching

    P Groenenboom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction as it occurs during aircraft ditching – an emergency condition where an aircraft is forced to land on water. The work is motivated by the requirement for aircraft manufactures to analyze ditching as part of the aircraft certification process requested by airworthiness authorities. The strong interaction of highly non-linear fluid flow phenomena and structural responses requires a coupled solution of this transient problem. Therefore, an approach coupling Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and the Finite Element method within the commercial, explicit software Virtual Performance Solutions has been pursued. In this paper, several innovative features are presented, which allow for accurate and efficient solution. Finally, exemplary numerical results are successfully compared to experimental data from a unique test campaign of guided ditching tests at quasi-full scale impact conditions. It may be concluded that through the application of state-of-the-art numerical techniques it has become possible to simulate the coupled fluidstructure interaction as occurring during ditching. Therefore, aircraft manufacturers may significantly benefit from numerical analysis for design and certification purposes.

  8. Maneuvering control and configuration adaptation of a biologically inspired morphing aircraft

    Abdulrahim, Mujahid

    Natural flight as a source of inspiration for aircraft design was prominent with early aircraft but became marginalized as aircraft became larger and faster. With recent interest in small unmanned air vehicles, biological inspiration is a possible technology to enhance mission performance of aircraft that are dimensionally similar to gliding birds. Serial wing joints, loosely modeling the avian skeletal structure, are used in the current study to allow significant reconfiguration of the wing shape. The wings are reconfigured to optimize aerodynamic performance and maneuvering metrics related to specific mission tasks. Wing shapes for each mission are determined and related to the seagulls, falcons, albatrosses, and non-migratory African swallows on which the aircraft are based. Variable wing geometry changes the vehicle dynamics, affording versatility in flight behavior but also requiring appropriate compensation to maintain stability and controllability. Time-varying compensation is in the form of a baseline controller which adapts to both the variable vehicle dynamics and to the changing mission requirements. Wing shape is adapted in flight to minimize a cost function which represents energy, temporal, and spatial efficiency. An optimal control architecture unifies the control and adaptation tasks.

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.210 - How do we account for the use of our Government aircraft?

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting...., the Governmental function that the aircraft was dispatched to perform); (d) Departure and destination...

  10. Completeness and Consistency in Hierarchical State-Based Requirements

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E

    1995-01-01

    .... The analysis algorithms and tools have been validated on TCAS II, a complex, airborne, collision-avoidance system required on all commercial aircraft with more than 30 passengers that fly in U.S. airspace.

  11. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    2012-01-01

    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  12. Application of image based measurement techniques for the investigation of aeroengine performance on a commercial aircraft in ground operation

    Schröder, Andreas; Geisler, Reinhard; Schanz, Daniel; Agocs, Janos; Pallek, Dieter; Schroll, Michael; Klinner, Joachim; Beversdorff, Manfred; Voges, Melanie; Willert, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of the flow and sound field upstream and downstream of a full scale aeroengine is aimed at providing important reference data required for reliable modeling and prediction. In this regard a wide variety of contactless and non-invasive laser optical and acoustic measurement techniques have matured in recent years to allow their application on full scale aircraft. Within a measurement campaign involving an Airbus A320 DLR research aircraft inside a sound-attenuating hangar at ...

  13. Propulsion Selection for 85kft Remotely Piloted Atmospheric Science Aircraft

    Bents, David J.; Mockler, Ted; Maldonado, Jaime; Hahn, Andrew; Cyrus, John; Schmitz, Paul; Harp, Jim; King, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how a 3 stage turbocharged gasoline engine was selected to power NASA's atmospheric science unmanned aircraft now under development. The airplane, whose purpose is to fly sampling instruments through targeted regions of the upper atmosphere at the exact location and time (season, time of day) where the most interesting chemistry is taking place, must have a round trip range exceeding 1000 km, carry a payload of about 500 lb to altitudes exceeding 80 kft over the site, and be able to remain above that altitude for at least 30 minutes before returning to base. This is a subsonic aircraft (the aerodynamic heating and shock associated with supersonic flight could easily destroy the chemical species that are being sampled) and it must be constructed so it will operate out of small airfields at primitive remote sites worldwide, under varying climate and weather conditions. Finally it must be low cost, since less than $50 M is available for its development. These requirements put severe constraints on the aircraft design (for example, wing loading in the vicinity of 10 psf) and have in turn limited the propulsion choices to already-existing hardware, or limited adaptations of existing hardware. The only candidate that could emerge under these circumstances was a propeller driven aircraft powered by spark ignited (SI) gasoline engines, whose intake pressurization is accomplished by multiple stages of turbo-charging and intercooling. Fortunately the turbocharged SI powerplant, owing to its rich automotive heritage and earlier intensive aero powerplant development during WWII, enjoys in addition to its potentially low development costs some subtle physical advantages (arising from its near-stochiometric combustion) that may make it smaller and lighter than either a turbine engine or a diesel for these altitudes. Just as fortunately, the NASA/industry team developing this aircraft includes the same people who built multi-stage turbocharged SI powerplants

  14. Common factors in the withdrawal of European aircraft manufacturers from the regional aircraft market

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the

  15. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    2010-01-01

    ... data approved by the Administrator. (e) The holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in light-sport category for return to service, as...

  16. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  17. Smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system: a condition-based corrosion detection system for aging aircraft

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.

    1996-05-01

    The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.

  18. 78 FR 73997 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped with Wing Lift Struts

    2013-12-10

    ...-0023; Directorate Identifier 96-CE-072-AD; Amendment 39-17688; AD 99-01-05 R1] RIN 2120-AA64... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are revising Airworthiness Directive (AD) 99-01-05 for certain aircraft equipped with wing lift struts. AD 99-01-05 required repetitively inspecting the wing...

  19. Starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter

    І.М. Іщенко

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  In the article the questions of the starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter is considered. In the same way in the article are determined the main requirements to steady-state converter for feeding electric starter.

  20. Inerting of a Vented Aircraft Fuel Tank Test Article with Nitrogen-Enriched Air

    Burns, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ...) required to inert a vented aircraft fuel tank. NEA, generated by a hollow fiber membrane gas separation system, was used to inert a laboratory fuel tank with a single vent on top designed to simulate a transport category airplane fuel tank...

  1. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    2011-09-07

    ... with an electronic engine control (EEC), also known as a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC... engine design certification, and the certification requirements for engine control systems are driven by... aircraft supplied power and data failures on the engine control system, and the resulting effects on engine...

  2. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  3. Nonlinear Multivariate Spline-Based Control Allocation for High-Performance Aircraft

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.; Chu, Q.P.

    2014-01-01

    High performance flight control systems based on the nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI) principle require highly accurate models of aircraft aerodynamics. In general, the accuracy of the internal model determines to what degree the system nonlinearities can be canceled; the more accurate the model,

  4. Risk based decision support for new air traffic operations with reduced aircraft separation

    Speijker, L.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    With the steady increase in air traffic, the aviation system is under continuous pressure to increase aircraft handling capacity. Various new Air Traffic Management systems and flight procedures are proposed to increase airport capacity while maintaining the required level of safety. Newly proposed

  5. Advanced technologies and new roles for VTOL aircraft (Part 1/2)

    Renaud, J.P. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA) (France); Aix-Marseille-2 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    2000-04-01

    This survey paper intends to overview some main technical evolutions impacting present and future general design of rotor-craft (for vehicles, engines and systems), including helicopter and future tilt-rotor. These trends tend to achieve a better adaptation to a wide range of mission requirements with an economic aircraft optimization and an enhanced safety level and environmental impact. (author)

  6. Safety and Convergence Analysis of Intersecting Aircraft Flows Under Decentralized Collision Avoidance

    Dallal, Ahmed H.

    Safety is an essential requirement for air traffic management and control systems. Aircraft are not allowed to get closer to each other than a specified safety distance, to avoid any conflicts and collisions between aircraft. Forecast analysis predicts a tremendous increase in the number of flights. Subsequently, automated tools are needed to help air traffic controllers resolve air born conflicts. In this dissertation, we consider the problem of conflict resolution of aircraft flows with the assumption that aircraft are flowing through a fixed specified control volume at a constant speed. In this regard, several centralized and decentralized resolution rules have been proposed for path planning and conflict avoidance. For the case of two intersecting flows, we introduce the concept of conflict touches, and a collaborative decentralized conflict resolution rule is then proposed and analyzed for two intersecting flows. The proposed rule is also able to resolved airborne conflicts that resulted from resolving another conflict via the domino effect. We study the safety conditions under the proposed conflict resolution and collision avoidance rule. Then, we use Lyapunov analysis to analytically prove the convergence of conflict resolution dynamics under the proposed rule. The analysis show that, under the proposed conflict resolution rule, the system of intersecting aircraft flows is guaranteed to converge to safe, conflict free, trajectories within a bounded time. Simulations are provided to verify the analytically derived conclusions and study the convergence of the conflict resolution dynamics at different encounter angles. Simulation results show that lateral deviations taken by aircraft in each flow, to resolve conflicts, are bounded, and aircraft converged to safe and conflict free trajectories, within a finite time.

  7. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  8. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  9. An assessment of 10-year NOAA aircraft-based tropospheric ozone profiling in Colorado

    Leonard, Mark; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Lin, Meiyun; McClure-Begley, Audra; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Tarasick, David

    2017-06-01

    The Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network Aircraft Program at NOAA has sampled ozone and other atmospheric trace constituents in North America for over a decade (2005-present). The method to derive tropospheric ozone climatology from the light aircraft measurements equipped with the 2B Technology instruments is described in this paper. Since ozone instruments at most of aircraft locations are flown once a month, this raises the question of whether the sampling frequency allows for deriving a climatology that can adequately represent ozone seasonal and vertical variability over various locations. Here we interpret the representativeness of the tropospheric ozone climatology derived from these under-sampled observations using hindcast simulations conducted with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL-AM3). We first focus on ozone measurements from monthly aircraft profiles over the Front Range of Colorado and weekly ozonesondes launched in Boulder, Colorado. The climatology is presented as monthly values separated in 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th percentiles, and averaged at three vertical layers: lower (1.6-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and upper (6-8 km) troposphere. The aircraft-based climatology is compared to the climatology derived from the nearest located ozonesondes launched from Boulder, Colorado, from GFDL-AM3 co-sampled in time with in-situ observations, and from GFDL-AM3 continuous 3-h samples. Based on these analyses, we recommend the sampling frequency to obtain adequate representation of ozone climatology in the free troposphere. The 3-h sampled AM3 model is used as a benchmark reference for the under-sampled time series. We find that the minimal number of soundings required per month for the all altitude bins (1.6-3, 3-6, and 6-8 km) to sufficiently match the 95% confidence level of the fully sampled monthly ozone means vary between 3 and 5 sounding per month, except in August with a minimum of 6 soundings per month. The

  10. Safety assurance of non-deterministic flight controllers in aircraft applications

    Noriega, Alfonso

    Loss of control is a serious problem in aviation that primarily affects General Aviation. Technological advancements can help mitigate the problem, but the FAA certification process makes certain solutions economically unfeasible. This investigation presents the design of a generic adaptive autopilot that could potentially lead to a single certification for use in several makes and models of aircraft. The autopilot consists of a conventional controller connected in series with a robust direct adaptive model reference controller. In this architecture, the conventional controller is tuned once to provide outer-loop guidance and navigation to a reference model. The adaptive controller makes unknown aircraft behave like the reference model, allowing the conventional controller to successfully provide navigation without the need for retuning. A strong theoretical foundation is presented as an argument for the safety and stability of the controller. The stability proof of direct adaptive controllers require that the plant being controlled has no unstable transmission zeros and has a nonzero high frequency gain. Because most conventional aircraft do not readily meet these requirements, a process known as sensor blending was used. Sensor blending consists of using a linear combination of the plant's outputs that has no unstable transmission zeros and has a nonzero high frequency gain to drive the adaptive controller. Although this method does not present a problem for regulators, it can lead to a steady state error in tracking applications. The sensor blending theory was expanded to take advantage of the system's dynamics to allow for zero steady state error tracking. This method does not need knowledge of the specific system's dynamics, but instead uses the structure of the A and B matrices to perform the blending for the general case. The generic adaptive autopilot was tested in two high-fidelity nonlinear simulators of two typical General Aviation aircraft. The results

  11. Investigation of fuel savings for an aircraft due to optimization of the center of gravity

    Liu, Yitao; Yang, Zhenbo; Deng, Junxiang; Zhu, Junjie

    2018-03-01

    The aircraft’s center of gravity (CG) has a significant influence on the safety and efficiency, which are determined to a large degree by keeping the CG position within the forward and aft limits. Improper loading reduces the aerodynamics efficiency of an aircraft, resulting in higher flight drag. This paper focuses on the theoretical analysis of the influence of variable CG parameter on the fuel consumption. A new model is developed to predict the fuel consumption rate for an aircraft with it’s CG at different position. The numerical result indicates that a more aft CG position produces less drag and, in turn, requires less fuel consumption.

  12. Developing a Formal Specification for the Mission Systems of a Maritime Surveillance Aircraft

    Petrucci, Laure; Billington, Jonathan; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2003-01-01

    The mission system of an aircraft is a complex real-time distributed system consisting of a mission control computer, different kinds of devices interconnected by a number of serial data buses. The complexity and real-time requirements of mission systems have motivated research into the applicati...... system with Coloured Petri Nets and analysed the model using state spaces. Here, we describe how this model was refined and modified to obtain a Coloured Petri Net model for the AP-3C Orion maritime surveillance aircraft....

  13. An overview of practice and regulations concerning aircraft noise protection in Serbia

    Mirković Bojana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of studies and regulation concerning the issue of aircraft noise protection in Republic of Serbia. After crossing the limit of 50.000 operations in 2014, Airport 'Nikola Tesla' is classified as major airport, and with that urged to fulfill various requirements related to nose protection. Major airports are obliged to monitor noise, as well as to prepare strategic noise maps and action plans aiming to decrease number of people exposed to aircraft noise above acceptable level.

  14. CONDITIONS OF PHYSICAL MODELING AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRCRAFT WITH CHASSIS HOVERCRAFT

    Yu. Yu. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The features of the physical modeling in the experimental determination of aerodynamics-cal tubes (WT of low-velocity steady and unsteady aerodynamic characteristics at takeoff and landing of aircraft (LA with the chassis air-cushion (ball screw and in studies to determine the stability of equilibrium regimes of movement and shock-absorbing properties of ball screws. Are conscdered the requirements for the experimental facilities, model aircraft with ball screws and re-test of the latest zhimam on the free stream velocity, flow and pressure blowers VР, the frequencies and amplitudes of the oscillations are formulated.

  15. Study of a very low cost air combat maneuvering trainer aircraft

    Hill, G. C.; Bowles, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    A very low cost aircraft for performing Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training was studied using the BD-5J sport plane as a point of departure. The installation of a larger engine and increased fuel capacity were required to meet the performance and mission objectives. Reduced wing area increased the simulation of the ACM engagement, and a comparison with current tactical aircraft is presented. Other factors affecting the training transfer are considered analytically, but a flight evaluation is recommended to determine the concept utility.

  16. Perseus A High Altitude Remotely Piloted Aircraft being Towed in Flight

    1994-01-01

    Perseus A, a remotely piloted, high-altitude research vehicle designed by Aurora Flight Sciences Corp., takes off from Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Perseus was towed into the air by a ground vehicle. At about 700 ft. the aircraft was released and the engine turned the propeller to take the plane to its desired altitude. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the

  17. Conceptual Design of a Small Hybrid Unmanned Aircraft System

    Umberto Papa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System technologies are today extremely required in various fields of interest, from military to civil (search and rescue, environmental surveillance and monitoring, and entertainment. Besides safety and legislative issues, the main obstacle to civilian applications of UAS systems is the short time of flight (endurance, which depends on the equipped power system (battery pack and the flight mission (low/high speed or altitude. Long flight duration is fundamental, especially with tasks that require hovering capability (e.g., river flow monitoring, earthquakes, devastated areas, city traffic monitoring, and archeological sites inspection. This work presents the conceptual design of a Hybrid Unmanned Aircraft System (HUAS, merging a commercial off-the-shelf quadrotor and a balloon in order to obtain a good compromise between endurance and weight. The mathematical models for weights estimation and balloon static performance analysis are presented, together with experimental results in different testing scenarios and complex environments, which show 50% improvement of the flight duration.

  18. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  19. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); German, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This final report addresses the following topics: Market Impact Analysis (1) assessment of general aviation, including commuter/regional, aircraft market impact due to incorporation of advanced technology propulsion system on acquisition and operating costs, job creation and/or manpower demand, and future fleet size; (2) selecting an aircraft and engine for the study by focusing on the next generation 19-passenger commuter and the Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine growth. Propulsion System Analysis Conducted mission analysis studies and engine cycle analysis to define a new commuter mission and required engine performance, define acquisition and operating costs and, select engine configuration and initiated preliminary design for hardware modifications required. Propulsion System Benefits (1) assessed and defined engine emissions improvements, (2) assessed and defined noise reduction potential and, (3) conducted a cost analysis impact study. Review of Relevant NASA Programs Conducted literature searches using NERAC and NASA RECON services for related technology in the emissions and acoustics area. Preliminary Technology Development Plans Defined plan to incorporate technology improvements for an FJ44-2 growth engine in performance, emissions, and noise suppression.

  20. Perm State University HPC-hardware and software services: capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving

    Demenev, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    The present work is devoted to analyze high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructure capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving at Perm State University. We explore here the ability to develop new computational aeroacoustics methods/solvers for computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems to handle complicated industrial problems of engine noise prediction. Leading aircraft engine engineering company, including “UEC-Aviadvigatel” JSC (our industrial partners in Perm, Russia), require that methods/solvers to optimize geometry of aircraft engine for fan noise reduction. We analysed Perm State University HPC-hardware resources and software services to use efficiently. The performed results demonstrate that Perm State University HPC-infrastructure are mature enough to face out industrial-like problems of development CAE-system with HPC-method and CFD-solvers.

  1. Analysis and design of insulation systems for LH2-fueled aircraft

    Cunnington, G. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical program was conducted to evaluate the performance of 15 potential insulations for the fuel tanks of a subsonic LH2-fueled transport aircraft intended for airline service in the 1990-1995 time period. As a result, two candidate insulation systems are proposed for subsonic transport aircraft applications. Both candidates are judged to be the optimum available and should meet the design requirements. However, because of the long-life cyclic nature of the application and the cost sensitivity of airline operations, an experimental tank/insulation development or proof-of-concept program is recommended. This program should be carried out with a nearly full-scale system which would be subjected to the cyclic thermal and mechanical inputs anticipated in aircraft service.

  2. The Second Joint NASA/FAA/DOD Conference on Aging Aircraft. Pt. 1

    Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Conference was to bring together world leaders in aviation safety research, aircraft design and manufacturing, fleet operation and aviation maintenance to disseminate information on current practices and advanced technologies that will assure the continued airworthiness of the aging aircraft in the military and commercial fleets. The Conference included reviews of current industry practices, assessments of future technology requirements, and status of aviation safety research. The Conference provided an opportunity for interactions among the key personnel in the research and technology development community, the original equipment manufacturers, commercial airline operators, military fleet operators, aviation maintenance, and aircraft certification and regulatory authorities. Conference participation was unrestricted and open to the international aviation community.

  3. An overview of the joint FAA/NASA aircraft/ground runway friction program

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for information on runways which may become slippery due to various forms and types of contaminants. Experience has shown that since the beginning of all weather aircraft operations, there have been landing and aborted takeoff incidents and/or accidents each year where aircraft have either run off the end or veered off the shoulder of low friction runways. NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Dynamics Branch is involved in several research programs directed towards obtaining a better understanding of how different tire properties interact with varying pavement surface characteristics to produce acceptable performance for aircraft ground handling requirements. One such effort, which was jointly supported by not only NASA and the FAA but by several aviation industry groups including the Flight Safety Foundation, is described.

  4. The Second Joint NASA/FAA/DoD Conference on Aging Aircraft. Part 2

    Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Conference was to bring together world leaders in aviation safety research, aircraft design and manufacturing, fleet operation and aviation maintenance to disseminate information on current practices and advanced technologies that will assure the continued airworthiness of the aging aircraft in the military and commercial fleets. The Conference included reviews of current industry practices, assessments of future technology requirements, and status of aviation safety research. The Conference provided an opportunity for interactions among the key personnel in the research and technology development community, the original equipment manufacturers, commercial airline operators, military fleet operators, aviation maintenance, and aircraft certification and regulatory authorities. Conference participation was unrestricted and open to the international aviation community. Appendix B contains the name and addresses of the 623 participants in the Conference.

  5. Optimal manpower allocation in aircraft line maintenance (Case in GMF AeroAsia)

    Puteri, V. E.; Yuniaristanto, Hisjam, M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a mathematical modeling to find the optimal manpower allocation in an aircraft line maintenance. This research focuses on assigning the number and type of manpower that allocated to each service. This study considers the licenced worker or Aircraft Maintenance Engineer Licence (AMEL) and non licenced worker or Aircraft Maintenance Technician (AMT). In this paper, we also consider the relationship of each station in terms of the possibility to transfer the manpower among them. The optimization model considers the number of manpowers needed for each service and the requirement of AMEL worker. This paper aims to determine the optimal manpower allocation using the mathematical modeling. The objective function of the model is to find the minimum employee expenses. The model was solved using the ILOG CPLEX software. The results show that the manpower allocation can meet the manpower need and the all load can be served.

  6. Aircraft versus spacecraft for remote monitoring of water quality in U.S. coastal zones

    Darnell, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    To provide guidance for conducting future water monitoring missions over U.S. coasts, aircraft and spacecraft approaches were defined and quantitatively compared. Sensors, aircraft and spacecraft were selected from current or developmental types for the hardware concepts and monitoring was assumed to begin in 1981-1983. Comparative data are presented on capabilities and costs to monitor both recognized pollution sites and broad shelf areas. For these mission requirements, a large fleet of light aircraft provided better coverage and at lower costs generally than one spacecraft, assuming a single, multi-spectral sensor on each platform. This result could change, however, should additional useful sensors with low cost penalties be found for the spacecraft.

  7. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S.; Khardi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  8. Assessing effects of military aircraft noise on residential property values near airbases

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Silvati, Laura; Cook, Brenda

    The question, 'Does military aircraft noise exposure affect residential property values in the vicinity of Air Force bases?', can be asked and answered with varying degrees of generality and tolerable errors of inference. Definitive answers are difficult to develop because the question itself may not be meaningful in some circumstances: property values are affected by many factors other than aircraft noise which can fluctuate greatly in different areas and during different time periods; credible attribution of causality for changes in property values uniquely to aircraft noise requires many costly study design measures; and prior findings suggest that if a relationship exists, it is not a large or especially strong one. Thus, evidence of a simple geographic association between aircraft noise exposure and residential property values does not provide a conclusive answer to the question. In an effort to develop more compelling evidence, the US Air Force is planning to compare historical records of sale prices of properties in areas of differential aircraft noise exposure during specific time periods with predictions of sale prices derived from a validated statistical model of residential property values.

  9. An artificial intelligence approach to onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis for aircraft applications

    Schutte, P. C.; Abbott, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    Real-time onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis for aircraft applications, whether performed by the human pilot or by automation, presents many difficult problems. Quick response to failures may be critical, the pilot often must compensate for the failure while diagnosing it, his information about the state of the aircraft is often incomplete, and the behavior of the aircraft changes as the effect of the failure propagates through the system. A research effort was initiated to identify guidelines for automation of onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis and associated crew interfaces. The effort began by determining the flight crew's information requirements for fault monitoring and diagnosis and the various reasoning strategies they use. Based on this information, a conceptual architecture was developed for the fault monitoring and diagnosis process. This architecture represents an approach and a framework which, once incorporated with the necessary detail and knowledge, can be a fully operational fault monitoring and diagnosis system, as well as providing the basis for comparison of this approach to other fault monitoring and diagnosis concepts. The architecture encompasses all aspects of the aircraft's operation, including navigation, guidance and controls, and subsystem status. The portion of the architecture that encompasses subsystem monitoring and diagnosis was implemented for an aircraft turbofan engine to explore and demonstrate the AI concepts involved. This paper describes the architecture and the implementation for the engine subsystem.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Power Distribution System in More Electric Aircraft

    Zhangang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The More Electric Aircraft concept is a fast-developing trend in modern aircraft industry. With this new concept, the performance of the aircraft can be further optimized and meanwhile the operating and maintenance cost will be decreased effectively. In order to optimize the power system integrity and have the ability to investigate the performance of the overall system in any possible situations, one accurate simulation model of the aircraft power system will be very helpful and necessary. This paper mainly introduces a method to build a simulation model for the power distribution system, which is based on detailed component models. The power distribution system model consists of power generation unit, transformer rectifier unit, DC-DC converter unit, and DC-AC inverter unit. In order to optimize the performance of the power distribution system and improve the quality of the distributed power, a feedback control network is designed based on the characteristics of the power distribution system. The simulation result indicates that this new simulation model is well designed and it works accurately. Moreover, steady state performance and transient state performance of the model can fulfill the requirements of aircraft power distribution system in the realistic application.

  11. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  12. Flight Load Assessment for Light Aircraft Landing Trajectories in Windy Atmosphere and Near Wind Farms

    Carmine Varriale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the wake encounter problem occurring when a light, or very light, aircraft flies through or nearby a wind turbine wake. The dependency of the aircraft normal load factor on the distance from the turbine rotor in various flight and environmental conditions is quantified. For this research, a framework of software applications has been developed for generating and controlling a population of flight simulation scenarios in presence of assigned wind and turbulence fields. The JSBSim flight dynamics model makes use of several autopilot systems for simulating a realistic pilot behavior during navigation. The wind distribution, calculated with OpenFOAM, is a separate input for the dynamic model and is considered frozen during each flight simulation. The aircraft normal load factor during wake encounters is monitored at different distances from the rotor, aircraft speeds, rates of descent and crossing angles. Based on these figures, some preliminary guidelines and recommendations on safe encounter distances are provided for general aviation aircraft, with considerations on pilot comfort and flight safety. These are needed, for instance, when an accident risk assessment study is required for flight in proximity of aeolic parks. A link to the GitHub code repository is provided.

  13. NASA/USRA high altitude research aircraft. Gryphon: Soar like an eagle with the roar of a lion

    Rivera, Jose; Nunes, Anne; Mcray, Mike; Wong, Walter; Ong, Audrey; Coble, Scott

    1991-01-01

    At the equator, the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ feet. This is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, which is NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozoned layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. Mission one is a polar mission which ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n. mi. at 100,000 feet with a 2500 lb. payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude of 70,000 feet and an increased payload of 4000 lb. For the third mission, the aircraft will take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet carrying a 2500 lb. payload, and land in Puerto Montt, Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet with a 1000 lb. payload, make an excursion to 120,000 feet, and land at Howard AFB, Panama. All three missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained due to constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. The aircraft need not be manned for all four missions. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the above requirements. The performance of each configuration is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project requirements. In the event that a requirement can not be obtained within the given constraints, recommendations for proposal modifications are given.

  14. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  15. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  16. Aircraft Configuration and Flight Crew Compliance with Procedures While Conducting Flight Deck Based Interval Management (FIM) Operations

    Shay, Rick; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Flight deck based Interval Management (FIM) applications using ADS-B are being developed to improve both the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). FIM is expected to improve the safety and efficiency of the NAS by giving pilots the technology and procedures to precisely achieve an interval behind the preceding aircraft by a specific point. Concurrently but independently, Optimized Profile Descents (OPD) are being developed to help reduce fuel consumption and noise, however, the range of speeds available when flying an OPD results in a decrease in the delivery precision of aircraft to the runway. This requires the addition of a spacing buffer between aircraft, reducing system throughput. FIM addresses this problem by providing pilots with speed guidance to achieve a precise interval behind another aircraft, even while flying optimized descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) human-in-the-loop experiment employed 24 commercial pilots to explore the use of FIM equipment to conduct spacing operations behind two aircraft arriving to parallel runways, while flying an OPD during high-density operations. This paper describes the impact of variations in pilot operations; in particular configuring the aircraft, their compliance with FIM operating procedures, and their response to changes of the FIM speed. An example of the displayed FIM speeds used incorrectly by a pilot is also discussed. Finally, this paper examines the relationship between achieving airline operational goals for individual aircraft and the need for ATC to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater precision. The results show that aircraft can fly an OPD and conduct FIM operations to dependent parallel runways, enabling operational goals to be achieved efficiently while maintaining system throughput.

  17. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

  18. The use of new facility by means internal balance with sting support for wide range Angle of Attack aircraft

    Subagyo; Daryanto, Yanto; Risnawan, Novan

    2018-04-01

    The development of facilities for the testing of wide range angle of attack aircraft in the wind tunnel at subsonic regime has done and implemented. Development required to meet the test at an angle of attack from -20 ° to 40 °. Testing the wide range angle of attack aircraft with a wide variation of the angle of attack become important needs. This can be done simply by using the sting support-equipped by internal balance to measure the forces and moments component aerodynamics. The results of development and use on the wide range angle of attack aircraft testing are aerodynamics characteristics in the form of the coefficient three components forces and the three components of the moment. A series of test aircraft was successfully carried out and the results are shown in the form of graphs of characteristic of aerodynamics at wind speed 70 m/s.

  19. Formal Methods in Air Traffic Management: The Case of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    As the technological and operational capabilities of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continue to grow, so too does the need to introduce these systems into civil airspace. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System is a NASA research project that addresses the integration of civil UAS into non-segregated airspace operations. One of the major challenges of this integration is the lack of an onboard pilot to comply with the legal requirement that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. The need to provide an equivalent to this requirement for UAS has motivated the development of a detect and avoid (DAA) capability to provide the appropriate situational awareness and maneuver guidance in avoiding and remaining well clear of traffic aircraft. Formal methods has played a fundamental role in the development of this capability. This talk reports on the formal methods work conducted under NASA's Safe Autonomous System Operations project in support of the development of DAA for UAS. This work includes specification of low-level and high-level functional requirements, formal verification of algorithms, and rigorous validation of software implementations. The talk also discusses technical challenges in formal methods research in the context of the development and safety analysis of advanced air traffic management concepts.

  20. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  1. Study of aircraft electrical power systems

    1972-01-01

    The formulation of a philosophy for devising a reliable, efficient, lightweight, and cost effective electrical power system for advanced, large transport aircraft in the 1980 to 1985 time period is discussed. The determination and recommendation for improvements in subsystems and components are also considered. All aspects of the aircraft electrical power system including generation, conversion, distribution, and utilization equipment were considered. Significant research and technology problem areas associated with the development of future power systems are identified. The design categories involved are: (1) safety-reliability, (2) power type, voltage, frequency, quality, and efficiency, (3) power control, and (4) selection of utilization equipment.

  2. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  3. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    Stanislav Fábry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections, if needed. Vibration sensors distribution, signal recording and processing are introduced in a paper. Recorded and re-calculated vibration parameters are used in role of health indicators.

  4. Unmanned aircraft system bridge inspection demonstration project phase II final report.

    2017-06-01

    An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are familiarly referred to as drones, a...

  5. Design Considerations for the Electrical Power Supply of Future Civil Aircraft with Active High-Lift Systems

    J.-K. Mueller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active high-lift systems of future civil aircraft allow noise reduction and the use of shorter runways. Powering high-lift systems electrically have a strong impact on the design requirements for the electrical power supply of the aircraft. The active high-lift system of the reference aircraft design considered in this paper consists of a flexible leading-edge device together with a combination of boundary-layer suction and Coanda-jet blowing. Electrically driven compressors distributed along the aircraft wings provide the required mass flow of pressurized air. Their additional loads significantly increase the electric power demand during take-off and landing, which is commonly provided by electric generators attached to the aircraft engines. The focus of the present study is a feasibility assessment of alternative electric power supply concepts to unburden or eliminate the generator coupled to the aircraft engine. For this purpose, two different concepts using either fuel cells or batteries are outlined and evaluated in terms of weight, efficiency, and technology availability. The most promising, but least developed alternative to the engine-powered electric generator is the usage of fuel cells. The advantages are high power density and short refueling time, compared to the battery storage concept.

  6. Flight test results for the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft

    Sullivan, R. Bryan; Zerweckh, Siegfried H.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the flight test program of the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft in the winter of 1987/88 are given. The results from experiments exploring the Light Eagle's rigid body and structural dynamics are presented. The interactions of these dynamics with the autopilot design are investigated. Estimates of the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft are detailed. The system of sensors, signal conditioning boards, and data acquisition equipment used to record the flight data is also described. In order to investigate the dynamics of the aircraft, flight test maneuvers were developed to yield maximum data quality from the point of view of estimating lateral and longitudinal stability derivatives. From this data, structural flexibility and unsteady aerodynamics have been modeled in an ad hoc manner and are used to augment the equations of motion with flexibility effects. Results of maneuvers that were flown are compared with the predictions from the flexibility model. To extend the ad hoc flexibility model, a fully flexible aeroelastic model has been developed. The model is unusual in the approximate equality of many structural natural frequencies and the importance of unsteady aerodynamic effects. the Gossamer Albatross. It is hypothesized that this inverse ground effect is caused by turbulence in the Earth's boundary layer. The diameters of the largest boundary layer eddies (which represent most of the turbulent kinetic energy) are proportional to altitude; thus, closer to the ground, the energy in the boundary layer becomes concentrated in eddies of smaller and smaller diameter. Eventually the eddies become sufficiently small (approximately 0.5 cm) that they trip the laminar boundary layer on the wing. As a result, a greater percentage of the wing area is covered with turbulent flow. Consequently the aircraft's drag and the pow er required both increase as the aircraft flies closer to the ground. The results of the flight test program are

  7. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  8. THE FEATURES OF AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    Stanislav Alexandrovich Krotov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The key steps of aircraft essential parameters and events monitoring during its operation are considered in the arti- cle. Conditions for specific risk monitoring are also presented.The notion of fail-safe feature of aircraft functional systems is analysed, and the necessity of continuous process of safety flight level estimate is shown. The method of quantitative assessment of key events and risks probabilities with the use of modern software is proposed. This method contains 5 basic stages: The monitoring parameters setting - this stage is initial and begins with the consideration of organization safety cul- ture, the main purposes and problems determination, the basic parameters and characteristics forming which are to be monitored. The event monitoring in operation - on this stage continuous process of key events searching and monitoring which are a thing of importance within the framework of the established problems takes place. This process is closely relat- ed to parameters monitoring set on the first stage. The event and risk estimate - this stage begins directly after the event has been discovered. The estimate pro- cess is as long as it is required to identify the event gravity. It also contains the preliminary risk estimate for using in priori- tization of initial expanded estimate and in the working out of plan for activities realization. The working out of plan for activities - on this stage correction data is determined that will make changes to aero- technics working out, operation, maintenance and to staff training directly in linkage to the problem event identified earlier. The activity carrying-out - the realization of actions according to the activity plan. This stage concludes priori- tization, planning and problem carrying-out. The dependence set between the probability of failure situations and the degree of their danger is shown. The key factors which are subject to be estimated while aircraft operating and which aim with

  9. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  10. Capabilities of unmanned aircraft vehicles for low altitude weed detection

    Pflanz, Michael; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production and food security require a consumer and environmental safe plant protection. It is recently known, that precise weed monitoring approaches could help apply pesticides corresponding to field variability. In this regard the site-specific weed management may contribute to an application of herbicides with higher ecologically aware and economical savings. First attempts of precision agriculture date back to the 1980's. Since that time, remote sensing from satellites or manned aircrafts have been investigated and used in agricultural practice, but are currently inadequate for the separation of weeds in an early growth stage from cultivated plants. In contrast, low-cost image capturing at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) provides higher spatial resolution and almost real-time processing. Particularly, rotary-wing aircrafts are suitable for precise path or stationary flight. This minimises motion blur and provides better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and the recent increase in the availability of microcontrollers and powerful batteries for UAVs, it can be expected that the spatial mapping of weeds will be enhanced in the future. A six rotors microcopter was equipped with a modified RGB camera taking images from agricultural fields. The hexacopter operates within predefined pathways at adjusted altitudes (from 5 to 10 m) by using GPS navigation. Different scenarios of optical weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. Our experiences showed high capabilities for site-specific weed control. Image analyses with regard to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide application to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  11. Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary.

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...

  12. Visit to China's ARJ21 Aircraft Manufacturing Facility

    Balut, Stephen J; McNicol, David L; Nelson, J. R; Harmon, Bruce R; Holder, Stephen G

    2008-01-01

    During a December 2007 visit to China to share information about civilian aircraft costs, a delegation from IDA visited the Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Facility where the commercial chinese ARJ21...

  13. Smart Patches for Monitoring Fatigue Crack Growth in Aircraft Structures

    Ihn, Jeong-Beom

    2001-01-01

    A built-in cost-effective diagnostic system for monitoring crack growth in aircraft structures was developed, particularly for riveted fuselage joints and cracked aircraft parts with composite bonded patches...

  14. System for indicating fuel-efficient aircraft altitude

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude at which an aircraft should fly so the W/d ratio (weight of the aircraft divided by the density of air) more closely approaches the optimum W/d for the aircraft. A passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft is directed at different angles with respect to the horizon to determine the air temperature, and therefore the density of the air, at different altitudes. The weight of the aircraft is known. The altitude of the aircraft is changed to fly the aircraft at an altitude at which is W/d ratio more closely approaches the optimum W/d ratio for that aircraft.

  15. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  16. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    2010-02-24

    ... entitled, ``State of the Art of Supersonics Aircraft Technology--What has progressed in science since 1973... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation...

  17. Defense Strategy of Aircraft Confronted with IR Guided Missile

    Hesong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-type infrared (IR decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhaust system radiation in the state of different heights and different speeds are established. Secondly, the most effective avoidance maneuver is simulated when the missile comes from the front of the target aircraft. Lastly, combining maneuver with decoys, the best defense strategy is analysed when the missile comes from the front of aircraft. The result of simulation, which is authentic, is propitious to avoid the missile and improve the survivability of aircraft.

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Road to Effective Integration

    Petrock, Christopher T; Huizenga, Thomas D

    2006-01-01

    ...) sharing airspace with manned assets. There have been at least two recent collisions between unmanned and rotary-wing aircraft at lower altitudes in Iraq, as well as numerous near misses with fixed-wing aircraft at higher altitudes...

  19. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  20. Cost Valuation: A Model for Comparing Dissimilar Aircraft Platforms

    Long, Eric J

    2006-01-01

    .... A demonstration of the model's validity using aircraft and cost data from the Predator UAV and the F-16 was then performed to illustrate how it can be used to aid comparisons of dissimilar aircraft...

  1. 77 FR 56581 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-09-13

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice of... airworthiness directive (AD) for the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopter, which... proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop...

  2. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  3. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  4. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    Dunn, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. ...

  5. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Chovil, D. V.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Desper, O. E.; Jamison, E. S.; Syder, H.

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, analysis, and testing activities and results that were required to produce five and one-half shipsets of advanced composite elevators for Boeing 727 aircraft are summarized. During the preliminary design period, alternative concepts were developed. After selection of the best design, detail design and basic configuration improvements were evaluated. Five and one-half shipsets were manufactured. All program goals (except competitive cost demonstration) were accomplished when our design met or exceeded all requirements, criteria, and objectives.

  6. Engineering of Fast and Robust Adaptive Control for Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aircraft

    2017-06-01

    evaluate the use of adaptive control on fixed-wing unmanned aircraft . The growing demand for unmanned systems will inherit the costs associated with...aerospace environment . 2.2 Classical Feedback vs Adaptive Control Control of a system can be categorized into two required elements; the requirement to...stabilize the system in the presence of: 1. disturbances that affect the controlled states and outputs (pitch rate perturbation caused by environmental

  7. Advances in Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Communications and Remote Sensing in Maritime Environments including the Arctic

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Wackowski, S.; Walker, G.

    2011-12-01

    Small remotely piloted aircraft have recently been used for maritime remote sensing, including launch and retrieval operations from land, ships and sea ice. Such aircraft can also function to collect and communicate data from other ocean observing system platforms including moorings, tagged animals, drifters, autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs). The use of small remotely piloted aircraft (or UASs, unmanned aerial systems) with a combination of these capabilities will be required to monitor the vast areas of the open ocean, as well as in harsh high-latitude ecosystems. Indeed, these aircraft are a key component of planned high latitude maritime domain awareness environmental data collection capabilities, including use of visible, IR and hyperspectral sensors, as well as lidar, meteorological sensors, and interferometric synthetic aperture radars (ISARs). We here first describe at-sea demonstrations of improved reliability and bandwidth of communications from ocean sensors on autonomous underwater vehicles to autonomous surface vessels, and then via remotely piloted aircraft to shore, ships and manned aircraft using Delay and Disruption Tolerant (DTN) communication protocols. DTN enables data exchange in communications-challenged environments, such as remote regions of the ocean including high latitudes where low satellite angles and auroral disturbances can be problematic. DTN provides a network architecture and application interface structured around optionally-reliable asynchronous message forwarding, with limited expectations of end-to-end connectivity and node resources. This communications method enables aircraft and surface vessels to function as data mules to move data between physically disparate nodes. We provide examples of the uses of this communication protocol for environmental data collection and data distribution with a variety of different remotely piloted aircraft in a coastal ocean environment. Next, we

  8. Optimizing Unmanned Aircraft System Scheduling

    2008-06-01

    ASC-U uses a deterministic algorithm to optimize over a given finite time horizon to obtain near-optimal UAS mission area assignments. ASC-U...the details of the algorithm . We set an upper bound on the total number of schedules that can be generated, so as not to create unsolvable ILPs. We...COL_MISSION_NAME)) If Trim( CStr (rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED))) <> "" Then If CLng(rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED)) > CLng

  9. 77 FR 45480 - Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft

    2012-08-01

    ... Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... business aircraft for entertainment. These final regulations affect taxpayers that deduct expenses for... section 274 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) of deductions for the use of business aircraft for...

  10. 14 CFR 47.19 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 47.19 Section 47.19... REGISTRATION General § 47.19 FAA Aircraft Registry. Each application, request, notification, or other communication sent to the FAA under this Part must be mailed to the FAA Aircraft Registry, Department of...

  11. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  12. Application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Boomen, van den G.J.A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that was designed for research on aircraft passenger comfort mprovement product. The simulator consists of an economy class section, a business class section, a lavatory

  13. 78 FR 9796 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2013-02-12

    ... (2) Model 172S, S/N l72S11074 through 172S11193. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  14. 77 FR 72250 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-12-05

    ... Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of chafing of a new... flight, reinstall the fuel return line assembly (Cessna P/N 0516031-1) following Cessna Aircraft Company...

  15. 77 FR 50054 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-08-20

    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition... Fuel Return System Modification Do not install Cessna Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB 04- 28-03...

  16. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters. ...

  17. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...

  18. 78 FR 25363 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    2013-05-01

    ... holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A... Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 20, 2012. The... Aircraft Industries GmbH Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 26, 2012. (2) If chafing...

  19. Future V/STOL Aircraft For The Pacific Basin

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1992-01-01

    Report describes geography and transportation needs of Asian Pacific region, and describes aircraft configurations suitable for region and compares performances. Examines applications of high-speed rotorcraft, vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and short-takeoff-and landing (STOL) aircraft. Configurations benefit commerce, tourism, and development of resources.

  20. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    2013-02-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44...

  1. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-07-19

    ...-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and PA-19 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  2. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...

  3. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-09-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... published in the Federal Register. AD 2013-13-01 applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P... nitrile parts are installed for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T...

  4. 76 FR 71081 - Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum

    2011-11-16

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum which will begin at 9 a... ``Public Aircraft Oversight Forum: Ensuring Safety for Critical Missions'', are to (1) raise awareness of...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract (particularly...

  6. 77 FR 67561 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-11-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models... throughout the AD for Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and...

  7. 77 FR 68058 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M... after receipt. For service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation...

  8. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-06-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for certain WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1, and 2T-1A-2 airplanes... information identified in this AD, contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport Rd., Battle...

  9. 77 FR 52205 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and F-1A... inspection results. This new AD was prompted by a report of a Univair Aircraft Corporation Model ERCO 415-D...

  10. 77 FR 21402 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the discovery of tail... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  11. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  12. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    2011-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... following new AD: 2011-03-04 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  13. 5 CFR 2634.802 - Requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... ethics agreements. Example: An official of the ABC Aircraft Company is nominated to a Department of... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Ethics Agreements § 2634.802 Requirements. (a) Ethics...

  14. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  15. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  16. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  17. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6... safety. (a) The provisions of this part will be revised if at any time the Administrator determines that an emission standard cannot be met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. (b...

  18. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  20. Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects

    Willshire, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.