WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft refueling

  1. Effect of mass variation on the dynamics of receiver aircraft during aerial refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weixin

    This dissertation presents the results of a study of the dynamic behavior of two aircraft that are flying in formation while one of them (the receiver) is being refueled by the other (the tanker) in mid-flight. The current procedure for aerial refueling requires that the receiver aircraft fly below, behind, and in relatively close proximity of the tanker for refueling to be possible. This means that the receiver aircraft is subjected to the full impact of the tanker wake turbulence; and this can clearly have a major impact on the motion of the receiver craft. Another important fact about aerial refueling is that large quantity of fuel is transferred from one vehicle to the other in a relatively short time. The resulting change in mass and the attendant change in aircraft inertia properties can also affect the dynamics of the aircraft system during fuel transfer. The principal goal of this project is to investigate the importance of this latter effect. This work accomplishes two main objectives. First, it shows how mass variation can be effectively factored into an analytical study of in-flight refueling; and it does this while keeping the analyses involved manageable. In addition, a numerical study of the equations of motion is utilized to extract useful information on how mass variation and some changes in receiver aircraft parameters can affect the motion of the receiver relative to the tanker. Results obtained indicate that mass variation due to fuel transfer compounds the difficulties created by tanker wake turbulence. In order to keep the receiver aircraft at a fixed position relative to the tanker during aerial refueling, appreciable adjustments must be made to the receiver's angle of attack, throttle setting and elevator deflection. A larger refueling rate demands even larger adjustments. Changes in certain other parameters related to aerial refueling can also amplify the effects of mass variation on the receiver motion, or influence the system's dynamics in

  2. Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over Systems Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over System’s Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling Prior to February 2016, the Navy had planned to...pages in the publication and whether the publication is printed in color or black and white . Pricing and ordering information is posted on GAO’s

  3. Flight system design for a receiver aircraft to perform autonomous aerial refueling provided with relative position data link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awni, Kahtan A.

    An automatic aerial refueling system was developed that is capable of controlling the receiving aircraft to rendezvous, dock and station keep the receiver refueling probe in the tanker refueling probe. The automatic refueling system consisted of an active trajectory generator, a guidance system and a control system. The active trajectory generator continuously updated the commanded rendezvous trajectory to be flown by the receiver aircraft. This active trajectory generator concept incorporated design variables that the designer could use to specify the time sequence of the rendezvous and docking maneuver. The output of the trajectory generator was then the command to the flight systems guidance and control systems. To demonstrate this automatic aerial refueling system concept, a detailed design of the flight system algorithms was done for typical aerial refueling mission with a heavy jet tanker aircraft similar to the KC135 and the SIAI-Marchetti S-211 Jet Trainer as a receiver aircraft. The systems gains were selected to minimize the control surface activity while achieving adequate tracking. A simulation was developed that included the flight system algorithms, linear models of the receiver aircraft, atmospheric and tanker wake disturbance models. The performance of the aerial refueling system design was then evaluated in a batch computer simulator. The simulation study demonstrated results showed better disturbance rejection relative to the controller performance while minimizing the utilization of the control surfaces. Results also demonstrated the ability to schedule rendezvous.

  4. Design for air-to-air refuelling operations; new passenger and tanker aircraft design for AAR scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Air-to-air refuelling is a way to improve fuel efficiency of the overall transport system without waiting for the improvement of basic aviation technology. To take full advantage of such an operation, both passenger aircraft and tanker aircraft (which deliver required fuel to the passenger aircraft

  5. Lateral Dynamic Stability of Aerial Refueling Aircraft and Tanker Aircraft%空中加油受油机横侧动操稳特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋双杰; 张玉莲

    2011-01-01

    空中加油时,加油机的气动力和力矩对受油机的操纵影响较大.需对影响大小进行定量分析,得出确定结论.本文对受油机的横侧动稳定性及操纵性进行了研究,确定了作用在受油机上由加油机翼端涡场引起的气动力和力矩的大小,提出一种简化气动模型,并将导数形式的力和力矩用于线性运动方程.研究表明,受油机具有发散的振荡特性,且主要由倾斜和侧向移动组成;飞行员在飞行时可通过不断操纵副翼来控制发散模态,保持飞机稳定.%During the air refueling, the aerodynamic force and the vortex field of the refueling tanker aircraft would greatly affect the manipulation of the refueling aircraft, and it is important to study this impact. This paper studies the cross-lateral dynamic stability and controllability of the air refueling tanker aircraft. The aerodynamic force and the vortex field of the refueling tanker aircraft on the wing of the refueling aircraft are determined through a simplified aerodynamic model. These forces and moments are expressed in a derivative form to be applied in the linear equations of motion. It is shown that the aerial refueling tanker aircraft would experience a divergent oscillation, mainly composed of tilt and lateral movement. By the manipulation of ailerons to control the divergence continuous mode, the aircraft may keep stable. The results of the present paper may serve as a theoretical basis for action that can be taken for other types of manipulation and other types of refueling aircraft.

  6. Scheduling Problem of Aircraft Refueling Vehicle Based on Ant Colony Algorithm%基于蚁群算法的飞机加油车辆调度问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长有; 王一飞

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft refueling is an important part of ground security operations. Reasonable scheduling of aircraft refueling vehicle is the key factor for aircraft to complete the refueling operations on time and quantity, so the research of aircraft refueling vehicle scheduling is very meaningful. This paper firstly introduces the types, functions, driving process and considerations of aircraft refueling vehicle, then specifically describes the model of aircraft refueling vehicle scheduling according to the basic model of vehicle scheduling, finally carries on simulation calculation for the driving situations of airport tank refueling vehicle within three hours in an airport and provides a viable optimization algorithms for aircraft refueling vehicle operation.%飞机加油是停机坪地面保障作业的重要环节,能否对飞机按时按量的完成加油作业的关键因素在于对飞机加油车辆的合理调度,因此对飞机加油车辆调度的研究是十分有意义的。本文首先对飞机加油车辆的类型、功能、行驶过程及其注意事项做了简单的介绍,然后根据车辆调度的基本模型对飞机加油车辆调度的模型进行了比较具体的描述,文章最后用蚁群算法对某机场3个小时内飞机油罐加油车辆行驶情况进行仿真计算,希望通过对该模型的仿真优化计算,为机场加油车辆运行提供一种可行优化算法。

  7. Forward Arming and Refueling Points for Fighter Aircraft: Power Projection in an Antiaccess Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    and 500 ground-launched cruise missiles ( GLCM ) against bases within the first island chain, which en- compasses the East and South China Seas...protection from GLCMs , respectively.22 In the WPTO, at least 174 potential FARP loca- tions are 540 nm from China, 130 of them beyond 810 nm. To thwart an...22. Ibid., 9. This assumes that GLCMs are launched when the first aircraft lands. China’s most capable GLCM , the C-602/H-3, is also known as the DH

  8. 基于仿真的作战飞机管道加油调度优化研究%Scheduling Optimization of Combat Aircraft Pipeline Refueling Based on Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世宏; 雍岐东; 李横; 岳亮

    2013-01-01

      针对多机种作战飞机管道油料加注调度优化的现实问题,通过研究作战飞机从到达基地到加油完毕的油料加注周期,提出了一种新的管道加油口选择策略,并基于此策略研制了以作战飞机数量和油料加注时间为仿真结束条件的2种GPSSW仿真程序模型。通过多次仿真实验,结果表明:该策略优于基于调度人员经验的“即空即用”管道加油口选择策略,可有效提高作战飞机油料加注效率,并能实现有限管道加油口的合理分配。%In order to solve the practical scheduling optimization problem of multitype combat aircraft pipeline refueling,a new selection strategy is proposed for pipeline refueling adapters according to the combat aircraft refueling cycles from aircraft arriv⁃ing airport to fueling over. Based on the new selection strategy,two types of general purpose system simulation world(GPSSW)mod⁃els,which are conditional on combat aircrafts quantity and refueling time,are programmed. Through numerical simulation of two types of models,the test results indicate that the new selection strategy gains an advantage over the traditional selection based on ex⁃periences of scheduling personnel,increases the refueling efficiency of combat aircraft,and achieves the oil filler of limited pipeline channels’reasonable arrangement.

  9. Renew, refuel, and rebuild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Allison

    2009-01-01

    We can renew, refuel, and rebuild America with millions of green jobs, but they must be good jobs. Participants at the conference understand that environmental and economic stability go hand-in-hand, that the challenges of global warming are urgent and that huge opportunities exist for building a clean energy economy.

  10. Evaluation of the Production CH-47D Adverse Weather Cockpit (AWC) Aerial Refueling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    aircraft longitudinal axis at a preset elevation. The system also has an automatic tracking feature which enables the optics to automatically track an...I degrees left of the aircraft longitudinal axis. Approximately 25 percent of the screen is obtcured when looking 90 degrees right of the aircraft ... aircraft longitudinal axis before the tip of the refueling probe is visible on the right side of the screen, When looking 90 degrees right of the aircraft

  11. Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration: Phase I Flight-Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibley, Ryan P.; Allen, Michael J.; Nabaa, Nassib

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration (AARD) project was completed on August 30, 2006. The goal of this 15-month effort was to develop and flight-test a system to demonstrate an autonomous refueling engagement using the Navy style hose-and-drogue air-to-air refueling method. The prime contractor for this Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored program was Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), Sparks, Nevada. The responsible flight-test organization was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, which also provided the F/A-18 receiver airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The B-707-300 tanker airplane (The Boeing Company) was contracted through Omega Aerial Refueling Services, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, and the optical tracking system was contracted through OCTEC Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom. Nine research flights were flown, testing the functionality and performance of the system in a stepwise manner, culminating in the plug attempts on the final flight. Relative position keeping was found to be very stable and accurate. The receiver aircraft was capable of following the tanker aircraft through turns while maintaining its relative position. During the last flight, six capture attempts were made, two of which were successful. The four misses demonstrated excellent characteristics, the receiver retreating from the drogue in a controlled, safe, and predictable manner that precluded contact between the drogue and the receiver aircraft. The position of the receiver aircraft when engaged and in position for refueling was found to be 5.5 to 8.5 ft low of the ideal position. The controller inputs to the F/A-18 were found to be extremely small.

  12. Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration, Phase I Flight-Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibley, Ryan P.; Allen, Michael J.; Nabaa, Nassib

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration (AARD) project was completed on August 30, 2006. The goal of this 15-month effort was to develop and flight-test a system to demonstrate an autonomous refueling engagement using the Navy style hose-and-drogue air-to-air refueling method. The prime contractor for this Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored program was Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), Sparks, Nevada. The responsible flight-test organization was the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, which also provided the F/A-18 receiver airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The B-707-300 tanker airplane (The Boeing Company) was contracted through Omega Aerial Refueling Services, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, and the optical tracking system was contracted through OCTEC Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom. Nine research flights were flown, testing the functionality and performance of the system in a stepwise manner, culminating in the plug attempts on the final flight. Relative position keeping was found to be very stable and accurate. The receiver aircraft was capable of following the tanker aircraft through turns while maintaining its relative position. During the last flight, six capture attempts were made, two of which were successful. The four misses demonstrated excellent characteristics, the receiver retreating from the drogue in a controlled, safe, and predictable manner that precluded contact between the drogue and the receiver aircraft. The position of the receiver aircraft when engaged and in position for refueling was found to be 5.5 to 8.5 ft low of the ideal position. The controller inputs to the F/A-18 were found to be extremely small

  13. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  14. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    8. Material Tiiie 6. E-mail Address derek.feiwerda@uavy.mil Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request 9. List all contributing organizations...and obtain Public Retease Authorization from the commnnd(s) contributing to this material. I have reviewed all the applicable security classification...AUTHOR(S) Hewitt, Keith; Graham, Jessica; Swiderek, Thomas; Kalt, Dexter; ARSAG Working Group 5 Participants 5d. PROJECT NUMBER N/A 5e. TASK NUMBER N

  15. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  16. Next Generation Tanker: Optimizing Air Refueling Capabilities in 2030 with a Divested KC-10 Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or...is the right -sized next generation tanker (KC-Y) that best balances various combatant commander air refueling requirements in 2030 and a shrinking...Between 1993 and 2003, the amount of KC-135 depot maintenance work doubled, and the overhaul cost per aircraft tripled. “In 1996 it cost $8,400 per

  17. Hydrogen Production for Refuelling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulteberg, Christian; Aagesen, Diane (Intelligent Energy, Long Beach, CA (United States))

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this work is to support the development of a high-profile demonstration of hydrogen generation technologies in a Swedish context. The overall objective of the demonstration is to deploy a reforming based hydrogen refilling station along the Swedish west coast; intermediate to the Malmoe refuelling station and planned stations in Goeteborg. In this way, the Norwegian hydrogen highway will be extended through the south of Sweden and down into Denmark. The aim of the project's first phase, where this constitutes the final report, was to demonstrate the ability to operate the IE reforming system on the E.On/SGC site-specific fuel. During the project, a preliminary system design has been developed, based on IE's proprietary reformer. The system has been operated at pressure, to ensure a stable operation of the downstream PSA; which has been operated without problems and with the expected hydrogen purity and recovery. The safe operation of the proposed and tested system was first evaluated in a preliminary risk assessment, as well as a full HazOp analysis. A thorough economic modelling has been performed on the viability of owning and operating this kind of hydrogen generation equipment. The evaluation has been performed from an on-site operation of such a unit in a refuelling context. The general conclusion from this modelling is that there are several parameters that influence the potential of an investment in a Hestia hydrogen generator. The sales price of the hydrogen is one of the major drivers of profitability. Another important factor is the throughput of the unit, more important than efficiency and utilization. Varying all of the parameters simultaneously introduce larger variations in the NPV, but 60% of the simulations are in the USD 90 000 to USD 180 000 interval. The chosen intervals for the parameters were: Hydrogen Sales Price (USD 5 - USD 7 per kg); Investment Cost (USD 70 000 - USD 130 000 per unit); Throughput (20 - 30 kg

  18. KC-46 Tanker Aircraft: Program Generally on Track, but Upcoming Schedule Remains Challenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    10 Currently, Air Force fixed- wing aircraft refuel with the “flying boom.” The boom is a rigid, telescoping tube that an operator on the tanker...related to aerial refueling—the centerline drogue system and wing aerial refueling pod. Boeing still considers the instability of these components to be

  19. AHTR Refueling Systems and Process Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Zaharia, Nathaniel M [ORNL; Cooper, Eliott J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station-type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently undergoing development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR is approaching a preconceptual level of maturity. An initial integrated layout of its major systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and an initial, high-level sequence of operations necessary for constructing and operating the plant is nearing completion. An overview of the current status of the AHTR concept has been recently published and a report providing a more detailed overview of the AHTR structures and mechanical systems is currently in preparation. This report documents the refueling components and processes envisioned at this early development phase. The report is limited to the refueling aspects of the AHTR and does not include overall reactor or power plant design information. The report, however, does include a description of the materials envisioned for the various components and the instrumentation necessary to control the refueling process. The report begins with an overview of the refueling strategy. Next a mechanical description of the AHTR fuel assemblies and core is provided. The reactor vessel upper assemblies are then described. Following this the refueling path structures and the refueling mechanisms and components are described. The sequence of operations necessary to fuel and defuel the reactor is then discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the

  20. AHTR Refueling Systems and Process Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, V.K.; Holcomb, D.E.; Bradley, E.C.; Zaharia, N.M.; Cooper, E.J.

    2012-07-15

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station-type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt–cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently undergoing development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR is approaching a preconceptual level of maturity. An initial integrated layout of its major systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and an initial, high-level sequence of operations necessary for constructing and operating the plant is nearing completion. An overview of the current status of the AHTR concept has been recently published [1], and a report providing a more detailed overview of the AHTR structures and mechanical systems is currently in preparation. This report documents the refueling components and processes envisioned at this early development phase. The report is limited to the refueling aspects of the AHTR and does not include overall reactor or power plant design information. The report, however, does include a description of the materials envisioned for the various components and the instrumentation necessary to control the refueling process. The report begins with an overview of the refueling strategy. Next a mechanical description of the AHTR fuel assemblies and core is provided. The reactor vessel upper assemblies are then described. Following this the refueling path structures and the refueling mechanisms and components are described. The sequence of operations necessary to fuel and defuel the reactor is then discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the

  1. Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Performing the Air Refueling Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    comes to dealing with ignorant, uncooperative, or openly defiant RPA operators. In the words of Barnhart et al. (2012:47), As market forces create...autonomous system’s ability to perfume various mission and tasks. Environmental complexity, on the other hand, measures an autonomous system’s

  2. Optimization of hydrogen vehicle refueling via dynamic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Mérida, W.; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic model has been developed to analyze and optimize the thermodynamics and design of hydrogen refueling stations. The model is based on Dymola software and incorporates discrete components. Two refueling station designs were simulated and compared. The modeling results indicate that pressu...

  3. Standardized Technical Data Survey (STDS) for Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-06

    GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Olverson, Gregory; ARSAG Workshop/JSB Working Group Participants; Swiderek, Tom; Burket...WORK UNIT NUMBER N/A 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Aerial Refueling Systems Advisory Group (ARSAG) Dexter Kalt, Executive...aerial refueling altitude/airspeed capabilities, hardware mating interfaces, structural load, fuel line pressure capabilities, pressure regulation

  4. Meta-RaPS Algorithm for the Aerial Refueling Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Arin, Arif; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2011-01-01

    The Aerial Refueling Scheduling Problem (ARSP) can be defined as determining the refueling completion times for each fighter aircraft (job) on multiple tankers (machines). ARSP assumes that jobs have different release times and due dates, The total weighted tardiness is used to evaluate schedule's quality. Therefore, ARSP can be modeled as a parallel machine scheduling with release limes and due dates to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Since ARSP is NP-hard, it will be more appropriate to develop a pproimate or heuristic algorithm to obtain solutions in reasonable computation limes. In this paper, Meta-Raps-ATC algorithm is implemented to create high quality solutions. Meta-RaPS (Meta-heuristic for Randomized Priority Search) is a recent and promising meta heuristic that is applied by introducing randomness to a construction heuristic. The Apparent Tardiness Rule (ATC), which is a good rule for scheduling problems with tardiness objective, is used to construct initial solutions which are improved by an exchanging operation. Results are presented for generated instances.

  5. REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londo, M.; Deurwarder, E.; Lensink, S. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits, outlines the technological, legislative and other developments that should take place, and evaluate different policy strategies for realisation. Some preliminary conclusions of the project are discussed here. There is a significant domestic land potential for energy crops in the EU, which could supply between one quarter and one third of gasoline and diesel demand by 2030 if converted into advanced biofuels. A biomass supply of 8 to 10 EJ of primary energy could be available at costs around or below 3 EURO/GJ. However, the introduction of advanced biofuel options may meet a considerable introductory cost barrier, which will not be overcome when EU policy is oriented to the introduction of biofuels at least cost. Therefore, conventional biodiesel and ethanol may dominate the market for decades to come, unless biofuels incentives are differentiated, e.g. on the basis of the differences in greenhouse gas performance among biofuels.The introduction of advanced biofuels may also be enhanced by creating stepping stones or searching introduction synergies. A stepping stone can be the short-term development of lignocellulosic biomass supply chains for power generation by co-firing; synergies can be found between advanced FT-diesel production and hydrogen production for the fuel cell. (au)

  6. Connecting Transitions in Galaxy Properties to Refueling

    CERN Document Server

    Kannappan, Sheila J; Eckert, Kathleen D; Moffett, Amanda J; Wei, Lisa H; Pisano, D J; Baker, Andrew J; Vogel, Stuart N; Fabricant, Daniel G; Laine, Seppo; Norris, Mark A; Jogee, Shardha; Lepore, Natasha; Hough, Loren E; Weinberg-Wolf, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    We relate transitions in galaxy structure and gas content to refueling, here defined to include both the external gas accretion and the internal gas processing needed to renew reservoirs for star formation. We analyze two z=0 data sets: a high-quality ~200-galaxy sample (the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, data release herein) and a volume-limited ~3000-galaxy sample with reprocessed archival data. Both reach down to baryonic masses ~10^9Msun and span void-to-cluster environments. Two mass-dependent transitions are evident: (i) below the "gas-richness threshold" scale (V~125km/s), gas-dominated quasi-bulgeless Sd--Im galaxies become numerically dominant, while (ii) above the "bimodality" scale (V~200km/s), gas-starved E/S0s become the norm. Notwithstanding these transitions, galaxy mass (or V as its proxy) is a poor predictor of gas-to-stellar mass ratio M_gas/M_*. Instead, M_gas/M_* correlates well with the ratio of a galaxy's stellar mass formed in the last Gyr to its preexisting stellar mass, such that the two...

  7. Testing of a refuelable zinc/air bus battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Koopman, R.; Hargrove, D.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.

    1995-02-22

    We report tests of a refuelable zinc/air battery of modular, bipolar-cell design, intended for fleet electric busses and vans. The stack consists of twelve 250-cm{sup 2} cells built of two units: (1) a copper-clad glass-reinforced epoxy board supporting anode and cathode current collectors, and (2) polymer frame providing for air- and electrolyte distribution and zinc fuel storage. The stack was refueled in 4 min. by a hydraulic transfer of zinc particles entrained in solution flow.

  8. The Magnetic Shielding Effect of a Re-Fuelling Pellet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic shielding effect of a refuelling pellet is considered by first briefly reviewing the existing balloon model. The limitation of the model is pointed out and discussed. Since solid deuterium is an insulator and the ablated plasma is expected to be cold and dense, it is felt that the ex...

  9. Hyapproval : final handbook for approval of hydrogen refuelling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurster, R.; Landinger, H.; Machens, C.; Allidières, L.; Molag, M.; Barron, J.; Reijalt, M.; Hill, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    HyApproval is an EC co-financed Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) to develop a Handbook facilitating the approval of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS). The project, started in October 2005, will be performed over 24 months by a balanced partnership including 25 partners from industry, SMEs

  10. Refueling outage availability study. Phase 1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomasson, F.R.

    1977-11-01

    Babcock and Wilcox entered into a contract with the Department of Energy (formerly the Energy Research and Development Administration) for the performance of a refueling outage availability study with the cooperation of Duke Power Company and Arkansas Power and Light Company. The objective was to improve plant availability through reduction of refueling outage time. The conclusions of the study were drawn from data gathered during the 1976 Oconee 3 and 1977 Arkansas Unit One refueling outages. The onsite effort was one of observation and data recording, which included time-lapsed photography and video tape. The collected data were then evaluated and analyzed for potential improvements and to identify in detail where resources were consumed. The overall result was a listing of (1) specific recommendations for implementing improvements in the facilities, equipment, tools, procedures, and techniques for the participating utilities; (2) generic recommendations of immediate benefit to other applicable utilities; and (3) recommendations for further work in the succeeding phases of the DOE program. The results indicate that, by incorporating the recommendations and taking credit for the time savings, an ideal refueling outage length of 21 to 22 days for the nuclear steam system (NSS) could be realized. Additional benefits would be a reduction in man-Rem exposure and manpower requirements.

  11. Cold power plant based on the cryogenic refueling tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Dovgjallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the possibility to use a tank with cryogenic refueling as a part of the autonomous complex employing the liquefied natural gas. A cryogenic refueling tank-based installation to utilize a low-grade heat has been designed. During its use extra electric power is generated. To assess a performance capability, the proposed installation calculations have been made for different end pressures in cryogenic refueling tank. In all embodiments, the mass of cryogenic refilled is 866 kg. Depending on the pressure an amount of extra electric power is produced owing to utilizing a low temperature potential of LNG. New values, such as the specific amount of extra energy are introduced. These values allow objective assessment of the potential for extra energy when using the cryogenic products with their subsequent regasification in cryogenic refueling tank taking into consideration the operational constraints and the working fluid flow.A cold energy power plant has been also designed to refuel vehicles with the natural gas. In this paper the turbines with desirable expansion ratio to generate the maximum possible amount of power were selected in an optimal way. The optimum degree of expansion for the first turbine in the first loop will be т = 8.8; for the second turbine in the first loop т = 10; turbines for the second loop т = 3.9. The total amount of generated electric power will be 3725.22 kW•h for 225 min. The action time of cold energy power plant, including the time of methane gasification in cryogenic refueling tank, time of refueling vehicles, and time of electricity generation will be 24 hours. The economic assessment of cold energy power plant has shown that the payback period is 3.4 years.Thus, the performance evaluation by the temperature and pressure levels eliminates the possibility for forming the hydrates.So the calculations have shown that research in the development of power plants looks promising as well as allow you

  12. Analysis on the LODHR Event during Refueling Pool Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dong Hyun; Huh, Jae Young; Lee, Gyu Cheon; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the analysis is performed to evaluate the time to core uncovery and core damage as well as the time to core boiling. To analyze thermal hydraulic behaviors during refueling pool operation, RELAP5/MOD3.3 is used adopting the Henry-Fauske (H-F) critical flow model. The input modeling method adopts the method of SFP. The purpose of the analysis is to study the major results and T-H behaviors regarding to safety aspect during LODHR event at the refueling pool operation. In the present low power and shutdown (LPSD) probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) thermal hydraulic (T-H) analysis for dealing with various different plant operational states (POSs), the T-H analysis for the duration of refueling pool operation is omitted as it is considered less severe procedure during overhaul period for optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000). Instead only spent fuel pool analysis has been performed representing refueling operation mode (operation mode 6). However, in NUREG-1449, the NRC staff identified twelve technical issues that warrant further evaluation regarding shutdown and low power operation at U.S commercial nuclear power plants. One of issues identified for further evaluation is to evaluate the effect of PWR upper internals, that is, the PWR upper internals may inhibit water in the refueling pool from entering the core during a loss of decay heat removal event (LODHR). Per a commission paper (SECY-91-283) which reported progress to date on the evaluation, the NRC staff requested to address this safety issue by performing a quantitative and qualitative analysis. An analysis of LODHR was performed for advanced power reactor 1400 (APR1400) but it was focused to evaluate the initiation time of core boiling. As the results of the analysis for the LODHR during refueling pool operation, even though the core boiling is occurred in 15 minutes, there is enough water to cover the core and it prevents the core from damaging. The time is taken more than 4 days until the

  13. Assessment of Refueling Hose Visibility: Post-Cleaning Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    visibility, contrast, illumination, viewing geometries, spectral band, NVG , SWIR, LWIR, standards 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...drogue which incorporates a white canopy over 52” in diameter with a 1 foot wide white cloth used for rotary wing helicopters aerial refueling. Night...Light-Emitting Diode LWIR – Long-Wave Infra-Red Navair – U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command NVG – Night Vision Goggles SWIR – Short-Wave Infra-Red

  14. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-I Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR. This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  15. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration--A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-05-11

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  16. Integrated services of refuelling activities; Servicios Integrados de actividades de recarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Valcarcel, M.

    2004-07-01

    One of the widespread tendencies to reach the objectives that the nuclear power plants settle down in their refuelling outages is the use of an integrated service for refuelling activities. In this article, the advantages or reasons of this service are exposed, as well as the integrated refuelling activities service, inside containment, that Tecnatom, Westinghouse and ENUSA have given for the Asco and Vandellos II NPPs, with their results and conclusions. (Author)

  17. Insights from Hydrogen Refueling Station Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayyas, Ahmad

    2015-12-18

    In work for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), NREL is currently collaborating with Great Lakes Wind Network in conducting a comprehensive hydrogen refueling stations manufacturing competitiveness and supply chain analyses. In this project, CEMAC will be looking at several metrics that will facilitate understanding of the interactions between and within the HRS supply chain, such metrics include innovation potential, intellectual properties, learning curves, related industries and clustering, existing supply chains, ease of doing business, and regulations and safety. This presentation to Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition 2015 highlights initial findings from CEMAC's analysis.

  18. BWR Servicing and Refueling Improvement Program: Phase I summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D.R.

    1978-09-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship, General Electric Co. (GE) undertook a study of boiling water reactor (BWR) refueling outages for the purpose of recommending the development and demonstration of critical path time savings improvements. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) joined the study as a subcontractor, providing monitoring assistance and making the Browns Ferry Site available for improvement demonstrations. Agreement was also reached with Georgia Power Co., Power Authority of the State of New York, and Commonwealth Edison Co. for monitoring and data collection at Hatch 1, FitzPatrick, and Quad Cities 1 nuclear plants, respectively. The objective was to identify, develop, and demonstrate improved refueling, maintenance, and inspection procedures and equipment. The improvements recommended in this study are applicable to BWR nuclear plants currently in operation as well as those in the design and construction phases. The recommendations and outage information can be used as a basis to plan and conduct the first outages of new plants and to improve the planning and facilities of currently operating plants. Many of the recommendations can readily be incorporated in plants currently in the design and construction phases as well as in the design of future plants. Many of these recommended improvements can be implemented immediately by utilities without further technical development.

  19. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  20. Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief Template. Hydrogen Refueling Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Building a hydrogen infrastructure system is critical to supporting the development of alternate- fuel vehicles. This report provides a methodology for implementing a performance-based design of an outdoor hydrogen refueling station that does not meet specific prescriptive requirements in NFPA 2, The Hydrogen Technologies Code . Performance-based designs are a code-compliant alternative to meeting prescriptive requirements. Compliance is demonstrated by comparing a prescriptive-based fueling station design with a performance-based design approach using Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) methods and hydrogen risk assessment tools. This template utilizes the Sandia-developed QRA tool, Hydrogen Risk Analysis Models (HyRAM), which combines reduced-order deterministic models that characterize hydrogen release and flame behavior with probabilistic risk models to quantify risk values. Each project is unique and this template is not intended to account for site-specific characteristics. Instead, example content and a methodology are provided for a representative hydrogen refueling site which can be built upon for new hydrogen applications.

  1. Results of NASA/DARPA Automatic Probe and Drogue Refueling Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the flight test from the autonomous airborne refueling system. It includes information on the prototype system that can autonomously perform fueling, including during a turn or mild turbulence, and the autonomous rendezvous capability.

  2. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  3. Precision Relative Positioning for Automated Aerial Refueling from a Stereo Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    PRECISION RELATIVE POSITIONING FOR AUTOMATED AERIAL REFUELING FROM A STEREO IMAGING SYSTEM THESIS Kyle P. Werner, 2Lt, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-048...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-048 PRECISION RELATIVE POSITIONING FOR AUTOMATED AERIAL...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-048 PRECISION RELATIVE POSITIONING FOR AUTOMATED AERIAL REFUELING FROM A STEREO IMAGING SYSTEM THESIS

  4. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A. [Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA (United States); Schoenung, S.M. [Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to supplying pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supplying distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking needs to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs.

  5. A repeatedly refuelable mediated biofuel cell based on a hierarchical porous carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shuji; Yamanoi, Shun; Murata, Kenichi; Mita, Hiroki; Samukawa, Tsunetoshi; Nakagawa, Takaaki; Sakai, Hideki; Tokita, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Biofuel cells that generate electricity from renewable fuels, such as carbohydrates, must be reusable through repeated refuelling, should these devices be used in consumer electronics. We demonstrate the stable generation of electricity from a glucose-powered mediated biofuel cell through multiple refuelling cycles. This refuelability is achieved by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an electron-transfer mediator, and redox enzymes in high concentrations on porous carbon particles constituting an anode while maintaining their electrochemical and enzymatic activities after the immobilization. This bioanode can be refuelled continuously for more than 60 cycles at 1.5 mA cm-2 without significant potential drop. Cells assembled with these bioanodes and bilirubin-oxidase-based biocathodes can be repeatedly used to power a portable music player at 1 mW cm-3 through 10 refuelling cycles. This study suggests that the refuelability within consumer electronics should facilitate the development of long and repeated use of the mediated biofuel cells as well as of NAD-based biosensors, bioreactors, and clinical applications.

  6. Air Force Air Refueling: The KC-X Aircraft Acquisition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-04

    in demand when airlift assets are stretched most thin during the early deployment phase of a conflict.”65 This may be considered significant to some...for proposals (RFP) in early 2007.73 The Boeing Company responded to the RFP with the KC-767, a variant of the commercial 767-200, while Northrop...Industries United States outer rear spar, main landing gearsupport, ribs (for BAE) Ciba-Geigy Corp. Federal Republic of Germany HTA /6376 prepreg on

  7. KC-46 Tanker Aircraft: Key Aerial Refueling Capabilities Should Be Demonstrated Prior to the Production Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    acquisition program baseline and are mandatory for the KC-46. The key system attributes are also important performance attributes, but are not as...Order by Phone Connect with GAO To Report Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federal Programs Congressional Relations Public Affairs Please Print on Recycled Paper.

  8. Escorting commercial aircraft to reduce the MANPAD threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Nicholas; Richardson, M. A.; Butters, B.; Walmsley, R.; Ayling, R.; Taylor, B.

    2005-11-01

    This paper studies the Man-Portable Air Defence System (MANPADS) threat against large commercial aircraft using flight profile analysis, engagement modelling and simulation. Non-countermeasure equipped commercial aircraft are at risk during approach and departure due to the large areas around airports that would need to be secured to prevent the use of highly portable and concealable MANPADs. A software model (CounterSim) has been developed and was used to simulate an SA-7b and large commercial aircraft engagement. The results of this simulation have found that the threat was lessened when a escort fighter aircraft is flown in the 'Centreline Low' position, or 25 m rearward from the large aircraft and 15 m lower, similar to the Air-to-Air refuelling position. In the model a large aircraft on approach had a 50% chance of being hit or having a near miss (within 20m) whereas escorted by a countermeasure equipped F-16 in the 'Centerline Low' position, this was reduced to only 14%. Departure is a particularly vulnerable time for large aircraft due to slow climb rates and the inability to fly evasive manoeuvres. The 'Centreline Low' escorted departure greatly reduced the threat to 16% hit or near miss from 62% for an unescorted heavy aircraft. Overall the CounterSim modelling has showed that escorting a civilian aircraft on approach and departure can reduce the MANPAD threat by 3 to 4 times.

  9. Pellet refuelling of particle loss due to ELM mitigation with RMPs in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak at low collisionality

    CERN Document Server

    Valovič, M; Kirk, A; Suttrop, W; Cavedon, M; Fischer, L R; Garzotti, L; Guimarais, L; Kocsis, G; Cseh, G; Plőckl, B; Szepesi, T; Thornton, A; Mlynek, A; Tardini, G; Viezzer, E; Scannell, R; Wolfrum, E

    2015-01-01

    The complete refuelling of the plasma density loss (pump-out) caused by mitigation of Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) is demonstrated on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The plasma is refuelled by injection of frozen deuterium pellets and ELMs are mitigated by external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In this experiment relevant dimensionless parameters, such as relative pellet size, relative RMP amplitude and pedestal collisionality are kept at the ITER like values. Refuelling of density pump out requires a factor of two increase of nominal fuelling rate. Energy confinement and pedestal temperatures are not restored to pre-RMP values by pellet refuelling.

  10. Vision-based Estimation of Relative Pose in Autonomous Aerial Refueling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Meng; WEI Li; WANG Bangfeng

    2011-01-01

    The lack of autonomous aerial refueling capabilities is one of the greatest limitations of unmanned aerial vehicles.This paper discusses the vision-based estimation of the relative pose of a tanker and unmanned aerial vehicle,which is a key issue in autonomous aerial refueling.The main task of this paper is to study the relative pose estimation for a tanker and unmanned aerial vehicle in the phase of commencing refueling and during refueling.The employed algorithm includes the initialization of the orientation parameters and an orthogonal iteration algorithm to estimate the optimal solution of rotation matrix and translation vector.In simulation experiments,because of the small variation in the rotation angle in aerial refueling,the method in which the initial rotation matrix is the identity matrix is found to be the most stable and accurate among methods.Finally,the paper discusses the effects of the number and configuration of feature points on the accuracy of the estimation results when using this method.

  11. Optimization of hydrogen stations in Florida using the Flow-Refueling Location Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuby, Michael; Kim, Jong-Geun [School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5302 (United States); Lines, Lee [Department of Environmental Studies, Rollins College, 1000 Holt Ave., Box 2753, Winter Park, FL 32789-4499 (United States); Schultz, Ronald; Xie, Zhixiao [Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Lim, Seow [Salt River Project, 1521 N. Project Drive, Tempe, AZ 85281-1298 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This paper develops and applies a model that locates hydrogen stations to refuel the maximum volume of vehicle flows. Inputs to the model include a road network with average speeds; the origin-destination flow volumes between each origin and destination; a maximum driving range between refueling stops; and the number of stations to build. The Flow-Refueling Location Model maximizes the flow volumes that can be refueled, measured either in number of trips or vehicle-miles traveled. Geographic Information Systems and heuristic algorithms are integrated in a spatial decision support system that researchers can use to develop data, enter assumptions, analyze scenarios, evaluate tradeoffs, and map results. For the Florida Hydrogen Initiative, we used this model to investigate strategies for rolling out an initial refueling infrastructure in Florida at two different scales of analysis: metropolitan Orlando and statewide. By analyzing a variety of scenarios at both scales of analysis, we identify a robust set of stations that perform well under a variety of assumptions, and develop a strategy for phasing in clustered and connecting stations in several stages or tiers. (author)

  12. The Feasibility of Pellet Re-Fuelling of a Fusion Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Jørgensen, L. W.; Nielsen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of re-fuelling a fusion reactor by injecting pellets of frozen hydrogen isotopes is reviewed. First a general look is taken of the dominant energy fluxes received by the pellet, the re-fuelling rate required and the relation between pellet size, injection speed and frequency....... Current available theories of pellet ablation are then discussed. For a given penetration depth inside the reactor, the necessary pellet injection speed is examined in terms of the ablation theory adopted and the temperature and density profiles of the reactor plasma. The interaction between the injected...

  13. [CFD numerical simulation onto the gas-liquid two-phase flow behavior during vehicle refueling process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Jin-Hui; Zhu, Ling; Shang, Chao

    2011-12-01

    With the gradual improvement of environmental regulations, more and more attentions are attracted to the vapor emissions during the process of vehicle refueling. Research onto the vehicle refueling process by means of numerical simulation has been executed abroad since 1990s, while as it has never been involved so far domestically. Through reasonable simplification about the physical system of "Nozzle + filler pipe + gasoline storage tank + vent pipe" for vehicle refueling, and by means of volume of fluid (VOF) model for gas-liquid two-phase flow and Re-Normalization Group kappa-epsilon turbulence flow model provided in commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software Fluent, this paper determined the proper mesh discretization scheme and applied the proper boundary conditions based on the Gambit software, then established the reasonable numerical simulation model for the gas-liquid two-phase flow during the refueling process. Through discussing the influence of refueling velocity on the static pressure of vent space in gasoline tank, the back-flowing phenomenon has been revealed in this paper. It has been demonstrated that, the more the flow rate and the refueling velocity of refueling nozzle is, the higher the gross static pressure in the vent space of gasoline tank. In the meanwhile, the variation of static pressure in the vent space of gasoline tank can be categorized into three obvious stages. When the refueling flow rate becomes higher, the back-flowing phenomenon of liquid gasoline can sometimes be induced in the head section of filler pipe, thus making the gasoline nozzle pre-shut-off. Totally speaking, the theoretical work accomplished in this paper laid some solid foundation for self-researching and self-developing the technology and apparatus for the vehicle refueling and refueling emissions control domestically.

  14. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-01

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute, indicating a refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  15. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  16. 77 FR 28772 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... tank (UST) is pumped into a vehicle, a positive pressure differential is created between the vehicle... uses a vacuum pump on the vapor return line to help draw vapors from the vehicle fill pipe into the UST... emissions: Displacement, spillage, and breathing losses. In the EPA Memorandum ``Onboard Refueling...

  17. Refueling outage services in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants; Servicios en recargas de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landete, J. L.; Soto, M.; Nunuez, A.

    2007-07-01

    DOMINGUIS Group, through its 75 years of business development, has positioned as the Spanish leader Group in Services for the Nuclear Energy and Petrochemical Sectors. In this article, we present the most significant services summary that, through the companies that constitute DOMINGUIS Group, we have developed in Refueling Outage in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  18. Support services to refuelling exploitation; Servicios de apoyo a explotacion en recarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castineira, M; Cortes, M.; Rayo, A.

    2010-07-01

    The refuelling period in nuclear power stations is very important due to the need to optimise its duration, large volumes of work and resources that have to be planned and coordinated and their impact on the subsequent operating cycle. Empresarios Agrupados has a permanent organisation, with specialised resources and extensive availability of human resources. (Author)

  19. Validation of Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 Cycle 2 Refueling Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Cui-jie; XIA; Zhao-dong; ZHU; Qing-fu

    2015-01-01

    Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1Cycle 2refueling design was validated with the PWR core fuel management package CMS(CASMO5,CMSLINK5and SIMULATE5),including validating fuel management report,validating reload safety evaluation report,validating nuclear design report and validating physics tests report.

  20. 40 CFR 86.1825-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be conducted using the SRC or a road cycle approved under the provisions of § 86.1823(e)(1). (2...: (1) Cycling of canister loading due to diurnal and refueling events; (2) Use of various commercially... paragraph. (h) Emission component durability. . For guidance see 40 CFR 86.1845-01 (e). (i) If...

  1. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  2. The influence of the placement method of fuel dispenserson the refueling cycle of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Ruslan Yur’evich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics of production processes at a gas station is a critical point in the system of petroleum products, on the operation of which the effectiveness and sustainability of the transport sector depends. The provision and supply of road transportation of petroleum products is one of the most urgent tasks.Technological processes of reception, storage of fuel and refuelling of motor vehicles on petrol stations needs a scientific study of their structure and organization. At the design stage of a gas station, it is necessary to consider quite a lot of different factors: the configuration of the area under the gas station, the scheme of arrangement and the number of fuel dispensers, the trajectory of motion and the design of vehicles, calls to the station, distance between cars on duty, between the elements of buildings and equipment, as well as the requirements for fire, building, public, sanitary-epidemiological and state regulations. Therefore, the designer has a great opportunity for varying the parameters of the elements of the station, especially when considering the characteristics of the fueled vehicles.Typical projects at a same power station include various sizes, the seizure of land to build a station changes from planning decisions and the locations of all its technological elements. For increase of functioning efficiency of transportation systems of petroleum products in modern conditions on the basis of the design and technical innovations it is necessary to conduct special studies.Research planning decisions for a refueling station led to the conclusion that the placement of technological equipment in the refueling area has a certain impact on the length of vehicles service. Improving the layout of the refueling zone several times reduces the loss of the components of the refueling cycle time and increase the capacity of the station.Information base describing the stages of a gas station includes parts of refueling cycle time and

  3. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  4. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  5. Optimal mission planning of GEO on-orbit refueling in mixed strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-qian; Yu, Jing

    2017-04-01

    The mission planning of GEO on-orbit refueling (OOR) in Mixed strategy is studied in this paper. Specifically, one SSc will be launched to an orbital slot near the depot when multiple GEO satellites are reaching their end of lives. The SSc replenishes fuel from the depot and then extends the lifespan of the target satellites via refueling. In the mixed scenario, only some of the target satellites could be served by the SSc, and the remaining ones will be fueled by Pseudo SScs (the target satellite which has already been refueled by the SSc and now has sufficient fuel for its operation as well as the fuel to refuel other target satellites is called Pseudo SSc here). The mission sequences and fuel mass of the SSc and Pseudo SScs, the dry mass of the SSc are used as design variables, whereas the economic benefit of the whole mission is used as design objective. The economic cost and benefit models are stated first, and then a mathematical optimization model is proposed. A comprehensive solution method involving enumeration, particle swarm optimization and modification is developed. Numerical examples are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and solution method. Economic efficiencies of different OOR strategies are compared and discussed. The mixed strategy would perform better than the other strategies only when the target satellites satisfy some conditions. This paper presents an available mixed strategy scheme for users and analyzes its advantages and disadvantages by comparing with some other OOR strategies, providing helpful references to decision makers. The best strategy in practical applications depends on the specific demands and user preference.

  6. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  7. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  8. Impact of industry strategies and consumer attitude on growth of the hydrogen vehicle fleet and corresponding refuelling infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebutsch, Paul; Weeda, Marcel; Ajah, Augustine N.; Meerwaldt, Harold [ECN - Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is touted as a major energy carrier for future transport. For this to be actualized, the parallel roll-out and growth of both the H{sub 2} vehicle market and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure must be guaranteed. Within the Dutch THRIVE project (Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles) a generic customer-oriented tool is being developed to project the growth of the hydrogen vehicle fleet and the development of a corresponding refuelling infrastructure in both temporal and spatial domains. A multi-parametric sensitivity analysis is carried out to determine the associated impacts of different input assumptions covering industry strategies (fuel suppliers and car manufacturers) and the consumer attitude towards fuel availability. The strategies of fuel suppliers are simulated by assuming, amongst other parameters, different initial refuelling networks and required refuelling unit utilisation, which dictates the growth of the refuelling infrastructure. Strategies of car manufactures are simulated by varying the rate of introducing new hydrogen car models into the market. The consumer attitude towards the availability of hydrogen is based on a survey performed within the THRIVE project that reflects current refuelling behaviour of motorists. Local and global fuel availability is calculated based on the drive time between zip codes and the effect of a change in consumer attitude is shown. Besides analysing the effect of every parameter on its own, the model has proven to generate trustworthy results by varying assumptions on strategies and behaviour in a consistent way, indicative for ''business-as-usual'' up to ''high ambition level'' scenarios. Hydrogen car penetration from less than 10% to more than 60% of the total passenger car fleet are projected for 2050, depending for instance on a change in consumers' attitude, size of the initial network and whether or not hydrogen cars are also introduced

  9. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries :a business analysis Or : "Refuel the car with petrol and information, both ways at the gas station"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François); M.H.P. Oremus

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile you refuel for gas ,why not refuel for information or download vehicle data ? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage , service offering , and full business models from WLAN hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional , publ

  10. LNG汽车加气站消防安全设计%Fire protection design of LNG vehicle refueling station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世敏

    2011-01-01

    对LNG汽车加气站和CNG汽车加气站应用现状进行比照分析,LNG站将是未来城市规模化发展天然气汽车的理想途径.由于我国目前尚无LNG汽车加气站的设计规范,针对LNG汽车加气站消防安全设计进行探讨分析.%The present situation of LNG and CNG vehicle refueling station were compared and analyzed. LNG station is the ideal solution for the scale development of LNG vehicle. The fire protection design of LNG vehicle refueling station was discussed on the situation of there is no design code for LNG vehicle refueling station yet.

  11. Integrated head area design of KNGR to reduce refueling outage duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Tae; Park, Chi Yong; Kim, In Hwan; Kim, Dae Woong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In the design of KNGR (Korea Next Generation Reactor), we believe that economy is one of the most important factors to be considered. Thus, we reviewed and evaluated the consequences of designing the head area into an integrated package from an economical point of view. The refueling outage durations of the nuclear power plants currently in operation in Korea, some having and others not having integrated head package, are compared. This paper discusses the characteristics of head area design and the critical design issues of KNGR head area to evaluate the effect of the head area characteristics on the outage duration. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  12. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  13. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, Gopal [HD Systems

    2013-06-01

    Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

  14. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  15. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version...

  16. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  17. GPS navigation algorithms for Autonomous Airborne Refueling of Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafseh, Samer Mahmoud

    Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) have recently generated great interest because of their potential to perform hazardous missions without risking loss of life. If autonomous airborne refueling is possible for UAVs, mission range and endurance will be greatly enhanced. However, concerns about UAV-tanker proximity, dynamic mobility and safety demand that the relative navigation system meets stringent requirements on accuracy, integrity, and continuity. In response, this research focuses on developing high-performance GPS-based navigation architectures for Autonomous Airborne Refueling (AAR) of UAVs. The AAR mission is unique because of the potentially severe sky blockage introduced by the tanker. To address this issue, a high-fidelity dynamic sky blockage model was developed and experimentally validated. In addition, robust carrier phase differential GPS navigation algorithms were derived, including a new method for high-integrity reacquisition of carrier cycle ambiguities for recently-blocked satellites. In order to evaluate navigation performance, world-wide global availability and sensitivity covariance analyses were conducted. The new navigation algorithms were shown to be sufficient for turn-free scenarios, but improvement in performance was necessary to meet the difficult requirements for a general refueling mission with banked turns. Therefore, several innovative methods were pursued to enhance navigation performance. First, a new theoretical approach was developed to quantify the position-domain integrity risk in cycle ambiguity resolution problems. A mechanism to implement this method with partially-fixed cycle ambiguity vectors was derived, and it was used to define tight upper bounds on AAR navigation integrity risk. A second method, where a new algorithm for optimal fusion of measurements from multiple antennas was developed, was used to improve satellite coverage in poor visibility environments such as in AAR. Finally, methods for using data-link extracted

  18. The development of a UGV-mounted automated refueling system for VTOL UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Mike; Burmeister, Aaron; Nelson, Travis; Denewiler, Thomas; Mullens, Kathy

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the latest efforts to develop an Automated UAV Mission System (AUMS) for small vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In certain applications such as force protection, perimeter security, and urban surveillance a VTOL UAV can provide far greater utility than fixed-wing UAVs or ground-based sensors. The VTOL UAV can operate much closer to an object of interest and can provide a hover-and-stare capability to keep its sensors trained on an object, while the fixed wing UAV would be forced into a higher altitude loitering pattern where its sensors would be subject to intermittent blockage by obstacles and terrain. The most significant disadvantage of a VTOL UAV when compared to a fixed-wing UAV is its reduced flight endurance. AUMS addresses this disadvantage by providing forward staging, refueling, and recovery capabilities for the VTOL UAV through a host unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), which serves as a launch/recovery platform and service station. The UGV has sufficient payload capacity to carry UAV fuel for multiple launch, recovery, and refuel iterations. The UGV also provides a highly mobile means of forward deploying a small UAV into hazardous areas unsafe for personnel, such as chemically or biologically contaminated areas. Teaming small UAVs with large UGVs can decrease risk to personnel and expand mission capabilities and effectiveness. There are numerous technical challenges being addressed by these development efforts. Among the challenges is the development and integration of a precision landing system compact and light enough to allow it to be mounted on a small VTOL UAV while providing repeatable landing accuracy to safely land on the AUMS. Another challenge is the design of a UGV-transportable, expandable, self-centering landing pad that contains hardware and safety devices for automatically refueling the UAV. A third challenge is making the design flexible enough to accommodate different types of VTOL UAVs

  19. 无人机自主空中加油技术现状及发展趋势%State-of-the-art and Tendency of Autonomous Aerial Refueling Technologies for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟德星; 李永强; 李严桵

    2014-01-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) plays a more important role in modem war, and they have been widely applied in the terms of intelligence collection, targeting and destroying key targets etc. Due to the limit of payload and fuel carried, their lfying range and carrying capacity are limited correspondingly. The technique of Autonomous Aerial Refueling (AAR) for UAVs cannot only solve of the above problems, but also can enhance the ifght ability of man-driving aircraft in the extreme weather conditions. This paper describes the brief history of the development of UAV, the state-of-the-art and tendency of Autonomous Aerial Refueling for UAVs. The current technologies of AAR for UAV are also analyzed and classiifed.The development trend of autonomous aerial refueling technology are also prospected.%无人机在现代战争中扮演着越来越重要的作用,广泛运用于情报搜集、目标定位和精确打击等任务。但是由于其具有载重少和油量小的特点,限制了自身的搭载能力和作战半径。自主空中加油技术的发展,不仅能够有效地提高无人机装备的搭载水平和续航能力,同时也能增强其在极端天气情况下的飞行能力。本文主要从无人机的发展、空中自主加油技术、国内外研究现状和未来发展方向等方面对自主空中加油技术的发展现状进行了综述,并对现有的技术特点进行了分析和梳理,对自主空中加油技术的发展趋势进行了展望。

  20. Operational transparency: an advanced safeguards strategy for future on-load refuelled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlock, J.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Trask, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    The IAEA's system for tracking fuel movement in an on-load refuelled heavy-water reactor is robust, but an opportunity remains to exploit the wealth of data streaming from the reactor vault during operation and provide real-time, third-party monitoring of reactor status and history. This concept of Operational Transparency would require that large amounts of operational data be reduced in near-real time to a small subset of high-level information. Operational Transparency would enhance the IAEA's ability to monitor the state of the core to an unprecedented level. This paper provides an overview of the novel concept of Operational Transparency in heavy water reactors, using potential application to CANDU reactors as an example, and explores some of the technical challenges that will need to be solved for efficient implementation. (author)

  1. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward F. Kiczek

    2007-08-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

  2. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  3. 汽车加油机器人关键技术分析%Analysis of Key Technology of Refueling Robot for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雁; 陈文卓; 黎波; 陈森林

    2015-01-01

    Due to the fact that conventional refueling methods may endanger operators when they refuel cars and that operat⁃ing conditions in gas station are extremely severe in winters and summers, it is urgent to intelligentize gas stations with the refueling robot. The research progress of the refueling robot for automobile at home and abroad is introduced in detail first. The characteristics of its operating target and environment are pointed out, especially, the differences among targets, dangers during operation and varia⁃tion in operation environment. The present technologies of refueling robot for automobile are discussed respectively:refueling mech⁃anism, refueling interface and identification and localization technology. Optimization of refueling mechanism, security control and intelligent identification and localization are proposed as the developing trend of this research.%传统加油模式使操作人员易受有毒易燃油气的侵害,而且严冬酷暑时加油站作业环境恶劣,因此在加油站配置机器人实现智能化加油变得十分迫切。介绍了国内外汽车加油机器人的研究进展,指出其作业对象的差异性、环境的多变性以及作业过程的危险性。分析了当前汽车加油机器人所采用的加油机构、加注接口以及识别与定位技术的特点,指出加油机构优化、安全控制、智能识别与定位研究是汽车加油机器人发展的方向。

  4. Improvement of availability of PWR nuclear plants through the reduction of the time required for refueling/maintenance outages, Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.A.

    1978-08-01

    The objective of this project is to identify improvements in procedures and equipment which will reduce the time required for refueling/maintenance outages at PWR nuclear power plants. The outage of Commonwealth Edison Zion Station Unit 1 in March through May of 1976 was evaluated to identify those items which caused delays and those work activities that offer the potential for significant improvements toward reducing its overall duration. Thus, the plant's availability for power production would be increased. Revisions in procedures and some equipment modifications were implemented and evaluated during the Zion Unit 2 refueling/maintenance outage beginning in January 1977. Analysis of the observed data has identified benefits available through improved refueling equipment and also areas where additional new, innovative refueling, or refueling-related equipment should be beneficial. A number of specific design concepts are recommended as a result of Phase 1. In addition, a new master planning mechanism is described for implementation during subsequent planned outages at Zion Station. This final report describes the recommended conceptual designs and planning mechanism and assesses their impact upon future outages. Their effect on savings in refueling time, labor, and radiation exposure is discussed. The estimated economic payoff for these concepts was found to be of such significance that an additional phase of the program is warranted. During this extended phase, a more detailed engineering study should be undertaken to determine the cost of implementation along with more specific estimates of the benefits for PWR plants already in operation or under construction.

  5. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  6. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Advanced Aviation Forward Area Refueling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-24

    UNCLASSIFIED 6 UNCLASSIFIED Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18/16/13 14/10/7 Pamas... Alcohol to Jet (ATJ) fuel flight testing at Redstone Test Center, TARDEC was afforded the opportunity to evaluate light obscuration particle counters on...Advanced Aviation Forward Area Refueling System (AAFARS) setup for Alcohol to Jet (ATJ) fuel flight testing. Figure 2. AAFARS fuel sampling port

  7. Improvement of availability of PWR nuclear plants through the reduction of the time required for refueling/maintenance outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayers, J.B.; Soth, L.G.

    1978-04-01

    The objective of the project, conducted by Commonwealth Research Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, is to identify improvements in procedures and equipment which will reduce the time required for refueling/maintenance outages at PWR nuclear power plants. The outage of Commonwealth Edison Zion Station Unit 1 in March through May of 1976 was evaluated to identify those items which caused delays and those work activities that offer the potential for significant improvements that could reduce the overall duration of the outage and achieve an improvement in the plant's availability for power production. Modifications in procedures have been developed and were evaluated during one or more outages in 1977. Conceptual designs have been developed for equipment modifications to the refueling system that could reduce the time required for the refueling portion of the outage. The purpose of the interim report is to describe those conceptual designs and to assess their impact upon future outages. Recommendations are included for the implementation of these equipment improvements in a continuation of this program as a demonstration of plant availability benefits that can be realized in PWR nuclear plants already in operation or under construction.

  8. Improving the Air Mobility Command’s Air Refueler Route Building Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    routing tool. Sundar and Rathinam [18] also study a traveling salesman version of the problem in the unmanned aerial vehicle realm. Their focus is on...constrained shortest path with fuel limitations. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled . Some aircraft routing problems involve...radius and network density their only limitations. 4 O’Rourke et al. [15] examine a traveling salesman version of aircraft routing in the unmanned aerial

  9. Green refuel. Fitting in alternate fuels in the refuelling and automotive fuel distribution infrastructure; Groen tanken. Inpassing van alternatieve brandstoffen in de tank- en distributie infrastructuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeterdink, W.G.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Kroon, P.; Hanschke, C.B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    For the department of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) an overview was made of the current market shares and business cases of alternative fuels, and of main barriers for their large-scale market introduction. In the short term, compressed natural gas has the best business case, even though the investment costs for the infrastructure are relatively high. The current pump price of bio-ethanol is too high to be attractive for consumers; however, the government has announced an excise tax cut. Although the investment costs of a biofuel pump are relatively low, the business case for bio-ethanol, even with the tax cut, will still be not as favourable as the business case for natural gas. In the long term, charging points for electricity and/or filling stations for hydrogen have to become available. For hydrogen, the availability and affordability of the fuel cell vehicles is the initial barrier. A refuelling infrastructure is expected to be supported through truck distribution of liquid hydrogen, or with pipelines. Similarly, electric vehicles are still in the demonstration phase. Currently, it is unclear what the tax regime on electricity for mobility will be, but the profit margin of current consumer prices is too small to make an investment in charging points viable. In addition, there is still much uncertainty about the future charging infrastructure (fast charging or battery swapping) and recharging behaviour (at night) [Dutch] Het Ministerie van VROM heeft behoefte aan een verkenning van de inpasbaarheid van alternatieve brandstoffen in de tankinfrastructuur. Het gaat daarbij zowel om een verkenning van de huidige situatie, als om het lange termijn perspectief. In deze studie zijn de marktbarrieres voor de introductie van alternatieve brandstoffen in de distributie- en tankinfrastructuur geevalueerd, waarbij voornamelijk naar economische aspecten is gekeken, vanuit het perspectief van zowel de brandstofleverancier als de consument. Daarnaast is

  10. Behavioral response to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and refueling: Results of California drive clinics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Elliot; Lidicker, Jeffrey R. [Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), University of California, Berkeley, 1301 S. 46th Street. Bldg 190, Richmond, CA 94804-4648 (United States); Shaheen, Susan A. [Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), University of California, Berkeley, 1301 S. 46th Street. Bldg 190, Richmond, CA 94804-4648 (United States); Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis (United States); Lipman, Timothy E. [Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), University of California, Berkeley, 2614 Dwight Way, MC 1782, Berkeley, CA 94720-1782 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Over the last several decades, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) have emerged as a zero tailpipe-emission alternative to the battery electric vehicle (EV). To address questions about consumer reaction to FCVs, this report presents the results of a ''ride-and-drive'' clinic series (N = 182) held in 2007 with a Mercedes-Benz A-Class ''F-Cell'' hydrogen FCV. The clinic evaluated participant reactions to driving and riding in an FCV, as well as vehicle refueling. Pre-and post-clinic surveys assessed consumer response. More than 80% left with a positive overall impression of hydrogen. The majority expressed a willingness to travel 5-10 min to find a hydrogen station. More than 90% of participants would consider an FCV driving range of 300 miles (480 km) to be acceptable. Stated willingness-to-pay preferences were explored. The results show that short-term exposure can improve consumer perceptions of hydrogen performance and safety among people who are the more likely early adopters. (author)

  11. A guidance law for UAV autonomous aerial refueling based on the iterative computation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Delin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rendezvous and formation problem is a significant part for the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV autonomous aerial refueling (AAR technique. It can be divided into two major phases: the long-range guidance phase and the formation phase. In this paper, an iterative computation guidance law (ICGL is proposed to compute a series of state variables to get the solution of a control variable for a UAV conducting rendezvous with a tanker in AAR. The proposed method can make the control variable converge to zero when the tanker and the UAV receiver come to a formation flight eventually. For the long-range guidance phase, the ICGL divides it into two sub-phases: the correction sub-phase and the guidance sub-phase. The two sub-phases share the same iterative process. As for the formation phase, a velocity coordinate system is created by which control accelerations are designed to make the speed of the UAV consistent with that of the tanker. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ICGL is effective and robust against wind disturbance.

  12. HyApproval - Handbook for the approval of hydrogen refuelling stations - First preliminary achievements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Vandendungen, G.; Guichard, J.; Molag, M.; Barron, J.; Reijalt, M.; Hill, H.J.; Landinger, H.

    2007-05-15

    The EU-funded project HyApproval [www.hyapproval.org] aims at developing a universal Handbook to facilitate the approval process of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS) in Europe. The main goal of the HyApproval partnership with 22 partners from Europe and one each from China, Japan and the USA is to provide a Handbook of technical and regulatory requirements to assist authorisation officials, companies and organisations in the safe implementation and operation of HRS. Achievements during the first 15 months: analyses of HRS technology concepts and of equipment and safety distances/ Intermediate Design Paper/ Regulations, Codes and Standards (RCS) review and comparison/ first Handbook draft and first review sessions with HySafe experts/ safety matrix/ identification of accident scenarios/ agreement on safety documentation/ critical review of reliability data from collections and risk studies/ risk assessment (RA) criteria definition and RA/ matrix of acceptability and awareness levels/ database of Fire Associations and First Responders/ calendar of hydrogen events/ general description of CGH{sub 2} interfaces. (au)

  13. A guidance law for UAV autonomous aerial refueling based on the iterative computation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Delin; Xie Rongzeng; Duan Haibin

    2014-01-01

    The rendezvous and formation problem is a significant part for the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) autonomous aerial refueling (AAR) technique. It can be divided into two major phases: the long-range guidance phase and the formation phase. In this paper, an iterative computation guidance law (ICGL) is proposed to compute a series of state variables to get the solu-tion of a control variable for a UAV conducting rendezvous with a tanker in AAR. The proposed method can make the control variable converge to zero when the tanker and the UAV receiver come to a formation flight eventually. For the long-range guidance phase, the ICGL divides it into two sub-phases: the correction sub-phase and the guidance sub-phase. The two sub-phases share the same iterative process. As for the formation phase, a velocity coordinate system is created by which control accelerations are designed to make the speed of the UAV consistent with that of the tanker. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ICGL is effective and robust against wind disturbance.

  14. H2moves.eu Scandinavia. ''Experience from operating a 70 MPa hydrogen refuelling station in Oslo''. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.

    2013-02-15

    As part of the H2MOVES Scandinavia project H2 Logic were to construct a large scale hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) in Oslo providing hydrogen for FCEV's from Daimler and Hyundai in the project. The effort has provided extensive results and lessons learned across the entire process from site selection, HRS design and manufacturing to the final installation and operation. An extensive site screening of more than 30 sites in Oslo was firstly conducted to identify the most optimal location for the HRS. A suitable site was identified at the research organisation SINTEF in Gaustad in the western part of Oslo. The location was strategically well located with regards to the other HRS's in the city ensuring good refuelling coverage in Oslo. The HRS was manufactured, installed and operated by H2 Logic based on the company's H2Station technology. The HRS provides 70MPa refuelling in accordance with the SAE J2601, and operation results have confirmed refuelling times consistently below four minutes for a full tank. The HRS includes onsite electrolysis production providing a 20kg/day base load supply, with potentially additional trucking-in of hydrogen up to a total capacity of 200kg/day. The installation of the HRS took in total 10 days, from arrival at site, until first refuelling was conducted. This included local inspection by third parties and authorities as well as several days of hydrogen production and compression to reach the necessary refuelling pressure. Before opening a refuelling recommendation process was successfully conducted by Daimler. The HRS opened on 21st November 2011 and has been operated for 13,5 months during the remainder project period (ending December 2012). The HRS is expected to continue operation beyond the project. Below are shown the major operation results from the HRS during the project: 1) 701 kg dispensed; 2) 313 refueling's conducted; 3) Average availability of 97% during first half of 2012; 4) 53% of all down

  15. 飞机压力加油仿真计算研究%Study on Simulation of Airplane Pressure Refueling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京; 鲁维

    2014-01-01

    对飞机地面压力加油系统进行了仿真计算研究,详细阐述了建模理论基础和方法,并以某型飞机为例进行了建模仿真,对全机加满油时间和管路的最大流速进行了计算。通过地面压力加油试验进行验证,压力加满油时间基本一致,本文的仿真计算为改进压力加油系统设计提供了参考。%The simulation study of the airplane pressure refueling system on the ground was launched in this paper. The methods and theories about model building were presented. Through the pressure refueling system model simulation, the refueling time and maximum flow velocity of pipeline were assessed. The simulation results were compared with pressure refueling test results, it showed that the refueling time of both were almost the same. This paper provides a method to improve the system design.

  16. Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper add...

  17. Automated refueling simulations of a CANDU for the exploitation of thorium fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bradford

    CANDU nuclear reactors are in a unique circumstance where they are able to utilize and exploit a number of different fuel options to provide power as a utility. Thorium, a fertile isotope found naturally, is one option that should be explored. Thorium is more abundant than uranium, which is the typical fuel in the reactor and the availability of thorium makes nuclear energy desirable to more countries. This document contains the culmination of a project that explores, tests, and analyzes the feasibility of using thorium in a CANDU reactor. The project first develops a set of twodimensional lattice and three dimensional control rod simulations using the DRAGON Version 4 nuclear physics codes. This step is repeated for many concentrations of thorium. The data generated in these steps is then used to determine a functional enrichment of thorium. This is done via a procedural elimination and optimization of certain key parameters including but not limited to average exit burnup and reactivity evolution. For the purposes of this project, an enrichment of 1 % thorium was found viable. Full core calculations were done using the DONJON 4 code. CANFUEL, a program which simulates the refueling operations of a CANDU reactor for this fuel type was developed and ran for a simulation period of one hundred days. The program and the fuel selection met all selected requirements for the entirety of the simulation period. CANFUEL requires optimization for fuel selection before it can be used extensively. The fuel selection was further scrutinized when a reactivity insertion event was simulated. The adjuster rod 11 withdrawal from the core was analyzed and compared to classical CANDU results in order to ensure no significant deviations or unwanted evolutions were encountered. For this case, the simulation results were deemed acceptable with no significant deviations from the classical CANDU case.

  18. Fuzzy-based risk prioritization for a hydrogen refueling facility in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hue-yee CHONG; Mahidzal DAHARI; Hwa-jen YAP; Ying-tai LOONG

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen is starting to be mentioned as an alternative fuel to replace the fossil fuel in future transportation applications due to its characteristics of zero greenhouse gas emission and high energy efficiency.Before hydrogen fuel and its facilities can be introduced to the public,relevant safety issues and its hazards must be assessed in order to avoid any chance of injury or loss.While a traditional risk assessment has difficulty in prioritizing the risk of failure modes,this paper proposes a new fuzzy-based risk evaluation technique which uses fuzzy value to prioritize the risk of various scenarios.In this study,the final risk of each failure modes was prioritized by using the MATLAB fuzzy logic tool box with a combination of two assessments.The first assessment was concerned with the criteria which affected the actual probability of occurrence.This assessment considered the availability of the standard that was applied to prevent the likelihood of the scenario occurring.On the other hand,the second assessment was focused on evaluating the consequence of the failure by taking into account the availability of detection and the complexity of the failure rather than only the severity of the scenarios.A total of 87 failure scenarios were identified using failure modes and effect analysis(FMEA)procedures on hydrogen refueling station models.Fuzzy-based assessments were performed through risk prioritizing various failure scenarios with a fuzzy value(0 to 1)and risk level(low,medium,and high)while a traditional risk assessment approach presented the risks only in forms of level(low,medium,and/or high).Availability of the fuzzy value enabled further prioritizing on the risk results that fell in the same level of risk.This study concluded that fuzzy-based risk evaluation is able to further prioritize the decisions when compared with a traditional risk assessment method.

  19. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  20. Micro-generation systems and electrolysers for refuelling private bi-fuel cars at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M. [ITM Power plc, Mill House, Royston Road, Wendens Ambo, Saffron Walden, Essex CB11 4JX (United Kingdom); Peacock, A.D. [The Energy Academy, Heriot Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    An assessment is presented of the prospective use of micro-generation systems in conjunction with electrolysers and hydrogen stores for refuelling private bi-fuel (gasoline/hydrogen) cars with hydrogen. For a range of system sizes and three power source operating modes, predictions are made of the annual travel range on hydrogen and the associated CO{sub 2} savings. A basic system (Mode A) operating solely from the output of a photovoltaic array was found to generate sufficient hydrogen to allow a passenger vehicle with a fuel efficiency of 8.5 l/100 km (33 mpg) to travel 613 km annually per kW of PV installed. An alternative system (Mode B) that permitted network electricity to contribute to hydrogen production, provided that the CO{sub 2} emission factor of the generated hydrogen was half that of gasoline, enabled an annual travel distance of 772 km per kW of PV installed. A hybrid micro-generation system comprising a PV and micro-CHP system (Mode C), where the electricity that would otherwise be exported from the dwelling was diverted to hydrogen production, achieved a more consistent hydrogen production rate across the year. This resulted in a lower on-site storage requirement; when compared with Mode A, it provided an additional annual travel distance on hydrogen of between 1285 and 1833 km. A utility factor was employed to indicate the extent to which a system design could deliver a given daily driving distance on hydrogen across the year. High utility factors (>70%) were only achievable for modest daily driving distances (10-17 km) for the considered range of PV sizes (1.7-8.5 kW). (author)

  1. Building an alternative fuel refueling network: How many stations are needed and where should they be placed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Michael Anselm

    Gasoline stations are so numerous that the fear of running out of fuel is likely not a top concern among drivers. This may not be the case with the introduction of a new alternative fuel such as hydrogen or electricity. The next three chapters, originally written as peer reviewed journal papers[1,2,3], examine the characteristics of refueling in today's gasoline network and compares these characteristics to hypothetical new alternative fuel networks. Together, they suggest that alternative fuel networks with many fewer stations than exist in the gasoline network could be acceptable to future consumers. This acceptability is measured in three ways. The first chapter examines the distance from home to the nearest station and finds that if alternative fuel stations were one-third as numerous as gasoline stations, the travel time to the nearest station was virtually identical to that of gasoline stations. The results suggest that even for station networks numbering only one-twentieth the current number of outlets, the difference in travel time with respect to gasoline is relatively small. Acceptability was examined in the second chapter by analyzing the spatial refueling patterns of gasoline. This reveals that the volume of fuel sold is greater around the highways and that the route from home to the nearest highway entrance may account for a large portion of refueling. This suggests that the first alternative fuel stations could be sited along the highway near entrances and could provide acceptable access to fuel for those who use these highway entrances to access the wider region. Subsequent stations could be sited closer to the homes of customers. The third chapter estimates acceptability, measured in terms of initial vehicle purchase price, of refueling away from one's own town. A pilot survey using a map-based questionnaire was distributed to 20 respondents. Respondents chose ten stations locations to enable their most important destinations. The alternative fuel

  2. Air Refueling Journey Planning Based on Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传算法的空中加油航路规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞桦; 艾剑良

    2009-01-01

    通过对空中加油航路规划进行建模,利用遗传算法进行优化计算,解决了关于包括总耗油量和受油机飞行航程在内的航路规划问题.针对模型中的非线性约束条件,引入自适应可变惩罚以及对部分变量采用过滤法,另外在选择、交叉、变异环节采用适应度选择法、启发式交叉法、非一致变异法,充分利用遗传算法的全局优化特性,解决了局部过早收敛等问题.实际算例中,分别针对基于航线和基于区域2种加油模式进行计算,比较2种模式的优缺点,得出了空中加油的最优策略,并验证了针对此类问题遗传优化算法的有效性.%Based on a model for the schedule of several times air refueling in the journey, the paper analyses and solves the journey programming problem involving the total fuel consumption and the flight distance of the deploying aircraft by the genetic algorithm (GA). By introducing auto-adaptive punishment, initial filtration, normalized geometric ranking, non-uniform mutation,heuristic crossover methods into GA, the problem related to nonlinear restriction and convergence in local area is solved. The practices prove the efficiency of GA and put forward an optimizing solution for the journey programming problem by computing and comparing the results based on the journey-based mode and area-based mode.

  3. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  4. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  5. LEO cooperative multi-spacecraft refueling mission optimization considering J2 perturbation and target's surplus propellant constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Zhang, Jin; Li, Hai-yang; Zhou, Jian-yong

    2017-01-01

    The optimization of an LEO cooperative multi-spacecraft refueling mission considering the J2 perturbation and target's surplus propellant constraint is studied in the paper. First, a mission scenario is introduced. One service spacecraft and several target spacecraft run on an LEO near-circular orbit, the service spacecraft rendezvouses with some service positions one by one, and target spacecraft transfer to corresponding service positions respectively. Each target spacecraft returns to its original position after obtaining required propellant and the service spacecraft returns to its original position after refueling all target spacecraft. Next, an optimization model of this mission is built. The service sequence, orbital transfer time, and service position are used as deign variables, whereas the propellant cost is used as the design objective. The J2 perturbation, time constraint and the target spacecraft's surplus propellant capability constraint are taken into account. Then, a hybrid two-level optimization approach is presented to solve the formulated mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. A hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm is adopted to seek the near optimal solution in the up-level optimization, while a linear relative dynamic equation considering the J2 perturbation is used to obtain the impulses of orbital transfer in the low-level optimization. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed model and method is validated by numerical examples.

  6. 自助加油顾客需求分析%Requirement Analysis of Self- assist Refueling Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of questionnaire survey of Beijing gas station consumers, the self- assist re- fueling market is subdivided. And combining service marketing 7Ps combination theory, the advice for development of self- assist refueling business is proposed, which provide references for improving self- assist refueling business of domestic oil products company.%通过对北京地区加油站顾客就选择自助加油的原因、加油消费的习惯和对自助加油价格的评价等内容进行问卷调查分析,对自助加油市场进行细分,结合服务营销7PS组合理论,对开展自助加油业务提出了一些初步意见,对改善国内石油公司自助加油业务具有一定借鉴价值。

  7. Core and Refueling Design Studies for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Cisneros, Anselmo T [ORNL; Kelly, Ryan P [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central generating station type [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. This report presents the current status of ongoing design studies of the core, in-vessel structures, and refueling options for the AHTR. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity as important material, structural, neutronic, and hydraulic issues remain to be addressed. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated. An illustration of the current AHTR core, reactor vessel, and nearby structures is shown in Fig. ES1. The AHTR core design concept is based upon 252 hexagonal, plate fuel assemblies configured to form a roughly cylindrical core. The core has a fueled height of 5.5 m with 25 cm of reflector above and below the core. The fuel assembly hexagons are {approx}45 cm across the flats. Each fuel assembly contains 18 plates that are 23.9 cm wide and 2.55 cm thick. The reactor vessel has an exterior diameter of 10.48 m and a height of 17.7 m. A row of replaceable graphite reflector prismatic blocks surrounds the core radially. A more complete reactor configuration description is provided in Section 2 of this report. The AHTR core design space exploration was performed under a set of constraints. Only low enrichment (<20%) uranium fuel was considered. The coated particle fuel and matrix materials were derived from those being developed and demonstrated under the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) advanced gas reactor program. The coated particle volumetric packing fraction was restricted to at most 40%. The pressure

  8. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  9. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  10. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  11. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  12. Understanding the design and economics of distributed tri-generation systems for home and neighborhood refueling-Part II: Neighborhood system case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a hydrogen infrastructure remains a major barrier for fuel cell vehicle (FCV) adoption. The high cost of an extensive hydrogen station network and the low utilization in the near term discourage private investment. Past experience of fuel infrastructure development for motor vehicles, indicates that innovative, distributed, small-volume hydrogen refueling methods may be required to refuel FCVs in the near term. Among small-volume refueling methods, home and neighborhood tri-generation systems stand out because the technology is available and has potential to alleviate consumer's fuel availability concerns. Additionally, it has features attractive to consumers such as convenience and security to refuel at home or in their neighborhood. In this paper, we study neighborhood tri-generation systems in multi-unit dwellings such as apartment complexes. We apply analytical tools including an interdisciplinary framework and an engineering/economic model to a representative multi-family residence in the Northern California area. The simulation results indicate that a neighborhood tri-generation system improves the economics of providing the three energy products for the households compared with the two alternatives studied. The small capacity of the systems and the valuable co-products help address the low utilization problem of hydrogen infrastructure.

  13. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  14. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  15. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  16. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  17. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  18. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  19. Automatic aircraft recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  20. Accelerating the Kill Chain via Future Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    2006. "SNC System Performs First Ever Autonomous Airborne Refueling Engagement." Sierra Nevada Corporation , http://www.sncorp.com/PDFs/SNC_news/SNC...Airborne Refueling Engagement," Sierra Nevada Corporation , http://www.sncorp.com/PDFs/SNC_news/SNC%20AARD%20Press%20Release%2013Sep06.p df (accessed on 4

  1. Ensuring safety of fuel cell applications and hydrogen refuelling. Legislation and standards; Polttokennosovellusten ja vetytankkauksen turvallisuuden varmistaminen. Saeaedoeksiae ja standardeja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissila, M.; Sarsama, J.

    2013-09-15

    Fuel cell technology is considered a promising alternative in terms of viable energy systems. The advantages of fuel cell systems include a good efficiency rate and the lack of harmful environmental emissions. Factors which may slow down the commercialisation of fuel cell technology, e.g. fuel cell vehicles, include the high price of hydrogen and the insufficiency of the infrastructure required for the distribution of hydrogen. A large proportion of major car manufacturers are committed to introducing fuel cell cars to the market by 2014-2016. In order to ensure a successful market introduction of fuel cell vehicles, this has to be aligned with the development of the necessary hydrogen infrastructure. In the early commercialisation stages of a new technology, it is important to give the public correct, justified and understandable information on the safety of the fuel cell applications, and also on the measures taken to ensure the safety of applications. A lack of necessary information, inaccurate perceptions and prejudices can have an adverse effect on the public acceptance of fuel cell applications. Hazards and potential accidents related to fuel cell systems are mainly associated with the flammable substances (e.g. hydrogen, methane) used as fuel, the high pressure of hydrogen, electrical hazards, and dangers concerning technical systems in general. The fuel cell applications reviewed in this publication are transport applications and stationary applications and the refuelling system of gaseous hydrogen. The publication concentrates on fuel cells using hydrogen as fuel. The publication gives an overview of how EU-legislation (mainly various directives) and Finnish legislation applies to fuel cell systems and applications, and what kind of safety requirements the legislation sets. In addition, a brief overview of safety standards concerning fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling is presented. (orig.)

  2. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  4. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  5. 加油锥套远距图像的Hough-LS快速检测%Hough-LS Rapid Detection for Long-distance Refueling Drogue Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨博文; 孙永荣; 黄斌; 王勇; 刘建业

    2015-01-01

    在视觉辅助软管式空中加油系统中,如何在实时图像序列中将加油锥套从复杂背景环境中快速分离出来,对锥套进行快速检测与识别,是一个亟需解决的问题。论文针对加油锥套远距图像目标检测与定位问题,提出了一种基于形状信息的Hough-LS两级锥套目标检测与定位方法。文中首先采用快速霍夫梯度法(FHGM)进行加油锥套预检测,而后利用中心八向搜索法进行锥套边缘提取,最后基于最小二乘椭圆拟合实现加油锥套远距图像目标区域精确定位。实验结果表明,本文可对远距(7~25 m)时的加油锥套图像快速进行识别处理,并将锥套目标定位到精确的区域边界。%In the visual-based aerial refueling assistance system, how to separate the refueling drogue from the complex background and do rapid detection of drogue area is an urgent problem. How to detect and locate refueling drogue over a long distance in real-time, a refueling drogue detection and location over a long distance method based on Hough-LS was presented. First, did pre-detection on refueling drogue based on Fast Hough Gradient Method (FHGM), and then extracted taper sleeve edge based on the method of Search in eight directions from the center. Finally, realized refueling taper sleeve detection over a long distance by the least squares fitting ellipse. Experimental results show that, the method has good detection effect for long distance (7 to 25 meters) taper sleeve target and it can locate the precise area boundary.

  6. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  7. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  8. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  9. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  10. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  11. Aircraft Emissions Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    sample from each trap through a heated (1500C) six-port valve ’ Carle Instruments Model 5621) and onto the analytical column. The coLoponents in each...Environmental Protection, Vol. II. Aircraft Engine Emissions, Int. Civil Aviation Organ., 1981. 7. Nebel , G. J., "Benzene in Auto Exhaust," J. Air Poll

  12. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  13. Some Problems Concerning the Refueling of the Natural Gas Vehicles%天然气汽车燃料加注的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鲁嘉; 鲁雪生; 杨晓东

    2001-01-01

    在天然气汽车(NGVs)的市场推广过程中,以加气站为主的基础设施的建设是关系到天然气汽车发展的关键环节之一文章讨论了一些会对天然气加气站的运行造成影响的问题,包括天然气的预处理问题、充气系统气间歇问题以及高压充气时可能出现的不良节流效应和它们的处理方法。同时从投资与运营角度,对我国不同地区的天然气资源及其所需工艺、不同的加气站类型及其适用对象,进行了综合分析。%During the marketing promotion process of Natural Gas Vehicles(NGVs), the infrastructures, especially the refueling Station, are among the key problems. In this paper, some problems that may cast adverse influence on the proper work of the refueling station, including natural gas pretreatment, gas dischargeing during refueling interval, and the Joule-Thomson effect of the high-pressure charging will be discussed and countermeasures will be provided. Meanwhile, the analysis between the natural gas resources at different places in China along with their appropriate pretreatment and between different refueling models along with their aimed vehicles fleets are presented from the respects of investment and running.

  14. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  15. Assessment of occupational exposure to BTEX compounds at a bus diesel-refueling bay: A case study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-12-15

    Of increasing concern is pollution by volatile organic compounds, with particular reference to five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and two isomeric xylenes; BTEX). These pollutants are classified as hazardous air pollutants. Due to the potential health risks associated with these pollutants, BTEX concentrations were monitored at a bus diesel-refueling bay, in Johannesburg, South Africa, using gas chromatography, coupled with a photo-ionization detector. Results indicate that o-xylene (29-50%) and benzene (13-33%) were found to be the most abundant species of total BTEX at the site. Benzene was within South African occupational limits, but above international occupational exposure limits. On the other hand, occupational concentrations of toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes were within national and international occupational limits throughout the monitoring period, based on 8-hour workday weighted averages. Ethyl-benzene and p-xylene concentrations, during winter, correspond to activity at the site, and thus idling of buses during refueling may elevate results. Overall, occupational air quality at the refueling bay is a matter of health concern, especially with regards to benzene exposure, and future reduction strategies are crucial. Discrepancies between national and international limit values merit further investigation to determine whether South African guidelines for benzene are sufficiently precautionary.

  16. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  17. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications...

  18. Airline and Aircraft Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Hauka, Maris; Paramonovs, Jurijs

    2014-01-01

    Development of the inspection programme of fatigue-prone aircraft construction under limitation of airline fatigue failure rate. The highest economical effectiveness of airline under limitation of fatigue failure rate and failure probability is discussed. For computing is used exponential regression, Monte Carlo method, Log Normal distribution, Markov chains and semi-Markov process theory. The minimax approach is offered for processing the results of full-scale fatigue approval test of an air...

  19. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  20. Real-time drogue recognition and 3D locating for UAV autonomous aerial refueling based on monocular machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xufeng; Kong Xingwei; Zhi Jianhui; Chen Yong; Dong Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Drogue recognition and 3D locating is a key problem during the docking phase of the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). To solve this problem, a novel and effective method based on monocular vision is presented in this paper. Firstly, by employing computer vision with red-ring-shape feature, a drogue detection and recognition algorithm is proposed to guarantee safety and ensure the robustness to the drogue diversity and the changes in environmental condi-tions, without using a set of infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs) on the parachute part of the dro-gue. Secondly, considering camera lens distortion, a monocular vision measurement algorithm for drogue 3D locating is designed to ensure the accuracy and real-time performance of the system, with the drogue attitude provided. Finally, experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effective-ness of the proposed method. Experimental results show the performances of the entire system in contrast with other methods, which validates that the proposed method can recognize and locate the drogue three dimensionally, rapidly and precisely.

  1. Conceptual design study on an upgraded future Monju core (2). Core concept with extended refueling interval and increased fuel burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinjo, Hidehito; Ishibashi, Jun-ichi; Nishi, Hiroshi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tsuruga Head Office, International Cooperation and Technology Development Center, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan); Kageyama, Takeshi [Nuclear Energy System Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    A conceptual design study has been performed at the International Cooperation and Technology Development Center to investigate the feasibility of upgraded future Monju cores with extended refueling intervals of 365efpd/cycle and increased fuel burnup of 150 GWd/t. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the possible contribution of Monju to the improved economy and to efficient utilization, as one of the major facilities for fast neutron irradiation. Two design measures have been mainly taken to improve the core fuel burnup and reactivity control characteristics for the extended operating cycle length of 1 year: (1) The driver fuel pin specification with both increased pin diameter of 7.7mm and increased active core height of about 100cm has been chosen to reduce the burnup reactivity swing, (2) The absorber control rod specification has also been changed to enhance the control rod reactivity worth by increasing {sup 10}B-enrichment and absorber length, and to adequately secure the shutdown reactivity margin. The major core characteristics have been evaluated on the core power distribution, safety parameters such as sodium void reactivity and Doppler effect, thermal hydraulics and reactivity control characteristics. The results show that this core could achieve the targeted core performances of 1-year operating cycle as well as 150GWd/t discharged burnup, without causing any significant drawback on the core characteristics and safety aspects. The upgraded core concepts have, therefore, been confirmed as feasible. (author)

  2. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M; Piersma, Theunis; Niles, Lawrence J; do Nascimento, Inês de Lima Serrano; Atkinson, Philip W; Clark, Nigel A; Minton, Clive D T; Peck, Mark K; Aarts, Geert

    2004-04-22

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in Arctic polar deserts. From 1997 to 2002 an increasing proportion of knots failed to reach threshold departure masses of 180-200 g, possibly because of later arrival in the Bay and food shortage from concurrent over-harvesting of crabs. Reduced nutrient storage, especially in late-arriving birds, possibly combined with reduced sizes of intestine and liver during refuelling, had severe fitness consequences for adult survival and recruitment of young in 2000-2002. From 1997 to 2002 known survivors in Delaware Bay were heavier at initial capture than birds never seen again, annual survival of adults decreased by 37% between May 2000 and May 2001, and the number of second-year birds in wintering flocks declined by 47%. Population size in Tierra del Fuego declined alarmingly from 51,000 to 27,000 in 2000-2002, seriously threatening the viability of this subspecies. Demographic modelling predicts imminent endangerment and an increased risk of extinction of the subspecies without urgent risk-averse management.

  3. Design Study of 200MWth Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with Nitride (UN-PuN Fuel Long Life without Refueling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Ratna Dewi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design study of 200 MWth Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with UN-PuN fuel long life without refueling has been done. GFR is one type reactor in Generation IV reactor system. It uses helium coolant and fast neutron spectrum. Helium is chemical inert, single phase and low neutron moderation. In this study the calculations are performed by using SRAC code with PIJ calculation for the fuel pin cell calculation and CITATION calculation for core calculation. The data libraries use JENDL 3.2. The variation fuel fractions are 50% until 60%. The diameter active core is 150 cm and the height active core is 100 cm. The reflector radial-axial width is 50 cm. The variation of the powers are 100 MWth up to 500 MWth. The high power causes the high k-eff value. The optimum design is reached when the power is 200 MWth, variation percentage Plutonium for fuel F1:F2:F3=9%:11%:13%. The comparation of fuel:cladding:coolant fraction = 55%:10%:35%. The cooling down time of Plutonium is nine months. The optimum k-eff value is 1.0142 with excess reactivity value 1.403%. The decay of Plutonium decrease k-eff value in the beginning of burn up.

  4. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  5. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  6. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra

    2005-01-01

    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  7. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  8. Optics in aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  9. Aircraft propeller control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  10. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  11. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  12. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  13. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  14. Impact Analysis on the Removal of Filter/Monitors from USN/USMC Helicopter in Flight Refueling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    water/contamination from being introduced into the airframe fuel system during HIFR from the air capable ships. Although fuel quality assurance...purposes, and in emergency situations to avoid ditching (e.g. a fouled deck, deck unsuitable for landing, aircraft too heavy, etc). At most

  15. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  16. Liner ship refueled strategy considering ship speed%考虑船舶航速的集装箱班轮燃油补给策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶明君; 杨斌; 朱小林; 许波桅

    2015-01-01

    针对集装箱班轮运输中船舶燃油补给问题,分析船舶航速变化对燃油消耗产生的非线性影响,推导出船舶航速与船舶往返时间及船舶油耗之间的关系式,以连续多航次船舶燃油补给总成本最低为目标,加油港与加油量为决策变量,建立周计划内考虑航速的集装箱班轮燃油补给混合整数非线性规划模型。根据模型特点,利用分段线性逼近函数对模型进行等价转换。以某航运公司的亚欧单航线为仿真实验,依次分析港口时间窗、船舶类型、燃油价格及船舶油舱容量等因素对船舶燃油补给策略的影响。结果表明:该模型可以同时决策船舶加油港的选择、加油量的大小及航速的调整,比传统模式更能节省油耗和成本。%In view of the problems of ship′s refueling strategy in container liner transportation network , analysis of the non-linear influence of ship speed on fuel consumption is done and the mathematical functions are deduced to describe the relationships between the ship speed , fuel consumption and the round voyage time .To minimize the ship refueling cost , a mixed integer non-linear programming model considering ship speed is formulated to solve the optimal refueling strategy problem of where to refuel and how much to fuel .According to the characteristics of the model , we utilize piecewise linear approximation function for equivalent model .The single shipping liner service of Asia-Europe is taken as an example for the simulation experiment , the sequence analysis is made of port arrival time windows , and ship type , bunker fuel price , and ship bunker fuel capacity on bunker fuel supply strategy .The results indicate that the proposed model , compared with the conventional model , can simultaneously solve the problems of bunkering port , bunkering amounts and ship speeds adjustment , save fuel consumption and cost .

  17. 机器视觉辅助的插头锥套式无人机自主空中加油仿真%Machine Vision Aided Simulation of Probe and Drogue Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Autonomous Aerial Refueling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭峰; 董新民; 孔星炜

    2013-01-01

    In order to precisely obtain the relative pose between probe and drogue during unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) autonomous aerial refueling docking,a machine vision aided simulation scheme of probe-drogue UAV autonomous aerial refueling is proposed.Based on the machine vision,the recognition and tracking algorithm of refueling drogue is investigated.The relative pose between UAV and refueling drogue is estimated by using of Kalman filter algorithm.Experiment results show that the machine vision aided image processing algorithm can recognize and track refueling drogue precisely and the convergence of relative pose errors estimated by the filter algorithm is proved,fulfilling the demand of probe-drogue UAV autonomous aerial refueling.%为准确获取无人机自主空中加油对接阶段受油插头与加油锥套的相对位姿信息,提出一种机器视觉辅助的插头锥套式无人机自主空中加油方案.研究了机器视觉识别跟踪加油锥套的算法,利用卡尔曼滤波算法估计无人机与加油锥套的相对位姿.实验结果表明:机器视觉图像处理算法可精确识别跟踪加油锥套,滤波器估计的相对位姿误差收敛速度较快,满足插头锥套式无人机自主空中加油的需要.

  18. Equipment for decontamination of the bottom of the cavity of NPP. During refueling operations; Equipo para la descontaminacion del fondo de la cavidad de CC.NN. durante las operaciones de recarga de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquer Perez, J. I.; Lacalle Bayo, J.; Martinez Pulgarin, A.

    2013-07-01

    In this work is presented the DEMOS robot, computer designed and developed by Dominguis Group to fund decontamination of nuclear power plants cavity during refueling operations. The aim of the project is soil decontamination of the cavity, at-flooded pool by brushing and vacuuming after operations movement of fuel in order to reduce operational doses to workers and the spread of contamination in the activities undertaken thereafter cavity. Finally, the results obtained when using the DEMOS at the 25th refueling NPP are presented Trillo.

  19. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  20. Aircraft control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  1. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  2. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  3. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on... provisions of §§ 21.183(c), 21.184(b), or 21.185(c); and (2) New aircraft engines or propellers...

  4. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine. This AD...; phone: +43 7246 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You...

  5. Automatic Centralized Refueling Technology for Shearer Gearbox%采煤机齿轮箱自动集中加油技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊光; 廉自生

    2015-01-01

    Based on the existing technologies of automatic refueling of shearer at home and abroad ,an automatic centralized refueling method for the gearboxes in shearer was proposed in this paper .Through the calculation related to oil pressure ,flow and other tech‐nical parameters ,we completed the design of the main components in this system ,to achieve the technology used in shearer .%通过对采煤机现有加油技术及国内外自动加油技术研究,提出了一种采煤机齿轮箱自动集中加油技术;通过对相关油品、油压、流量及液压阀组等技术参数的设计计算,完成了主要元器件的型号设计,实现了该技术在采煤机上的应用。

  6. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  7. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  8. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  9. Causes of aircraft electrical failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Donald; Slenski, George

    1991-08-01

    The results of a survey of data on failures of aircraft electronic and electrical components that was conducted to identify problematic components are reported. The motivation for the work was to determine priorities for future work on the development of accident investigation techniques for aircraft electrical components. The primary source of data was the Airforce Mishap Database, which is maintained by the Directorate of Aerospace Safety at Norton Air Force Base. Published data from the Air Force Avionics Integrity Program (AVIP) and Hughes Aircraft were also reviewed. Statistical data from these three sources are presented. Two major conclusions are that problems with interconnections are major contributors to aircraft electrical equipment failures, and that environmental factors, especially corrosion, are significant contributors to connector problems.

  10. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  11. Structural Dynamics of Maneuvering Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    AD-RI92 376 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING RIRCRAFT(U) CONRAD I TECHNOLOGIES INC KING OF PRUSSIA PR M M REDDI SEP 97 CTI-8601 NRDC-88014-69...REPORT NO. NADC-8014-60 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT M. Mahadeva Reddi .4 Conrad Technologies, Inc. 650 S. Henderson Rd. D T IQ King of...NO A0 CCESSION NO. R02303001 107601 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) (u) STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS) M

  12. Aircraft vibration and flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Aggarwal

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The paper outlines the theoretical and experimental procedure one has to adopt for flutter prevention during the various stages (project, design and prototype of the development of modern aircraft. With the advent of high speed, the aerodynamic coefficients have to be calculated with due regards to the effects of compressibility, finite aspect ratio of the lifting surfaces, sweep back and other peculiar shapes of the wings. The use of thin, small aspect ratio with external masses, necessitates the computation of higher frequency modes of vibration. Single degree of freedom flutter and the effect of control surface non-linearities has also become very important. Thus, it is shown how the availability of high speed computing machines, improved experimental technique for model and full scale testing has not kept pace with the uncertainties associated with the transonic speeds, low aspect ratio and the high frequency modes. Cross-checking of theoretical and experimental results at every stage seem to be the only answer."

  13. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  14. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  15. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  16. Experimental Measurements of the Effects of Photo-chemical Oxidation on Aerosol Emissions in Aircraft Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracolo, M. A.; Presto, A. A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Nguyen, N.; Ranjan, M.; Reeder, A.; Lipsky, E.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    Many military and commercial airfields are located in non-attainment areas for particulate matter (PM2.5), but the contribution of emissions from in-use aircraft to local and regional PM2.5 concentrations is uncertain. In collaboration with the Pennsylvania Air National Guard 171st Air Refueling Wing, the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Mobile Laboratory was deployed to measure fresh and aged emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135 Stratotanker airframe. The CFM-56 family of engine powers many different types of military and civilian aircraft, including the Boeing 737 and several Airbus models. It is one of the most widely deployed models of engines in the world. The goal of this work was to measure the gas-particle partitioning of the fresh emissions at atmospherically relevant conditions and to investigate the effect of atmospheric oxidation on aerosol loadings as the emissions age. Emissions were sampled from an inlet installed one meter downstream of the engine exit plane and transferred into a portable smog chamber via a heated inlet line. Separate experiments were conducted at different engine loads ranging from ground idle to take-off rated thrust. During each experiment, some diluted exhaust was added to the chamber and the volatility of the fresh emissions was then characterized using a thermodenuder. After this characterization, the chamber was exposed to either ambient sunlight or UV lights to initiate photochemical oxidation, which produced secondary aerosol and ozone. A suite of gas and particle-phase instrumentation was used to characterize the evolution of the gas and particle-phase emissions, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure particle size and composition distributions. Fresh emissions of fine particles varied with engine load with peak emission factors at low and high loads. At high engine loads, the fresh emissions were dominated by black carbon; at low loads volatile organic carbon emissions were

  17. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  18. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  19. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  20. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  1. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for..., airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided...

  2. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory... Rotax Aircraft Engines BRP has issued Alert Service Bulletin ASB- 912-059 and ASB-914-042...

  3. 76 FR 31465 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the... by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rotax Aircraft Engines...

  4. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model and the Four Point Aircraft (FPA) model. Although they are well...

  5. THE AIRPORT DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of the issues involved in de-icing several kinds of aircrafts before flight. The basic risks of an iced aircraft and the factors that can influence its intensity are stated. It discusses the methods for de-icing and protecting against ice formation on small aircrafts, helicopters, and large aircrafts. It also classifies the fluids and other methods used for these de-icing operations, and explains the characteristics and limitations of their use.

  6. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  7. Quantitative Inspection Technologies for Aging Military Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    177 Figure 133. Aircraft Mockup With EDM Notches Marked As Red Dots And Numbered In Magnified Photos...178 ix Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Figure 134. First Test Of The Pantograph Scanner On The Mockup Aircraft...180 Figure 137. CAD Model Of Arc Scanner And Simulated Aircraft Fitting Mockup Panel ..................................... 181 Figure 138

  8. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  9. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying...

  10. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be...

  11. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathemat

  12. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  13. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  14. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  15. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  16. Aircraft Natural/Artificial Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    axial vibration is caused by an oscillator driving a coil in the probe to create a magnetostrictive force. A sensing coil within the probe senses the...Consequence TOP 7-3-537 12 February 2009 C-1 APPENDIX C. ICING TEST SITE SELECTION 1. INTRODUCTION Unlike large fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters

  17. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  18. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  19. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  20. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  1. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  2. 中核运行二厂大修辐射防护管理经验%The Radiation Protection Management Experience for Refueling Outage of NPP 2, CNNC Nuclear Power Operations Management Limited Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪伟; 陈高飞; 刘杰; 稂其良

    2013-01-01

    Since commercial operation in 2002, the NPP 2 of CNNO has been safe in operation for twelve years,and finished RP control successfuly in the 22 refueling outages. During the twelve years'operation, the RP management system was established and developed constantly, it also made good achievements in RP supervision and management. The author summarized the relevant RP management experience of refueling outages of CNNO Qinshan NPP 2, introduced the RP control actions for each stage of refueling outage, and discussed the key points and difficulty of RP control in refueling outage.%中核核电运行管理有限公司二厂(简称中核运行二厂)自2002年商业运行以来,已安全运行12个年头,顺利完成了22次换料大修的辐射安全控制,在12年的生产实践中,建立并不断完善了大修辐射管理体系,在历次大修中较好的发挥了辐射安全监督与管理的职能。本文总结了中核运行二厂大修辐射防护管理经验,系统地介绍了大修各阶段辐射防护控制所采取的行动,并对大修辐射防护管理的重点及难点进行探讨。

  3. Investigation of Teaching Pattern about Refueling Equipments Course with Mixed Training of Information Literacy%融合信息素质培养的油料装备课程教学模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶有义; 陈军; 何德安

    2013-01-01

    构建信息素质教育体系,造就信息素质全面的人才,重要要求就是将信息素质培养融入一般课程教学。油料装备课程教学融合信息素质的培养对打造信息化的油料装备人才至关重要,应采取两点措施:一是在教学内容中融入油料装备信息化知识;二是选择与学员信息素质培养相适应的教学模式与教学手段。文章探讨了油料装备信息化知识的主要内容,选择并阐释了相应的教学模式与教学手段,创新了课程教学。%The important requirement for constructing information literacy of educated system and training perfect information literacy talents is to mix information literacy training into ordinary teaching courses. It is a key factor that training informative talent in refueling equipments through mixing information literacy fostering into teaching course about refueling equipments. In order to realize the goals, the following two measures were adopted. The first is fusing informative knowledge about refueling equipment into teaching content; The second is to choose teaching pattern and teaching method suitable for training information literacy students. In this paper, we discussed the main content about informative knowledge of refueling equipments, chose and explained corresponding teaching pattern and teaching methods so as to innovate course teaching.

  4. 考虑服务容量的充电站选址问题%Problem of Locating Electric Vehicle Refueling Stations with Service Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振森; 杨臖

    2015-01-01

    针对电动汽车充电站的选址问题,在现有的选址模型的基础上加入充电站服务容量的因素,并将服务容量延伸为充电站充电桩的数量和用电配额两方面,建立了一个新的充电站选址的整数规划模型。该模型的目的是在满足各个地点的电动汽车对电量需求的前提下,最小化充电站建设总成本。接着,将模型应用到湖北省高速公路网电动汽车充电站建设规划的案例中去,通过对模型的求解来对该地区的充电站的选取与规模的大小进行分析,给出湖北省高速公路网充电站建设规划的解决方案。最后,针对车辆的最大行驶范围和安全电量水平两个参数来对模型进行了敏感度分析,发现行驶范围和安全电量水平是影响充电站建设的重要因素。%This paper studied the problem of locating electric vehicle refueling stations.Based on the existing models,we purposed a new model using an integer programming method which took service capacity of refueling stations in to consideration.The aim is to simultaneously serve intercity and intra-city travel and minimize the construction cost while satisfying demand of electric power from refueling stations.The model divided the service capacity into two parts:the number of charging point and the maximum electricity available.A numerical example using freeway network in Hubei province of China was given.We analyzed the result and drew conclusion about the characteristic of station selected.Some sensitivity analysis about this model was showed.Two factors are mainly considered:the maximum range and the safety electric quantity remained of EV,and the results under different conditions.The result showed that two factors had a great effect on the number of stations and the construction cost.Based on the non-inferior solutions,decision makers can thus better formulate viable station-deployment plans.

  5. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  6. CID Aircraft slap-down

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  7. Static Aeroelasticity in Combat Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Simulation Maneuverability Performance System Integration Design Load Spectren FIG. 1 HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT DESIGN Simulation has a great potential...Aeroelasticity has also a great effect on the flight control system design. If the basic control powers are reduced by increasing dynamic pressure...Components Flight Envelope Structure Concept a Total Aircraf Analysis FIG, 2 BASIC DATAS FOR AEROELASTIC DESIGN STUDIES Aeroelastic activities are now devided

  8. Aircraft Derived Data Validation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    to be equipped with Flight Management Systems (FMSs) that use sophisticated digital computers to assist pilots, allowing them to fly more fuel...some basic data is prepared. These include calculations of aircraft position projeted on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, and...Administration FMS Flight Management System GA General Aviation NextGen Next Generation Air Transportation System NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence

  9. 无人机空中加油自主会合导引律研究%Study on guidance law for UAV autonomous rendezvous in aerial refueling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许萌; 杨朝星

    2014-01-01

    With the theory research of UAV autonomous guidance law for rendezvous in aerial refueling,the problem of homing guidance with impact final heading constraint is put forward.By redesigning the biased item in the 3D space and viewing the desired rendezvous point as the target and combing with pure tracking in the end of the guidance,the requirement for the terminal heading heading is achieved.Finllay,the guidance law given in the article is proved to be reasonable with a simulation example of air-tanker with constant speed and direction and with U motor,the UAV to select different initial position and heading.The simulation results show that the design of autonomous rendezvous guidance law is effective for UAV aerial refueling autonomous rendezvous, solves the existing class of autonomous rendezvous guidance law design complex, to be known in advance tankers trajectory and a large number of online programming calculation.%针对自主空中加油技术中的会和阶段的理论研究,提出一种带有终端偏航角约束的导引问题。通过对三维空间中重新设计偏置项,来同时约束俯仰与偏航角,将期望的会合点作为跟踪目标,并在制导末端结合纯追踪法,实现终端航向的控制。最后,以匀速直线运动和作U型机动的加油机为例,对无人机(UAV)选取不同的初始位置和航向来检验所提出的制导律实现会合的能力。仿真结果表明,所设计的自主会合制导律有效实现无人机空中加油自主会合,解决了现有一类自主会合制导律设计复杂、需预先已知加油机轨迹及大量在线规划计算的问题。

  10. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  11. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  12. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  13. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013... for Subsonic Engines'', in the third column, in the last row, the entry ``rO > 26.7'' is corrected...

  14. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    A122 815 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MRINTENANCE(U) 112 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS D...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ’ ; " ... ..... ... ... . .. .. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Douglas P. Cook, Captain... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC Master’s Thesis AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Douglas

  15. Visualization of Aircraft Longitudinal-Axis Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Kvasnica

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the use of continuous mathematical models of an aircraft in an aircraft simulator is described. The models are of lower degree and less time-consuming for calculation. Computer implementation of the models capable to work faster and more accurately and efficiently is also described. The suggested approach allows to achieve the required precision at accelerated simulation speed using the continuous mathematical models of an aircraft. Frequency of the computation of continuous ma...

  16. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    OpenAIRE

    Yingtao Zuo; Pingjian Chen; Lin Fu; Zhenghong Gao; Gang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO) of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM) is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematic...

  17. Aircraft Survivability. Susceptibility Reduction. Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    to determine the degree of control available with manual manipulation of engine throttles for various transport aircraft. Simulations included...Boeing 727, 737, 747, 757, 767, 777, MD-11, MD-90, C-17, and Airbus A320 and A300 transport aircraft. Preliminary missile impact effects were...shown, for most aircraft tested, that using only manual TOC it is very difficult to make a safe runway landing due to difficulty in controlling the

  18. Dynamic modeling of a hose-drogue aerial refueling system and integral sliding mode backstepping control for the hose whipping phenomenon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haitao; Dong Xinmin; Xue Jianping; Liu Jiaolong

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of a hose-drogue aerial refueling system (HDARS) and an integral sliding mode backstepping controller design for the hose whipping phenomenon (HWP) during probe-drogue coupling are studied. Firstly, a dynamic model of the variable-length hose-drogue assembly is built for the sake of exploiting suppression methods for the whipping phenomenon. Based on the lumped parameter method, the hose is modeled by a series of variable-length links connected with frictionless joints. A set of iterative equations of the hose’s three-dimensional motion is derived subject to hose reeling in/out, tanker motion, gravity, and aerodynamic loads accounting for the effects of steady wind, atmospheric turbulence, and tanker wake. Secondly, relying on a permanent magnet synchronous motor and high-precision position sensors, a new active control strategy for the HWP on the basis of the relative position between the tanker and the receiver is proposed. Considering the strict-feedback configuration of the permanent magnet synchronous motor, a rotor position control law based on the backstepping method is designed to insure global stability. An integral of the rotor position error and an exponential sliding mode reaching law of the current errors are applied to enhance control accuracy and robustness. Finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model and control laws.

  19. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  20. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  3. 75 FR 50865 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. Comments We gave the public the opportunity...

  4. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certificated in the United States. However, the Model 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You...

  5. 76 FR 40219 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Rotax Aircraft Engines Mandatory Service Bulletin SB-912-058 SB-914-041, dated April 15, 2011, listed in... 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You may review...

  6. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the util

  7. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that technical... Administration 14 CFR Part 33 RIN 2120-AF57 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the...

  8. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical.... SUMMARY: This amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... 33--AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues...

  9. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  10. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  11. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is...

  12. 机动车加油过程中气液两相流动特性的CFD数值模拟%CFD Numerical Simulation onto the Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Behavior During Vehicle Refueling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家庆; 张男; 王金惠; 朱玲; 尚超

    2011-01-01

    With the gradual improvement of environmental regulations,more and more attentions are attracted to the vapor emissions during the process of vehicle refueling.Research onto the vehicle refueling process by means of numerical simulation has been executed abroad since 1990s,while as it has never been involved so far domestically.Through reasonable simplification about the physical system of "Nozzle + filler pipe+ gasoline storage tank + vent pipe" for vehicle refueling,and by means of volume of fluid(VOF) model for gas-liquid two-phase flow and Re-Normalization Group k-ε turbulence flow model provided in commercial computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software Fluent,this paper determined the proper mesh discretization scheme and applied the proper boundary conditions based on the Gambit software,then established the reasonable numerical simulation model for the gas-liquid two-phase flow during the refueling process.Through discussing the influence of refueling velocity on the static pressure of vent space in gasoline tank,the back-flowing phenomenon has been revealed in this paper.It has been demonstrated that,the more the flow rate and the refueling velocity of refueling nozzle is,the higher the gross static pressure in the vent space of gasoline tank.In the meanwhile,the variation of static pressure in the vent space of gasoline tank can be categorized into three obvious stages.When the refueling flow rate becomes higher,the back-flowing phenomenon of liquid gasoline can sometimes be induced in the head section of filler pipe,thus making the gasoline nozzle pre-shut-off.Totally speaking,the theoretical work accomplished in this paper laid some solid foundation for self-researching and self-developing the technology and apparatus for the vehicle refueling and refueling emissions control domestically.%随着环保法规的不断完善,机动车加油过程中所产生的油气排放污染问题越来越受到重视.国外自20世纪90年代中后

  13. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; or (iii) is in an area that is marked by obstruction lights; (3) Anchor an aircraft unless the aircraft— (i) Has lighted anchor lights; or (ii) Is in an area where anchor lights are not required on vessels; or (b) Operate an aircraft that is equipped with an anticollision light system, unless it...

  14. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  15. Trajectory Control for Very Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    total airspeed and the classic aircraft longitudinal , lateral, and vertical velocity components are u positive out the nose, v positive out the right...wing flexibility is a secondary and minimal contribution to aircraft longitudinal motion. Using this assumption and the previous assumptions of

  16. A Wind Tunnel Captive Aircraft Testing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    Flight/Wind Tunnel Correlation of Aircraft Longitudinal Motion ....................................... 14 10. Fright/Wind Tunnel Correlation of...I 2 3 4 5 6 T IME, s e c Figure 9. Flight/wind tunnel correla- tion of aircraft longitudinal motion. ’ D A n ~ v i i i | ~ 0 0 - 4 0

  17. Maintenance of air worthiness of aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Горячев

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Described are modem conditions of operation of Russian civil aviation, state of aircraft stock, the main principles of maintaining air worthiness of airplanes and helicopters. Considered is a stage by stage prolongation of the service life of each specimen of aircraft with certification being obligatory

  18. Intraocular lens in a fighter aircraft pilot.

    OpenAIRE

    Loewenstein, A; Geyer, O; Biger, Y; Bracha, R; Shochat, I; Lazar, M.

    1991-01-01

    A pseudophakic pilot of the Israeli air force flying an F-15 (Eagle) aircraft was followed up for three years. He experienced about 100 flying hours, 5% of the time under high g stress. The intraocular lens did not dislocate and no complications were observed. It seems that flying high performance fighter aircraft is not contraindicated in pseudophakic pilots.

  19. Noise Control in Propeller-Driven Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical model predicts noise levels inside propeller-driven aircraft during cruise at mach 0.8. Double wall sidewalls minimize interior noise and weight. Model applied to three aircraft with fuselages of different size (wide-body, narrow-body, and small-diameter) to determine noise reductions required to achieve A-weighted sound level not to exceed 80 dB.

  20. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  1. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  2. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR...

  3. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII....

  4. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  5. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  6. Unmanned aircraft systems as wingmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard; Barnes, Laura; Fields, MaryAnne

    2010-04-01

    This paper introduces a concept towards integrating manned and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) into a highly functional team though the design and implementation of 3-D distributed formation/flight control algorithms with the goal to act as wingmen for a manned aircraft. This method is designed to minimize user input for team control, dynamically modify formations as required, utilize standard operating formations to reduce pilot resistance to integration, and support splinter groups for surveillance and/or as safeguards between potential threats and manned vehicles. The proposed work coordinates UAS members by utilizing artificial potential functions whose values are based on the state of the unmanned and manned assets including the desired formation, obstacles, task assignments, and perceived intentions. The overall unmanned team geometry is controlled using weighted potential fields. Individual UAS utilize fuzzy logic controllers for stability and navigation as well as a fuzzy reasoning engine for flight path intention prediction. Approaches are demonstrated in simulation using the commercial simulator X-Plane and controllers designed in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments include trail and right echelon formations as well as splinter group surveillance.

  7. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  8. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  9. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  10. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  11. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The... Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously...

  12. LiquidPower-1. Development and proof-of-concept of core methanol reformer for stationary and motive fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling stations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogsgaard, J.; Mortensen, Henrik [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Skipper, T. [Dantherm Power A/S, Hobro (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    LiquidPower-1 has developed laboratory test systems for methanol reforming and tested reformers from four different suppliers. This has contributed to determining the state-of-the-art level for methanol reforming and enabled an update of the LiquidPower R and D Roadmap onwards a commercialisation of the technology. The project has achieved the following results: 1) A detailed technical specification of methanol reformers for the fuel cell back-up power and hydrogen refueling station markets has been conducted; 2) Laboratory test systems for methanol reformers has been developed and established at Dantherm Power and H2 Logic; 3) Initial test of reformers from four suppliers has been conducted - with two suppliers being selected for continued tests; 4) Extensive laboratory tests conducted of reformers from two suppliers, with the aim to determine state-of-the-art for price, efficiency, capacity and lifetime. Several errors and break-downs were experienced during the test period, which revealed a need for further R and D to improve lifetime and stability; 5) The LiquidPower F and U Roadmap has been updated. Reformer TCO targets (Total Cost of Operation) for each of the markets have been calculated including updated targets for efficiency and cost. These targets also serve as the main ones to be pursued as part of the continued R and D roadmap execution. Compared to the previous edition of the Roadmap, the project has confirmed the viability of methanol reforming, but also revealed that stability and lifetime needs to be addressed and solved before commencing commercialization of the technology. If the Roadmap is successful a commercialization can commence beyond 2015. (Author)

  13. Study of a transaugmented two-stage small circular-bore railgun for injection of hypervelocity hydrogen pellets as a fusion reactor refueling mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.W.; Anderson, M.A.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, J.; Kim, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Injection of hypervelocity hydrogen pellets has become widely accepted as the most effective means of refueling magnetically confined fusion reactors. Pellet velocities on the order of 10 km/s are desired and hydrogen pellet erosion during acceleration must be minimized. It is important to maintain uniform bore surfaces during repetitive shots, implying that, if a railgun is to be used to accelerate the pellets, damage to the sidewalls and rails of the railgun due to local heating must be limited. In order to reduce the amount of power dissipated within the bore and increase the propulsive force generated by the plasma-arc armature while minimizing losses due to pellet, rail, and sidewall ablation, the authors have employed a magnetic field transaugmentation mechanism consisting of a two-turn pulsed electromagnet. The two-stage gun consists of a light-gas gun which accelerates a 4- to 5-mg pellet to a speed around 1.2 km/s and injects it into the plasma-arc armature railgun. Currently, they have achieved a final output velocity for a hydrogen pellet of 2.11 km/s with a time-averaged acceleration of 4,850 km/s{sup 2} using a 58-cm railgun pulsed with a peak rail current of 9.2 kA and 28.0 kA of transaugmentation current. This paper will present a description of the hydrogen-pellet-injector railgun system, a discussion of the data on hydrogen pellet acceleration, and projections for future systems.

  14. Formation flight control for unmanned air vehicle during aerial refueling%无人机空中加油过程中编队飞行控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红建; 袁锁中; 戴文正

    2014-01-01

    针对空中加油中无人机位置保持问题,进行了时变质量UAV的动力学建模与非线性控制设计。综合考虑了燃油传输对UAV的质量、惯性矩阵和质心位置的影响,基于相对于惯性系的状态变量,推导了UAV时变质量动力学方程。分析燃油传输带来的动力学影响,并设计神经网络动态逆控制律来实现UAV的位置保持,通过非线性仿真验证了控制律的有效性。%To keep the position of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) during autonomous aerial refueling, we develop the dynamic model and put forward a nonlinear controller for the UAV with time-varying mass. By comprehensively considering the effect of fuel transfer on the UAV mass, the inertia matrix and the center of mass, we derive the time-varying mass dynamic equations of UAV based on state variables relative to inertial reference frame. Through analyzing the dynamic characteristic effect of fuel transfer, we design neural network dynamic inversion control law to keep the position of unmanned air vehicle, and nonlinear simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the flight control law.

  15. Environmental Assessment for BRAC Actions for the 137th Airlift Wing Relocation, KC-135R Aircraft Robust, and Associated Construction at the 507th Air Refueling Wing Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    central Oklahoma area is characterized by sedimentary rocks of Permian age (245-290 million years). Surficial geology in Oklahoma County is dominated...are in danger of becoming extinct without protection. These species may be rare because of specialized habitat needs or habitat destruction. The

  16. Applying Risk Management to Reduce The Overall Time In Lay-Up While Increasing the Cost Effectiveness of a Nimitz (CVN 68) Class Aircraft Carrier in Dry Dock During the Execution Phase of a Refueling and Complex Overhaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    was used to query the EBSCOhost , BOSUN, DTIC, and IEEE Xplore databases for professional journal articles, conference proceedings and DoD policies...authorized work package (AWP) as well as a preliminary integrated master schedule (IMS). The AWP is a database that comprises the entire work

  17. Development of linear sensitivity matrix method for fast evaluation of CANDU refuelling schemes%用于CANDU堆换料方案快速评价的线性敏感矩阵方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文聪; 刘宇轩; 冯进军; 王军; 樊申; 张少泓

    2009-01-01

    为了实现CANDU堆换料方案的快速评价,本文提出了线性敏感矩阵方法(LSM).该方法基于各种扰动引起的堆芯状态变化互不干涉且堆芯对扰动的响应与扰动量成正比的假设,借助于事先针对参考堆芯形成的敏感矩阵,主要的堆芯参数经简单代数运算就可得到,无需耗时的三维扩散方程求解.秦山三期1号机组部分运行历史检验结果表明,该方法不但可大幅提高换料方案评价的速度,而且还具有较高的精度,能满足现场工程应用的要求.%In order to develop a numerical tool for the fast evaluation of CANDU refuelling schemes, a Linear Sensitivity Matrix method (LSM) is developed. It assumes that all the effects caused by various perturbations to the core state are independent to each other and the core response to a perturbation is proportional to its magnitude. In this way, the main core parameters of a refuelling scheme can be derived by simple algebraic operations with the use of pre-calculated sensitivity matrices, without resorting to the complicated and time-consuming 3D core calculation. Verification against the QinShan CANDU reactor operation history demonstrates that LSM is capable of generating accurate results and running very fast for evaluating a refuelling scheme.

  18. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnitz, R.J. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, P.R. [PRD Consulting (United States); Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ``internal initiators.`` This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10{sup {minus}7}/year.

  19. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  20. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  1. Aircraft measurements of wave cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Cui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free wave clouds made at temperatures greater than −5 °C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15–45 μm. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. A new definition of a mountain-wave cloud is given, based on the measurements presented here and previous studies. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and clouds.

  2. SMACK - SMOOTHING FOR AIRCRAFT KINEMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, R.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential

  3. Decontamination equipment for the bottom of the cavity NPP during refueling operations; Equipo para la descontaminacion del fondo de la cavidad de centrales nucleares durante las operaciones de recarga de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquer, J. I.; Pastor, I.; Pascual, A.; Garcia Martinez, A.

    2014-04-01

    In this work the DEMOS robot is displayed, as a designed and developed equipment by Grupo Dominguis in order to carry out the decontamination of the cavity background in Nuclear Power Plants during the refueling operations. the aim of the project is executing the decontamination of the cavity ground, in case of flood pool, by means of brushing and aspirated after the fuel movement operation, in order to reduce the operational dose of the workers. In the activities that are carried out after while in the cavity. Eventually, the obtained results of the operative experience in many Nuclear Power Plants will be displayed. (Author)

  4. LINK2009 Phase 1: Development of 2. generation fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen refueling station. Final report; LINK2009 fase 1: Udvikling af 2. gen. braendselscelle koeretoejer og brinttankstation. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    LINK2009 project was to develop 2nd gen. technologies fuel cell systems for vehicles and 350bar hydrogen refueling stations. Also the LINK2009 project were to ensure a continuously positioning of Denmark and the Scandinavian Region within hydrogen for transport and continue to attract international car manufacturers to conduct demonstration and later market introduction in the region. The LINK2009 project is divided in two phases where this first phase only deals with the development of the 2nd generation technologies, whereas the following phase 2 will include the demonstration hereof as well as additional research activities. This Report describes the results of the phase 1 that was commenced in summer 2008 and ended in late 2009. Phase 1 has resulted in the development of new 2nd generation fuel cell technology for use in a city car and a service vehicle. Stated targets for price and efficiency have been reached and the following demonstration in Phase 2 is to confirm reaching of life time targets. The efficiency of the fuel cell system for the city car has been measured to be 42-48% at a power delivery of respectively 10kW and 2kW, which is significantly above the target of >40%. System simplifications and selection of new components have enabled a 50% reduction in the kW price for the fuel cell system, including 700bar hydrogen storage, now totalling Euro 4.500/kW. This creates sufficient basis for conducting demonstration of the system in vehicles. 9 vehicles are planned to be demonstrated in the following phase 2. Additional 8 vehicles were put in operation in Copenhagen in November 2009. Phase 1 has conducted development of 2nd gen. hydrogen refuelling technology that has resulted in concepts for both 350bar and 700bar refuelling as well as a concept for onsite hydrogen production at refuelling stations. In separate projects the developed 350bar technology has been brought to use in a newly established hydrogen station in Copenhagen, and the hydrogen

  5. Performance Evaluation Method for Dissimilar Aircraft Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is presented for using the square of the wingspan rather than the wing reference area as a basis for nondimensional comparisons of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of aircraft that differ substantially in planform and loading. Working relationships are developed and illustrated through application to several categories of aircraft covering a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.00. For each application, direct comparisons of drag polars, lift-to-drag ratios, and maneuverability are shown for both nondimensional systems. The inaccuracies that may arise in the determination of aerodynamic efficiency based on reference area are noted. Span loading is introduced independently in comparing the combined effects of loading and aerodynamic efficiency on overall performance. Performance comparisons are made for the NACA research aircraft, lifting bodies, century-series fighter aircraft, F-111A aircraft with conventional and supercritical wings, and a group of supersonic aircraft including the B-58 and XB-70 bomber aircraft. An idealized configuration is included in each category to serve as a standard for comparing overall efficiency.

  6. Aircraft emission research within ISTC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedesh, V.; Leut, A.; Boris, S. [Scientific Research Center at the Gromov Flight, Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2001-08-01

    This research is aimed at obtaining experimental data on contamination of the atmosphere by emissions from aircraft engines in cruise flight conditions, to establish and improve models of the physical and chemical processes which take place in the aircraft wake and in the general zone of air traffic corridors. An Su-24 'sounder' aircraft equipped with an air sampling and collection system has been established to obtain the necessary atmospheric samples in flight, and procedures have been developed for performing the research flights. Techniques have also been developed for chemical analysis of the samples. (authors)

  7. Moving towards a more electric aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Rosero García, Javier Alveiro; Ortega Redondo, Juan Antonio; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Romeral Martínez, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Harry Rowe Mimno Award for the March 2007 AESS Magazine Paper: “Moving Towards A More Electric Aircraft” The latest advances in electric and electronic aircraft technologies from the point of view of an "all-electric" aircraft are presented herein. Specifically, we describe the concept of a "more electric aircraft" (MEA), which involves removing the need for on-engine hydraulic power generation and bleed air off-takes, and the increasing use of power electronics in the starter/generation s...

  8. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  9. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  10. Hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Severe structural damage can occur when aircraft collide with hailstones. Consequently, methods of predicting hail damage to airplane surfaces are needed by the aircraft designer. This paper describes an analytical method of predicting the dent depth and final deformed shape for simple structural components impacted by hailstones. The solution was accomplished by adapting the DEPROSS computer program to the problem of normal impact of hail on flat metallic sheets and spherical metallic caps. Experimental data and analytical predictions are presented for hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces along with a description of the hail gun and hail simulation technique used in the experimental study.

  11. 14 CFR 91.1109 - Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... currently recommended by the manufacturer of the aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1109 Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program. Each...

  12. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion Three forced landings of Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model...

  13. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  14. Innovative Aircraft Design – Options for a New Medium Range Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Task was to find an innovative aircraft design for a new medium range aircraft. The aircraft design methodology is based on equations (in contrast to numeric methods) and formal optimization with a genetic algorithm called differential evolution. Airbus has postponed an all-new A320 to 2025 or even 2030. This allows including also unconventional configurations into the search. Economic requirements are extreme: 25 % to 40 % reduction in fuel consumption, 35 % reduction in Cash Operating Costs...

  15. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  16. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eikmann; Christin Peschel; Cara Kahl; Dirk Schreckenberg; Markus Meis

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft n...

  17. Investigation of aircraft vortex wake structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, N. A.; Turchak, L. I.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we analyze the mechanisms of formation of the vortex wake structure of aircraft with different wing shape in the plan flying close to or away from the underlying surface cleaned or released mechanization wing.

  18. Titanium in fatigue critical military aircraft structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, F.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the effect of fatigue requirements on titanium structure in military aircraft applications, specifically, fighter aircraft. The discussion covers how fatigue affects the design and analysis of detail parts, and how manufacturing processes affect the fatigue performance of titanium structure. Criteria for designing fighter aircraft have evolved from simple strength calculations to extremely complex computer generated analyses involving strength, durability, damage tolerance and fatigue. Fatigue life prediction is an important part of these analyses and dramatically affects the design and weight of fighter aircraft. Manufacturing processes affect fatigue performance both in a positive and negative manner. Designers must allow for the effect of these processes on titanium structure and consider the efficiency and economy of adding processes that increase fatigue life.

  19. Aircraft Electronics Maintenance Training Simulator. Curriculum Outlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhawk Technical Coll., Janesville, WI.

    Instructional materials are provided for nine courses in an aircraft electronics maintenance training program. Courses are as follows: aviation basic electricity, direct current and alternating current electronics, basic avionic installations, analog electronics, digital electronics, microcomputer electronics, radio communications, aircraft…

  20. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  1. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  2. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  3. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  4. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  5. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  6. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  8. Aircraft Pitch Attitude Control using Backstepping

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola; Glad, Torkel

    2000-01-01

    A nonlinear approach to the automatic pitch attitude control problem for a generic fighter aircraft is presented. A nonlinear model describing the longitudinal equations of motion in strict feedback form is derived. Backstepping is utilized for the construction of a globally stabilizing controller with a number of free design parameters. Two tuning schemes are proposed based on the desired locally linear controller properties. The controller is evaluated using the HIRM fighter aircraft model.

  9. An Optimization Model for Aircraft Service Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus; Cheung; W; H; Ip; Angel; Lai; Eva; Cheung

    2002-01-01

    Scheduling is one of the most difficult issues in t he planning and operations of the aircraft services industry. In this paper, t he various scheduling problems in ground support operation of an aircraft mainte nance service company are addressed. The authors developed a set of vehicle rout ings to cover each schedule flights; the objectives pursued are the maximization of vehicle and manpower utilization and minimization of operation time. To obta in the goals, an integer-programming model with geneti...

  10. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by...Vore Aviation Corporation in Albuquerque, NM. It is a high-wing, composite , tricycle-gear aircraft designed primarily for the training and personal

  11. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  12. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  13. Handling Qualities Evaluations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Control Loop – Manned Platform Ai rc ra ft Pilot Flight Computer Control Surface Deflection Aircraft Response Inertia Measurements Visual Cues Aural...dynamics, ergonomics in the control station, and the control surfaces and actuators in the air- craft. The software may contain displays, behaviors...compare with the latency of manned aircraft that exhibit imperceptible time delays, usually less than 5 millisec- onds , which is considered a minimum

  14. Noise of High Performance Aircraft at Afterburner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    aircraft carrier, navy personnel work in close proximity to high performance jets at takeoffs and landings. The noise level emitted by these jets is...any major differences between the dominant noise components of these jets and those of a standard high temperature laboratory supersonic jet . It is...noise. For the F18E aircraft, we find that its noise, at high engine power settings, also includes new noise components in addition to the usual fine

  15. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  16. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  17. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  18. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 2, Part 3: Internal Events Appendices I and J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitehead, D.; Staple, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report provides supporting documentation for various tasks associated with the performance of the probablistic risk assessment for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage at Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as documented in Volume 2, Part 1 of NUREG/CR-6143.

  19. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  20. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  1. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  2. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  3. Dynamics and control of morphing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigler, Thomas Michael

    The following work is directed towards an evaluation of aircraft that undergo structural shape change for the purpose of optimized flight and maneuvering control authority. Dynamical equations are derived for a morphing aircraft based on two primary representations; a general non-rigid model and a multi-rigid-body. A simplified model is then proposed by considering the altering structural portions to be composed of a small number of mass particles. The equations are then extended to consider atmospheric flight representations where the longitudinal and lateral equations are derived. Two aspects of morphing control are considered. The first is a regulation problem in which it is desired to maintain stability in the presence of large changes in both aerodynamic and inertial properties. From a baseline aircraft model various wing planform designs were constructed using Datcom to determine the required aerodynamic contributions. Based on nonlinear numerical evaluations adequate stabilization control was demonstrated using a robust linear control design. In maneuvering, divergent characteristics were observed at high structural transition rates. The second aspect considered is the use of structural changes for improved flight performance. A variable span aircraft is then considered in which asymmetric wing extension is used to effect the rolling moment. An evaluation of the variable span aircraft is performed in the context of bank-to-turn guidance in which an input-output control law is implemented.

  4. Longitudinal dynamics of a perching aircraft concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim; Waszak, Martin

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces a morphing aircraft concept whose purpose is to demonstrate a new bio-inspired flight capability: perching. Perching is a maneuver that utilizes primarily aerodynamics -- as opposed to thrust generation -- to achieve a vertical or short landing. The flight vehicle that will accomplish this is described herein with particular emphasis on its addition levels of actuation beyond the traditional aircraft control surfaces. A computer model of the aircraft is developed in order to predict the changes in applied aerodynamic loads as it morphs and transitions through different flight regimes. The analysis of this model is outlined, including a lifting-line-based analytical technique and a trim and stability analysis. These analytical methods -- compared to panel or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods -- are considered desirable for the analysis of a large number of vehicle configurations and flight conditions. The longitudinal dynamics of this aircraft are studied, and several interesting results are presented. Of special interest are the changes in vehicle dynamics as the aircraft morphs from a cruise configuration to initiate the perching maneuver. Changes in trim conditions and stability are examined as functions of vehicle geometry. The time response to changes in vehicle configuration is also presented.

  5. Assessment of Refueling Hose Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    order to make inteligent decisions regarding hose replacement or hose cleaning one needs to look at the individual reflection coefficients not just... artificial lighting used to illuminate the hose does not satisfy the specular reflection geometry for the pilot’s view angle of the hose. Also, from

  6. 自主空中加油会合过程中飞行制导律设计%Flight guidance law design in process of rendezvous for autonomous aerial refueling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海军; 袁锁中; 刘晓宇

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of rendezvous for autonomous aerial refueling which is a major issue to be solved current-ly,a method of proportional navigation with terminal angular constraint is used to guide the receiver to flight into refueling dis-trict. The nonlinear guidance algorithm is adopted for the tanker to guide the tanker to flight on the racetrack. A solution to over-cove the nonlinear guidance algorithm failure caused by wind is presented. The concepts of virtual target and virtual tanker is in-troduced to maintain the time synchronize of the receiver and the tanker in rendezvous. A corresponding velocity controller was designed. The simulation platform was built with Matlab/Simulink to verify the rendezvous guidance law for autonomous aerial re-fueling. The simulation results show that the guidance law can satisfy the requirement of rendezvous for autonomous aerial re-fueling.%针对目前自主空中加油亟需解决的会合问题,采用带有末端角约束的比例导引方法,实现了受油机导引进入加油区域,加油机采用非线性制导算法跟踪赛马场跑道线飞行,并给出了有风条件下非线性制导算法可能失效的解决办法。引入虚拟目标和虚拟加油机的概念,保持受油机和加油机在会合上的时间同步,设计了相应的速度控制器。利用Mat-lab/Simulink搭建仿真平台对空中加油会合制导律进行了仿真验证,仿真结果表明设计的制导律能满足自主空中加油的会合要求。

  7. Rapid Parameterization Schemes for Aircraft Shape Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid shape parameterization tool called PROTEUS is developed for aircraft shape optimization. This tool can be applied directly to any aircraft geometry that has been defined in PLOT3D format, with the restriction that each aircraft component must be defined by only one data block. PROTEUS has eight types of parameterization schemes: planform, wing surface, twist, body surface, body scaling, body camber line, shifting/scaling, and linear morphing. These parametric schemes can be applied to two types of components: wing-type surfaces (e.g., wing, canard, horizontal tail, vertical tail, and pylon) and body-type surfaces (e.g., fuselage, pod, and nacelle). These schemes permit the easy setup of commonly used shape modification methods, and each customized parametric scheme can be applied to the same type of component for any configuration. This paper explains the mathematics for these parametric schemes and uses two supersonic configurations to demonstrate the application of these schemes.

  8. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1987-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can calculate flexible air loads for generic configuration aircraft was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible airloads of an oblique wing aircraft can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds. Preliminary results indicating importance of flexibility in calculating air loads for this type of aircraft are presented.

  9. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  10. View of QF-106 aircraft cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    View of the cockpit and instrument panel of the QF-106 airplane used in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  11. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  12. Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo

    2014-11-01

    Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  13. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  14. Cosmic Radiation - An Aircraft Manufacturer's View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, C

    1999-07-01

    The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)

  15. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We...

  16. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  17. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  18. High performance forward swept wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, David G. (Inventor); Aoyagi, Kiyoshi (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor); Schmidt, Susan B. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A high performance aircraft capable of subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds employs a forward swept wing planform and at least one first and second solution ejector located on the inboard section of the wing. A high degree of flow control on the inboard sections of the wing is achieved along with improved maneuverability and control of pitch, roll and yaw. Lift loss is delayed to higher angles of attack than in conventional aircraft. In one embodiment the ejectors may be advantageously positioned spanwise on the wing while the ductwork is kept to a minimum.

  19. A computer application for parametric aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraqueiro, Filipe R.; Albuquerque, Pedro F.; Gamboa, Pedro V.

    2016-11-01

    The present work describes the development and final result of a graphical user interface tailored for a mission-based parametric aircraft design optimization code which targets the preliminary design phase of unmanned aerial vehicles. This development was built from the XFLR5 open source platform and further benefits from two-dimensional aerodynamic data obtained from XFOIL. For a better understanding, the most important graphical windows are shown. In order to demonstrate the graphical user interface interaction with the aircraft designer, the results of a case study which maximizes payload are presented.

  20. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  1. Small unmanned aircraft ballistic impact speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    A study of how smaller unmanned aircraft will fall in case of failure. The aim is to determine the impact speed of a drone givens its general shape and aerodynamic behavior. This will include both CFD simulations and real world test of ballistic drops of smaller drones.......A study of how smaller unmanned aircraft will fall in case of failure. The aim is to determine the impact speed of a drone givens its general shape and aerodynamic behavior. This will include both CFD simulations and real world test of ballistic drops of smaller drones....

  2. High-Speed Propeller for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerser, D. A.; Gatzen, B. S.

    1986-01-01

    Engine efficiency increased. Propeller blades required to be quite thin and highly swept to minimize compressibility losses and propeller noise during high-speed cruise. Use of 8 or 10 blades with highpropeller-power loading allows overall propeller diameter to be kept relatively small. Area-ruled spinner and integrated nacelle shape reduce compressibility losses in propeller hub region. Finally, large modern turboshaft engine and gearbox provide power to advanced propeller. Fuel savings of 30 to 50 percent over present systems anticipated. Propfan system adaptable to number of applications, such as highspeed (subsonic) business and general-aviation aircraft, and military aircraft including V/STOL.

  3. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  4. Serial Escape System For Aircraft Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency escape system for aircraft and aerospace vehicles ejects up to seven crewmembers, one by one, within 120 s. Intended for emergencies in which disabled craft still in stable flight at no more than 220 kn (113 m/s) equivalent airspeed and sinking no faster than 110 ft/s (33.5 m/s) at altitudes up to 50,000 ft (15.2 km). Ejection rockets load themselves from magazine after each crewmember ejected. Jumpmaster queues other crewmembers and helps them position themselves on egress ramp. Rockets pull crewmembers clear of aircraft structure. Provides orderly, controlled exit and avoids ditching at sea or landing in rough terrain.

  5. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  6. Improving transient analysis technology for aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, R. J.; Chargin, Mladen

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft dynamic analyses are demanding of computer simulation capabilities. The modeling complexities of semi-monocoque construction, irregular geometry, high-performance materials, and high-accuracy analysis are present. At issue are the safety of the passengers and the integrity of the structure for a wide variety of flight-operating and emergency conditions. The technology which supports engineering of aircraft structures using computer simulation is examined. Available computer support is briefly described and improvement of accuracy and efficiency are recommended. Improved accuracy of simulation will lead to a more economical structure. Improved efficiency will result in lowering development time and expense.

  7. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  8. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel

    2011-01-01

    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  9. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35) Program will develop and field an affordable, highly common family of next- generation strike aircraft for the...the O&S account, with U.S. Services’ changes in aircraft life expectancy and bed down plans overshadowing real reductions in O&S costs. Business ...aircraft subprogram and engine subprogram (Navy). (Estimating) -44.4 -46.2 Revised estimate for Small Business Innovation Research in FY 2015 (Navy

  10. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... procedures. EPA actively participated in the United Nation's International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... Regulation of Aircraft Engine Emissions E. Brief History of ICAO Regulation of Aircraft Engine Emissions II... under consideration by the United Nation's International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)....

  11. Navy’s Advanced Aircraft Armament System Program Concept Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    growth. For the ground crew, the task complexity growth is even greater and the effects appear in downed aircraft and lower aircraft availabilty . To...aircraft or coaaercial usage . Many suppliers and high annual deaand rate - ; unliaitad opportunity coapetition. 12-15 Table 4 STANDARDIZATION

  12. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2007-09-27

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers. (author)

  13. Northwest to Accelerate Retirement of Dc10 Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Northwest Airlines announced that it will accelerate the retirement of its remaining 12DC10-30 aircraft in service. The airline said that during the next seven months,it will replace DC10 aircraft with new Airbus A330s and Boeing 747-400aircraft being returned to service.Currently, seven routes are served with the DC10.

  14. ASDAR (aircraft to satellite data relay) flight test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, E. J.; Lovell, R. R.; Conroy, M. J.; Culp, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    The aircraft to Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR), an airborne data collection system that gathers meteorological data from existing aircraft instrumentation and relays it to ground user via a geo-synchronous meteorological satellite, is described and the results of the first test flight on a commercial Boeing 747 aircraft are presented. The flight test was successful and verified system performance in the anticipated environment.

  15. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft....

  16. Licencing and Training Reform in the Australian Aircraft Maintenance Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Ian; Fraser, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The training and licencing of aircraft maintenance engineers fulfils a crucial protective function since it is they who perform and supervise aircraft maintenance and certify that planes are safe afterwards. In Australia, prior to training reform, a trades-based system of aircraft maintenance engineer training existed in an orderly relation with…

  17. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards...

  18. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the...

  19. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No certificate holder may... safely and in compliance with applicable regulatory standards. Validation tests are required for...

  20. Smart Sensor System for NDE or Corrosion in Aging Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Marzwell, N.; Osegueda, R.; Ferregut, C.

    1998-01-01

    The extension of the operation life of military and civilian aircraft rather than replacing them with new ones is increasing the probability of aircraft component failure as a result of aging. Aircraft that already have endured a long srvice life of more than 40 years are now being considered for another 40 years of service.

  1. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject...

  2. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...-020-AD; Amendment 39-17334; AD 2013-02-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida...

  3. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...-002-AD; Amendment 39-17058; AD 2012-10-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and PA-31T1 airplanes. That AD...

  4. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc...: This document withdraws a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) that would have applied to all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...

  5. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17489; AD 2013-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, FL...

  6. 78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ...-001-AD; Amendment 39-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-31, PA-31-325, and.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper...

  7. The Optimization of Mounting and Dismantling Method About in-Core Refuelling Monitoring System%堆内换料监测系统安装及拆卸方法优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马孝龙; 尹江辉; 眭海军; 浦绍俭

    2016-01-01

    In-core refuelling monitoring system (RMS) in Tianwan nuclear power station(TNPS) mount detectors in vessel barrel, as supplement of source range in out-core nuclear instrument system, it is used to monitor neutron during reactor refueling. This paper introduces the RMS, contrapose the disadvantage on original mounting and dismantling method of RMS, such as the low degree of mechanization, long maintenance time, high operating risk, TNPS conducted research and optimization, and achieve good effects in application, this paper introduces the process of optimization and application effects in detail.%田湾核电站堆内换料监测系统(RMS)的探测器安装在堆芯围板中,作为堆外核测系统源量程的补充,用于堆芯换料期间中子的监测。本文对RMS系统进行简要介绍,针对俄罗斯原设计的系统安装和拆卸方法存在的问题,比如机械化程度低、占用大修主线时间长和工作风险高等,田湾核电站进行了深入研究和优化,在应用中取得了良好效果,文中对优化过程及应用效果进行了详细介绍。

  8. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

  9. Recognition of aircraft using HRR features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossen, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) based on high resolution radar (HRR) features can be used to increase the confidence in aircraft class. Standard radar systems are not designed for performing classification and uses additional identification systems. It is shown that with the use of features the a

  10. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  11. Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    aircraft stabilizes at the ambient air temperature plus aerodynamic heating. Aero heating increases as the square of Mach number. The formula below gives...pattern of transparent and opaque segments on the reticle impresses a modulation on the radiation by acting as a kind of shutter . A reticle can be

  12. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used in emergency rescue in accordance with the directions of the District Commander or aircraft forced... Aeronautical Agency, or the Federal Aviation Administration, including, but not limited to, regulations and... emergencies threatening human life or serious property loss, the air delivery or retrieval of any...

  13. Method of making counterrotating aircraft propeller blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An aircraft propeller blade is constructed by forming two shells of composite material laminates and bonding the two shells to a metallic spar with foam filler pieces interposed between the shells at desired locations. The blade is then balanced radially and chordwise.

  14. Some Microphysical Processes Affecting Aircraft Icing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-08

    1978) Messung , Darstellung, and Auswertung meteorologischer Vereisungs parameter, Berich te Fuiden Geophysicalischern Beratungdienst der Bundeswehr...de-icing of the Hot Rod. The aircraft experienced light to moderate rime icing until its slight descent at 09:03. It then continued to experience ...1978) Messung . Darstellung, and Auswertung meteorologischer Vereisungs parameter, Benich te Fuiden Geophysicalischern Beratungydienst der Bundeswehr

  15. Electromagnetic-Repulsion Systems For Deicing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel O.; Zieve, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Improved eddy-current electromagnetic-repulsion deicing systems developed for use on variety of exterior aircraft surfaces like leading edges of wings, engine inlets, propellers, and helicopter rotors. Fit to exterior surfaces, as retrofits or original equipment. Systems light in weight, consume little average power, and capable of protecting against severe icing conditions.

  16. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Наумов

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  17. Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This packet contains learning modules for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Each learning module consists of some or all of the following: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, self-tests with answers, review section, tests, and response…

  18. Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Corrosion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    biology of Amorphoteca resinae . Materials und Organismen, 6, (3), p. 161, (1971). 8. D. Cabral. Corrosion by microorganisms of jet aircraft integral fuel...the mycelium of the fungus Hormoconis resinae in the MIC of Al alloys. Proc. XI Int. Corrosion Congress, Houston, USA, 5B, p. 3773, (1993). 14. M

  19. Lectures on Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    lectures are related to structural applications of composites . In Lecture 7, the basic theory that is needed for composite structural analysis is...which composites have been taken up for aeronautical applications. Several specific applications of composites in aircraft structures am described in

  20. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  1. Incident response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Jacobs, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) was granted by ASHRAE (1306-RP) to conduct scientfic review and feasibility analysis of technologies and methods for measuring aircraft power system contaminants in the cabin air during unanticipated adverse incidents. In particular,

  2. Using Synthetic Kerosene in Civil Jet Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    TU Delft in the Netherlands is performing research into the effects of the use of synthetic kerosene in aircraft. The research program consists of both desk research and tests. In the desk research gas turbine simulations will be combined with payload range performance calculations to show engine ef

  3. Aircraft Survivability: Susceptibility Reduction, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Next Frontier (Dr. Joel D. Williamsen and Dr. Jeffery R. Calcaterra) u The Modeling & Simulation Information Analysis Center (Mr. Phil L. Abold) u...Aircraft Safe from MANPADS (Ms. Linda Lou Crosby ) u Fragment-Target Flash Experiments for the Validation of the Fire Protection Model (FPM) (Dr. R. Reed

  4. A Critique of Aircraft Airframe Cost Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    rframes Aircraft Cost Analysis 2C *3Si PACT [’Cor.rinu* an r+vrmm »lam ti omc +mmmfy mr.J tffonUtf t>f Met.* riutnfcor) see reverse side...numbers, however, the ASD Cost Escalation Re- ft port 110-C would give a factor of 1.44.) 6 Historiaal and Forecasted Aeronautical Cost Indices

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three ...

  6. Stratospheric aircraft: Impact on the stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, H.

    1992-02-01

    The steady-state distribution of natural stratospheric ozone is primarily maintained through production by ultraviolet photolysis of molecular oxygen, destruction by a catalytic cycle involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and relocation by air motions within the stratosphere. Nitrogen oxides from the exhausts of a commercially viable fleet of supersonic transports would exceed the natural source of stratospheric nitrogen oxides if the t should be equipped with 1990 technology jet engines. This model-free comparison between a vital natural global ingredient and a proposed new industrial product shows that building a large fleet of passenger stratospheric aircraft poses a significant global problem. NASA and aircraft industries have recognized this problem and are studying the redesign of jet aircraft engines in order to reduce the nitrogen oxides emissions. In 1989 atmospheric models identified two other paths by which the ozone destroying effects of stratospheric aircraft might be reduced or eliminated: (1) Use relatively low supersonic Mach numbers and flight altitudes. For a given rate of nitrogen oxides injection into the stratosphere, the calculated reduction of total ozone is a strong function of altitude, and flight altitudes well below 20 kilometers give relatively low calculated ozone reductions. (2) Include heterogeneous chemistry in the two-dimensional model calculations. Necessary conditions for answering the question on the title above are to improve the quality of our understanding of the lower stratosphere and to broaden our knowledge of hetergeneous stratospheric chemistry. This article reviews recently proposed new mechanisms for heterogeneous reactions on the global stratospheric sulfate aerosols.

  7. Stratospheric aircraft: Impact on the stratosphere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, H.

    1992-02-01

    The steady-state distribution of natural stratospheric ozone is primarily maintained through production by ultraviolet photolysis of molecular oxygen, destruction by a catalytic cycle involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and relocation by air motions within the stratosphere. Nitrogen oxides from the exhausts of a commercially viable fleet of supersonic transports would exceed the natural source of stratospheric nitrogen oxides if the t should be equipped with 1990 technology jet engines. This model-free comparison between a vital natural global ingredient and a proposed new industrial product shows that building a large fleet of passenger stratospheric aircraft poses a significant global problem. NASA and aircraft industries have recognized this problem and are studying the redesign of jet aircraft engines in order to reduce the nitrogen oxides emissions. In 1989 atmospheric models identified two other paths by which the ozone destroying effects of stratospheric aircraft might be reduced or eliminated: (1) Use relatively low supersonic Mach numbers and flight altitudes. For a given rate of nitrogen oxides injection into the stratosphere, the calculated reduction of total ozone is a strong function of altitude, and flight altitudes well below 20 kilometers give relatively low calculated ozone reductions. (2) Include heterogeneous chemistry in the two-dimensional model calculations. Necessary conditions for answering the question on the title above are to improve the quality of our understanding of the lower stratosphere and to broaden our knowledge of hetergeneous stratospheric chemistry. This article reviews recently proposed new mechanisms for heterogeneous reactions on the global stratospheric sulfate aerosols.

  8. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João;

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial comm...

  9. Direct effects of lightning on an aircraft during intentional penetrations of thunderstorms. [T-28 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, D. J.; Prodan, J.

    1980-01-01

    An armored T-28 aircraft was struck by lightning on two different days while participating in the 1979 severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiment in Oklahoma. The T-28, which is specially armored and instrumented, was making intentional penetrations of thunderstorms and was struck twice on 30 May and once on 5 June. Various degrees of damage, mainly in the form of large burn spots and holes, resulted to the aircraft.

  10. Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS). Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Repair (EBDR) Study 74 Final Report Volume HI Engine Battle Damage Repair (EBDR) Study 75 Final Report VOLUME II Ablative and Thermal Barriers for... Thermal Barriers for Aircraft Dry Bays Issued: September 1995 Progress - Oct 1992 - June 1995 Report Classification: UNCLASSIFIED Sponsor: JTCG...Shipman, Mr. David O’Brian. Mr. Chris Parmley, P&W; Mr. Les Throndson, NAWCWPNS China Lake (Govt Coordinator) Ablative and Thermal Barriers for Aircraft

  11. A study to investigate the fluid properties of fuel-vapour/air-mixtures of an automotive fuel system during refuelling. Determination of air-content, density and dynamic viscosity of the vapour-mixture in the venting of automotive fuel tanks during refuelling; Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Fluideigenschaften von Kraftstoffdampf-Luft-Gemischen von Kraftfahrzeuganlagen waehrend der Betankung. Bestimmung des Luftanteils, der Dichte und der dynamischen Viskositaet des Gasgemisches in der Entlueftung eines Kraftfahrzeugtanks waehrend der Betankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurtz, Heinz-Juergen [Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    This study investigates the methods of calculating the fluid-dynamic properties of fuel-vapour/air-mixtures. It aims to determine models for the calculation of the dynamic viscosity and density of these fuel-vapour/air-mixtures. For this purpose, fuels were analyzed. The data received were collected in a database which was complemented with the temperature-dependent vapour-pressures and dynamic viscosity-properties. Experiments were conducted in order to determine the air-content in the vapour venting from a fuel system during refueling. Based on these data conclusions can be drawn on the composition of the liquid fuel, which allows the assessment of the fuel-vapour and its properties. The results received were subsequently used to develop parametric models for the calculation of the average molecular weight, density and dynamic viscosity of fuel-vapour/air-mixtures. (orig.)

  12. Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Brian Douglas

    Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component

  13. Aircraft Design Analysis, CFD And Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa El-Sadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft design, manufacturing and CFD analysis as part of aerodynamic course, the students achieve sizing from a conceptual sketch, select the airfoil geometry and the tail geometry, calculate thrust to weight ratio and wing loading, use initial sizing and calculate the aerodynamic forces. The students design their aircraft based on the geometrical dimensions resulted from the calculations and use the model to build a prototype, test it in wind tunnel and achieve CFD analysis to be compared with the experimental results. The theory of aerodynamic is taught and applied as a project based. In this paper, the design process, aircraft manufacturing and CFD analysis are presented to show the effect of project based on student’s learning of aerodynamic course. This project based learning has improved and accelerated students understanding of aerodynamic concepts and involved students in a constructive exploration. The analysis of the aircraft resulted in a study that revolved around the lift and drag generation of this particular aircraft. As to determine the lift and drag forces generated by this plane, a model was created in Solidworks a 3-D model-rendering program. After this model was created it was 3-D printed in a reduced scale, and subjected to wind tunnel testing. The results from the wind tunnel lab experiment were recorded. For accuracy, the same 3-D model was then simulated using CFD simulation software within Solidworks and compared with the results from the wind tunnel test. The values derived from both the simulation and the wind tunnel tests were then compared with the theoretical calculations for further proof of accuracy.

  14. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  15. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  16. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Meis, Markus; Kahl, Cara; Peschel, Christin; Eikmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship. PMID:20948931

  17. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  18. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eikmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  19. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  20. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  1. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1975-01-01

    A brief exploratory flight program was conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate the vortex wake hazard of a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The study was made by flying an instrumented Cessna 210 aircraft into the wake of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft at separation distances from 1 to 4 n.mi. Characteristics of the wake were evaluated in terms of the magnitude of the upset of the probing aircraft. Results indicated that within 1 n.mi. separation the wake could cause rolling moments in excess of roll control power and yawing moments equivalent to rudder control power of the probe aircraft. Subjective evaluations by the pilots of the Cessna 210 aircraft, supported by response measurements, indicated that the upset caused by the wake of the STOL aircraft was comparable to that of a DC-9 in the landing configuration.

  2. Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data. US Carrier Operations Calendar Year 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-24

    U.S. AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS 1987 - 1997 Number of Accidents by Segements of Aviation Involved Accidents S135 N135 N135 S121 Total and and and and Year...planning/decision 1 1 Lack of familiarity with geographic area 1 0 Proper alignment 1 1 Raising of flaps 1 0 Refueling 1 0 Self-induced pressure 1 0

  3. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  4. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  5. Nonlinear feedback control of highly manoeuvrable aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, William L.; Enns, Dale F.; Snell, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of nonlinear quadratic regulator (NLQR) theory to the design of control laws for a typical high-performance aircraft. The NLQR controller design is performed using truncated solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation of optimal control theory. The performance of the NLQR controller is compared with the performance of a conventional P + I gain scheduled controller designed by applying standard frequency response techniques to the equations of motion of the aircraft linearized at various angles of attack. Both techniques result in control laws which are very similar in structure to one another and which yield similar performance. The results of applying both control laws to a high-g vertical turn are illustrated by nonlinear simulation.

  6. Analysis of aircraft longitudinal handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The optimal control model (OCM) of the human pilot is applied to the study of aircraft handling qualities. Attention is focused primarily on longitudinal tasks. The modeling technique differs from previous applications of the OCM in that considerable effort is expended in simplifying the pilot/vehicle analysis. After briefly reviewing the OCM, a technique for modeling the pilot controlling higher order systems is introduced. Following this, a simple criterion for determining the susceptibility of an aircraft to pilot induced oscillations (PIO) is formulated. Finally, a model-based metric for pilot rating prediction is discussed. The resulting modeling procedure provides a relatively simple, yet unified approach to the study of a variety of handling qualities problems.

  7. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  8. Military Airlift: C-17 Aircraft Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    out such a mission led Congress to ask DOD to conduct a study of the entire long- For more information on MRS-05, see CRS Report RS20915 . 22 Jonathan...many should be retired. Rising maintenance costs have led some to argue that more C-5s should be retired sooner, and the savings be applied to...34lighter-than-air" aircraft . Also known as airships, blimps, dirigibles, or zeppelins , these potentially large, helium-filled balloons offer many

  9. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.

  10. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  11. Optimizing Aircraft Utilization for Retrograde Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    project possible, particularly Jerome Goodin, Rick Turcotte , Maj Darren Loftin, and Karen Skoog. Thanks to the staff of the USAF EC, especially...airplanes ( Turcotte , 2011). Cyintech did a regression analysis based on data derived from the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System...logistics-forum/12-mlf-2008-volume-2- issue-4/72-answering-the-call.html Turcotte ,F.N. (2011). Analyst, HQ AMC Fuel Efficiency Office, Scott AFB

  12. Airvolt Aircraft Electric Propulsion Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Aamod; Lin, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    Development of an electric propulsion test stand that collects high-fidelity data of motor, inverter, and battery system efficiencies; thermal dynamics; and acoustics independent of manufacturer reported values will improve understanding of electric propulsion systems to be used in future aircraft. A buildup approach to this development reveals new areas of research and best practices in testing, and attempts to establish a standard for testing these systems.

  13. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  14. The Sale of FX Aircraft to Taiwan,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    September 3, 1981. Sterba , James P., "Peking Says Force Might Be Used to Reunite Taiwan and Mainland," New York Times, July 4, 1981. Szulc, Tad...will decide it can commit the forces necessary to launch an invasion of 13 Edwin K. Snyder, A. James Gregor, and Maria Hsia Chang, The...Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft 1980-1981, Jane’s Publishing Co., Ltd., 1980. Snyder, Edwin K., A. James Gregor, and Maria Hsia Chang

  15. Topology Optimization of an Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    constraint is met. Optimizations were performed on a general aviation experi- mental aircraft wing subject to pressure loading simulating maximum...compared to traditional means. Additionally, a fuel tank was integrated into the wing structure as a proof-of-concept for the potential benefits of AM...topology and sizing optimization of the wing integrated with the fuel tank , spars, and skin. This resulted in a total wing mass reduction of 10.8

  16. Analysis of Aircraft Fuels and Related Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    electrical charges can be generated when fuel is added to aircraft fuel tanks containing reticulated polyurethane foam. On several occasions electrical...to be a mixture of cellulose and synthetic fibers plus pieces of fuel tank foam. These materials, however, were not specifically characterized. The...oxides. The presence of inorganic carbonate is also suggested by a weak band at approxi- mately 7 microns. The presence of some cellulose from scraping

  17. Computational analysis of aircraft pressure relief doors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Tyler

    Modern trends in commercial aircraft design have sought to improve fuel efficiency while reducing emissions by operating at higher pressures and temperatures than ever before. Consequently, greater demands are placed on the auxiliary bleed air systems used for a multitude of aircraft operations. The increased role of bleed air systems poses significant challenges for the pressure relief system to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the aircraft. The core compartment pressure relief door (PRD) is an essential component of the pressure relief system which functions to relieve internal pressure in the core casing of a high-bypass turbofan engine during a burst duct over-pressurization event. The successful modeling and analysis of a burst duct event are imperative to the design and development of PRD's to ensure that they will meet the increased demands placed on the pressure relief system. Leveraging high-performance computing coupled with advances in computational analysis, this thesis focuses on a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to characterize turbulent flow dynamics and quantify the performance of a core compartment PRD across a range of operating conditions and geometric configurations. The CFD analysis was based on a compressible, steady-state, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. Simulations were analyzed, and results show that variations in freestream conditions, plenum environment, and geometric configurations have a non-linear impact on the discharge, moment, thrust, and surface temperature characteristics. The CFD study revealed that the underlying physics for this behavior is explained by the interaction of vortices, jets, and shockwaves. This thesis research is innovative and provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of existing and novel PRD geometries over a range of realistic operating conditions representative of a burst duct over-pressurization event. Further, the study provides aircraft

  18. Ride quality systems for commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, D. R.; Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in Active Ride Augmentation, specifically in terms of its feasibility for commuter aircraft applications. A literature survey was done, and the principal results are presented here through discussion of different Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) designs and advances in related technologies. Recommended follow-on research areas are discussed, and a preliminary RQAS configuration for detailed design and development is proposed.

  19. Digital adaptive control laws for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.

    1979-01-01

    Honeywell has designed a digital self-adaptive flight control system for flight test in the VALT Research Aircraft (a modified CH-47). The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts: one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs are compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  20. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  1. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  2. Emergency Control Aircraft System Using Thrust Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A digital longitudinal Aircraft Propulsion Control (APC system of a multiengine aircraft is provided by engine thrust modulation in response to comparing an input flightpath angle signal (gamma)c from a pilot thumbwheel. or an ILS system with a sensed flightpath angle y to produce an error signal (gamma)e that is then integrated (with reasonable limits) to generate a drift correction signal to be added to the error signal (gamma)e after first subtracting a lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) for phugoid damping. The output error signal is multiplied by a constant to produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC of suitable amplitude to drive a throttle servo for all engines. each of which includes its own full-authority digital engine control (FADEC) computer. An alternative APC system omits sensed flightpath angle feedback and instead controls the flightpath angle by feedback of the lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) which also inherently provides phugoid damping. The feature of drift compensation is retained.

  3. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S. [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Seibersdorf (Austria); Latocha, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  4. 50 years of transonic aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Antony; Ou, Kui

    2011-07-01

    This article traces the evolution of long range jet transport aircraft over the 50 years since Kuechemann founded the journal Progress in Aerospace Sciences. The article is particularly focused on transonic aerodynamics. During Kuechemann's life time a good qualitative understanding had been achieved of transonic flow and swept wing design, but transonic flow remained intractable to quantitative prediction. During the last 50 years this situation has been completely transformed by the introduction of sophisticated numerical algorithms and an astonishing increase in the available computational power, with the consequence that aerodynamic design is now carried out largely by computer simulation. Moreover developments in aerodynamic shape optimization based on control theory enable a competitive swept wing to be designed in just two simulations, as illustrated in the article. While the external appearance of long range jet aircraft has not changed much, advances in information technology have actually transformed the entire design and manufacturing process through parallel advances in computer aided design (CAD), computational structural mechanics (CSM) and multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). They have also transformed aircraft operations through the adoption of digital fly-by-wire and advanced navigational techniques.

  5. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingtao Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematical explanation of RISM is presented in this paper. The efficiency of RISM can be improved by four times compared with traditional static aeroelastic analysis. General purpose computing on graphical processing units (GPGPU is adopted to accelerate the RISM further, and GPU-accelerated RISM is constructed. The efficiency of GPU-accelerated RISM can be raised by about 239 times compared with that of the loosely coupled aeroelastic analysis. Test shows that the fidelity of GPU-accelerated RISM is high enough for optimization. Optimization framework based on Kriging model is constructed. The efficiency of the proposed optimization system can be improved greatly with the aid of GPU-accelerated RISM. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is optimized using this framework and the range is improved by 4.67% after optimization, which shows effectiveness and efficiency of this framework.

  6. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem.The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article.The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise.Of the three main areas of the noise problem,i.e.generation,propagation,and radiation,propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation.Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model.Of the various classes of propagation equations,linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain.The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques,bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations,e.g.acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed,with differing degrees of success.

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 2, Part 1C: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational State 5 during a refueling outage, Main report (Sections 11--14)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power analyses performed on Grand Gulf.

  8. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  9. Robustness of mission plans for unmanned aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Moritz

    This thesis studies the robustness of optimal mission plans for unmanned aircraft. Mission planning typically involves tactical planning and path planning. Tactical planning refers to task scheduling and in multi aircraft scenarios also includes establishing a communication topology. Path planning refers to computing a feasible and collision-free trajectory. For a prototypical mission planning problem, the traveling salesman problem on a weighted graph, the robustness of an optimal tour is analyzed with respect to changes to the edge costs. Specifically, the stability region of an optimal tour is obtained, i.e., the set of all edge cost perturbations for which that tour is optimal. The exact stability region of solutions to variants of the traveling salesman problems is obtained from a linear programming relaxation of an auxiliary problem. Edge cost tolerances and edge criticalities are derived from the stability region. For Euclidean traveling salesman problems, robustness with respect to perturbations to vertex locations is considered and safe radii and vertex criticalities are introduced. For weighted-sum multi-objective problems, stability regions with respect to changes in the objectives, weights, and simultaneous changes are given. Most critical weight perturbations are derived. Computing exact stability regions is intractable for large instances. Therefore, tractable approximations are desirable. The stability region of solutions to relaxations of the traveling salesman problem give under approximations and sets of tours give over approximations. The application of these results to the two-neighborhood and the minimum 1-tree relaxation are discussed. Bounds on edge cost tolerances and approximate criticalities are obtainable likewise. A minimum spanning tree is an optimal communication topology for minimizing the cumulative transmission power in multi aircraft missions. The stability region of a minimum spanning tree is given and tolerances, stability balls

  10. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft... from Puerto Rico, must furnish a notice of intended arrival. Private aircraft must transmit an advance notice of arrival as set forth in § 122.22 of this part. Other than private aircraft, all aircraft...

  11. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  12. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  13. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...... that the fault is discovered in time such that appropriate actions can be taken. That could either be the aircraft controlling computer taking the fault into account or a human operator that intervenes. Detection of faults that occur during flight is exactly the subject of this thesis. Safety towards faults...... to another type of aircraft with different parameters. Amongst the main findings of this research project is a method to handle faults on the UAV’s pitot tube, which measures the aircraft speed. A set of software redundancies based on GPS velocity information and engine thrust are used to detect abnormal...

  14. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  15. Application and improvement of high risk operations control during refueling outage of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant%秦山核电厂换料大修高风险作业控制应用及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏松

    2014-01-01

    根据秦山核电厂三十万千瓦机组换料大修高风险作业控制实践经验,介绍一种基于安全许可管理的大修高风险作业控制模式,将高风险作业控制流程嵌入电站生产管理系统,与工单直接关联,实现了高危作业活动识别、风险分析及安全防护措施制定电子流程化。通过对电厂最近六次机组换料大修高风险作业控制相关数据统计、比较,评价高风险作业控制模式在电厂大修中应用效果的稳定性与有效性;根据核电厂大修类作业项目特点,提出机组换料大修期间大纲作业项目高风险作业控制改进方向。%According to the practical experience from Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant,a control mode of high risk op-erations control based on industry safety permission was introduced. The high risk operations control flow was em-bedded in the electronic production management system of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant,which connected with tasks straightly and realized the electronic workflow of high risk activity recognition,risk analysis and drawing of safety protection measures. By counting and comparing the data of high risk operations control from the recent six times refueling outages of power plant,the stability and effectiveness for application of high risk operations control mode were appraised. According to the characteristics of fixed project during refueling outage of nuclear power plant,the improvement directions of high risk operations control were presented.

  16. The accident simulation and consequence analysis of the hydrogen refueling station leakage%加氢站氢气泄漏事故模拟及后果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灿剑; 付晋

    2011-01-01

    Aim at the safety of hydrogen refueling station, the theoretical model analysis and numerical simulation was carried out to simulate the accident and consequence. The concentration contours were obtained by the in house MATLAB gauss diffusion code. The influence on hydrogen diffusion of wind speed in the surroundings was analyzed. That is, the hazardous area decreased when the wind speed up. The CFD code Fluent was adopted to build a 2D full-scale hydrogen leakage in the hydrogen refueling station. The results showed that, under calm condition, the horizontal and vertical hydrogen diffusions are very fast and tend to accumulate forming explosive gas cloud. But under 10 m/s wind, the escaping gas is driven, blown away and diluted and it is hard to gather. The blast area is limited next to the leaking source. The wind is not benefit to the hydrogen diffusion but is good for safety.%针对加氢站安全,通过理论模型分析和数值模拟两种方法,对其开展事故模拟和后果分析.利用自行编制的MATLAB高斯扩散程序得到爆炸危险区域的浓度曲线,分析环境风速对氢气扩散的影响,即风速越大,危险区域越向泄漏口收缩;利用CFD软件Fluent建立加氢站氢气泄漏全场景二维模型,模拟结果表明,无风情况下,氢气水平和垂直扩散速度很快,容易富集并形成爆炸气团,而在风速10 m/s情况下,泄漏氮气被带动、吹散和稀释,难以富集,爆炸区域仅限于泄漏点附近.环境风不利于氢气稳定扩散,对安全有利.

  17. 自主空中加油时变质量无人作战飞机非线性控制%Nonlinear control for unmanned combat air vehicle with time-varying mass in autonomous aerial refueling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭军; 董新民; 王龙

    2012-01-01

    To keep the position of an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) during autonomous aerial refueling, we develop the dynamic model and put forward a nonlinear controller for the UCAV with time-varying mass. By comprehen- sively considering the effect of fuel transfer on the UCAV mass, the inertia matrix and the center of mass, we derive the time-varying mass dynamic equations of UCAV based on state variables relative to inertial reference frame. By introducing the spectral radius, we apply the command filtered backstepping (CFBS) method based on localized adaptive bounds to control the UCAV in a desired position. The unknown model uncertainties are approximated online by using approxima- tors. Localized adaptive bounds are used to compensate inherent approximation errors and external disturbances. Using CFBS, we design four feedback control loops for the relative position, airspeed, attitude angle, and angular rate to guarantee the stability of the UCAV. Nonlinear simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the nonlinear flight control law in three different refueling cases.%针对自主空中加油中无人作战飞机(UCAV)位置保持问题,进行了时变质量UCAV的动力学建模与非线性控制设计.综合考虑了燃油传输对UCAV的质量、惯性矩阵和质心位置的影响,基于相对于惯性系的状态变量,推导了uCAV时变质量动力学方程.通过引入谱半径,将局部化自适应边界指令滤波反推方法应用于UCAV的位置保持控制.使用逼近器对未知模型不确定性进行在线逼近.对于固有逼近误差和外部扰动,采用局部化自适应边界进行补偿.通过指令滤波反推,设计了相对位置、速度、姿态角和角速度四个反馈回路来保证UCAV的稳定性.最后,三种不同加油方案下的非线性仿真验证了非线性飞行控制律的有效性.

  18. Aircraft conceptual design modelling incorporating reliability and maintainability predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Vaziry-Zanjany , Mohammad Ali (F)

    1996-01-01

    A computer assisted conceptual aircraft design program has been developed (CACAD). It has an optimisation capability, with extensive break-down in maintenance costs. CACAD's aim is to optimise the size, and configurations of turbofan-powered transport aircraft. A methodology was developed to enhance the reliability of current aircraft systems, and was applied to avionics systems. R&M models of thermal management were developed and linked with avionics failure rate and its ma...

  19. Adaptive output feedback control of aircraft flexible modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnusamy, Sangeeth Saagar; Bordeneuve-Guibé, Joël

    2012-01-01

    The application of adaptive output feedback augmentative control to the flexible aircraft problem is presented. Experimental validation of control scheme was carried out using a three disk torsional pendulum. In the reference model adaptive control scheme, the rigid aircraft reference model and neural network adaptation is used to control structural flexible modes and compensate for the effects unmodeled dynamics and parametric variations of a classical high order large passenger aircraft. Th...

  20. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Jay D [Albuquerque, NM; Kim, Theodore J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  1. A historical perspective of aircrew systems effects on aircraft design

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, David O.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. The design of the aircrew workstation often has not been an orderly part of the overall aircraft design process but rather of much lower priority than the integration of the airframe and powerplant. However, the true test of the aircraft is how well the aircrew can use the aircraft for mission performance. NAVAIR has been seeking the establishment of an Aircrew Centered System Design discipline, to be addressed as an integral part of ...

  2. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of aircraft ground deicing model

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft ground deicing plays an important role of guaranteeing the aircraft safety. In practice, most airports generally use as many deicing fluids as possible to remove the ice, which causes the waste of the deicing fluids and the pollution of the environment. Therefore, the model of aircraft ground deicing should be built to establish the foundation for the subsequent research, such as the optimization of the deicing fluid consumption. In this article, the heat balance of the deicing proce...

  3. Ergonomic analysis for a regional aircraft interior design.

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Renata Dantas Alves Silva

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary interior design of a regional aircraft considering ergonomic and cost aspects. The use of virtual humans provides a better interpretation of the aircraft interior environment, making possible to simulate movements and passenger comfort aspects. The importance of this study becomes evident through the necessity of the aircraft manufacturer of predicting human behavior during all the flight phases. This text also aims to present the difficult...

  4. Reliability and optimization, application to safety of aircraft structures

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous struggles of researchers in the field of aerodynamic design and aircraft production were made to improve wing airfoil by optimization techniques. The development of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) in computer simulation cuts the expense of aerodynamic experiment while provides convincing results to simulate complicated situation of aircraft. In our work, we chose a special and important part of aircraft, namely, the structure of wing.Reliability based optimization is one of the m...

  5. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  6. Disruption Management for an Airline - Rescheduling of aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis

    2002-01-01

    The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through a...... is a product of the DESCARTES project, a project funded by the European Union between the Technical University of Denmark, British Airways and Carmen....

  7. Aircraft Structural Analysis, Design Optimization, and Manufacturing Tool Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative research is proposed in integrating fundamental aircraft design processes with an emphasis on composite structures. Efficient, lightweight composite...

  8. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda;

    , satellites and manned aircraft are the traditional platforms on which scientists gather data of the atmosphere, sea ice, glaciers, fauna and vegetation. However, significant data gaps still exist over much of the Arctic because there are few research stations, satellites are often hindered by cloud cover......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS...

  9. Using heuristics to solve the dedicated aircraft recovery problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis; Larsen, Jesper;

    2001-01-01

    The Dedicated Aircraft Recovery Problem (DARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforeseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The dedicated aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight...... schedules through a series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article describes an effective method to solve DARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of good quality in less than 10 seconds when...

  10. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A. [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1997-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  11. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  12. Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls,...

  13. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms for many aircraft subsystems are steadily maturing. Unfortunately there is little experience integrating these technologies into...

  14. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  15. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future multimission aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jeffrey J.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual aircraft design study was recently completed which compared three supersonic multimission tactical aircraft. The aircraft were evaluated in two technology timeframes and were sized with consistent methods and technology assumptions so that the aircraft could be compared in operational utility or cost analysis trends. The three aircraft are a carrier-based Fighter/Attack aircraft, a land-based Multirole Fighter, and a Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft. This paper describes the design study ground rules used and the aircraft designed. The aircraft descriptions include weights, dimensions and layout, design mission and maneuver performance, and fallout mission performance. The effect of changing technology and mission requirements on the STOVL aircraft and the impact of aircraft navalization are discussed. Also discussed are the effects on the STOVL aircraft of both Thrust/Weight required in hover and design mission radius.

  16. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification... comments on, the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) standard operating procedure (SOP) describing the... comments on the SOP to: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aircraft Certification Service,...

  17. An Investigation of Two-Propeller Tilt Wing V/STOL Aircraft Flight Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    aerodynamic input files or using manual input data. The output provides static aircraft longitudinal parameters for determining performance...wing aircraft so configured, the NASA Ames computer code TWANG is used for simulation of aircraft longitudinal stability and performance characteristics

  18. 75 FR 51953 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Organization (ICAO) amendment 13 to Annex 13, Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation, defines unmanned... safety. If the NTSB implemented the ICAO standard, it would likely receive many reports that would not be... safety recommendations. In addition, the proposed ICAO standard would not address the concerns of...

  19. The Effects of Employing HVM on C-130 Aircraft at WR-ALC to Aircraft Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    information system capability 16 enables the synchronized planning, scheduling, data collection, and analysis required to implement a highly choreographed ...support requirements such as standard work through visual workcards, choreographed tasks, and required material through POU kits to ensure the...is accomplished on the aircraft. If daily work is standardized in terms of work performed and choreographed in sequence; the condition of the

  20. Unified Theory for Aircraft Handling Qualities and Adverse Aircraft-Pilot Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    A unified theory for aircraft handling qualities and adverse aircraft-pilot coupling or pilot-induced oscillations is introduced. The theory is based on a structural model of the human pilot. A methodology is presented for the prediction of (1) handling qualities levels; (2) pilot-induced oscillation rating levels; and (3) a frequency range in which pilot-induced oscillations are likely to occur. Although the dynamics of the force-feel system of the cockpit inceptor is included, the methodology will not account for effects attributable to control sensitivity and is limited to single-axis tasks and, at present, to linear vehicle models. The theory is derived from the feedback topology of the structural model and an examination of flight test results for 32 aircraft configurations simulated by the U.S. Air Force/CALSPAN NT-33A and Total In-Flight Simulator variable stability aircraft. An extension to nonlinear vehicle dynamics such as that encountered with actuator saturation is discussed.

  1. Forecasting for a Lagrangian aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A forecast system has been developed in preparation for an upcoming aircraft measurement campaign, where the same air parcels polluted by emissions over North America shall be sampled repeatedly as they leave the continent, during transport over the Atlantic, and upon their arrival over Europe. This paper describes the model system in advance of the campaign, in order to make the flight planners familiar with the novel model output. The aim of a Lagrangian strategy is to infer changes in the chemical composition and aerosol distribution occurring en route by measured upwind/downwind differences. However, guiding aircraft repeatedly into the same polluted air parcels requires careful forecasting, for which no suitable model system exists to date. This paper describes a procedure using both Eulerian-type (i.e. concentration fields and Lagrangian-type (i.e. trajectories model output from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to predict the best opportunities for a Lagrangian experiment. The best opportunities are defined as being highly polluted air parcels which receive little or no emission input after the first measurement, which experience relatively little mixing, and which are reachable by as many aircraft as possible. For validation the system was applied to the period of the NARE 97 campaign where approximately the same air masses were sampled on different flights. Measured upwind/downwind differences in carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 decreased significantly as the threshold values used for accepting cases as Lagrangian were tightened. This proves that the model system can successfully identify Lagrangian opportunities.

  2. The ARCTAS aircraft mission: design and execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jacob

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008 and western Canada (June–July 2008. The goal of ARCTAS was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1 transport of mid-latitude pollution, (2 boreal forest fires, (3 aerosol radiative forcing, and (4 chemical processes. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with extensive aerosol payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train, by (1 validating the data, (2 improving constraints on retrievals, (3 making correlated observations, and (4 characterizing chemical and aerosol processes. The April flights (ARCTAS-A sampled pollution plumes from all three mid-latitude continents, fire plumes from Siberia and Southeast Asia, and halogen radical events. The June-July flights (ARCTAS-B focused on boreal forest fire influences and sampled fresh fire plumes from northern Saskatchewan as well as older fire plumes from Canada, Siberia, and California. The June–July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California sponsored by the California Air Resources Board (ARCTAS-CARB. The ARCTAS-CARB goals were to (1 improve state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2 provide observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. Extensive sampling across southern California and the Central Valley characterized emissions from urban centers, offshore shipping lanes, agricultural crops, feedlots, industrial sources, and wildfires.

  3. Forecasting for a Lagrangian aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A forecast system has been developed in preparation for an upcoming aircraft measurement campaign, where the same air parcels polluted by emissions over North America shall be sampled repeatedly as they leave the continent, during transport over the Atlantic, and upon their arrival over Europe. This paper describes the model system in advance of the campaign, in order to make the flight planners familiar with the novel model output. The aim of a Lagrangian strategy is to infer changes in the chemical composition and aerosol distribution occurring en route by measured upwind/downwind differences. However, guiding aircraft repeatedly into the same polluted air parcels requires careful forecasting, for which no suitable model system exists to date. This paper describes a procedure using both Eulerian-type (i.e. concentration fields and Lagrangian-type (i.e. trajectories model output from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to predict the best opportunities for a Lagrangian experiment. The best opportunities are defined as being highly polluted air parcels which receive little or no emission input after the first measurement, which experience relatively little mixing, and which are reachable by as many aircraft as possible. For validation the system was applied to the period of the NARE 97 campaign where approximately the same air masses were sampled on different flights. Measured upwind/downwind differences in carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 decreased significantly as the threshold values used for accepting cases as Lagrangian were tightened. This proves that the model system can successfully identify Lagrangian opportunities.

  4. Aircraft Simulator Data Requirements Study. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    23143 ( Wep ), "Data, Technical Aircraft; for the Design of Aviation Training Devices," was to be used as a guide for the preparation of the new standard. 2...made, displays, etc., utilizing the "hot mockup ." The really useful data can only result from flight tests and can be obtained at any time after tile... mockup " and the preliminary tactical tape used in the tests. It will represent the best system data that will generally be obtained. k The last data

  5. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  6. Robust control of an aircraft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, H. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Elektrotechnik

    1999-12-01

    A new multimodel approach to robust controller design is illustrated by a practical application: for a laboratory aircraft model, a robust controller is designed simultaneously for normal operating conditions and for propeller failure. Based on a linear model for each operating mode, an LMI formulation of the problem and convex programming are used to search for a state feedback controller which achieves the objective. This state feedback design is then realized simultaneously in both operating modes by a controller which is based on fast output sampling. Robust performance is demonstrated by experimental results. (orig.)

  7. Robust control of an aircraft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, H. (Bochum Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Elektrotechnik)

    1999-01-01

    A new multimodel approach to robust controller design is illustrated by a practical application: for a laboratory aircraft model, a robust controller is designed simultaneously for normal operating conditions and for propeller failure. Based on a linear model for each operating mode, an LMI formulation of the problem and convex programming are used to search for a state feedback controller which achieves the objective. This state feedback design is then realized simultaneously in both operating modes by a controller which is based on fast output sampling. Robust performance is demonstrated by experimental results. (orig.)

  8. Squeeze Film Damping for Aircraft Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Shende

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern aircraft gas turbine engines depend heavily on squeeze film damper supports at the bearings for abatement of vibrations caused by a number of probable excitation sources. This design ultimately results in light-weight construction together with higher efficiency and reliability of engines. Many investigations have been reported during past two decades concerning the functioning of the squeeze film damper, which is simple in construction yet complex in behaviour with its non-linearity and multiplicity of variables. These are reviewed in this article to throw light on the considerations involved in the design of rotor-bearing-casing systems incorporating squeeze film dampers.

  9. Extreme Loading of Aircraft Fan Blade

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Dibakar

    2013-01-01

    The response of an aircraft fan blade manufactured by composites under the action of static and impact load has been studied in this report. The modeling and analysis of the geometry has been done using CASTEM 2007 version. For the quasi static analysis, the pressure has been incrementally applied until it satisfies the failure criteria. The deformed configuration, strain, Von-Mises stress, and the deflection of the blade have been studied. The response of the system e.g. deformation time history due to the impact of the projectile has been studied where the Newmark method for the dynamic problem has been implemented.

  10. Climatic impact of aircraft induced ozone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Feneberg, B.; Ponater, M. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The effect of aircraft induced ozone changes on the global climate is studied by means of the general circulation model ECHAM4. The zonal mean temperature signal is considered. In order to estimate the statistical significance of the climatic impact a multivariate statistical test hierarchy combined with the fingerprint method has been applied. Sensitivity experiments show a significant coherent temperature response pattern in the northern extra-tropics for mid-latitude summer conditions. It consists of a tropospheric warming of about 0.2 K with a corresponding stratospheric cooling of the same magnitude. (author) 16 refs.

  11. Portable catapult launcher for small aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor); Petter, George E. (Inventor); Gessler, Joseph A. (Inventor); Hughes, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for launching an aircraft having a multiplicity of interconnected elongated tracks of rigid material forming a track system and wherein each elongated track has a predetermined elongated track cross-sectional design, a winch system connected to the track system wherein the winch system has a variable mechanical advantage, one or more elongated elastic members wherein one end of each of the one or more elongated elastic members is adjustably connected to the track system, and a carrier slidably mounted to the track system wherein the carrier is connected to the winch system and to the other end of each of the one or more elongated elastic members.

  12. An Overview of Aircraft Integrated Control Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    and stability augmentation, high hf’ system, steering and brak - ing 22 ’ . An F-15B research aircraft, modified with all-moving canard control...0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 MACH NUMBER The IFPC system responds to pilot inputs with an automatic blend of aerodynamic control surfaces and thrust...decoupling airframe translation and rotation movements). In general, it was found that a blended combination of direct force and conventional control

  13. The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Views July–August 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 101 The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Lt Col Lawrence Spinetta, PhD, USAF Those...number. 1. REPORT DATE AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Glass Ceiling for Remotely...promotion to flag rank. By design or effect, a bottleneck exists that guarantees a glass ceiling (i.e., a barrier to advancement) for RPA officers. This

  14. Predicted electrothermal deicing of aircraft blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T. G., Jr.; Masiulaniec, K. C.; Dewitt, K. J.; Chao, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A finite difference method is presented for the transient two-dimensional simulation of an electrothermal de-icer pad of an aircraft wing or blade. The irregular geometry of the composite ice laden blade is handled by use of a body fitted coordinate transformation. By this approach the various blade layers are mapped into a set of stacked rectangular strips in which the numerical solution takes place. Several heat conduction examples are presented in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical procedure. Ice melting time predictions are made and compared to earlier predictions where possible. Finally, a new graphical presentation of thermal results is shown.

  15. Sensor Technology and Futuristic Of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rugambage Ndayishimiye

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation fighter Aircraft seeks a fighter with higher abilities in areas such as reach, persistence, survivability, net-centricity, situation awareness, human system integration and weapons effects. The future system will have to counter foe armed with next generation advanced electronic attack, sophisticated integrated air defense systems, directed energy weapons, passive detection, integrated self-protection and cyber-attack capabilities. It must be capable to operate in the anti-access area-denial (A2/AD environment that will exist in the next coming years.

  16. Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element  Method....

  17. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  18. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  19. Coast Guard Aircraft: Transfer of Fixed-Wing C-27J Aircraft Is Complex and Further Fleet Purchases Should Coincide with Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    propellers to be serviced by the original manufacturer and these items are now properly stored. In October 2014, we observed the aircraft at L-3...COAST GUARD AIRCRAFT Transfer of Fixed- Wing C-27J Aircraft Is Complex and Further Fleet Purchases Should Coincide...00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coast Guard Aircraft : Transfer of Fixed-Wing C-27J Aircraft Is Complex and Further Fleet Purchases

  20. Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) – Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) - Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides...

  1. Integrating the Unmanned Aircraft System into the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-18

    and the ground control system. The ground control system is comprised of several integrated components to include: avionics , fuel, navigation...accessed January 15, 2011). U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2010-2035: Eyes of the Army. Fort Rucker, Ala .: U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft

  2. Inertial Force Coupling to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity of Flexible Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ting, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the inertial force effect on nonlinear aeroelasticity of flexible wing aircraft. The geometric are nonlinearity due to rotational and tension stiffening. The effect of large bending deflection will also be investigated. Flutter analysis will be conducted for a truss-braced wing aircraft concept with tension stiffening and inertial force coupling.

  3. Ray analysis of a class of hybrid cylindrical aircraft wings

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, RM; Bokhari, SA; Sudhakan, V; Mahapatra, PR

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to the modelling of aircraft wings, based on the combination of hybrid quadric (parabolic and circular) cylinders, has been presented for electromagnetic applications. Closed-form expressions have been obtained for ray parameters required in the high-frequency mutual coupling computation of antenna pairs located arbitrarily on an aircraft wing.

  4. Aircraft-skin Infrared Radiation Characteristics Modeling and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianwei; Wang Qiang

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important problems of stealth technology is to evaluate the infrared radiation (IR) level received by IR sensors from fighters to be detected. This article presents a synthetic method for calculating the IR emitted from aircraft-skin. By reckoning the aerodynamic heating and hot engine casing to be the main heat sources of the exposed aircraft-skin, a numerical model of skin temperature distribution is established through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Based on it, an infrared signature model for solving the complex geometry and structure of a fighter is proposed with the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. Finally, by way of determining the IR intensity from aircraft-skin, the aircraft components that emit the most IR can be identified; and the cooling effects of the main aircraft components on IR intensity are investigated. It is found that reduction by 10 K in the skin temperature of head, vertical stabilizers and wings could lead to decline of more than 8% of the IR intensity on the aircraft-skin in front view while at the broadside of the aircraft, the drops in IR intensity could attain under 8%. The results provide useful reference in designing stealthy aircraft.

  5. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost, operati

  6. The longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  7. Investigation of Cross Flow Fan Propulsion for Lightweight VTOL Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    the aircraft longitudinal axis due to the total length of the unit. A total fan span of 20.6 inches is required to produce 690 lbf of thrust when...which are mounted parallel to the aircraft longitudinal axis and rest perpendicular, would be actuated as required to provide yaw control and aft

  8. New opportunities for aircraft noise policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This papers aims (1) to provide a review of the (non-acoustic) social-psychological determinants of aircraft noise annoyance, (2) evaluate Schiphol’s noise policy from a social-psychological perspective and (3) review a governance model that can effectively address non-acoustic factors in aircraft n

  9. Aircraft noise exposure from Schiphol airport: A relation with complainants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.G. de; Wiechen, C.M.A.G. van; Franssen, E.A.M.; Lebret, E.

    2002-01-01

    The possible relation between aircraft noise exposure and the prevalence of complainants around Schiphol airport was studied. The home address of people who complain about aircraft noise at the Environment Advisory Committee Schiphol was combined with annual average noise levels, using a Geographic

  10. Decay or collapse: Aircraft wake vortices in grid turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, M.; Elsenaar, A.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Kuczaj, A.K.; Geurts, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Trailing vortices are naturally shed by airplanes and they typically evolve into a counter-rotating vortex pair. Downstream of the aircraft, these vortices can persist for a very long time and extend for several kilometers. This poses a potential hazard to following aircraft, particularly during tak

  11. A Study on Simulation of Aircraft Maintenance and Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintenance and support are basic elements to realize the effectiveness of aircraft. For basic analysis of the characteristics of an aircraft maintenance and support system, a simulation method is presented in this paper, and the structure and realization ofthe simulation system is discussed.

  12. Optimization of operational aircraft parameters Reducing Noise Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, Lina; Khardi, Salah

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a model and a minimization method to provide flight path optimums reducing aircraft noise in the vicinity of airports. Optimization algorithm has solved a complex optimal control problem, and generates flight paths minimizing aircraft noise levels. Operational and safety constraints have been considered and their limits satisfied. Results are here presented and discussed.

  13. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111 Section 91.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a)...

  14. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.86 Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The...

  15. Robust Control of an Ill-Conditioned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, S.G.; Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Grimble, M.J.;

    1996-01-01

    A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point.......A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point....

  16. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  17. Contract Issues in the Sale of Commercial Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    two industry segments , transportation equip- ment, and missiles and space. rriasportation aquipment operations are concerned with the development...estimated that ten percent of the wide body fle -t is for sale in the used aircraft markt . The price for used narrow body aircraft has fallen also [Ref

  18. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852.228-71 Section 1852.228-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... the aircraft has returned to the ground and rotors are disengaged. (iv) With respect to vertical...

  19. 14 CFR 135.419 - Approved aircraft inspection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved aircraft inspection program. 135.419 Section 135.419 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.419 Approved aircraft inspection program....

  20. 77 FR 24251 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... availability of three new and three revised consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004....

  1. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... availability of one new and seven revised consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program... tests. However, pilot flight training may be conducted during the proving tests. (d) Validation...

  3. A DSS for capacity planning of aircraft maintenance personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Dijkstra (Matthijs); L.G. Kroon (Leo); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); M. Salomon (Marc)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe a Decision Support System (DSS) that has been developed for the aircraft maintenance department of the Dutch national airline company at the main airport in the Netherlands. The aircraft maintenance department is responsible for carrying out the regular short in

  4. 77 FR 50054 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... certain Cessna Aircraft Company Models 172R and 172S airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports... tube assembly and the airplane structure; and adjustment as necessary. We are proposing this AD...

  5. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... infrastructure and research needs; and (C) Consult with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); (4) Address both civil and public unmanned aircraft systems; (5... be flown using a data link to transmit commands to the aircraft. They may perform a variety of...

  6. 77 FR 22187 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards-Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    .... SUMMARY: This amendment corrects a number of errors in the airworthiness standards for aircraft engine...: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness...

  7. 78 FR 23329 - Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting Meeting Announcement... attend and participate in an Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting scheduled for Thursday, May...

  8. 78 FR 54561 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY... an airworthiness directive (AD) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to all Piper... airplane exhaust system, and repair or replacement of parts as necessary for all Piper Aircraft,...

  9. 77 FR 57534 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper... all Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-31, PA-31-325, and PA-31-350 airplanes. The existing AD currently... identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida...

  10. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17489; AD 2013-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc...-01 applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T, and PA-46... modifying and eventually replacing the fuel vent valves if the nitrile parts are installed for certain...

  11. 19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section 122.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  12. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category...

  13. Damage tolerance analysis of aircraft reinforced panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pirondi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at reproducing numerically a campaign of experimental tests performed for the development of reinforced panels, typically found in aircraft fuselage. The bonded reinforcements can significantly reduce the rate of fatigue crack growth and increase the residual strength of the skin. The reinforcements are of two types: stringers and doublers. The former provides stiffening to the panel while the latter controls the crack growth between the stringers. The purpose of the study is to validate a numerical method of analysis that can predict the damage tolerance of these reinforced panels. Therefore, using a fracture mechanics approach, several models (different by the geometry and the types of reinforcement constraints were simulated with the finite element solver ABAQUS. The bonding between skin and stiffener was taken either rigid or flexible due to the presence of adhesive. The possible rupture of the reinforcements was also considered. The stress intensity factor trend obtained numerically as a function of crack growth was used to determine the fatigue crack growth rate, obtaining a good approximation of the experimental crack propagation rate in the skin. Therefore, different solutions for improving the damage tolerance of aircraft reinforced panels can be virtually tested in this way before performing experiments.

  14. ANALYSES ON SYSTEMATIC CONFRONTATION OF FIGHTER AIRCRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaiJinpeng; WuZhe; HuangJun

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the systematic confrontation between two military forcfes are the highest hierarchy on opera-tional effectiveness study of weapon systema.The physi-cal model for tactical many-on-many engagements of an aerial warfare with heterogeneous figher aircraft is estab-lished.On the basis of Lanchester multivariate equations of square law,a mathematical model corresponding to the established physical model is given.A superiorityh parame-ter is then derived directly from the mathematical model.With view to the high -tech condition of modern war-fare,the concept of superiority parameter which more well and truly reflects the essential of an air-to-air en-gagement is further formulated.The attrition coeffi-cients,which are key to the differential equations,are de-termined by using tactics of random target assignment and air-to-air capability index of the fighter aircraft.Hereby,taking the mathematical model and superiority parameter as cores,calculations amd analyses of complicate systemic problems such as evaluation of battle superiority,prog-mostication of combat process and optimization of colloca-tions have been accomplished.Results indicate that a clas-sical combat theory with its certain recent development has received newer applications in the military operation research for complicated confrontation analysis issues.

  15. Structural analysis of Aircraft fuselage splice joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya Prakash, R.; Kumar, G. Raj; Vijayanandh, R.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Ramganesh, T.

    2016-09-01

    In Aviation sector, composite materials and its application to each component are one of the prime factors of consideration due to the high strength to weight ratio, design flexibility and non-corrosive so that the composite materials are widely used in the low weight constructions and also it can be treated as a suitable alternative to metals. The objective of this paper is to estimate and compare the suitability of a composite skin joint in an aircraft fuselage with different joints by simulating the displacement, normal stress, vonmises stress and shear stress with the help of numerical solution methods. The reference Z-stringer component of this paper is modeled by CATIA and numerical simulation is carried out by ANSYS has been used for splice joint presents in the aircraft fuselage with three combinations of joints such as riveted joint, bonded joint and hybrid joint. Nowadays the stringers are using to avoid buckling of fuselage skin, it has joined together by rivets and they are connected end to end by splice joint. Design and static analysis of three-dimensional models of joints such as bonded, riveted and hybrid are carried out and results are compared.

  16. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, P., E-mail: p.toscano@ibimet.cnr.it [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Gioli, B. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Dugheri, S. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Salvini, A. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Matese, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Bonacchi, A. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Zaldei, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Cupelli, V. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Miglietta, F. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via Mach 1, San Michele all' Adige, Trento (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. - Highlights: > Flight plan aimed at sampling industrial area at various altitudes and locations. > SPME sampling strategy was based on plume detection by means of CO{sub 2}. > Concentrations obtained were lower than the limit values or below the detection limit. > Scan mode highlighted presence of {gamma}-butyrolactone (GBL) compound. > Gaussian dispersion modelling was used to estimate GBL source location and strength. - An integrated strategy based on atmospheric aircraft observations and dispersion modelling was developed, aimed at estimating spatial location and strength of VOC point source emissions in industrial areas.

  17. Trust Control of VTOL Aircraft Part Deux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust control of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft has always been a debatable issue. In most cases, it comes down to the fundamental question of throttle versus collective. Some aircraft used throttle(s), with a fore and aft longitudinal motion, some had collectives, some have used Thrust Levers where the protocol is still "Up is Up and Down is Down," and some have incorporated both throttles and collectives when designers did not want to deal with the Human Factors issues. There have even been combinations of throttles that incorporated an arc that have been met with varying degrees of success. A previous review was made of nineteen designs without attempting to judge the merits of the controller. Included in this paper are twelve designs entered in competition for the 1961 Tri-Service VTOL transport. Entries were from a Bell/Lockheed tiltduct, a North American tiltwing, a Vanguard liftfan, and even a Sikorsky tiltwing. Additional designs were submitted from Boeing Wichita (direct lift), Ling-Temco-Vought with its XC-142 tiltwing, Boeing Vertol's tiltwing, Mcdonnell's compound and tiltwing, and the Douglas turboduct and turboprop designs. A private party submitted a re-design of the Breguet 941 as a VTOL transport. It is important to document these 53 year-old designs to preserve a part of this country's aviation heritage.

  18. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  19. MULTI-CONTROLLER STRUCTURE OF SUPERMANEUVERABLE AIRCRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a method of using multi-controllers to control supermaneuverable aircraft. A nonlinear dynamic-inversion controller is used for supermaneuver. A gain-scheduled controller is used for routine maneuver. A switch algorithm is designed to switch the controllers. The flight envelopes of the controllers are different but have a common area in which the controllers are switched from one to the other. In the common area, some special boundaries are selected to decide switch conditions. The controllers all use vector-thrust for lower velocity maneuver control. Unlike the variation-structure theory to use a single boundary, this paper uses two boundaries for switching between the two controllers. One boundary is used for switching from dynamic-inversion to gain-scheduling, while the other is used for switching from gain-scheduling to dynamic-inversion. This can effectively avoid the system vibration caused by switching repeatedly at a single boundary. The method is very easy for engineering. It can reduce the risk of design of the supermaneuverable aircraft.

  20. An Immunized Aircraft Maneuver Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project, as stated in the original proposal, was to develop an immunized aircraft maneuver selection (IAMS) system. The IAMS system was to be composed of computational and informational building blocks that resemble structures in natural immune systems. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a software package that could be flight tested on aircraft models. This report describes the work performed in the first year of what was to have been a two year project. This report also describes efforts that would have been made in the final year to have completed the project, had it been continued for the final year. After introductory material is provided in Section 2, the end-of-year-one status of the effort is discussed in Section 3. The remainder of the report provides an accounting of first year efforts. Section 4 provides background information on natural immune systems while Section 5 describes a generic ar&itecture developed for use in the IAMS. Section 6 describes the application of the architecture to a system identification problem. Finally, Section 7 describes steps necessary for completing the project.