WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft propulsion reactors

  1. REACTOR AND SHIELD PHYSICS. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle, Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.E.; Simpson, J.D.

    1962-01-01

    This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume describes the experimental and theoretical work accomplished in the areas of reactor and shield physics.

  2. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  3. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  4. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program; Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Application Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comassar, S.

    1962-04-30

    This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This portion describes the studies of advanced applications of nuclear reactors that were performed, including various types of aircraft, missiles, space vehicles, ships, and portable power plants.

  5. Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA, NA [ORNL

    1957-03-12

    This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of research on circulating-fuel reactors and other ANP research at the Laboratory. The report is divided into five major parts: 1) Aircraft Reactor Engineering, 2) Chemistry, and 3) Metallurgy, 4) Heat Transfer and Physical Properties, Radiation Damage, and Fuel Recovery and Reprocessing, and 5) Reactor Shielding.

  6. Airvolt Aircraft Electric Propulsion Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Aamod; Lin, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    Development of an electric propulsion test stand that collects high-fidelity data of motor, inverter, and battery system efficiencies; thermal dynamics; and acoustics independent of manufacturer reported values will improve understanding of electric propulsion systems to be used in future aircraft. A buildup approach to this development reveals new areas of research and best practices in testing, and attempts to establish a standard for testing these systems.

  7. Uranium arc fission reactor for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Maya, Isaac; Vitali, Juan; Appelbaum, Jacob; Schneider, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    Combining the proven technology of solid core reactors with uranium arc confinement and non-equilibrium ionization by fission fragments can lead to an attractive propulsion system which has a higher specific impulse than a solid core propulsion system and higher thrust than an electric propulsion systems. A preliminary study indicates that a system with 300 MW of fission power can achieve a gas exhaust velocity of 18,000 m/sec and a thrust of 10,000 Newtons utilizing a magnetohydrodynamic generator and accelerator. An experimental program is underway to examine the major mass and energy transfer issues.

  8. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  9. Closed cycle propulsion for small unmanned aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Thomas Chadwick

    This study evaluates the merit of closed cycle propulsion systems for use in unmanned systems. The complexity and added weight of closed cycle engines is offset by benefits in high altitude performance, operation in polluted air environments, multi-fuel operation, and potential for flight in low oxygen environments using generic thermal heat sources. Although most closed thermal cycles cannot match the efficiency and power density potential of internal combustion engines (ICE) and turbomachines in aircraft propulsion applications, the addition of design requirements regarding noise output, and operation at high altitude results in IC and CC engine's performance becoming much more comparable. Muffling devices increase backpressure on internal combustion engines thereby reducing power output and efficiency. Multi stage turbo supercharging for operation at high altitude can in some cases increase efficiency of ICE's, but at the result of significant additional complexity and cost that also reduces practical reliability because of the often intricate mechanisms involved. It is in these scenarios that closed cycle engines offer a comparable performance alternative that may prove to be simpler, cheaper, and more reliable than high altitude or low noise internal combustion or turbomachine propulsion systems.

  10. Ship propulsion reactors technology; La technologie des reacteurs de propulsion navale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fribourg, Ch. [Technicatome, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Misconceptions of Electric Propulsion Aircraft and Their Emergent Aviation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been aircraft conceptual design and system studies that have reached conflicting conclusions relating to the feasibility of full and hybrid electric aircraft. Some studies and propulsion discipline experts have claimed that battery technologies will need to improve by 10 to 20 times before electric aircraft can effectively compete with reciprocating or turbine engines. However, such studies have approached comparative assessments without understanding the compelling differences that electric propulsion offers, how these technologies will fundamentally alter the way propulsion integration is approached, or how these new technologies can not only compete but far exceed existing propulsion solutions in many ways at battery specific energy densities of only 400 watt hours per kilogram. Electric propulsion characteristics offer the opportunity to achieve 4 to 8 time improvements in energy costs with dramatically lower total operating costs, while dramatically improving efficiency, community noise, propulsion system reliability and safety through redundancy, as well as life cycle Green House Gas emissions. Integration of electric propulsion will involve far greater degrees of distribution than existing propulsion solutions due to their compact and scale-free nature to achieve multi-disciplinary coupling and synergistic integration with the aerodynamics, highlift system, acoustics, vehicle control, balance, and aeroelasticity. Appropriate metrics of comparison and differences in analysis/design tools are discussed while comparing electric propulsion to other disruptive technologies. For several initial applications, battery energy density is already sufficient for competitive products, and for many additional markets energy densities will likely be adequate within the next 7 years for vibrant introduction. Market evolution and early adopter markets are discussed, along with the investment areas that will fill technology gaps and

  12. Propulsion Investigation for Zero and Near-Zero Emissions Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald v.; Dolce, James L.; Dravid, Marayan V.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Jones, Scott M.; Kundu, Krishna P.; Marek, Cecil J.; Millis, Marc G.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Roach, Timothy M.; Smith, Timothy D.; Stefko, George L.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Geiselhat, Karl A.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    As world emissions are further scrutinized to identify areas for improvement, aviation s contribution to the problem can no longer be ignored. Previous studies for zero or near-zero emissions aircraft suggest aircraft and propulsion system sizes that would perform propulsion system and subsystems layout and propellant tankage analyses to verify the weight-scaling relationships. These efforts could be used to identify and guide subsequent work on systems and subsystems to achieve viable aircraft system emissions goals. Previous work quickly focused these efforts on propulsion systems for 70- and 100-passenger aircraft. Propulsion systems modeled included hydrogen-fueled gas turbines and fuel cells; some preliminary estimates combined these two systems. Hydrogen gas-turbine engines, with advanced combustor technology, could realize significant reductions in nitrogen emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell propulsion systems were further laid out, and more detailed analysis identified systems needed and weight goals for a viable overall system weight. Results show significant, necessary reductions in overall weight, predominantly on the fuel cell stack, and power management and distribution subsystems to achieve reasonable overall aircraft sizes and weights. Preliminary conceptual analyses for a combination of gas-turbine and fuel cell systems were also performed, and further studies were recommended. Using gas-turbine engines combined with fuel cell systems can reduce the fuel cell propulsion system weight, but at higher fuel usage than using the fuel cell only.

  13. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  14. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  15. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  16. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion in a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Brown, Gerald V.; DaeKim, Hyun; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP), has been analyzed to see if it can meet the 70% fuel burn reduction goal of the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project for N+3 generation aircraft. The TeDP system utilizes superconducting electric generators, motors and transmission lines to allow the power producing and thrust producing portions of the system to be widely separated. It also allows a small number of large turboshaft engines to drive any number of propulsors. On the N3-X these new degrees of freedom were used to (1) place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to maximize thermal efficiency and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 15 motor driven propulsors on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge. That location maximizes the amount of the boundary layer ingested and thus maximizes propulsive efficiency. The Boeing B777-200LR flying 7500 nm (13890 km) with a cruise speed of Mach 0.84 and an 118100 lb payload was selected as the reference aircraft and mission for this study. In order to distinguish between improvements due to technology and aircraft configuration changes from those due to the propulsion configuration changes, an intermediate configuration was included in this study. In this configuration a pylon mounted, ultra high bypass (UHB) geared turbofan engine with identical propulsion technology was integrated into the same hybrid wing body airframe. That aircraft achieved a 52% reduction in mission fuel burn relative to the reference aircraft. The N3-X was able to achieve a reduction of 70% and 72% (depending on the cooling system) relative to the reference aircraft. The additional 18% - 20% reduction in the mission fuel burn can therefore be attributed to the additional degrees of freedom in the propulsion system configuration afforded by the TeDP system that eliminates nacelle and pylon drag, maximizes boundary

  17. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  18. A cermet fuel reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    Work on the cermet fuel reactor done in the 1960's by General Electric (GE) and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that had as its goal the development of systems that could be used for nuclear rocket propulsion as well as closed cycle propulsion system designs for ship propulsion, space nuclear propulsion, and other propulsion systems is reviewed. It is concluded that the work done in the 1960's has demonstrated that we can have excellent thermal and mechanical performance with cermet fuel. Thousands of hours of testing were performed on the cermet fuel at both GE and AGL, including very rapid transients and some radiation performance history. We conclude that there are no feasibility issues with cermet fuel. What is needed is reactivation of existing technology and qualification testing of a specific fuel form. We believe this can be done with a minimum development risk.

  19. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that utilize superconducting motors to drive a number of distributed turbofans. In an...

  20. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that utilize superconducting motors to drive a number of distributed turbofans. Conventional...

  1. The RES Reactor. A test reactor for the French naval propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivet, Sylvestre [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Minguet, Jean-Luc [AREVA-Technicatome, BP17, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the Cadarache nuclear research centre the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) operates, with the support of TECHNICATOME as nuclear operator, the experimental facilities which are necessary for the French naval propulsion program. Since the sixties these facilities have brought a large contribution to the development and to the technical support for the nuclear propulsion; they have been used also to train the French Navy operators. The last experimental reactor, the RNG, is now at the end of its life cycle after thirty years of a profitable operation. A replacement reactor is needed to sustain any evolution of the naval propulsion reactors as well as to guarantee a safe operation and a high level of availability of the existing onboard reactors. The aim of the RES program is namely to build such a test facility. Its construction program started in 2003. By the year 2009 the RES reactor will take over the mission of the RNG. We present hereafter: - A brief history of the French experimental reactors built in support to the naval propulsion, - The needs of the naval propulsion and the related objectives of the RES program, - The corresponding architecture and main characteristics of the RES facility, - The current status of the RES construction. The contents of the paper is as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. History of the French nuclear propulsion experimental reactors; 3. Needs of the naval propulsion and related objectives of the RES reactor; 4. RES architecture and main characteristics; 4.1. The pool module; 4.2. The reactor module; 4.3. The RES reactor, an innovative concept; 5. Realisation status; 6. Conclusion. To summarize, from the year 2009 the RES will be an efficient facility available for irradiation and qualification programs. Its large experimental capabilities will allow relevant fuel and core irradiations. This will give access to a real progress in the knowledge of fuel and core physics as well as in the related simulation tools. This reactor

  2. Wire core reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Richard B.; Brengle, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been performed of a compact high-performance nuclear rocket reactor that incorporates a tungsten alloy wire fuel element. This reactor, termed the wire core reactor, can deliver a specific impulse of 1,000 s using an expander cycle and a nozzle expansion ratio of 500 to 1. The core is constructed of layers of 0.8-mm-dia fueled tungsten wires wound over alternate layers of spacer wires, which forms a rugged annular lattice. Hydrogen flow in the core is annular, flowing from inside to outside. In addition to the concepts compact size and good heat transfer, the core has excellent power-flow matching features and can resist vibration and thermal stresses during star-up and shutdown.

  3. Distributed Turboelectric Propulsion for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting future goals for aircraft and air traffic system performance will require new airframes with more highly integrated propulsion. Previous studies have evaluated hybrid wing body (HWB) configurations with various numbers of engines and with increasing degrees of propulsion-airframe integration. A recently published configuration with 12 small engines partially embedded in a HWB aircraft, reviewed herein, serves as the airframe baseline for the new concept aircraft that is the subject of this paper. To achieve high cruise efficiency, a high lift-to-drag ratio HWB was adopted as the baseline airframe along with boundary layer ingestion inlets and distributed thrust nozzles to fill in the wakes generated by the vehicle. The distributed powered-lift propulsion concept for the baseline vehicle used a simple, high-lift-capable internally blown flap or jet flap system with a number of small high bypass ratio turbofan engines in the airframe. In that concept, the engine flow path from the inlet to the nozzle is direct and does not involve complicated internal ducts through the airframe to redistribute the engine flow. In addition, partially embedded engines, distributed along the upper surface of the HWB airframe, provide noise reduction through airframe shielding and promote jet flow mixing with the ambient airflow. To improve performance and to reduce noise and environmental impact even further, a drastic change in the propulsion system is proposed in this paper. The new concept adopts the previous baseline cruise-efficient short take-off and landing (CESTOL) airframe but employs a number of superconducting motors to drive the distributed fans rather than using many small conventional engines. The power to drive these electric fans is generated by two remotely located gas-turbine-driven superconducting generators. This arrangement allows many small partially embedded fans while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated

  4. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Isaac; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Watanabe, Yoichi; McClanahan, James A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu, Carman, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF4 fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure (˜100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development.

  5. The MAUS nuclear space reactor with ion propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, Enrico [DINCE - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare e Conversioni Energetiche, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , C.so V. Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: mainardi@frascati.enea.it

    2006-06-01

    MAUS (Moltiplicatore Avanzato Ultracompatto Spaziale) is a nuclear reactor concept design capable to ensure a reliable, long-lasting, low-mass, compact energy supply needed for advanced, future space missions. The exploration of the solar system and the space beyond requires the development of nuclear energy generators for supplying electricity to space-bases, spacecrafts, probes or satellites, as well as for propelling ships in long space missions. For propulsion, the MAUS nuclear reactor could be used to power electric ion drive engines. An ion engine is able to build up to very high velocities, far greater than chemical propulsion systems, but has high power and long service requirements. The MAUS concept is described, together with the ion propulsion engine and together with the reference thermoionic process used to convert the thermal power into electricity. The design work has been performed at the Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion Department of the University of Rome 'La Sapienza' starting from 1992 on an issue submitted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), in cooperation with the research laboratories of ENEA.

  6. The Maus nuclear space reactor with ion propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrico Mainardi [DINCE - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare e Conversioni Energetiche, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , C.so V. EmanueleII, 244, 00186 Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    MAUS (Moltiplicatore Avanzato Ultracompatto Spaziale) is a nuclear reactor concept design capable to ensure a reliable, long lasting, low mass, compact energy supply needed for advanced, future space missions. The exploration of the solar system and the space beyond requires the development of nuclear energy generators for supplying electricity to space-bases, spacecrafts, probes or satellites, as well as for propelling ships in long space missions. For propulsion, the MAUS nuclear reactor could be used to power electric ion drive engines. An ion engine is able to build up to very high velocities, far greater than chemical propulsion systems, but has high power and long service requirements. The MAUS concept is described, together with the ion propulsion engine and together with the reference thermionic process used to convert the thermal power into electricity. The design work has been performed at the Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion Department of the University of Rome 'La Sapienza' starting from 1992 on an issue submitted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), in cooperation with the research laboratories of ENEA. (author)

  7. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems for Large Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For electric propulsion systems for large aircraft it is desirable to have very light weight electric motors. Cryogenic motors offer much lighter weight than...

  8. Light weight space power reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.; Lazareth, O.; Perkins, K.; Schmidt, E.; Powell, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) unit capable of propelling a manned vehicle to MARS will be required to have a value of {alpha} (kg/kWe) which is less than five. In order to meet this goal the reactor mass, and thus its contribution to the value of {alpha} will have to be minimized. In this paper a candidate for such a reactor is described. It consists of a gas cooled Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with specially chosen materials which allow it to operate at an exit temperature of approximately 2000 K. One of the unique features of a PBR is the direct cooling of particulate fuel by the working fluid. This feature allows for high power densities, highest possible gas exit temperatures, for a given fuel temperature and because of the thin particle bed a low pressure drop. The PBR's described in this paper will have a ceramic moderator (Be{sub 2}C), ZrC coated fuel particles and a carbon/carbon hot frit. All the reactors will be designed with sufficient fissile loading to operate at full power for seven years. The burn up possible with particulate fuel is approximately 30%--50%. These rector designs achieve a value of {alpha} less than unity in the power range of interest (5 MWe). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Counter Rotating Fans—An Aircraft Propulsion for the Future?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Schimming

    2003-01-01

    In the mid seventies a new propulsor for aircraft was designed and investigated-the so-called PROPFAN.With regard to the total pressure increase, it ranges between a conventional propeller and a turbofan with very high bypass ratio.This new propulsion system promised a reduction in fuel consumption of 15 to 25% compared to engines at that time. A lot of propfans (Hamilton Standard, USA) with different numbers of blades and blade shapes have been designed and tested in wind tunnels in order to find an optimum in efficiency, Fig. 1. Parallel to this development GE, USA, made a design of a counter rotating unducted propfan, the so-called UDF, Fig.2. A prototype engine was manufactured and investigated on an in-flight test bed mounted at the MD82 and the B727. Since that time there has not been any further development of propfans (except AN 70 with NK 90—engine, Ukraine, which is more or less a propeller design) due to relatively low fuel prices and technical obstacles. Only technical programs in different countries are still going on in order to prepare a data base for designing counter rotating fans in terms of aeroacoustics, aerodynamics and aeroelasticities.In DLR, Germany, a lot of experimental and numerical work has been undertaken to understand the physical behaviour of the unsteady flow in a counter rotating fan.

  10. Pellet bed reactor concept for nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Morley, Nicholas J.; Juhasz, Albert

    1993-01-01

    For Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications, gas cooled nuclear reactors with dynamic energy conversion systems offer high specific power and low total mass. This paper describes the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) concept for potential NEP missions to Mars. The helium cooled, 75-80 MWt PeBR, consists of a single annular fuel region filled with a randomly packed bed of spherical fuel pellets, is designed for multiple starts, and offers unique safety and operation features. Each fuel pellet, about 8-10 mm in diameter, is composed of hundreds of TRISO type fuel microspheres embedded in a graphite matrix for a full retention of fission products. To eliminate the likelihood of a single-point failure, the annular core of the PeBR is divided into three 120° sectors. Each sector is self contained and separate and capable of operating and being cooled on its own and in cooperation with either one or two other sectors. Each sector is coupled to a separate, 5 MWe Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion unit and is subcritical for safe handling and launching. In the event of a failure of the cooling system of a core sector, the reactor power level may be reduced, allowing adjacent sectors to convect the heat away using their own cooling system, thus maintaining reactor operation. Also, due to the absence of an internal core structure in the PeBR core, fueling of the reactor can easily be performed either at the launch facility or in orbit, and refueling can be accomplished in orbit as needed to extend the power system lifetime

  11. The multidisciplinary design optimization of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yan-Yee Andy

    The purpose of this study is to examine the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft. The BWB is a hybrid shape resembling a flying wing, placing the payload in the inboard sections of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept involves replacing a small number of large engines with many smaller engines. The distributed propulsion concept considered here ducts part of the engine exhaust to exit out along the trailing edge of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept affects almost every aspect of the BWB design. Methods to model these effects and integrate them into an MDO framework were developed. The most important effect modeled is the impact on the propulsive efficiency. There has been conjecture that there will be an increase in propulsive efficiency when there is blowing out of the trailing edge of a wing. A mathematical formulation was derived to explain this. The formulation showed that the jet 'fills in' the wake behind the body, improving the overall aerodynamic/propulsion system, resulting in an increased propulsive efficiency. The distributed propulsion concept also replaces the conventional elevons with a vectored thrust system for longitudinal control. An extension of Spence's Jet Flap theory was developed to estimate the effects of this vectored thrust system on the aircraft longitudinal control. It was found to provide a reasonable estimate of the control capability of the aircraft. An MDO framework was developed, integrating all the distributed propulsion effects modeled. Using a gradient based optimization algorithm, the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft was optimized and compared with a similarly optimized conventional BWB design. Both designs are for an 800 passenger, 0.85 cruise Mach number and 7000 nmi mission. The MDO results found that the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft has a 4% takeoff gross weight and a 2% fuel weight. Both designs have similar planform shapes

  12. Propulsion and control propellers with thruster nozzles primarily for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, W.

    1986-01-01

    A propulsion and control propeller with thruster nozzles, primarily for aircraft application is described. Adjustability of rotor blades at the hub and pressurized gas expulsion combined with an air propeller increase power. Both characteristics are combined in one simple device, and, furthermore, incorporate overall aircraft control so that mechanisms which govern lateral and horizontal movement become superfluous.

  13. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  14. The Low-Noise Potential of Distributed Propulsion on a Catamaran Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Joe W.; Tinetti, A. F.; Dunn, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The noise shielding potential of an inboard-wing catamaran aircraft when coupled with distributed propulsion is examined. Here, only low-frequency jet noise from mid-wing-mounted engines is considered. Because low frequencies are the most difficult to shield, these calculations put a lower bound on the potential shielding benefit. In this proof-of-concept study, simple physical models are used to describe the 3-D scattering of jet noise by conceptualized catamaran aircraft. The Fast Scattering Code is used to predict noise levels on and about the aircraft. Shielding results are presented for several catamaran type geometries and simple noise source configurations representative of distributed propulsion radiation. Computational analyses are presented that demonstrate the shielding benefits of distributed propulsion and of increasing the width of the inboard wing. Also, sample calculations using the FSC are presented that demonstrate additional noise reduction on the aircraft fuselage by the use of acoustic liners on the inboard wing trailing edge. A full conceptual aircraft design would have to be analyzed over a complete mission to more accurately quantify community noise levels and aircraft performance, but the present shielding calculations show that a large acoustic benefit could be achieved by combining distributed propulsion and liner technology with a twin-fuselage planform.

  15. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions assessment of hydrogen and kerosene-fueled aircraft propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojoumi, H.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    The paper highlights the importance of hydrogen as a promising alternative for future aircraft fuel, with respect to reduced environmental impact, increased sustainability, high energy content and favorable combustion kinetics, since the rapid growth and dependence of aircraft propulsion on fossil fuels are unsustainable. This paper compares the environmental impact of hydrogen and kerosene-fueled aircraft, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and other emission comparisons. Sample flights from Toronto to Montreal, and Calgary to London are examined. Emissions from a conventional aircraft are estimated and compared with the LH{sub 2} (liquid hydrogen) aircraft. The environmental benefits and drawbacks of these systems are presented from safety and storage perspectives. Radiative forcing factors that compare conventional aircraft and LH{sub 2} aircraft are included. It is shown that the amount of NO{sub x}, HC and CO emissions for the trips with conventional aircraft for Calgary is 171.4, 41.9 and 32.2 kg, while Montreal is 56.17, 2.43 and 21.9 kg, and London is 251.7, 5.1 and 39.2 kg, respectively. These results are compared against hydrogen propulsion to show the promising capabilities of hydrogen as an aircraft fuel. (author)

  17. Robust Propulsion Control for Improved Aircraft Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scientific Monitoring, Inc. proposes to develop a robust propulsion control approach to facilitate control law design and simulation-based validation. The proposed...

  18. The RES reactor, a test reactor for naval propulsion; Le reacteur d'essais RES, reacteur d'essais de la propulsion navale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivet, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Minguet, J.L. [AREVA-Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France)

    2005-07-01

    The RES, the new test reactor for naval propulsion, will replace the RNG that nears the end of its operating life after 30 years in service. The main asset of a land-based installation is to provide an in-core instrumented reactor while the on-board system must stay as simple as possible for robustness reasons. The objective of the RES is fivefold: 1) to foresee and help solving problems likely to happen on on-board reactor, 2) to validate nuclear fuels and reactor systems for naval propulsion, 3) to validate reactor system and equipment for the Barracuda submarine program, 4) to upgrade the on-ground facility located at Cadarache, and 5) to provide the Cea with a new capacity for the storing of spent fuels from naval propulsion systems and from Cea research reactors. The RES facility is made of 2 parts: one that houses the reactor and the other that is dedicated to the handling on spent fuels, their examination through a gamma spectrometry bench and their storing in a pool. The RES facility is scheduled to open in 2009. (A.C.)

  19. Investigation of Cross Flow Fan Propulsion for Lightweight VTOL Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    the aircraft longitudinal axis due to the total length of the unit. A total fan span of 20.6 inches is required to produce 690 lbf of thrust when...which are mounted parallel to the aircraft longitudinal axis and rest perpendicular, would be actuated as required to provide yaw control and aft

  20. Engine Systems Ownership Cost Reduction - Aircraft Propulsion Subsystems Integration (APSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    INCO 792 (Radiographic Film). 97 S--I- Teledyne CAE Report No. 1467 ENVELOPE~~IE OFREWAFLC k1806ýý i-- -IS-RGONO NEFNDDT vigue4.2.93. Poder Meal Dic...34, Volume II, 1 August 1956, by members of the Compressor and Turbine Research Division - Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. 15. Deleted. 1 Deleted. 17

  1. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  2. Developments in silicon carbide for aircraft propulsion system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylko, Stephen J.

    1993-06-01

    The physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide make it the foremost semiconductor material for high-temperature, radiation-resistant, and high-power electronic devices. These attributes make SiC particularly suitable for application to aircraft engines. Recent proof-of-concept efforts have verified SiC's potential. Field-effect transistors have shown high-temperature operating capability from 350 C to 650 C. JFETs, MOSFETs, and MESFETs have been fabricated. Ultraviolet photodiodes with high quantum efficiencies and extremely low dark currents have been fabricated and tested. Blue light-emitting diodes are for sale in production quantities as are one-inch diameter wafers. These developments have established a sufficient level of confidence to pursue the development of devices for aircraft-engine applications.

  3. Propulsion Electric Grid Simulator (PEGS) for Future Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos; Dever, Timothy; Brown, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the aerospace industry and academia, has begun the development of technology for a future hybrid-wing body electric airplane with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. It is essential to design a subscale system to emulate the TeDP power grid, which would enable rapid analysis and demonstration of the proof-of-concept of the TeDP electrical system. This paper describes how small electrical machines with their controllers can emulate all the components in a TeDP power train. The whole system model in Matlab/Simulink was first developed and tested in simulation, and the simulation results showed that system dynamic characteristics could be implemented by using the closed-loop control of the electric motor drive systems. Then we designed a subscale experimental system to emulate the entire power system from the turbine engine to the propulsive fans. Firstly, we built a system to emulate a gas turbine engine driving a generator, consisting of two permanent magnet (PM) motors with brushless motor drives, coupled by a shaft. We programmed the first motor and its drive to mimic the speed-torque characteristic of the gas turbine engine, while the second motor and drive act as a generator and produce a torque load on the first motor. Secondly, we built another system of two PM motors and drives to emulate a motor driving a propulsive fan. We programmed the first motor and drive to emulate a wound-rotor synchronous motor. The propulsive fan was emulated by implementing fan maps and flight conditions into the fourth motor and drive, which produce a torque load on the driving motor. The stator of each PM motor is designed to travel axially to change the coupling between rotor and stator. This feature allows the PM motor to more closely emulate a wound-rotor synchronous machine. These techniques can convert the plain motor system into a unique TeDP power grid emulator that enables real-time simulation performance

  4. Structural Integrity Assessment of Reactor Containment Subjected to Aircraft Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junyong; Chang, Yoonsuk [Department of Nuclear Engineering/Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    When an accident occurs at the NPP, containment building which acts as the last barrier should be assessed and analyzed structural integrity by internal loading or external loading. On many occasions that can occur in the containment internal such as LOCA(Loss Of Coolant Accident) are already reflected to design. Likewise, there are several kinds of accidents that may occur from the outside of containment such as earthquakes, hurricanes and strong wind. However, aircraft crash that at outside of containment is not reflected yet in domestic because NPP sites have been selected based on the probabilistic method. After intentional aircraft crash such as World Trade Center and Pentagon accident in US, social awareness for safety of infrastructure like NPP was raised world widely and it is time for assessment of aircraft crash in domestic. The object of this paper is assessment of reactor containment subjected to aircraft crash by FEM(Finite Element Method). In this paper, assessment of structural integrity of containment building subjected to certain aircraft crash was carried out. Verification of structure integrity of containment by intentional severe accident. Maximum stress 61.21MPa of horizontal shell crash does not penetrate containment. Research for more realistic results needed by steel reinforced concrete model.

  5. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  6. Stability, Transient Response, Control, and Safety of a High-Power Electric Grid for Turboelectric Propulsion of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael; Ross, Christine; Phillips, Danny; Blackwelder, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the deliverables for the NASA Research and Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Systems (RTAPS) regarding the stability, transient response, control, and safety study for a high power cryogenic turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. The objective of this research effort is to enumerate, characterize, and evaluate the critical issues facing the development of the N3-X concept aircraft. This includes the proposal of electrical grid architecture concepts and an evaluation of any needs for energy storage.

  7. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  8. Multi-reactor power system configurations for multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A modular, multi-reactor power system and vehicle configuration for piloted nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) missions to Mars is presented. Such a design could provide enhanced system and mission reliability, allowing a comfortable safety margin for early manned flights, and would allow a range of piloted and cargo missions to be performed with a single power system design. Early use of common power modules for cargo missions would also provide progressive flight experience and validation of standardized systems for use in later piloted applications. System and mission analysis are presented to compare single and multi-reactor configurations for piloted Mars missions. A conceptual design for the Hydra modular multi-reactor NEP vehicle is presented.

  9. Modeling of gas turbine - solid oxide fuel cell systems for combined propulsion and power on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Daniel Francis

    This dissertation investigates the use of gas turbine (GT) engine integrated solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce fuel burn in aircraft with large electrical loads like sensor-laden unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The concept offers a number of advantages: the GT absorbs many SOFC balance of plant functions (supplying fuel, air, and heat to the fuel cell) thereby reducing the number of components in the system; the GT supplies fuel and pressurized air that significantly increases SOFC performance; heat and unreacted fuel from the SOFC are recaptured by the GT cycle offsetting system-level losses; good transient response of the GT cycle compensates for poor transient response of the SOFC. The net result is a system that can supply more electrical power more efficiently than comparable engine-generator systems with only modest (capture `down-the-channel' effects (a level of fidelity necessary for making meaningful performance, mass, and volume estimates). Models are created in a NASA-developed environment called Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). A sensitivity analysis identifies important design parameters and translates uncertainties in model parameters into uncertainties in overall performance. GT-SOFC integrations reduce fuel burn 3-4% in 50 kW systems on 35 kN rated engines (all types) with overall uncertainty 3 in some cases) than generator-based systems before encountering turbine inlet temperature limits. Aerodynamic drag effects of engine-airframe integration are by far the most important limiter of the combined propulsion/electrical generation concept. However, up to 100-200 kW can be produced in a bypass ratio = 8, overall pressure ratio = 40 turbofan with little or no drag penalty. This study shows that it is possible to create cooperatively integrated GT-SOFC systems for combined propulsion and power with better overall performance than stand-alone components.

  10. Space Molten Salt Reactor Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, M.; Flanders, J.; McMurray, N.; Denning, R.; Sun, X.; Windl, W.; Blue, T.

    Students at The Ohio State University working under the NASA Steckler Grant sought to investigate how molten salt reactors with fissile material dissolved in a liquid fuel medium can be applied to space applications. Molten salt reactors of this kind, built for non-space applications, have demonstrated high power densities, high temperature operation without pressurization, high fuel burn up and other characteristics that are ideal for space fission systems. However, little research has been published on the application of molten salt reactor technology to space fission systems. This paper presents a conceptual design of the Space Molten Salt Reactor (SMSR), which utilizes molten salt reactor technology for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power at the 100 kWe to 15 MWe level. Central to the SMSR design is a liquid mixture of LiF, BeF2 and highly enriched U235F4 that acts as both fuel and core coolant. In brief, some of the positive characteristics of the SMSR are compact size, simplified core design, high fuel burn up percentages, proliferation resistant features, passive safety mechanisms, a considerable body of previous research, and the possibility for flexible mission architecture.

  11. A small high temperature gas cooled reactor for nuclear marine propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugiere, F.; Sillon, C. [Ecole des Applications Militaires de l' Energie Atomique, 50 - Cherbourg (France); Foster, A.; Hamilton, P.; Jewer, S.; Thompson, A.C. [Defence College of Electromechanical Engineering, Nuclear Dept., Military Rd, Gosport (United Kingdom); Kingston, T.; Williams, A.M.; Beeley, P.A. [Rolls-Royce (Marine Power), Raynesway, Derby (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Results from a design study for a hypothetical nuclear marine propulsion plant are presented. The plant utilizes a small High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGCR) similar to the GTHTR300 design by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency with power being generated by a direct cycle gas turbine. The GTHTR300 design is modified in order to achieve the required power of 80 MWth and core lifetime of approximately 10 years. Thermal hydraulic analysis shows that in the event of a complete loss of flow accident the hot channel fuel temperature exceeds the 1600 Celsius degrees limit due to the high power peaking in assemblies adjacent to the inner reflector. Reactor dynamics shows oscillatory behaviour in rapid power transients. An automatic control rod system is suggested to overcome this problem. (authors)

  12. Adaptive control in an aircraft propulsion system and system integration with flight control; Kokukiyo enigne - tekio seigyo gijutsu oyobi hiko seigyo tono togo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatome, S.; Seo, N.; Negoro, T.; Kaneda, S.; Matsushita, T.; Kono, Y.; Kanbe, K.; Fujiwara, K. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Aircraft engine controllers incorporating computer technology have enabled the highly automated control of the entire engine system, and consequently have been put to practical use as Full-Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC). In future such FADEC technology will be evolved and combined into an Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) system which will automatically optimize the whole aircraft propulsion system. In this paper the application of the adaptive control, part of the IFPC technology, is described. (author)

  13. Small Fast Spectrum Reactor Designs Suitable for Direct Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. The recent NASA Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study re-examined mission, payload, and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system. A common nuclear thermal propulsion stage with three 25,000-lbf thrust engines was used for all primary mission maneuvers. Moderately lower thrust engines may also have important roles. In particular, lower thrust engine designs demonstrating the critical technologies that are directly extensible to other thrust levels are attractive from a ground testing perspective. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. Reactors and engines employing graphite based fuels were designed, built and ground tested. A number of fast spectrum reactor and engine designs employing refractory metal alloy fuel types were proposed and designed, but none were built. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art graphite based fuel design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. The SNRE was a nominal 16,000-lbf thrust engine originally intended for unmanned applications with relatively short engine

  14. Small Fast Spectrum Reactor Designs Suitable for Direct Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2012-01-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. Past studies, in particular those in support of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. The recent NASA Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study re-examined mission, payload, and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system. A common nuclear thermal propulsion stage with three 25,000-lbf thrust engines was used for all primary mission maneuvers. Moderately lower thrust engines may also have important roles. In particular, lower thrust engine designs demonstrating the critical technologies that are directly extensible to other thrust levels are attractive from a ground testing perspective. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. Reactors and engines employing graphite based fuels were designed, built and ground tested. A number of fast spectrum reactor and engine designs employing refractory metal alloy fuel types were proposed and designed, but none were built. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art graphite based fuel design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. The SNRE was a nominal 16,000-lbf thrust engine originally intended for unmanned applications with relatively short engine operations and the engine and stage design were

  15. Electro-optic architecture (EOA) for sensors and actuators in aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, W. L., Jr.

    1989-06-01

    Results of a study to design an optimal architecture for electro-optical sensing and control in advanced aircraft and space systems are described. The propulsion full authority digital Electronic Engine Control (EEC) was the focus for the study. The recommended architecture is an on-engine EEC which contains electro-optic interface circuits for fiber-optic sensors on the engine. Size and weight are reduced by multiplexing arrays of functionally similar sensors on a pair of optical fibers to common electro-optical interfaces. The architecture contains common, multiplex interfaces to seven sensor groups: (1) self luminous sensors; (2) high temperatures; (3) low temperatures; (4) speeds and flows; (5) vibration; (6) pressures; and (7) mechanical positions. Nine distinct fiber-optic sensor types were found to provide these sensing functions: (1) continuous wave (CW) intensity modulators; (2) time division multiplexing (TDM) digital optic codeplates; (3) time division multiplexing (TDM) analog self-referenced sensors; (4) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) digital optic code plates; (5) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) analog self-referenced intensity modulators; (6) analog optical spectral shifters; (7) self-luminous bodies; (8) coherent optical interferometers; and (9) remote electrical sensors. The report includes the results of a trade study including engine sensor requirements, environment, the basic sensor types, and relevant evaluation criteria. These figures of merit for the candidate interface types were calculated from the data supplied by leading manufacturers of fiber-optic sensors.

  16. Alternative propulsion systems for global transport aircraft. Antriebsalternativen fuer globale Transportflugzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellenz, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigates alternatives for the propulsion of global range transport aircraft responsive to the depletion of fossile fuels as well as to certain socio-economic boundary conditions. In addition to chemical energy sources the generation of nuclear energy on board as well as the remote transmission of energy by laser radiation are considered as alternative energy sources. Conceptual studies are carried out for four Mach number regimes and for distances of 10,000, 15,000, and 20,000 km: subsonic, supersonic, hypersonic and a rocket glider. The concepts are subjected to a multiparametric, socio-economic evaluation, which is carried out separately for the points of view of the airline, the passenger, and the environment/public. The evaluation results indicate that in the subsonic regime only a nominal improvement in rank is obtained by using alternative energy sources in combination with the hydrogen-burning propfan, and that this is only true for increasing ranges. The strongest effect occures in the supersonic regime, and with increasing range. In the hypersonic regime as well as for the rocket glider, the chemical concepts constitute the only practicable solutions.

  17. A One Dimensional, Time Dependent Inlet/Engine Numerical Simulation for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Doug; Davis, Milt, Jr.; Cole, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) have developed a closely coupled computer simulation system that provides a one dimensional, high frequency inlet/engine numerical simulation for aircraft propulsion systems. The simulation system, operating under the LeRC-developed Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL), closely coupled a supersonic inlet with a gas turbine engine. The supersonic inlet was modeled using the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code, and the gas turbine engine was modeled using the Aerodynamic Turbine Engine Code (ATEC). Both LAPIN and ATEC provide a one dimensional, compressible, time dependent flow solution by solving the one dimensional Euler equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Source terms are used to model features such as bleed flows, turbomachinery component characteristics, and inlet subsonic spillage while unstarted. High frequency events, such as compressor surge and inlet unstart, can be simulated with a high degree of fidelity. The simulation system was exercised using a supersonic inlet with sixty percent of the supersonic area contraction occurring internally, and a GE J85-13 turbojet engine.

  18. Development of Liquid-Vapor Core Reactors with MHD Generator for Space Power and Propulsion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim Anghaie

    2002-08-13

    core. Still there are problems of containment since many of the proposed vessel materials such as W or Mo have high neutron cross sections making the design of a critical system difficult. There is also the possibility for a GCR to remain in a subcritical state, and by the use of a shockwave mechanism, increase the pressure and temperature inside the core to achieve criticality. This type of GCR is referred to as a shockwave-driven pulsed gas core reactor. These two basic designs were evaluated as advance concepts for space power and propulsion.

  19. Multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion with gaseous and vapor core reactors with MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim; Smith, Blair; Houts, Michael

    2001-02-01

    This study investigated the development of a system concept for space power generation and nuclear electric propulsion based on a fissioning plasma core reactor (FPCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion system, coupled to a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster. The FPCR is a liquid-vapor core reactor concept operating with metallic uranium or uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor as the fissioning fuel and alkali metals or their fluorides as working fluid in a closed Rankine cycle with MHD energy conversion. Candidate working fluids include K, Li, Na, KF, LiF, NaF, etc. The system features core outlet temperatures of 3000 to 4000 K at pressures of about 1 to 10 MPa, MHD temperatures of 2000 to 3000 K, and radiator temperatures of 1200 to 2000 K. This combination of parameters offers the potential for low total system specific mass in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 kg/kWe. The MHD output could be coupled with minimal power conditioning to the variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), MPD thrusters or other types of thruster for producing thrust at very high specific impulse (Isp=1500 to 10,000 s). .

  20. Aircraft-crash-protected steel reactor building roof structure for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, A.S. [General Electric Nuclear Engineering, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper recommends the use of all steel roof structures for the reactor building of European Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants. This change would make the advanced US BWR designs more compatible with European requirements. Replacement of the existing concrete roof slab with a sufficiently thick steel plate would eliminate the concrete spelling resulting from a postulated aircraft crash, potentially damaging the drywell head or the spent fuel pool.

  1. Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic...

  2. Hybrid upper surface blown flap propulsive-lift concept for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Carros, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hybrid upper surface blowing concept consists of wing-mounted turbofan engines with a major portion of the fan exhaust directed over the wing upper surface to provide high levels of propulsive lift, but with a portion of the fan airflow directed over selected portions of the airframe to provide boundary layer control. NASA-sponsored preliminary design studies identified the hybrid upper surface blowing concept as the best propulsive lift concept to be applied to the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) that is planned as a flight facility to conduct flight research at low noise levels, high approach lift coefficients, and steep approaches. Data from NASA in-house and NASA-sponsored small and large-scale wind tunnel tests of various configurations using this concept are presented.

  3. H-infinity based integrated flight/propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bright, Michelle; Ouzts, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents results from an application of H(infinity) control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic STOVL fighter aircraft in transition flight. The overall design methodology consists of a centralized IFPC design with controller partitioning. Design and evaluation vehicle models are summarized, and insight is provided into formulating the H(infinity) control problem such that it reflects the IFPC design objective. The H(infinity) controller is shown to provide decoupled command tracking for the design model. The controller order could be significantly reduced by modal residualization of the fast controller modes without any deterioration in performance.

  4. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, Program Summary and References

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, G.; Rothstein, A.J.

    1962-06-28

    This is one of twenty-one volumes sumarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume discusses the background to the General Electric program, and summarizes the various direct-air-cycle nuclear test assemblies and power plants that were developed. Because of the requirements of high performance, low weight, and small size, vast improvements in existing technology were required to meet the flight objectives. The technological progress achieved during the program is also summarized. The last appendix contains a compilation of the abstracts, tables of contents, and reference lists of the other twenty volumes.

  5. Evaluation of V/STOL research aircraft design. [landing approaches, propulsion/control, piloted moving base simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, W. H.; Holzhauser, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The evaluation and evolution of direct jet lift V/STOL transport aircraft designs are discussed. The V/STOL transport design selected as an example is a lift-fan design that was evaluated as a candidate configuration for a possible future V/STOL research transport. The paper includes discussion of potential advanced V/STOL landing approach profiles as key design requirements for V/STOL aircraft, description and experimental results of an integrated propulsion/control system designed to achieve desired advanced V/STOL near-terminal operating capabilities, and results from evaluating V/STOL designs on piloted moving-base simulators. This paper discusses use of the piloted moving-base simulator as a design tool for evolving satisfactory V/STOL stabilization and propulsion/control systems. Included are problems and solutions identified during simulation of simultaneous decelerating/descent steep curved landing approaches under instrument flight conditions. Simulation results are also compared to flight results obtained with the DO-31 V/STOL research transport.

  6. Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Applied to a Thin Haul Commuter Aircraft for Optimal Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Gregor Veble; Stoll, Alex; Bevirt, JoeBen; Grah, Rok; Moore, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical aspects of aerodynamic efficiency of propulsion systems are studied. Focus is on types of propulsion that closely couples to the aerodynamics of the complete vehicle. We discuss the effects of local flow fields, which are affected both by conservative flow acceleration as well as total pressure losses, on the efficiency of boundary layer immersed propulsion devices. We introduce the concept of a boundary layer retardation turbine that helps reduce skin friction over the fuselage. We numerically investigate efficiency gains offered by boundary layer and wake interacting devices. We discuss the results in terms of a total energy consumption framework and show that efficiency gains offered depend on all the elements of the propulsion system.

  7. Integrated Reconfigurable Aero and Propulsion Control for Improved Flight Safety of Commercial Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this project is to develop and test a novel innovative Integrated Reconfigurable Aero & Propulsion Control (IRAP) system that achieves...

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell APU Feasibility Study for a Long Range Commercial Aircraft Using UTC ITAPS Approach. Volume 1; Aircraft Propulsion and Subsystems Integration Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Hari; Yamanis, Jean; Welch, Rick; Tulyani, Sonia; Hardin, Larry

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this contract effort was to define the functionality and evaluate the propulsion and power system benefits derived from a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) based Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for a future long range commercial aircraft, and to define the technology gaps to enable such a system. The study employed technologies commensurate with Entry into Service (EIS) in 2015. United Technologies Corporation (UTC) Integrated Total Aircraft Power System (ITAPS) methodologies were used to evaluate system concepts to a conceptual level of fidelity. The technology benefits were captured as reductions of the mission fuel burn and emissions. The baseline aircraft considered was the Boeing 777-200ER airframe with more electric subsystems, Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) engines, and an advanced APU with ceramics for increased efficiency. In addition to the baseline architecture, four architectures using an SOFC system to replace the conventional APU were investigated. The mission fuel burn savings for Architecture-A, which has minimal system integration, is 0.16 percent. Architecture-B and Architecture-C employ greater system integration and obtain fuel burn benefits of 0.44 and 0.70 percent, respectively. Architecture-D represents the highest level of integration and obtains a benefit of 0.77 percent.

  9. Inlet Channel for a Ducted Fan Propulsion System of a Light Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ritschl

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available So-called "cold-jet" propulsion units consist of a piston engine, a blower and the necessary air duct. Till now, all attempts to utilize "cold-jet" propulsion units to maintain the thrust of an airplane have been unsuccessful. Analysis has shown that the main difficulty is the deformation of the flow field at the entry to the blower [1].

  10. Integration of an Advanced Cryogenic Electric Propulsion System (ACEPS) to Aerodynamically Efficient Subsonic Transport Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal defines innovative aerodynamic concepts and technology goals aimed at vehicle efficiency for future subsonic aircraft in the 2020 ? 2030 timeframe....

  11. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems for Large Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recent development of magnesium diboride superconducting wires makes possible the potential to have much lighter weight superconducting coils for heavy aircraft...

  12. Propulsion Control and Health Management (PCHM) Technology for Flight Test on the C-17 T-1 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Venti, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The C-I 7 T-l Globemaster III is an Air Force flight research vehicle located at Edwards Air Force Base. NASA Dryden and the C-17 System Program Office have entered into a Memorandum of Agreement to permit NASA the use of the C-I 7 T-I to conduct flight research on a mutually coordinated schedule. The C-17 Propulsion Control and Health Management (PCHM) Working Group was formed in order to foster discussion and coordinate planning amongst the various government agencies conducting PCHM research with a potential need for flight testing, and to communicate to the PCHM community the capabilities of the C-17 T-l aircraft to support such flight testing. This paper documents the output of this Working Group, including a summary of the candidate PCHM technologies identified and their associated benefits relative to NASA goals and objectives.

  13. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  14. Nuclear safety considerations in the conceptual design of a fast reactor for space electric power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, T.-M.; Koenig, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Some nuclear safety aspects of a 3.2 mWt heat pipe cooled fast reactor with out-of-core thermionic converters are discussed. Safety related characteristics of the design including a thin layer of B4C surrounding the core, the use of heat pipes and BeO reflector assembly, the elimination of fuel element bowing, etc., are highlighted. Potential supercriticality hazards and countermeasures are considered. Impacts of some safety guidelines of space transportation system are also briefly discussed, since the currently developing space shuttle would be used as the primary launch vehicle for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft.

  15. System Noise Assessment of Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft With Open Rotor Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    An aircraft system noise study is presented for the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft concept with three open rotor engines mounted on the upper surface of the airframe. It is shown that for such an aircraft, the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is about 24 dB below the current aircraft noise regulations of Stage 4. While this makes the design acoustically viable in meeting the regulatory requirements, even with the consideration of more stringent noise regulations of a possible Stage 5 in the next decade or so, the design will likely meet stiff competitions from aircraft with turbofan engines. It is shown that the noise levels of the BWB design are held up by the inherently high noise levels of the open rotor engines and the limitation on the shielding benefit due to the practical design constraint on the engine location. Furthermore, it is shown that the BWB design has high levels of noise from the main landing gear, due to their exposure to high speed flow at the junction between the center body and outer wing. These are also the reasons why this baseline BWB design does not meet the NASA N+2 noise goal of 42 dB below Stage 4. To identify approaches that may further reduce noise, parametric studies are also presented, including variations in engine location, vertical tail and elevon variations, and airframe surface acoustic liner treatment effect. These have the potential to further reduce noise but they are only at the conceptual stage.

  16. Development of Reactor Core for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion%核热推进堆芯方案的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解家春; 赵守智

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion heats propellant with fission energy. It's specific impulse is double of chemical rockets. It could play an important role in space mission. During the research process about nuclear thermal propulsion in USA and Russia, many reactors were well developed. The details of the reactors core were described, the characteristics of design were indicated, and the trend of development was summarized.%核热推进利用核裂变能加热工质,比冲可达化学火箭的2倍多,在空间活动中有广阔的应用前景.在美国和俄罗斯的研究过程中,对多个核热推进堆芯方案进行了较深入的研究.本工作介绍了这些堆芯方案的情况,详细说明了其设计特点,并总结了堆芯方案的发展趋势.

  17. Experiment Design for Complex VTOL Aircraft with Distributed Propulsion and Tilt Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Landman, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Selected experimental results from a wind tunnel study of a subscale VTOL concept with distributed propulsion and tilt lifting surfaces are presented. The vehicle complexity and automated test facility were ideal for use with a randomized designed experiment. Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methods were invoked to produce run efficient, statistically rigorous regression models with minimized prediction error. Static tests were conducted at the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to model all six aerodynamic coefficients over a large flight envelope. This work supports investigations at NASA Langley in developing advanced configurations, simulations, and advanced control systems.

  18. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach.

  19. Advanced technology payoffs for future rotorcraft, commuter aircraft, cruise missile, and APU propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, M. A.; Zeiner, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the significant advances made regarding the performance of larger gas turbines, challenges arise concerning the improvement of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1000 horsepower range. In response to these challenges, the NASA/Army-sponsored Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study was undertaken with the objective to identify the engine cycle, configuration, and component technology requirements for the substantial performance improvements desired in year-2000 small gas turbine engines. In the context of this objective, an American turbine engine company evaluated engines for four year-2000 applications, including a rotorcraft, a commuter aircraft, a supersonic cruise missile, and an auxiliary power unit (APU). Attention is given to reference missions, reference engines, reference aircraft, year-2000 technology projections, cycle studies, advanced engine selections, and a technology evaluation.

  20. Safety assessment of A92 reactor building for large commercial aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, M., E-mail: marin.kostov@riskeng.bg [Risk Engineering Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Henkel, F.O. [Woelfel Beratende Ingenieure, Hoechberg (Germany); Andonov, A. [Risk Engineering Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2014-04-01

    The current paper presents key elements of the comprehensive analyses of the effects due to a large aircraft collision with the reactor building of Belene NPP in Bulgaria. The reactor building is a VVER A92; it belongs to the third+ generation and includes structural measures for protection against an aircraft impact as standard design. The A92 reactor building implements a double shell concept and is composed of thick RC external walls and an external shell which surrounds an internal pre-stressed containment and the internal walls of the auxiliary building. The malevolent large aircraft impact is considered as a beyond design base accident (Design Extended Conditions, DEC). The main issues under consideration are the structural integrity, the equipment safety due to the induced vibrations, and the fire safety of the entire installation. Many impact scenarios are analyzed varying both impact locations and loading intensity. A large number of non-linear dynamic analyses are used for assessment of the structural response and capacity, including different type of structural models, different finite element codes, and different material laws. The corresponding impact loadings are represented by load time functions calculated according to three different approaches, i.e. loading determined by Riera's method (Riera, 1968), load time function calculated by finite element analysis (Henkel and Klein, 2007), and coupled dynamic analysis with dynamic interaction between target and projectile. Based on the numerical results and engineering assessments the capacity of the A92 reactor building to resist a malevolent impact of a large aircraft is evaluated. Significant efforts are spent on safety assessment of equipment by using an evaluation procedure based on damage indicating parameters. As a result of these analyses several design modifications of structure elements are performed. There are changes of the layout of reinforcement, special arrangements and spatial

  1. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor - powered space electric jet propulsion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semyonov, Y.P.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Synyavsky, V.V.; Yuditsky, V.D. [Rocket-Space Corp. `Energia`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes main study results for application of powerful space electric jet propulsion unit (EJPUs) which is powered by Nuclear Thermionic Power Unit (NTPU). They are combined in Nuclear Power/Propulsion Unit (NPPU) which serves as means of spacecraft equipment power supply and spacecraft movement. Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during 10-15 years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. Evaluations on power/time/mass relationship for this type of mission are given. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle. (author)

  2. Development of a Robust Tri-Carbide Fueled Reactor for Multimegawatt Space Power and Propulsion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim Anghaie; Travis W. Knight; Johann Plancher; Reza Gouw

    2004-08-11

    An innovative reactor core design based on advanced, mixed carbide fuels was analyzed for nuclear space power applications. Solid solution, mixed carbide fuels such as (U,Zr,Nb)c and (U,Zr, Ta)C offer great promise as an advanced high temperature fuel for space power reactors.

  3. H-infinity based integrated flight-propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bright, Michelle M.; Ouzts, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from an application of H-infinity control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft in transition flight. The overall design methodology consists of a centralized IFPC controller design with controller partitioning. Only the feedback controller design portion of the methodology is addressed. Design and evaluation vehicle models are summarized, and insight is provided into formulating the H-infinity control problem such that it reflects the IFPC design objectives. The H-infinity controller is shown to provide decoupled command tracking for the design model. The controller order could be significantly reduced by modal residualization of the fast controller modes without any deterioration in performance. A discussion is presented of the areas in which the controller performance needs to be improved, and ways in which these improvements can be achieved within the framework of an H-infinity based linear control design.

  4. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a greater than 5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all ma or systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including divertor and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, power utilization, and component design.

  5. A spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor space propulsion vehicle concept for fast interplanetary travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a>5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including diverter and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, and component design.

  6. Information report presented in application of article 145 of the regulation by the commission of national defense and armed forces about the propulsion system of the second aircraft carrier; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission de la defense nationale et des forces armees sur le mode de propulsion du second porte-avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    In the framework of the project of launching of a sister-ship to the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, this report makes an objective analysis of the different possible propulsion systems that can be considered for this battle ship according to different criteria: 1 - two possible energy sources and four possible configurations of aircraft carrier considered: alternative between nuclear propulsion and conventional propulsion, the two nuclear ships eventualities, the hypothesis of an entirely French-made classical propulsion ship, the opportunity of a French-British cooperation for a conventional aircraft carrier project; 2 - decision criteria: operational need, cost, industrial and technological stakes, constraints linked with daily ship and crew life; 3 - propulsion systems alternative: conventional propulsion and reinforcement of the European defense policy, nuclear propulsion for an operational superiority and for a complementarity with the Charles de Gaulle. (J.S.)

  7. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  8. Preliminary Thermohydraulic Analysis of a New Moderated Reactor Utilizing an LEU-Fuel for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing an LEU fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is a non-proliferative and comparably efficient NTR engine with relatively low thrust levels of 40 - 50 kN for in-space transportation. The small modular engine can expand mission versatility, when flexibly used in a clustered engine arrangement, so that it can perform various scale missions from low-thrust robotic science missions to high-thrust manned missions. In addition, the clustered engine system can enhance engine redundancy and ensuing crew safety as well as the thrust. The propulsion system is an energy conversion system to transform the thermal energy of the reactor into the kinetic energy of the propellant to produce the powers for thrust, propellant feeding and electricity. It is mainly made up of a propellant Feeding System (PFS) comprising a Turbo-Pump Assembly (TPA), a Regenerative Nozzle Assembly (RNA), etc. For this core design study, an expander cycle is assumed to be the propulsion system. The EGS converts the thermal energy of the EHTGR in the idle operation (only 350 kW{sub th} power) to electric power during the electric power mode. This paper presents a preliminary thermohydraulic design analysis to explore the design space for the new reactor and to estimate the referential engine performance. The new non-proliferative NTR engine concept, KANUTER-LEU, is under designing to surmount the nuclear proliferation obstacles on allR and Dactivities and eventual commercialization for future generations. To efficiently implement a heavy LEU fuel for the NTR engine, its reactor design innovatively possesses the key characteristics of the high U density fuel with high heating and H{sub 2} corrosion resistances, the thermal neutron spectrum core and also minimizing non-fission neutron loss, and the compact reactor design with protectively cooling capability. To investigate feasible design space for the moderated EHTGR-LEU and resultant engine performance, the

  9. Sensitivity of Mission Energy Consumption to Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Design Assumptions on the N3-X Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Tong, Michael T.; Chu, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study by the authors it was shown that the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system, was able to meet the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project goal for N+3 generation aircraft of at least a 60% reduction in total energy consumption as compared to the best in class current generation aircraft. This previous study combined technology assumptions that represented the highest anticipated values that could be matured to technology readiness level (TRL) 4-6 by 2030. This paper presents the results of a sensitivity analysis of the total mission energy consumption to reductions in each key technology assumption. Of the parameters examined, the mission total energy consumption was most sensitive to changes to total pressure loss in the propulsor inlet. The baseline inlet internal pressure loss is assumed to be an optimistic 0.5%. An inlet pressure loss of 3% increases the total energy consumption 9%. However changes to reduce inlet pressure loss can result in additional distortion to the fan which can reduce fan efficiency or vice versa. It is very important that the inlet and fan be analyzed and optimized as a single unit. The turboshaft hot section is assumed to be made of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) with a 3000 F maximum material temperature. Reducing the maximum material temperature to 2700 F increases the mission energy consumption by only 1.5%. Thus achieving a 3000 F temperature in CMCs is important but not central to achieving the energy consumption objective of the N3-X/TeDP. A key parameter in the efficiency of superconducting motors and generators is the size of the superconducting filaments in the stator. The size of the superconducting filaments in the baseline model is assumed to be 10 microns. A 40 micron filament, which represents current technology, results in a 200% increase in AC losses in the motor and generator stators. This analysis shows that for a system with 40

  10. Overview of Electric Propulsion System Technology for Aircraft%飞机的电动力系统技术概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长辉; 卢黎波; 陈立玮; 高奇; 孙璐

    2011-01-01

    Electric powered system is a new type of aircraft electric propulsion system, which has advantage of environment friendly and high efficiency. It may promote revolutionary development of aircraft. Key component/subsystem technology, i.e. solar cell, Li-ion battery, fuel cell, and electric motor are introduced. Design technology of electric propulsion system is analyzed. The contents are layout of five type of electric propulsion system, layout of fuel cell subsystem, key technology of subsystem. Finally, the problems of integrated optimization and disadvantage of the electric propulsion system are pointed out.%电动力系统是一种使用电能的新型飞机推进系统,具有环境友好、高效节能等优点,有望推动飞机实现革命性发展。本文介绍太阳电池、锂离子电池、燃料电池、电机等关键部件/子系统技术的现状、关键技术,并给出统计数据;重点分析了电动力系统的设计技术,包括蓄电池(锂电池)、太阳电池和燃料电池三种纯电动力系统以及基于活塞动力和基于电动力两种混合动力系统等五种电动力系统的布局、燃料电池子系统布局、子系统关键技术等。最后,指出电动力系统发展中需要解决的集成优化等技术课题以及性能不足的问题。

  11. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  12. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  13. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  14. Marshall Space Flight Center and the Reactor-in-Flight Stage: A Look Back at Using Nuclear Propulsion to Power Space Vehicles in the 1960's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mike

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the Marshall Space Flight Center s role in the Reactor-In-Flight (RIlT) project that NASA was involved with in the early 1960 s. The paper outlines the project s relation to the joint NASA-Atomic Energy Commission nuclear initiative known as Project Rover. It describes the justification for the RIFT project, its scope, and the difficulties that were encountered during the project. It also provides as assessment of NASA s overall capabilities related to nuclear propulsion in the early 1960 s.

  15. Key Technologies and Their Development in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Reactors%核热推进反应堆关键技术及其发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立新; 胡攀; 王立鹏; 江新标

    2014-01-01

    分析了核热推进NTP(nuclear thermal propulsion)反应堆关键技术及现状,介绍了核热推进反应堆技术在空间推进领域的应用,总结对比了美国、俄罗斯现有核热推进反应堆设计方案的主要参数和特性,并对未来航天器用核热推进反应堆的发展方向和应用前景进行了探讨。%In this paper , the key technologies and their development in nuclear thermal pro-pulsion( NTP) reactors are analyzed , and the application background of NTP reactors in space is also introduced . Meanw hile , the main parameters and characteristics of some N T P reactors designed in USA and Russia are compared . Finally , the development and application foreground of NTP reactors in the future are discussed .

  16. Flight assessment of the onboard propulsion system model for the Performance Seeking Control algorithm on an F-15 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John S.; Schkolnik, Gerard S.

    1995-01-01

    Performance Seeking Control (PSC), an onboard, adaptive, real-time optimization algorithm, relies upon an onboard propulsion system model. Flight results illustrated propulsion system performance improvements as calculated by the model. These improvements were subject to uncertainty arising from modeling error. Thus to quantify uncertainty in the PSC performance improvements, modeling accuracy must be assessed. A flight test approach to verify PSC-predicted increases in thrust (FNP) and absolute levels of fan stall margin is developed and applied to flight test data. Application of the excess thrust technique shows that increases of FNP agree to within 3 percent of full-scale measurements for most conditions. Accuracy to these levels is significant because uncertainty bands may now be applied to the performance improvements provided by PSC. Assessment of PSC fan stall margin modeling accuracy was completed with analysis of in-flight stall tests. Results indicate that the model overestimates the stall margin by between 5 to 10 percent. Because PSC achieves performance gains by using available stall margin, this overestimation may represent performance improvements to be recovered with increased modeling accuracy. Assessment of thrust and stall margin modeling accuracy provides a critical piece for a comprehensive understanding of PSC's capabilities and limitations.

  17. 40 CFR 87.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.62 Test procedure (propulsion... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure (propulsion...

  18. An Introduction to Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Cycles Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to the analysis of gas turbine engine cycles using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code. It is assumed that the analyst has a firm understanding of fluid flow, gas dynamics, thermodynamics, and turbomachinery theory. The purpose of this paper is to provide for the novice the information necessary to begin cycle analysis using NPSS. This paper and the annotated example serve as a starting point and by no means cover the entire range of information and experience necessary for engine performance simulation. NPSS syntax is presented but for a more detailed explanation of the code the user is referred to the NPSS User Guide and Reference document (ref. 1).

  19. Conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in thermal protection reactors of hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranov, A. L.; Mikhaylov, A. M.; Korabelnikov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal protection of heat-stressed surfaces of a high-speed vehicle flying in dense layers of atmosphere is one of the topical issues. Not of a less importance is also the problem of hydrocarbon fuel combustion in a supersonic air flow. In the concept under development, it is supposed that in the most high-stressed parts of airframe and engine, catalytic thermochemical reactors will be installed, wherein highly endothermic processes of steam conversion of hydrocarbon fuel take place. Simultaneously with heat absorption, hydrogen generation will occur in the reactors. This paper presents the results of a study of conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in a slit reactor.

  20. A Computational Fluid Dynamic and Heat Transfer Model for Gaseous Core and Gas Cooled Space Power and Propulsion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghaie, S.; Chen, G.

    1996-01-01

    A computational model based on the axisymmetric, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is developed to predict the convective, radiation and conductive heat transfer in high temperature space nuclear reactors. An implicit-explicit, finite volume, MacCormack method in conjunction with the Gauss-Seidel line iteration procedure is utilized to solve the thermal and fluid governing equations. Simulation of coolant and propellant flows in these reactors involves the subsonic and supersonic flows of hydrogen, helium and uranium tetrafluoride under variable boundary conditions. An enthalpy-rebalancing scheme is developed and implemented to enhance and accelerate the rate of convergence when a wall heat flux boundary condition is used. The model also incorporated the Baldwin and Lomax two-layer algebraic turbulence scheme for the calculation of the turbulent kinetic energy and eddy diffusivity of energy. The Rosseland diffusion approximation is used to simulate the radiative energy transfer in the optically thick environment of gas core reactors. The computational model is benchmarked with experimental data on flow separation angle and drag force acting on a suspended sphere in a cylindrical tube. The heat transfer is validated by comparing the computed results with the standard heat transfer correlations predictions. The model is used to simulate flow and heat transfer under a variety of design conditions. The effect of internal heat generation on the heat transfer in the gas core reactors is examined for a variety of power densities, 100 W/cc, 500 W/cc and 1000 W/cc. The maximum temperature, corresponding with the heat generation rates, are 2150 K, 2750 K and 3550 K, respectively. This analysis shows that the maximum temperature is strongly dependent on the value of heat generation rate. It also indicates that a heat generation rate higher than 1000 W/cc is necessary to maintain the gas temperature at about 3500 K, which is typical design temperature required to achieve high

  1. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  2. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  3. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  4. A new marine propulsion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei-shi; LIU Tao

    2003-01-01

    A new marine propulsion system is proposed . A small liquid sodium cooled reactor acts as prime mover; alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cells are employed to convert the heat energy to electricity; superconducting magneto-hydrodynamic thruster combined with spray-water thruster works as propulsion. The configuration and characteristics of this system are described. Such a nuclear-powered propulsion system is not only free of noise, but also has high reliability and efficiency. It would be a preferable propulsion system for ships in the future.

  5. Hybrid-Electric Aircraft TOGW Development Tool with Empirically-Based Airframe and Physics-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Component Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development. This Phase I SBIR proposal creates a...

  6. Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper add...

  7. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  8. MSFC Nuclear Propulsion Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. R.; Cook, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion systems for spacecraft applications present numerous technical challenges for propulsion systems. They have been the focus of a recent NRA. Challenges inclue: a nuclear reactor subsystem to produce thermal energy; a power conversion subsystem to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy; a propulsion subsystem that utilizes Hall effect thrusters; thruster technologies and high temperature materials to support subsystems. The MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Facility provides an ideal platform for the study of high temperature and reactive materials. An overview of the facility and its capabilities will be presented.

  9. LASL nuclear rocket propulsion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.E.

    1956-04-01

    The immediate objective of the LASL nuclear propulsion (Rover) program is the development of a heat exchanger reactor system utilizing uranium-graphite fuel elements and ammonia propellant. This program is regarded as the first step in the development of nuclear propulsion systems for missiles. The major tasks of the program include the investigation of materials at high temperatures, development of fuel elements, investigation of basic reactor characteristics, investigation of engine control problems, detailed engine design and ground testing. The organization and scheduling of the initial development program have been worked out in some detail. Only rather general ideas exist concerning the projection of this work beyond 1958.

  10. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) program are presented. The objective of the research is to develop advanced nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology based on the particle bed reactor concept. A strong philosophical commitment exists in the industry/national laboratory team to emphasize testing in development activities. Nuclear testing currently underway to support development of SNTP technology is addressed.

  11. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  12. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph shows a fully assembled solar thermal engine placed inside the vacuum chamber at the test facility prior to testing. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move theNation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  13. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  14. Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, R.

    2004-11-01

    Next Generation Electric Propulsion (NGEP) technology development tasks are working towards advancing solar-powered electric propulsion systems and components to levels ready for transition to flight systems. Current tasks within NGEP include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), Carbon Based Ion Optics (CBIO), NSTAR Extended Life Test (ELT) and low-power Hall Effect thrusters. The growing number of solar electric propulsion options provides reduced cost and flexibility to capture a wide range of Solar System exploration missions. Benefits of electric propulsion systems over state-of-the-art chemical systems include increased launch windows, which reduce mission risk; increased deliverable payload mass for more science; and a reduction in launch vehicle size-- all of which increase the opportunities for New Frontiers and Discovery class missions. The Dawn Discovery mission makes use of electric propulsion for sequential rendezvous with two large asteroids (Vesta then Ceres), something not possible using chemical propulsion. NEXT components and thruster system under development have NSTAR heritage with significant increases in maximum power and Isp along with deep throttling capability to accommodate changes in input power over the mission trajectory. NEXT will produce engineering model system components that will be validated (through qualification-level and integrated system testing) and ready for transition to flight system development. NEXT offers Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration and outer-planet missions a larger deliverable payload mass and a smaller launch vehicle size. CBIO addresses the need to further extend ion thruster lifetime by using low erosion carbon-based materials. Testing of 30-cm Carbon-Carbon and Pyrolytic graphite grids using a lab model NSTAR thruster are complete. In addition, JPL completed a 1000 hr. life test on 30-cm Carbon-Carbon grids. The NSTAR ELT was a life time qualification test started in 1999 with a goal of 88 kg

  15. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  16. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of commercial aircraft impact on a reactor building—Comparison between integral and decoupled crash simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefert, A., E-mail: siefert@woelfel.de; Henkel, F.O.

    2014-04-01

    Since 9/11, the crash of a commercial aeroplane on the reactor building of a nuclear power plant is a realistic design scenario. Before that the structural behaviour under a crash of a military plane was investigated by a procedure using load-time functions (Riera, 1968). Thereby, the computation of the load-time-function was based on a conceptional model considering the main stiffness parts and masses by discrete elements. With respect to the homogeneous structural set-up of a military plane, the application of this model and the derived load-time-function applied as lumped load case seems very feasible. Contrary thereto the structural set-up of a commercial aeroplane, with e.g. the high mass concentration of the turbine or the high stiffness of the wing box compared to other parts, is different. This can be counteracted by using a more detailed finite element (FE) model for the computation of the load-time-function and by dividing the load case for the reactor building in different main load zones. Although this represents a more detailed investigation, the procedure of using a load-time-function still has the disadvantage to separate the real scenario into two steps. Thereby, the direct interaction between the structure and the aeroplane including all softening effects due to material respectively structural compliances is neglected. This leads to the general conclusion that by applying load-time-functions the results are conservative compared to the real behaviour. Due to the increased capabilities of numerical software solutions it is also possible nowadays to carry out integral crash simulations, combining all effects within one simulation. Compared to the procedure of using load-time-functions, the numerical complexity and therefore the amount of work for this integral method are increased. Within this paper both procedures (load-time function by detailed FE-model and the integral method) are exemplarily compared to each other by a crash analysis of an

  18. Challenges and Opportunities in Propulsion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    factor in range & time-to-target 40-60% of aircraft TOGW 20-40% of system life cycle cost Propulsion & Power are Important ! 50-70% of satellite...Distribution A – Approved for public release; Distribution Unlimited Types of Codes ! Commercial – Fluent, STAR-CCM ! Small Business – CRAFT, CFD...Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited ‹#› Electric Propulsion Plasma propulsion increases Isp by 10x, reducing s/c

  19. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Stator Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many are pursuing the development of electric propulsion systems for large aircraft due to the potential of being cleaner, quieter, lighter, and more versatile than...

  20. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  1. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  2. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  3. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  4. Mirror fusion propulsion system: A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Carpenter, Scott A.; Deveny, Marc E.; Oconnell, T.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  5. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'Connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  6. Simplest AB-Thermonuclear Space Propulsion and Electric Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A

    2007-01-01

    The author applies, develops and researches mini-sized Micro- AB Thermonuclear Reactors for space propulsion and space power systems. These small engines directly convert the high speed charged particles produced in the thermonuclear reactor into vehicle thrust or vehicle electricity with maximum efficiency. The simplest AB-thermonuclear propulsion offered allows spaceships to reach speeds of 20,000 50,000 km/s (1/6 of light speed) for fuel ratio 0.1 and produces a huge amount of useful electric energy. Offered propulsion system permits flight to any planet of our Solar system in short time and to the nearest non-Sun stars by E-being or intellectual robots during a single human life period. Key words: AB-propulsion, thermonuclear propulsion, space propulsion, thermonuclear power system.

  7. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  8. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  9. Solar Thermal Propulsion for Microsatellite Manoeuvring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    materials behaviour, orbital mechanics, and spacecraft attitude control. Nuclear propulsion necessitates an understanding of nuclear reactor design and...1997] and Kunii/ Levenspiel [Rhodes, 2001]. Most of these correlations provide regimes of applicability, in terms of the flow Reynolds’ number. This...1986] indicates the following reaction is responsible for erosion of graphite in certain “high”-temperature (950-1,200 K) nuclear reactor systems

  10. Laser Ablation Propulsion A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Sayed A.; Ugalatad, Akshata C.

    Laser Ablation Propulsion (LAP) will serve as an alternative propulsion system for development of microthrusters. The principle of LAP is that when a laser (pulsed or continuous wave) with sufficient energy (more than the vaporization threshold energy of material) is incident on material, ablation or vaporization takes place which leads to the generation of plasma. The generated plasma has the property to move away from the material hence pressure is generated which leads to the generation of thrust. Nowadays nano satellites are very common in different space and defence applications. It is important to build micro thruster which are useful for orienting and re-positioning small aircraft (like nano satellites) above the atmosphere. modelling of LAP using MATLAB and Mathematica. Schematic is made for the suitable optical configuration of LAP. Practical experiments with shadowgraphy and self emission techniques and the results obtained are analysed taking poly (vinyl-chloride) (PVC) as propellant to study the

  11. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This photograph shows an overall view of the Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The 20-by 24-ft heliostat mirror, shown at the left, has dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on an 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror (right). The concentrator mirror then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber, shown at the front of concentrator mirror. Researchers at MSFC have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than chemical a combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propell nt. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  12. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzberg, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    The conceptual design is for a liquid metal (LM) cooled nuclear reactor that would provide heat to a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion subsystem to provide electricity for electric propulsion thrusters and spacecraft power. The baseline power level is 100 kWe to the user. For long term power generation, UN pin fuel with Nb1Zr alloy cladding was selected. As part of the SP-100 Program this fuel demonstrated lifetime with greater than six atom percent burnup, at temperatures in the range of 1400-1500 K. The CBC subsystem was selected because of the performance and lifetime database from commercial and aircraft applications and from prior NASA and DOE space programs. The high efficiency of the CBC also allows the reactor to operate at relatively low power levels over its 15-year life, minimizing the long-term power density and temperature of the fuel. The scope of this paper is limited to only the nuclear components that provide heated helium-xenon gas to the CBC subsystem. The principal challenge for the LM reactor concept was to design the reactor core, shield and primary heat transport subsystems to meet mission requirements in a low mass configuration. The LM concept design approach was to assemble components from prior programs and, with minimum change, determine if the system met the objective of the study. All of the components are based on technologies having substantial data bases. Nuclear, thermalhydraulic, stress, and shielding analyses were performed using available computer codes. Neutronics issues included maintaining adequate operating and shutdown reactivities, even under accident conditions. Thermalhydraulic and stress analyses calculated fuel and material temperatures, coolant flows and temperatures, and thermal stresses in the fuel pins, components and structures. Using conservative design assumptions and practices, consistent with the detailed design work performed during the SP-100 Program, the mass of the reactor, shield, primary heat

  13. Chemistry and propulsion; Chimie et propulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, P. [Maison de la Chimie, 75 - Paris (France); Davenas, A. [societe Nationale des Poudres et des Explosifs - SNPE (France); Berman, M. [Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA (United States)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    During the colloquium on chemistry and propulsion, held in march 2002, ten papers have been presented. The proceedings are brought in this document: ramjet, scram-jet and Pulse Detonation Engine; researches and applications on energetic materials and propulsion; advances in poly-nitrogen chemistry; evolution of space propulsion; environmental and technological stakes of aeronautic propulsion; ramjet engines and pulse detonation engines, automobiles thermal engines for 2015, high temperature fuel cells for the propulsion domain, the hydrogen and the fuel cells in the future transports. (A.L.B.)

  14. Antiproton Annihilation Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    propulsion system, a nuclear thermal hydrogen propulsion system, and an antiproton annihilation propulsion system. Since hauling chemical fuel into low...greater. Section 8.4 and Appendix B contain a comparative cost study of a storable chemical fuel propulsion system, a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen

  15. Electric propulsion, circa 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the future of electric propulsion, circa 2000. Starting with the first generation Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology as the first step toward the next century's advanced propulsion systems, the current status and future trends of other systems such as the magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, the mass driver, the laser propulsion system, and the rail gun are described.

  16. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  17. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors, which power nuclear propulsion and power systems, and the nuclear radiation and residual radioactivity associated with these systems, impose...

  18. Approach to Modeling Boundary Layer Ingestion using a Fully Coupled Propulsion-RANS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Justin; Martins, Joaquim R. R.

    2017-01-01

    Although boundary layer ingestion (BLI), or wake ingestion, is commonly applied in marine propulsion applications, it has not yet seen wide-spread adoption in aircraft applications. However, recent studies have predicted that BLI offers a potential for a 10 reduction in aircraft fuel burn, even on a fairly traditional aircraft configuration. This dramatic reduction in fuel burn is achieved via tight integration of the propulsion system and airframe aerodynamics, but actually realizing such large performance gains will require modifying the aircraft design process to account for this integration. Traditionally, in aircraft design, the airframe and the propulsion system are designed separately and then the engine sizing is managed with a rubber-engine approach. This works when the propulsion system is placed in the free-stream air, away from the aerodynamic influence of the airframe, and it is reasonable to assume that small changes to either system won't have a strong impact on the other.

  19. NASA Fixed Wing Project Propulsion Research and Technology Development Activities to Reduce Thrust Specific Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; DelRasario, Ruben; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the propulsion research and technology portfolio of NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Fixed Wing Project. The research is aimed at significantly reducing the thrust specific fuel/energy consumption of notional advanced fixed wing aircraft (by 60 % relative to a baseline Boeing 737-800 aircraft with CFM56-7B engines) in the 2030-2035 time frame. The research investments described herein are aimed at improving propulsive efficiency through higher bypass ratio fans, improving thermal efficiency through compact high overall pressure ratio gas generators, and exploring the potential benefits of boundary layer ingestion propulsion and hybrid gas-electric propulsion concepts.

  20. SNTP program reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.

    1993-06-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  1. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  2. NASA N3-X with Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation summarizing the phase I study of the NASA N3-X turboelectric distributed propulsion power aircraft to the IMechE Disruptive Green Propulsion Technologies conference in London, UK November 16th and 17th, 2014. This presentation contains the results of a NASA internal study funded by the NASA Fixed Wing program to look at the application of turboelectric distributed propulsion to a long-range 300 seat aircraft. The reference aircraft is the Boeing 777-200LR. The N3-X reduced energy consumption by 70 compared to the 777-200LR, LTO NOx by 85 compared to the CAEP 6 limits, and noise by 32-64 EPNdB depending on engine placement compared to the stage 4 noise standards. This exceeded the N+3 metrics of reducing energy by 60, LTO NOx by 80, and noise by 52 EPNdB. Cruise NOx was not estimated, but likely meet the 80 reduction goal as well.

  3. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  4. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): A Near-Term Approach to Nuclear Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Manzella, David H.; Kamhawi, Hani; Kremic, Tibor; Oleson, Steven R.; Dankanich, John W.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies over the last decade have shown radioisotope-based nuclear electric propulsion to be enhancing and, in some cases, enabling for many potential robotic science missions. Also known as radioisotope electric propulsion (REP), the technology offers the performance advantages of traditional reactor-powered electric propulsion (i.e., high specific impulse propulsion at large distances from the Sun), but with much smaller, affordable spacecraft. Future use of REP requires development of radioisotope power sources with system specific powers well above that of current systems. The US Department of Energy and NASA have developed an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) engineering unit, which was subjected to rigorous flight qualification-level tests in 2008, and began extended lifetime testing later that year. This advancement, along with recent work on small ion thrusters and life extension technology for Hall thrusters, could enable missions using REP sometime during the next decade.

  5. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  6. Rocket propulsion elements

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, George P

    2011-01-01

    The definitive text on rocket propulsion-now revised to reflect advancements in the field For sixty years, Sutton's Rocket Propulsion Elements has been regarded as the single most authoritative sourcebook on rocket propulsion technology. As with the previous edition, coauthored with Oscar Biblarz, the Eighth Edition of Rocket Propulsion Elements offers a thorough introduction to basic principles of rocket propulsion for guided missiles, space flight, or satellite flight. It describes the physical mechanisms and designs for various types of rockets' and provides an unders

  7. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  8. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  9. Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. Focused program elements are: (1) transportation systems, which include earth-to-orbit propulsion, commercial vehicle propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, advanced cryogenic engines, cryogenic fluid systems, nuclear thermal propulsion, and nuclear electric propulsion; (2) space platforms, which include spacecraft on-board propulsion, and station keeping propulsion; and (3) technology flight experiments, which include cryogenic orbital N2 experiment (CONE), SEPS flight experiment, and cryogenic orbital H2 experiment (COHE).

  10. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  11. Isomer Energy Source for Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear Thermal Rocket PBR Particle-Bed Reactor SNTP Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion TIC Triggered Isomer Core TIHE Triggered Isomer Heat...energy in a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) configuration. This includes study of the current state of triggered isomer research, an investigation of 4... thermal rocket this means that heat from the reactive core must be prevented from raising the temperature of the propellant prior to its release from

  12. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  13. High Power Electric Propulsion for Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2003-01-01

    Focused technology trade studies for Nuclear Electric Propulsion vehicle concepts for outer planet missions are presented; representative mission, vehicle and technology characterizations illustrate samples of work done under the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center-Boeing-SAIC In-Space Technology Assessment (ISTA) contract. An objective of ISTA is to identify and present sound technical and programtic options for the formulation and implementation of advanced electric and chemical propulsion solar system exploration missions. Investigations to date include a variety of outer planet destinations, trip times, science payload allotments, orbital capture techniques, all conducted to illustrate how advanced technology would maximize mission benefits. Architecture wide optimizations that facilitate good propulsion technology investments for advanced electric and chemical propulsion systems were conducted, including those relevant to the nuclear system initiative. Representative analyses of vehicles utilizing fission reactors with advanced power generation, Conversion, processing and electric propulsion systems, which would enable scientifically rich robotic exploration missions, are presented.

  14. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  15. Space Propulsion and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    uniform dense plasmas ? Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Space Propulsion and Power - New Research Areas Non ...interactions of the Matters in Space Propulsion Systems Space Propulsion and Power Portfolio Coupled Materials and Plasma Processes Far From...primary electron  1 • Effective secondary electron emission * accounts for non - Maxwellian effects * > 1 * < 1 ~4 MHz Sheath Beams of SEE

  16. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  17. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  18. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John K.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large-scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze major propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of designing systems, providing the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS), a modular and extensible framework for the integration of multicomponent and multidisciplinary analysis tools using geographically distributed resources such as computing platforms, data bases, and people. The analysis is currently focused on large-scale modeling of complete aircraft engines. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  19. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difilippo, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  20. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  1. Quiet propulsive-lift technology ready for civil and military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Queen, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) was designed as research aircraft for investigating terminal-area operations with an advanced propulsive-lift aircraft. The QSRA is a modified De Havilland C-8 Buffalo. The modification to the C-8 consisted of adding a new swept wing with four top-mounted Lycoming YF-102 turbofan engines to provide high levels of propulsive-lift through upper-surface blowing. The state of the art has reached the point where consideration can be given to various applications, including military transport aircraft, civil transports, and business jets. Attention is also given to a ground attack plane with QSRA, the payload advantage resulting from applying propulsive-life technology, and aspects of takeoff performance

  2. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options iteratively by using fast computer simulations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition. dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one-dimensional versions of the equations of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum with compressible flow.

  3. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1998-12-31

    Analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options iteratively by using fast computer simulations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition. dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one-dimensional versions of the equations of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum with compressible flow. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  5. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  6. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  7. Nuclear electric ion propulsion for three deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear electric ion propulsion is considered for three sample deep space missions starting from a 500 km low Earth orbit encompassing the transfer of a 100 MT payload into a 1500 km orbit around Mars, the rendezvous of a 10 MT payload with the Jovian moon Europa and the rendezvous of a similar payload with Saturn's moon Titan. Near term ion engine and space nuclear reactor technology are assumed. It is shown that nuclear electric ion propulsion offers more than twice the payload for the Mars mission relative to the case when a nuclear thermal rocket is used for the trans-Mars injection maneuver at Earth, and about the same payload advantage relative to the case when solar electric propulsion is used for the Mars heliocentric transfer. For missions to the outer planets nuclear electric ion propulsion increases the payload mass fraction by a factor of two or more compared with high thrust systems that utilize gravity assist trajectories.

  8. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  9. Nuclear Pulse Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Atanas, Dilov; Hasan, Osman; Nickolai, Larsen; Tom, Edwards

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive insight into the potential of nuclear fuels to accelerate spacecraft propulsion, shorten journey times and broaden our exploration of space. The current methods of space propulsion offer little in the way of efficiency in terms of cost, time and henceforth investment and research. The dwindling resources of the planet plus the exponential rise of overpopulation will ultimately push us towards exploration of worlds further afield ...

  10. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  11. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  12. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael; Mitchell, Sonny; Kim, Tony; Borowski, Stanley; Power, Kevin; Scott, John; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space fission power systems can provide a power rich environment anywhere in the solar system, independent of available sunlight. Space fission propulsion offers the potential for enabling rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. One type of space fission propulsion is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). NTP systems operate by using a fission reactor to heat hydrogen to very high temperature (>2500 K) and expanding the hot hydrogen through a supersonic nozzle. First generation NTP systems are designed to have an Isp of approximately 900 s. The high Isp of NTP enables rapid crew transfer to destinations such as Mars, and can also help reduce mission cost, improve logistics (fewer launches), and provide other benefits. However, for NTP systems to be utilized they must be affordable and viable to develop. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) NTP project is a technology development project that will help assess the affordability and viability of NTP. Early work has included fabrication of representative graphite composite fuel element segments, coating of representative graphite composite fuel element segments, fabrication of representative cermet fuel element segments, and testing of fuel element segments in the Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET). Near-term activities will include testing approximately 16" fuel element segments in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES), and ongoing research into improving fuel microstructure and coatings. In addition to recapturing fuels technology, affordable development, qualification, and utilization strategies must be devised. Options such as using low-enriched uranium (LEU) instead of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) are being assessed, although that option requires development of a key technology before it can be applied to NTP in the thrust range of interest. Ground test facilities will be required, especially if NTP is to be used in conjunction with high value or

  13. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  14. Design, cost, and advanced technology applications for a military trainer aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. C.; Harper, M.

    1975-01-01

    The potential impact is examined of advanced aerodynamic and propulsive technologies in terms of operating and acquisition costs on conceptual mission and performance requirements for a future undergraduate jet pilot trainer aircraft.

  15. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  16. Multidisciplinary design optimization of low-noise transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifsson, Leifur Thor

    The objective of this research is to examine how to design low-noise transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). The subject is approached by designing for low-noise both implicitly and explicitly. The explicit design approach involves optimizing an aircraft while explicitly constraining the noise level. An MDO framework capable of optimizing both a cantilever wing and a Strut-Braced-Wing (SBW) aircraft was developed. The objective is to design aircraft for low-airframe-noise at the approach conditions and quantify the change in weight and performance with respect to a traditionally designed aircraft. The results show that reducing airframe noise by reducing approach speed alone, will not provide significant noise reduction without a large performance and weight penalty. Therefore, more dramatic changes to the aircraft design are needed to achieve a significant airframe noise reduction. Another study showed that the trailing-edge flap can be eliminated, as well as all the noise associated with that device, without incurring a significant weight and performance penalty. Lastly, an airframe noise analysis showed that a SBW aircraft with short fuselage-mounted landing gear could have a similar or potentially a lower airframe noise level than a comparable cantilever wing aircraft. The implicit design approach involves selecting a configuration that supports a low-noise operation, and optimizing for performance. In this study a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transport aircraft, with a conventional and a distributed propulsion system, was optimized for minimum take-off gross weight. The effects of distributed propulsion were studied using an MDO framework previously developed at Virginia Tech. The results show that more than two thirds of the theoretical savings of distributed propulsion are required for the BWB designs with a distributed propulsion system to have comparable gross weight as those with a conventional propulsion system. Therefore

  17. Airbreathing Propulsion An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Tarit

    2012-01-01

    Airbreathing Propulsion covers the physics of combustion, fluid and thermo-dynamics, and structural mechanics of airbreathing engines, including piston, turboprop, turbojet, turbofan, and ramjet engines. End-of-chapter exercises allow the reader to practice the fundamental concepts behind airbreathing propulsion, and the included PAGIC computer code will help the reader to examine the relationships between the performance parameters of different engines. Large amounts of data on many different piston, turbojet, and turboprop engines have been compiled for this book and are included as an appendix. This textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and graduate students studying aeronautical engineering, aerospace engineering, and mechanical engineering.

  18. Feasibility study of a superconducting motor for electrical helicopter propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, C. A. B. A. E.; Sanabria-Walter, C.; Polinder, H.

    2014-05-01

    During the past decades, superconducting electrical machines have become more suitable to replace conventional iron based designs, because of their lower weight and higher torque density. These properties make them good candidates for use in More Electric Aircraft (MEA). Especially helicopter propulsion systems could benefit from the increased performance. This paper describes the feasibility study of a superconducting motor to be used for helicopter propulsion as part of a More Electric Aircraft (MEA). For this, the armature, field windings and cryostat are designed, aiming at meeting the difficult specifications. Since superconductors have virtually no electrical resistance when cooled down below a certain critical temperature, they can be used to build high field and low weight coils for electrical machines. Especially the possibility to not use iron can make the superconducting motor lighter with a higher power density compared with conventional Permanent Magnet (PM) motors.

  19. Considerations Regarding Development of Alternative Propulsion in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Steiner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological indications and the depletion of fossil fuel resourcesare the main reasons for current studies of alternativepropulsion in aviation i.e. for searching for new regenerativeenergy sources. The technical and technological presumptionsfor the transfer from the conventional to alternative fuel aremore radical than the transition from piston to jet propulsion.The main problems include the production of liquefied hydrogen,the necessary aircraft structure modifications, and the requiredinfrastntcture supporl.

  20. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy bet...

  1. CORBASec Used to Secure Distributed Aerospace Propulsion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners are developing a Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines. It was developed by Glenn and is being managed by the NASA Ames Research Center as the lead center reporting directly to NASA Headquarters' Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Glenn is an active domain member of the Object Management Group: an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and manages computer industry specifications (i.e., CORBA) for interoperable enterprise applications. When NPSS is deployed, it will assemble a distributed aerospace propulsion simulation scenario from proprietary analytical CORBA servers and execute them with security afforded by the CORBASec implementation. The NPSS CORBASec test bed was initially developed with the TPBroker Security Service product (Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc., Waltham, MA) using the Object Request Broker (ORB), which is based on the TPBroker Basic Object Adaptor, and using NPSS software across different firewall products. The test bed has been migrated to the Portable Object Adaptor architecture using the Hitachi Security Service product based on the VisiBroker 4.x ORB (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) and on the Orbix 2000 ORB (Dublin, Ireland, with U.S. headquarters in Waltham, MA). Glenn, GE Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft are the initial industry partners contributing to the NPSS CORBASec test bed. The test bed uses Security SecurID (RSA Security Inc., Bedford, MA) two-factor token-based authentication together with Hitachi Security Service digital-certificate-based authentication to validate the various NPSS users. The test

  2. Novel Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

  3. Integrated propulsion and power modeling for bimodal nuclear thermal rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Joshua

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) engines have been shown to reduce the weight of space vehicles to the Moon, Mars, and beyond by utilizing a common reactor for propulsion and power generation. These savings lead to reduced launch vehicle costs and/or increased mission safety and capability. Experimental work of the Rover/NERVA program demonstrated the feasibility of NTR systems for trajectories to Mars. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated the economic and performance benefits of BNTR operation. Relatively little, however, is known about the reactor-level operation of a BNTR engine. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a numerical BNTR engine model in order to study the feasibility and component-level impact of utilizing a NERVA-derived reactor as a heat source for both propulsion and power. The primary contribution is to provide the first-of-its-kind model and analysis of a NERVA-derived BNTR engine. Numerical component models have been modified and created for the NERVA reactor fuel elements and tie tubes, including 1-D coolant thermodynamics and radial thermal conduction with heat generation. A BNTR engine system model has been created in order to design and analyze an engine employing an expander-cycle nuclear rocket and Brayton cycle power generator using the same reactor. Design point results show that a 316 MWt reactor produces a thrust and specific impulse of 66.6 kN and 917 s, respectively. The same reactor can be run at 73.8 kWt to produce the necessary 16.7 kW electric power with a Brayton cycle generator. This demonstrates the feasibility of BNTR operation with a NERVA-derived reactor but also indicates that the reactor control system must be able to operate with precision across a wide power range, and that the transient analysis of reactor decay heat merits future investigation. Results also identify a significant reactor pressure-drop limitation during propulsion and power-generation operation that is caused by poor tie tube

  4. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  5. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  6. Propulsion airframe integration session overview and review of Lewis PAI efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterton, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI) is a key issue for the High Speed Civil Transport. The aircraft performance, economics, and environmental acceptability can be adversely affected if the integration of the propulsion system and the airframe is not addressed properly or in a timely manner. Some of the goals are listed in this figure. In particular, these goals are highly influenced by how successfully the propulsion system and airframe are integrated. These goals were grouped by the 'Aero' and 'Propulsion' categories to suggest which group of technologists will likely be addressing them. In terms of the NASA High Speed Research Program, the ultimate objective for propulsion/airframe integration is to demonstrate the technologies for achievement of these goals on a 'single' integrated configuration.

  7. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires the calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options in an iterative way by using simulations that run fast on a computer. As a consequence of a collaborative agreement between the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ORNL has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition, dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one

  8. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2007-09-27

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers. (author)

  9. In-Space Propulsion, Logistics Reduction, and Evaluation of Steam Reformer Kinetics: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Kulis, M. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Human space missions generate waste materials. A 70-kg crewmember creates a waste stream of 1 kg per day, and a four-person crew on a deep space habitat for a 400+ day mission would create over 1600 kg of waste. Converted into methane, the carbon could be used as a fuel for propulsion or power. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is investing in space resource utilization with an emphasis on repurposing logistics materials for useful purposes and has selected steam reforming among many different competitive processes as the preferred method for repurposing organic waste into methane. Already demonstrated at the relevant processing rate of 5.4 kg of waste per day, high temperature oxygenated steam consumes waste and produces carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen which can then be converted into methane catalytically. However, the steam reforming process has not been studied in microgravity. Data are critically needed to understand the mechanisms that allow use of steam reforming in a reduced gravity environment. This paper reviews the relevant literature, identifies gravity-dependent mechanisms within the steam gasification process, and describes an innovative experiment to acquire the crucial kinetic information in a small-scale reactor specifically designed to operate within the requirements of a reduced gravity aircraft flight. The experiment will determine if the steam reformer process is mass-transport limited, and if so, what level of forced convection will be needed to obtain performance comparable to that in 1-g.

  10. Progress report on nuclear propulsion for space exploration and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA is continuing its work in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) on nuclear propulsion - both nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The focus of the NTP studies remains on piloted and cargo missions to Mars (with precursor missions to the moon) although studies are under way to examine the potential uses of NTP for science missions. The focus of the NEP studies has shifted to space science missions with consideration of combining a science mission with an earlier demonstration of NEP using the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system. Both NTP and NEP efforts are continuing in 1993 to provide a good foundation for science and exploration planners. Both NTP and NEP provide a very important transportation resource and in a number of cases enable missions that could not otherwise be accomplished.

  11. Study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ryuta [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This Abstract summarizes a series of presentations to the present Seminar, covering various aspects of a 1,000 kW PEFC system envisaged as propulsion system to equip a 1,500 DWT Cargo vessel, reported under the following titles: (1) Performance Evaluation of 1kW PEFC (2) Performance of Catalysts for CO Removal by Methanation Reaction (3) Development of a Selective Oxidation CO Removal Reactor for Methanol Reformate Gas (4) Experimental Investigation on a Turbine Compressor for Air Supply System of a Fuel Cell (5) Dynamic Simulator for PEFC Propulsion Plant (6) Power Feature Required for PEFC Powered Electric Propulsion Ship The purpose of this study is to identify subjects requiring further development toward the realization of a practical fuel cell system to power ships.

  12. Advances in computational design and analysis of airbreathing propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of commercial and military aircraft depends, to a large extent, on engine manufacturers being able to achieve significant increases in propulsion capability through improved component aerodynamics, materials, and structures. The recent history of propulsion has been marked by efforts to develop computational techniques that can speed up the propulsion design process and produce superior designs. The availability of powerful supercomputers, such as the NASA Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator, and the potential for even higher performance offered by parallel computer architectures, have opened the door to the use of multi-dimensional simulations to study complex physical phenomena in propulsion systems that have previously defied analysis or experimental observation. An overview of several NASA Lewis research efforts is provided that are contributing toward the long-range goal of a numerical test-cell for the integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. Specific examples in Internal Computational Fluid Mechanics, Computational Structural Mechanics, Computational Materials Science, and High Performance Computing are cited and described in terms of current capabilities, technical challenges, and future research directions.

  13. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  14. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  15. Jet propulsion without inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolie, Saverio E

    2010-01-01

    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies, and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented, and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e. jetting) surfaces are considered, and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increas...

  16. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  17. AASPT Carbon/Carbon Aircraft Brake Disk Granted MPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Xi'an Chaoma Technology Co. Ltd. was issued Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) for Carbon/Carbon aircraft brake disk for Airbus 320 series by Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The company is held by Academy of Aerospace Solid Propulsion Technology (AASPT), a subsidiary of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). It is the first approval given to a Chinese company to design and produce brakes for main civilian aircraft.

  18. Alternate Propulsion Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    certainly worth further intensive study as a high risk/high payoff concept. 2. Solar Heated Plasmas - An approach to a solar thermal rocket that can obtain...metal and hydrogen gas. This is a near-term advanced propulsion concept suitable for the follow-on phase of the existing AFRPL solar thermal rocket program...will discuss various versions of the solar thermal rocket , where sunlight is collected and used to directly heat a working fluid. This solar heated

  19. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  20. NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that attains the maximum transit speeds physically possible, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Topics of interest include experiments and theories regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and worm-holes, and superluminal quantum effects. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify affordable, near-term, and credible research that could make measurable progress toward these propulsion goals. The methods of the program and the results of the 1997 workshop are presented. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  2. Future of Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-16

    83 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION by A.P. Baranov DTIQ ~E tJ Approved for public release; 0.. distribution...MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION By: A.P. Baranov -,English pages: 10 Source: Sudostroyeniye, Nr. 12, December 1966, pp. 3-6 . Country of origin: USSR X...equations, etc. merged into this translation were extracted from the best quality copy available. FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION A. P

  3. Manned mars mission enhancements using Pratt & Whitney escort combined propulsion and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Russell; Feller, Gerald J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the cost implications to manned Mars missions when a nuclear thermal combined propulsion and power unit is used for main propulsion and mission power. The paper uses a series of mission opportunities during the NASA DRM focus period and looks at how a NTR (Nuclear Thermal Rocket) can be used to increase the Mars mission payload delivery capability and mission flexibility across the entire mission spectrum. In propulsive mode, a nuclear reactor is used to heat hot hydrogen, which is expanded through a converging/diverging nozzle to generate thrust. Heat pickup in the nozzle and the radial beryllium reflectors is used to drive the turbomachinery in the ESCORT expander cycle. In electrical mode, the reactor is used to heat a mixture of helium and xenon to drive a closed-loop Brayton cycle in order to generate electrical energy. A Mars transportation system integrated performance methodology was developed to assess the sensitivity to weight, thrust and impulse to the Mars conjunction class mission requirements. Propellant tanks, propulsion system mass, shielding, and Brayton cycle power conversion unit requirements were included in this evaluation. This paper examines how the design characteristics of the ESCORT derivative propulsion and power system affect the mission payload capability and the earth launch vehicle design requirements. The same reactor design is also used for Mars surface power reactor, delivered as payload by the ESCORT derivative powered Mars transfer stage. Trade curves of mission mass and payload are presented.

  4. Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB) capability centers on its suite of vacuum chambers, which are configured to meet the unique requirements related to...

  5. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  6. Variable Geometry Aircraft Wing Supported by Struts And/Or Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, John E. (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an aircraft having variable airframe geometry for accommodating efficient flight. The aircraft includes an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, and a brace operably connected between said oblique wing and said fuselage. The present invention also provides an aircraft having an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, a propulsion system pivotally connected with said oblique wing, and a brace operably connected between said propulsion system and said fuselage.

  7. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  8. AEROSTATIC AND AERODYNAMIC MODULES OF A HYBRID BUOYANT AIRCRAFT: AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ul Haque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach is essential for the estimation of the requirements of aerodynamic and aerostatic lift for a hybrid buoyant aircraft. Such aircrafts have two different modules to balance the weight of aircraft; aerostatic module and aerodynamic module. Both these modules are to be treated separately for estimation of the mass budget of propulsion systems and required power. In the present work, existing relationships of aircraft and airship are reviewed for its further application for these modules. Limitations of such relationships are also disussed and it is precieved that it will provide a strating point for better understanding of design anatomy of such aircraft.

  9. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  10. Design and Performance of the NASA SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Patterson, Michael D.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Moore, Mark D.; Clarke, Sean; Redifer, Matthew E.; Christie, Robert J.; Stoll, Alex M.; Dubois, Arthur; Bevirt, JoeBen; Gibson, Andrew R.; Foster, Trevor J.; Osterkamp, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) technology uses multiple propulsors driven by electric motors distributed about the airframe to yield beneficial aerodynamic-propulsion interaction. The NASA SCEPTOR flight demonstration project will retrofit an existing internal combustion engine-powered light aircraft with two types of DEP: small "high-lift" propellers distributed along the leading edge of the wing which accelerate the flow over the wing at low speeds, and larger cruise propellers co-located with each wingtip for primary propulsive power. The updated high-lift system enables a 2.5x reduction in wing area as compared to the original aircraft, reducing drag at cruise and shifting the velocity for maximum lift-to-drag ratio to a higher speed, while maintaining low-speed performance. The wingtip-mounted cruise propellers interact with the wingtip vortex, enabling a further efficiency increase that can reduce propulsive power by 10%. A tradespace exploration approach is developed that enables rapid identification of salient trades, and subsequent creation of SCEPTOR demonstrator geometries. These candidates were scrutinized by subject matter experts to identify design preferences that were not modeled during configuration exploration. This exploration and design approach is used to create an aircraft that consumes an estimated 4.8x less energy at the selected cruise point when compared to the original aircraft.

  11. Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft Joint Navy/NASA Sea Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, S.; Cochrane, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) is a flight facility which Ames Research Center is using to conduct a broad program of terminal area and low-speed, propulsive-life flight research. A joint Navy/NASA flight research program used the QSRA to investigate the application of advanced propulsive-lift technology to the naval aircraft-carrier environment. Flight performance of the QSRA is presented together with the results or the joint Navy/NASA flight program. During the joint program, the QSRA operated aboard the USS Kitty Hawk for 4 days, during which numerous unarrested landings and free deck takeoffs were accomplished. These operations demonstrated that a large aircraft incorporating upper-surface-blowing, propulsive-life technology can be operated in the aircraft-carrier environment without any unusual problems.

  12. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  13. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  14. Architecture, Voltage, and Components for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Electric Grid (AVC-TeDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemin, Paul; Kupiszewski, Tom; Radun, Arthur; Pan, Yan; Lai, Rixin; Zhang, Di; Wang, Ruxi; Wu, Xinhui; Jiang, Yan; Galioto, Steve; Haran, Kiruba; Premerlani, William; Bray, Jim; Caiafa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to advance the selection, characterization, and modeling of a propulsion electric grid for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system for transport aircraft. The TeDP aircraft would constitute a miniature electric grid with 50 MW or more of total power, two or more generators, redundant transmission lines, and multiple electric motors driving propulsion fans. The study proposed power system architectures, investigated electromechanical and solid state circuit breakers, estimated the impact of the system voltage on system mass, and recommended DC bus voltage range. The study assumed an all cryogenic power system. Detailed assumptions within the study include hybrid circuit breakers, a two cryogen system, and supercritical cyrogens. A dynamic model was developed to investigate control and parameter selection.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  16. Static tests of the propulsion system. [Propfan Test Assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, C. C.; Bartel, H. W.; Turnberg, J. E.; Graber, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced, highly-loaded, high-speed propellers, called propfans, are promising to revolutionize the transport aircraft industry by offering a 15- to 30-percent fuel savings over the most advanced turbofans without sacrificing passenger comfort or violating community noise standards. NASA Lewis Research Center and industry have been working jointly to develop the needed propfan technology. The NASA-funded Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program represents a key element of this joint program. In PTA, Lockheed-Georgia, working in concert with Hamilton Standard, Rohr Industries, Gulfstream Aerospace, and Allison, is developing a propfan propulsion system which will be mounted on the left wing of a modified Gulfstream GII aircraft and flight tested to verify the in-flight characteristics of a 9-foot diameter, single-rotation propfan. The propfan, called SR-7L, was designed and fabricated by Hamilton Standard under a separate NASA contract. Prior to flight testing, the PTA propulsion system was static tested at the Rohr Brown Field facility. In this test, propulsion system operational capability was verified and data was obtained on propfan structural response, system acoustic characteristics, and system performance. This paper reports on the results of the static tests.

  17. Efficiency enhancement of GT-MHRs applied on ship propulsion plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro Garcia, Ramon, E-mail: ferreiro@udc.es [Dept. Industrial Engineering, University of A Coruna, ETSNM, C/Paseo de Ronda, 51, 15011 A Coruna (Spain); Carril, Jose Carbia; Catoira, Alberto DeMiguel; Romero Gomez, Javier [Dept. Energy and Propulsion, University of A Coruna ETSNM, C/Paseo de Ronda, 51, 15011 A Coruna (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient ship propulsion system powered by HTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A conventional Rankine cycle renders high efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intermediate heat exchanger isolates the nuclear reactor from the process heat application. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An intermediate heat exchanger allows the system to be built to non-nuclear standards. - Abstract: High temperature reactors including gas cooled fast reactors and gas turbine modular helium reactors (GT-MHR) may operate as electric power suppliers to be applied on ship propulsion plants. In such propulsion systems performance enhancement can be achieved at effective cost under safety conditions using alternative cycles to the conventional Brayton cycle. Mentioned improvements concern the implementation of an ultra supercritical Rankine cycle, in which water is used as working fluid. The proposed study is carried out in order to achieve performance enhancement on the basis of turbine temperature increasing. The helium cooled high temperature reactor supplies thermal energy to the Rankine cycle via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHE) under safety conditions. The results of the study show that the efficiency of the propulsion plant using a multi-reheat Rankine cycle is significantly improved (from actual 48% to more than 55%) while keeping safety standards.

  18. Nuclear-electric magnetohydrodynamic propulsion for submarine. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarczyk, A.A.

    1989-05-01

    The thesis analyzes the superconducting technology for a shipboard magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system. Based on the the principles of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the concept of open-water efficiency was used to optimize the preliminary design of the MHD thruster. After the baseline submarine hull modeled after the Los Angeles class submarine was selected, propulsive efficiency and the top speed for four variant MHD submarines were evaluated. The design criteria were set at a 100-MWt nuclear reactor power upper limit and a requirement of 30 knots for the top speed. This required advanced reactor plants and advanced energy conversion systems. The selection of High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) and Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) was based on the combined merits of safety, environmental impact, high source temperature and maximum-volume power density (KW/L). With the reactor outlet temperatures of 2000 K, direct-cycle energy conversion-systems gave the best results in terms of thermal efficiency and propulsion plant power density. Two energy conversion systems selected were closed-cycle gas turbine geared to a superconducting generator, and closed-cycle liquid-metal MHD generator. Based on submarine reliability and safety, the option of using an intermediate heat exchanger was also considered. Finally, non-nuclear support systems affected by the advanced power plant and MHD propulsion, stressing submarine safety, are proposed.

  19. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  20. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    20  Figure 3: Experimental Torque Measurements [28] ......................................................... 20  Figure 4: Flight...off during loiter operation it could be restarted by powering the motor with the clutch engaged. The torque necessary to do this was substantial and...design the team tested the clutch configuration. It was discovered for this experiment that the clutch could withstand the torque , but the motor was

  1. In-Space Propulsion (346620) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technologies include, but are not limited to, electric and advanced chemical propulsion, propellantless propulsion such as aerocapture and solar sails, sample return...

  2. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS): An Award Winning Propulsion System Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Laurel J.; Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2002-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a full propulsion system simulation tool used by aerospace engineers to predict and analyze the aerothermodynamic behavior of commercial jet aircraft, military applications, and space transportation. The NPSS framework was developed to support aerospace, but other applications are already leveraging the initial capabilities, such as aviation safety, ground-based power, and alternative energy conversion devices such as fuel cells. By using the framework and developing the necessary components, future applications that NPSS could support include nuclear power, water treatment, biomedicine, chemical processing, and marine propulsion. NPSS will dramatically reduce the time, effort, and expense necessary to design and test jet engines. It accomplishes that by generating sophisticated computer simulations of an aerospace object or system, thus enabling engineers to "test" various design options without having to conduct costly, time-consuming real-life tests. The ultimate goal of NPSS is to create a numerical "test cell" that enables engineers to create complete engine simulations overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. Using NPSS, engine designers will be able to analyze different parts of the engine simultaneously, perform different types of analysis simultaneously (e.g., aerodynamic and structural), and perform analysis in a more efficient and less costly manner. NPSS will cut the development time of a new engine in half, from 10 years to 5 years. And NPSS will have a similar effect on the cost of development: new jet engines will cost about a billion dollars to develop rather than two billion. NPSS is also being applied to the development of space transportation technologies, and it is expected that similar efficiencies and cost savings will result. Advancements of NPSS in fiscal year 2001 included enhancing the NPSS Developer's Kit to easily integrate external components of varying fidelities, providing

  3. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  4. Ultra high temperature particle bed reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans; Perkins, K.; Powell, J.

    1990-01-01

    A direct nuclear propulsion engine which could be used for a mission to Mars is designed. The main features of this reactor design are high values for I(sub sp) and very efficient cooling. This particle bed reactor consists of 37 cylindrical fuel elements embedded in a cylinder of beryllium which acts as a moderator and reflector. The fuel consists of a packed bed of spherical fissionable fuel particles. Gaseous H2 passes over the fuel bed, removes the heat, and is exhausted out of the rocket. The design was found to be neutronically critical and to have tolerable heating rates. Therefore, this particle bed reactor design is suitable as a propulsion unit for this mission.

  5. Overview of Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. CDB conducts propulsion control and diagnostics research in support of various programs and projects under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate and the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The paper first provides an overview of the various research tasks in CDB relative to the NASA programs and projects, and briefly describes the progress being made on each of these tasks. The discussion here is at a high level providing the objectives of the tasks, the technical challenges in meeting the objectives and most recent accomplishments. References are provided for each of the technical tasks for the reader to familiarize themselves with the details.

  6. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  7. Progress toward the analysis of complex propulsion installation flow phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, P. R. A.; Hopcroft, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    A trend toward replacement of parametric model testing with parametric analysis for the design of aircraft is driven by the rapidly escalating cost of wind tunnel testing, the increasing availability of large fast computers, and powerful numerical flow algorithms. In connection with the complex flow phenomena characteristic of propulsion installations, it is now necessary to employ both parametric analysis and testing for design procedures. Powerful flow analysis techniques are available to predict local flow phenomena. However, the employment of these techniques is very expensive. It is, therefore, necessary to link these analyses with less powerful and less expensive procedures for an accurate analysis of propulsion installation flowfields. However, the interfacing and coupling processes needed are not available. The present investigation is concerned with progress made regarding the development of suitable linking methods. Attention is given to methods of analysis for predicting the flow around a nacelle coupled to a highly swept wing.

  8. Pulsed plasmoid electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Robert F.; Parks, Paul B.; Tamano, Teruo

    1990-01-01

    A method of electric propulsion is explored where plasmoids such as spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC) are formed and then allowed to expand down a diverging conducting shell. The plasmoids contain a toroidal electric current that provides both heating and a confining magnetic field. They are free to translate because there are no externally supplied magnetic fields that would restrict motion. Image currents in the diverging conducting shell keep the plasmoids from contacting the wall. Because these currents translate relative to the wall, losses due to magnetic flux diffusion into the wall are minimized. During the expansion of the plasma in the diverging cone, both the inductive and thermal plasma energy are converted to directed kinetic energy producing thrust. Specific impulses can be in the 4000 to 20000 sec range with thrusts from 0.1 to 1000 Newtons, depending on available power.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  10. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots.

  11. Z-Pinch fusion-based nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2013-02-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human space flight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly [1]. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield [2]. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10-6 s). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) [3] propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle. The analysis of the Z-Pinch MIF propulsion system concludes that a 40-fold increase of Isp over chemical propulsion is predicted. An Isp of 19,436 s and thrust of 3812 N s/pulse, along with nearly doubling the predicted payload mass fraction, warrants further development of enabling technologies.

  12. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars

  13. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  14. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  15. Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concept for Sustainable Aviation: Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Felder, James L.; Tong, Michael. T.; Armstrong, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In response to growing aviation demands and concerns about the environment and energy usage, a team at NASA proposed and examined a revolutionary aeropropulsion concept, a turboelectric distributed propulsion system, which employs multiple electric motor-driven propulsors that are distributed on a large transport vehicle. The power to drive these electric propulsors is generated by separately located gas-turbine-driven electric generators on the airframe. This arrangement enables the use of many small-distributed propulsors, allowing a very high effective bypass ratio, while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated but connected to the propulsors through electric power lines. Because of the physical separation of propulsors from power generating devices, a new class of vehicles with unprecedented performance employing such revolutionary propulsion system is possible in vehicle design. One such vehicle currently being investigated by NASA is called the "N3-X" that uses a hybrid-wing-body for an airframe and superconducting generators, motors, and transmission lines for its propulsion system. On the N3-X these new degrees of design freedom are used (1) to place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to minimize total pressure losses and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 14 motor-driven fans on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge of the hybrid-wing-body airframe to maximize propulsive efficiency by ingesting thick airframe boundary layer flow. Through a system analysis in engine cycle and weight estimation, it was determined that the N3-X would be able to achieve a reduction of 70% or 72% (depending on the cooling system) in energy usage relative to the reference aircraft, a Boeing 777-200LR. Since the high-power electric system is used in its propulsion system, a study of the electric power distribution system was performed to identify critical dynamic and

  16. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: A Common Tool for Aerospace Propulsion Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). This simulation is initially being used to support aeropropulsion in the analysis and design of aircraft engines. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the Aviation Safety Program and Advanced Space Transportation. NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) in the NPSS Developer's Kit to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS Developer's Kit will provide the tools to develop custom components and to use the CORBA capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities will extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multifidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full life cycle of an engine.

  17. Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA researchers recently demonstrated successful real-time fault detection and isolation of a virtual reusable launch vehicle main propulsion system. Using a...

  18. Superconducting Aero Propulsion Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting electric propulsion systems will yield improvements in total ownership costs due to the simplicity of electric drive when compared with gas turbine...

  19. Propulsion Systems Laboratory, Bldg. 125

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is NASAs only ground test facility capable of providing true altitude and flight speed simulation for testing full scale gas...

  20. Fusion Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    of propellant can be millions of times greater than the fuel, only a tiny fraction can completely push out the fuel. If the plasma is moving at a... push -plate for various explosive yields. It appears that the maximum specific impulse for such a system is -4000 to 5000 sec and increasing the base...Energy Agency, 1977, p. 507. Bourque, R.F., "OHTE as a Fusion Reactor," Proc. 4th Topl. Mt,. Tecnology of Controlled NV?4clear Fusion, King of Prussia

  1. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    AFTC/PA Clearance No. XXXX 8 Ion Engines & Hall Thrusters Operation Ion engines and Hall thrusters are electrostatic propulsion devices • Ion Engines... Hall thrusters are gridless electrostatic thrusters – Propellant ionized by electrons trapped in magnetic field – Ions accelerated by an electric field...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 21 September 2015 – 13 October 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion 5a

  2. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS, IAA WHITE PAPER PARIS, FRANCE, MARCH 2005 Lt Col Timothy J. Lawrence U.S. Air Force Academy...YYYY) 18-03-2005 2. REPORT TYPE White Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Mar 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET PROPULSION...reduce radiation exposure, is to have a high energy system like a nuclear thermal rocket that can get the payload to the destination in the fastest

  3. NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposes to build a nuclear research reactor which will be located in the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this report is to inform the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in regard to the design Lq of the reactor facility, the characteristics of the site, and the hazards of operation at this location. The purpose of this research reactor is to make pumped loop studies of aircraft reactor fuel elements and other reactor components, radiation effects studies on aircraft reactor materials and equipment, shielding studies, and nuclear and solid state physics experiments. The reactor is light water cooled and moderated of the MTR-type with a primary beryllium reflector and a secondary water reflector. The core initially will be a 3 by 9 array of MTR-type fuel elements and is designed for operation up to a power of 60 megawatts. The reactor facility is described in general terms. This is followed by a discussion of the nuclear characteristics and performance of the reactor. Then details of the reactor control system are discussed. A summary of the site characteristics is then presented followed by a discussion of the larger type of experiments which may eventually be operated in this facility. The considerations for normal operation are concluded with a proposed method of handling fuel elements and radioactive wastes. The potential hazards involved with failures or malfunctions of this facility are considered in some detail. These are examined first from the standpoint of preventing them or minimizing their effects and second from the standpoint of what effect they might have on the reactor facility staff and the surrounding population. The most essential feature of the design for location at the proposed site is containment of the maximum credible accident.

  4. LISA propulsion module separation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkowitz, S M [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ahmad, A [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hyde, T T [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sweetser, T [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ziemer, J [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Conkey, S [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); III, W Kelly [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Shirgur, B [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2005-05-21

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a space-borne gravitational wave detector consisting of three sciencecraft in heliocentric orbit. Each sciencecraft is delivered to its operational orbit by a propulsion module. Because of the strict thermal and mass balancing requirements of LISA, the baseline mission concept requires that the propulsion module separate from the sciencecraft after delivery. The only propulsion system currently included in the sciencecraft design are micronewton level thrusters, such as field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) or colloid thrusters, that are used to balance the 30-40 {mu}N of solar radiation pressure and provide the drag-free and attitude control of the sciencecraft. Due to these thrusters' limited authority, the separation of the propulsion module from the sciencecraft must be well controlled to not induce a large tip-off rotation of the sciencecraft. We present here the results of a study of the propulsion module separation system requirements that are necessary to safely deliver the three LISA sciencecraft to their final operational orbits.

  5. An historical collection of papers on nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present volume of historical papers on nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) encompasses NTP technology development regarding solid-core NTP technology, advanced concepts from the early years of NTP research, and recent activities in the field. Specific issues addressed include NERVA rocket-engine technology, the development of nuclear rocket propulsion at Los Alamos, fuel-element development, reactor testing for the Rover program, and an overview of NTP concepts and research emphasizing two decades of NASA research. Also addressed are the development of the 'nuclear light bulb' closed-cycle gas core and a demonstration of a fissioning UF6 gas in an argon vortex. The recent developments reviewed include the application of NTP to NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System, the use of NTP for the Space Exploration Initiative, and the development of nuclear rocket engines in the former Soviet Union.

  6. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.; Reed, William C.; Welland, Henry J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  7. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  8. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V. [ed.; Feinberg, O.; Morozov, A. [Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Devell, L. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-07-01

    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary.

  9. Development of Modeling Approaches for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel R.; Allgood, Daniel C.; Nguyen, Ke

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency of rocket propul-sion systems is essential for humanity to venture be-yond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rock-ets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. NASA is in the pro-cess of developing a new NTP engine, and is evaluat-ing ground test facility concepts that allow for the thor-ough testing of NTP devices. NTP engine exhaust, hot gaseous hydrogen, is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; how-ever, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. Several options are being investigated to mitigate this hazard potential with one option in particular that completely contains the engine exhaust during engine test operations. The exhaust products are subsequently disposed of between engine tests. For this concept (see Figure 1), oxygen is injected into the high-temperature hydrogen exhaust that reacts to produce steam, excess oxygen and any trace amounts of radioactive noble gases released by off-nominal NTP engine reactor performance. Water is injected to condense the potentially contaminated steam into water. This water and the gaseous oxygen (GO2) are subsequently passed to a containment area where the water and GO2 are separated into separate containment tanks.

  10. Techniques for determining propulsion system forces for accurate high speed vehicle drag measurements in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to evaluate current methods of predicting the performance of large, supersonic airplanes, the drag of the XB-70 airplane was measured accurately in flight at Mach numbers from 0.75 to 2.5. This paper describes the techniques used to determine engine net thrust and the drag forces charged to the propulsion system that were required for the in-flight drag measurements. The accuracy of the measurements and the application of the measurement techniques to aircraft with different propulsion systems are discussed. Examples of results obtained for the XB-70 airplane are presented.

  11. Circulation control STOL aircraft design aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Since Davidson patented Circulation Control Airfoils in 1960, there have been only 2 aircraft designed and flown with circulation control (CC). Designing with CC is complex for the following reasons: the relation between lift increase and blowing momentum is nonlinear; for good cruise performance one must change the wing geometry in flight from a round to a sharp trailing edge. The bleed air from the propulsion engines or an auxiliary compressor, must be used efficiently. In designing with CC, the propulsion and control aspects are just as important as aerodynamics. These design aspects were examined and linearized equations are presented in order to facilitate a preliminary analysis of the performance potential of CC. The thrust and lift requirements for takeoff make the calculated runway length very sensitive to the bleed air ratio. Thrust vectoring improves performance and can offset nose down pitching moments. The choice of blowing jet to free stream velocity ratio determines the efficiency of applying bleed air power.

  12. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version...

  13. Performance assessment of low pressure nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harrold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.

    1993-01-01

    An increase in Isp for nuclear thermal propulsion systems is desirable for reducing the propellant requirements and cost of future applications, such as the Mars Transfer Vehicle. Several previous design studies have suggested that the Isp could be increased substantially with hydrogen dissociation/recombination. Hydrogen molecules (H2), at high temperatures and low pressures, will dissociate to monatomic hydrogen (H). The reverse process (i.e., formation of H2 from H) is exothermic. The exothermic energy in a nozzle increases the kinetic energy and therefore, increases the Isp. The low pressure nuclear thermal propulsion system (LPNTP) system is expected to maximize the hydrogen dissociation/recombination and Isp by operating at high chamber temperatures and low chamber pressures. The process involves hydrogen flow through a high temperature, low pressure fission reactor, and out a nozzle. The high temperature (approximately 3000 K) of the hydrogen in the reactor is limited by the temperature limits of the reactor material. The minimum chamber pressure is about 1 atm because lower pressures decrease the engines thrust to weight ratio below acceptable limits. This study assumes that hydrogen leaves the reactor and enters the nozzle at the 3000 K equilibrium dissociation level. Hydrogen dissociation in the reactor does not affect LPNTP performance like dissociation in traditional chemical propulsion systems, because energy from the reactor resupplies energy lost due to hydrogen dissociation. Recombination takes place in the nozzle due primarily to a drop in temperature as the Mach number increases. However, as the Mach number increases beyond the nozzle throat, the static pressure and density of the flow decreases and minimizes the recombination. The ideal LPNTP Isp at 3000 K and 10 psia is 1160 seconds due to the added energy from fast recombination rates. The actual Isp depends on the finite kinetic reaction rates which affect the amount of monatomic hydrogen

  14. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  15. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  18. 基于荷载时程分析法的飞机撞击反应堆安全壳的对比研究%COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IMPACT OF AIRCRAFT ON NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTAINMENT BASED ON FORCE TIME-HISTORY ANALYSIS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 潘蓉; 朱秀云; 胡勐乾; 詹佳硕

    2015-01-01

    应用非线性有限元分析程序LS-DYNA,利用欧洲压水堆EPR核电厂所采用的超设计基准事件大型商用飞机恶意撞击安全壳的等效荷载曲线和HAD101/04《核电厂厂址选择的外部人为事件》中提供的设计基准事件波音707-320小型飞机等效荷载曲线分别作用在某反应堆安全壳上,比较两种不同的荷载曲线对同一反应堆安全壳的响应。%Based on the nonlinear finite element program LS-DYNA, the equivalent load curve of the over designed reference event by the impact of a large commercial aircraft on the containment used for EPR nuclear power plant, and the equivalent load curve of the designed reference event by Boeing 707-320 small plane provided in HAD101/04(1989) were respectively performed on the containment of a nuclear reactor.The responses of the two different load curves on the containment of the same reactor were compared.

  19. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  20. Nuclear electric propulsion options for piloted Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    Three nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems are discussed. The three systems are as follows: a system based on current SP-100 technology; a potassium Rankine-cycle based power conversion system, and an argon ion thruster system. The system will be researched for implementation in several possible vehicle configurations. The following are among the possible Mars vehicle configurations: a piloted 15 MWe multi-reactor vehicle; a piloted 10 MWe vehicle with ECCV; a piloted 10 MWe modular vehicle; piloted 10 and 15 MWe vehicles with ECCV and MEV; a piloted 5 MWe vehicle with ECCV; a 5 MWe cargo vehicle with 2 MEV's; and a 2.5 MWe vehicle with MEV.

  1. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  2. Hypersonic propulsion - Breaking the thermal barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The challenges of hypersonic propulsion impose unique features on the hypersonic vehicle - from large volume requirements to contain cryogenic fuel to airframe-integrated propulsion required to process sufficient quantities of air. Additional challenges exist in the design of the propulsion module that must be capable of efficiently processing air at very high enthalpies, adding and mixing fuel at supersonic speeds and expanding the exhaust products to generate thrust greater than drag. The paper explores the unique challenges of the integrated hypersonic propulsion system, addresses propulsion cycle selection to cope with the severe thermal environment and reviews the direction of propulsion research at hypervelocity speeds.

  3. Propulsion Challenges for Small Spacecraft: 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vadim Zakirov; LI Luming

    2006-01-01

    Small (<100 kg) spacecrafts are being developed in many countries but their propulsion systems still have many challenges. Although there is demand for small spacecraft propulsion, the number of missions at present is small due to several commercial and technical reasons. Poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion systems is one of the main reasons for the small number of missions. Several reasons are given for the poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion. Suggested improvements focus on small spacecraft and propulsion hardware mass optimization rather than on specific impulse enhancement. Propellantless propulsion systems are also recommended for small spacecraft interplanetary missions.

  4. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  5. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  6. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  7. Environmental Impact Statement. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program. Particle Bed reactor Propulsion Technology Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    eerobber 25 ye. gmat Be"g to e1lsabsort on tbast m kSSCCIATID fhCUwnS OF my&"~ -- lool2s-afl 40 IT sUPCWTM OF XlVAG -- 102/362-e70 411 0et £eeme*l A...the word It have to tied out whether or sat yew ased to to" it. it 12 Gmat at ths V0bli6 at digeesiata i9OntaaIM to interested i2 apgeare to "e that

  8. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  9. Engine System Model Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl W.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to design, analyze, and evaluate conceptual Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine systems, an improved NTP design and analysis tool has been developed. The NTP tool utilizes the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) system tool and many of the routines from the Enabler reactor model found in Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Improved non-nuclear component models and an external shield model were added to the tool. With the addition of a nearly complete system reliability model, the tool will provide performance, sizing, and reliability data for NERVA-Derived NTP engine systems. A new detailed reactor model is also being developed and will replace Enabler. The new model will allow more flexibility in reactor geometry and include detailed thermal hydraulics and neutronics models. A description of the reactor, component, and reliability models is provided. Another key feature of the modeling process is the use of comprehensive spreadsheets for each engine case. The spreadsheets include individual worksheets for each subsystem with data, plots, and scaled figures, making the output very useful to each engineering discipline. Sample performance and sizing results with the Enabler reactor model are provided including sensitivities. Before selecting an engine design, all figures of merit must be considered including the overall impacts on the vehicle and mission. Evaluations based on key figures of merit of these results and results with the new reactor model will be performed. The impacts of clustering and external shielding will also be addressed. Over time, the reactor model will be upgraded to design and analyze other NTP concepts with CERMET and carbide fuel cores.

  10. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  11. Electric propulsion - A high energy capability for solar system exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of spacecraft electric (ion thruster) propulsion are briefly reviewed. Attention is given to the inner and outer planet applications of electric (and solar electric) propulsion. Electric propulsion is considered as a stepping stone to nuclear electric propulsion.

  12. NASA Electric Aircraft Test Bed (NEAT) Development Plan - Design, Fabrication, Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2016-01-01

    As large airline companies compete to reduce emissions, fuel, noise, and maintenance costs, it is expected that more of their aircraft systems will shift from using turbofan propulsion, pneumatic bleed power, and hydraulic actuation, to instead using electrical motor propulsion, generator power, and electrical actuation. This requires new flight-weight and flight-efficient powertrain components, fault tolerant power management, and electromagnetic interference mitigation technologies. Moreover, initial studies indicate some combination of ambient and cryogenic thermal management and relatively high bus voltages when compared to state of practice will be required to achieve a net system benefit. Developing all these powertrain technologies within a realistic aircraft architectural geometry and under realistic operational conditions requires a unique electric aircraft testbed. This report will summarize existing testbed capabilities located in the U.S. and details the development of a unique complementary testbed that industry and government can utilize to further mature electric aircraft technologies.

  13. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aircraft- 2013 ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.; McDonald, Robert; Campbell, Robbie; Chase, Adam; Daniel, Jason; Darling, Michael; Green, Clayton; MacGregor, Collin; Sudak, Peter; Sykes, Harrison; Waddington, Michael; Fredericks, William J.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Martin, John G.; Moore, Mark D.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Felder, James L.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the final written documentation for the Aeronautic Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Seedling Fund's Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) Aircraft Phase I project. The findings presented include propulsion system concepts, synergistic missions, and aircraft concepts. LENR is a form of nuclear energy that potentially has over 4,000 times the energy density of chemical energy sources. It is not expected to have any harmful emissions or radiation which makes it extremely appealing. There is a lot of interest in LENR, but there are no proven theories. This report does not explore the feasibility of LENR. Instead, it assumes that a working system is available. A design space exploration shows that LENR can enable long range and high speed missions. Six propulsion concepts, six missions, and four aircraft concepts are presented. This report also includes discussion of several issues and concerns that were uncovered during the study and potential research areas to infuse LENR aircraft into NASA's aeronautics research.

  14. Nuclear Propulsion Project Workshop summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas J.; Clark, John S.; Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the planning and coordination of a joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Project which will investigate both nuclear electric and nuclear thermal concepts. The three-agency team has been tasked with the development of an Interagency Agreement and Memorandum of Understanding, as well as the drafting of a statement as to astronaut crew guidelines and values, the assessment of human-rating requirements, the development of an interagency safety and environmental assessment plan, and the development of test facility requirements. Attention is to be given to the role of SP-100 for nuclear-electric propulsion applications.

  15. Aircraft automatic flight control system with model inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, George

    1990-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to verify the advantages of a Newton-Raphson model-inversion technique as a design basis for an automatic trajectory control system in an aircraft with highly nonlinear characteristics. The simulation employed a detailed mathematical model of the aerodynamic and propulsion system performance characteristics of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing tactical aircraft. The results obtained confirm satisfactory control system performance over a large portion of the flight envelope. System response to wind gusts was satisfactory for various plausible combinations of wind magnitude and direction.

  16. Electrolysis Propulsion Provides High-Performance, Inexpensive, Clean Spacecraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroot, Wim A.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolysis propulsion system consumes electrical energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are stored in separate tanks and used when needed in gaseous bipropellant thrusters for spacecraft propulsion. The propellant and combustion products are clean and nontoxic. As a result, costs associated with testing, handling, and launching can be an order of magnitude lower than for conventional propulsion systems, making electrolysis a cost-effective alternative to state-of-the-art systems. The electrical conversion efficiency is high (>85 percent), and maximum thrust-to-power ratios of 0.2 newtons per kilowatt (N/kW), a 370-sec specific impulse, can be obtained. A further advantage of the water rocket is its dual-mode potential. For relatively high thrust applications, the system can be used as a bipropellant engine. For low thrust levels and/or small impulse bit requirements, cold gas oxygen can be used alone. An added innovation is that the same hardware, with modest modifications, can be converted into an energy-storage and power-generation fuel cell, reducing the spacecraft power and propulsion system weight by an order of magnitude.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  18. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  19. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  20. Space vehicle design and operation for efficient use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Mike L.; Hodge, John R.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a high-leverage, and possibly enabling, propulsion choice for sending humans to Mars. Important performance gains are expected for NTP Mars transfer vehicle over their counterparts, the conventional chemical systems. These gains come in spite of vehicle unique requirements for NTP engine development and operations: expected higher development costs, prelaunch and in-space handing safeguards, extra propellant for reactor cool-down after engine burns, and safe, managed disposal of spent NTP engines. Prior studies have also shown that these NTP engines and stages, sized for Mars missions, could increase delivered payloads for some piloted lunar mission as well.

  1. A New Propulsion System for Ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-31

    complex relationships involving ship propulsion , ship control and a host of independent problems related to hydrodynamics, structural mechanics, efficiency...namely ship configuration and ship con- trol in addition to ship propulsion . The transmission pump can 1be used for boundary layer control on the...possibly overcome the limitation and performance shortcomings of existing ship propulsion systems. Light weight propulsion systems for naval ship

  2. THE FUTURE OF SPACECRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  3. The Future of Spacecraft Nuclear Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, F.

    2014-06-01

    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  4. Identification of gas powered motor propulsion group for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldziej, Daniel; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Mirek, Karol

    2016-09-01

    The present work aims at the dynamics identification of gas powered motor propulsion applied in remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) of the small or medium class. In subsequent chapters, the criteria indicating the choice of an electric or a gas power system are described. Moreover, the classification and characteristics of gas powered motor propulsions are presented. The main body of the article contains a laboratory stand dedicated to test the fumes from the motor propulsions in order to measure their static and dynamic characteristics. A wireless solution of acquiring the measurement data from the laboratory stand reflecting real working conditions of the repulsion is suggested. In further parts, the dynamics identification is done, and the transfer function of the object is presented.

  5. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  6. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

  7. Propulsion IVHM Extreme Environment Instrumentation Power IVHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, June

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents propulsion and instrumentation power for integrated vehicle health management technologies. The topics include: 1) Propulsion IVHM Capabilities Research; 2) Projects: X-33 Post-Test Diagnostic System; 3) X-34 NITEX; 4) Advanced Health Monitoring Systems; 5) Active Vibration Monitoring System; 6) Smart Self Healing Propulsion Systems; 7) Extreme Environment Sensors; and 8) Systems Engineering and Integration.

  8. CASC Consolidates Its Liquid Propulsion Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ To consolidate its liquid rocket engine development ability, China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) integrated several of its subsidiaries, Beijing Aerospace Propulsion Institute, Beijing Institute of Aerospace Testing Technology, and Shanghai Institute of Space Propulsion (SISP) into the Academy of Aerospace Liquid Propulsion Technology (AALPT). The establishment of the new AALPT was announced on July 22 in Beijing.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Propulsion for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Gabriel I.; Dudley, Scott C.

    2004-10-01

    The cinema industry can sometimes prove to be an ally when searching for material with which to motivate students to learn physics. Consider, for example, the electromagnetic force on a current in the presence of a magnetic field. This phenomenon is at the heart of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion systems. A submarine employing this type of propulsion was immortalized in the movie Hunt for Red October. While mentioning this to students certainly gets their attention, it often elicits comments that it is only fiction and not physically possible. Imagine their surprise when a working system is demonstrated! It is neither difficult nor expensive to construct a working system that can be demonstrated in the front of a classroom.2 In addition, all aspects of the engineering hurdles that must be surmounted and myths concerning this "silent propulsion" system are borne out in a simple apparatus. This paper details how to construct an inexpensive MHD propulsion boat that can be demonstrated for students in the classroom.

  10. In-space nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, C.; Dujarric, C.

    2013-02-01

    The past and the recent status of nuclear propulsion (NP) for application to space mission is presented. The case for using NP in manned space missions is made based on fundamental physics and on the necessity to ensure safe radiation doses to future astronauts. In fact, the presence of solar and galactic-cosmic radiation poses substantial risks to crews traveling for months in a row to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. Since passive or active shields would be massive to protect against the more energetic part of the radiation energy spectrum, the only alternative is to reduce dose by traveling faster. Hence the importance of propulsion systems with much higher specific impulse than that of current chemical systems, and thus the use of nuclear propulsion. Nuclear-thermal and nuclear-electric propulsions are then discussed in view of their potential application to missions now in the preliminary planning stage by space agencies and industries and being considered by the ISECG international panel. In this context, recent ideas for future use of the ISS that may require NP are also presented.

  11. Nuclear Thermal Rocket - An Established Space Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Milton

    2004-02-01

    From the late 1950s to the early 1970s a major program successfully developed the capability to conduct space exploration using the advanced technology of nuclear rocket propulsion. The program had two primary elements: pioneering and advanced technology work-Rover-at Los Alamos National Laboratory and its contractors provided the basic reactor design, fuel materials development, and reactor testing capability; and engine development-NERVA-by the industrial team of Aerojet and Westinghouse building on and extending the Los Alamos efforts to flight system development. This presentation describes the NERVA program, the engine system testing that demonstrated the space-practical operation capabilities of nuclear thermal rockets, and the mission studies that point the way to most effectively use the NTR capabilities. Together, the two programs established a technology base that includes proven NTR capabilities of (1) over twice the specific impulse of chemical propulsion systems, (2) thrust capabilities ranging from 44kN to 1112kN, and (3) practical thrust-to-weight ratios for future NASA space exploration missions, both manned payloads to Mars and unmanned payloads to the outer planets. The overall nuclear rocket program had a unique management structure that integrated the efforts of the two government agencies involved-NASA and the then-existing Atomic Energy Commission. The objective of this paper is to summarize and convey the technical and management lessons learned in this program as the nation considers the design of its future space exploration activities.

  12. Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Pellaccio, Dennis G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the 'next generation' of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration.

  13. Flight Dynamics of Flexible Aircraft with Aeroelastic and Inertial Force Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Tuzcu, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated flight dynamic modeling method for flexible aircraft that captures coupled physics effects due to inertial forces, aeroelasticity, and propulsive forces that are normally present in flight. The present approach formulates the coupled flight dynamics using a structural dynamic modeling method that describes the elasticity of a flexible, twisted, swept wing using an equivalent beam-rod model. The structural dynamic model allows for three types of wing elastic motion: flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion. Inertial force coupling with the wing elasticity is formulated to account for aircraft acceleration. The structural deflections create an effective aeroelastic angle of attack that affects the rigid-body motion of flexible aircraft. The aeroelastic effect contributes to aerodynamic damping forces that can influence aerodynamic stability. For wing-mounted engines, wing flexibility can cause the propulsive forces and moments to couple with the wing elastic motion. The integrated flight dynamics for a flexible aircraft are formulated by including generalized coordinate variables associated with the aeroelastic-propulsive forces and moments in the standard state-space form for six degree-of-freedom flight dynamics. A computational structural model for a generic transport aircraft has been created. The eigenvalue analysis is performed to compute aeroelastic frequencies and aerodynamic damping. The results will be used to construct an integrated flight dynamic model of a flexible generic transport aircraft.

  14. Review of evolving trends in blended wing body aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Paul; Smith, Howard

    2016-04-01

    The desire to produce environmentally friendly aircraft that is aerodynamically efficient and capable of conveying large number of passengers over long ranges at reduced direct operating cost led aircraft designers to develop the Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft concept. The BWB aircraft represents a paradigm shift in the design of aircraft. The design provides aerodynamics and environmental benefits and is suitable for the integration of advanced systems and concepts like laminar flow technology, jet flaps and distributed propulsion. However, despite these benefits, the BWB is yet to be developed for commercial air transport due to several challenges. This paper reviews emerging trends in BWB aircraft design highlighting design challenges that have hindered the development of a BWB passenger transport aircraft. The study finds that in order to harness the advantages and reduce the deficiencies of a tightly coupled configuration like the BWB, a multidisciplinary design synthesis optimisation should be conducted with good handling and ride quality as objective functions within acceptable direct operating cost and noise bounds.

  15. Software To Secure Distributed Propulsion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed-object computing systems are presented with many security threats, including network eavesdropping, message tampering, and communications middleware masquerading. NASA Glenn Research Center, and its industry partners, has taken an active role in mitigating the security threats associated with developing and operating their proprietary aerospace propulsion simulations. In particular, they are developing a collaborative Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines

  16. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  17. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was started in 1955 under the Atomic Energy Commission as project Rover and was assigned to Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Nevada Test Site was selected in 1956 and facility construction began in 1957. The KIWI-A was tested on July 1, 1959 for 5 minutes at 70MW. KIWI-A1 was tested on July 8, 1960 for 6 minutes at 85MW. KIWI-A3 was tested on October 10, 1960 for 5 minutes at 100MW. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was formed in 1958. On August 31, 1960 the AEC and NASA established the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office and named Harold Finger as Director. Immediately following the formation of SNPO, contracts were awarded for the Reactor In Flight Test (RIFT), master plan for the Nuclear Rocket Engine Development Station (NRDS), and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA). From December 7, 1961 to November 30, 1962, the KIWI-B1A, KIWI-B1B, and KIWI-B4A were tested at test cell A. The last two engines were only tested for several seconds before noticeable failure of the fuel elements. Harold Finger called a stop to any further hot fire testing until the problem was well understood. The KIWI-B4A cold flow test showed the problem to be related to fluid dynamics of hydrogen interstitial flow causing fuel element vibrations. President Kennedy visited the NTS one week after the KIWI-B4A failure and got to see the engine starting to be disassembled in the maintenance facility. The KIWI-B4D and KIWI-B4E were modified to not have the vibration problems and were tested in test cell C. The NERVA NRX program started testing in early 1964 with NRX-A1 cold flow test series (unfueled graphite core), NRX-A2 and NRX-A3 power test series up to 1122 MW for 13 minutes. In March 1966, the NRX-EST (Engine System Test) was the first breadboard using flight functional relationship and total operating time of 116 minutes. The NRX-EST demonstrated the feasibility of a hot bleed cycle. The NRX-A5 had multiple start

  18. Advanced Space Propulsion Study - Antiproton and Beamed Power Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    34. Physikalisches Inst., There will be no prcceedings. Physikzentrum, Sommerfeldstr., "pies of presentations must be D-5100 Aachen, Germany. obtained from the...Propulsion," (in English), Zeitschrift ftr Flugwissenschaften und Weltraimforschung 10, 393- 400 (November/December 1988). [Bdi I do not see how production...the Phase," Preprint BERN 86-1370 (July 1986), Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland. L.A. Kondratyuk and M.G

  19. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, P.

    1994-04-01

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried out in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ...) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. Depuis quelques années nous assistons à un redémarrage de programmes concernant la lévitation et la propulsion supraconductrices. Différents systèmes supraconducteurs de lévitation et de propulsion seront décrits en examinant plus particulièrement l'aspect électromagnétique. Quelques programmes à travers le monde seront abordés. Les trains à sustentation magnétique pourraient constituer un nouveau mode de transport terrestre à vitesse élevée (500 km/h) pour le 21^e siècle. Les japonais n'ont cessé de s'intéresser à ce système avec bobine supraconductrice. Ils envisagent un stade préindustriel avec la construction d'une ligne de 43 km. En 1991 un programme américain pour une durée de six ans a été lancé pour évaluer les performances des systèmes à lévitation pour le transport aux Etats Unis. La MHD (Magnéto- Hydro-Dynamique) présente des avantages intéressants pour la propulsion navale et un regain d'intérêt apparaît à l'heure actuelle. Le japon se situe là encore à la pointe des d

  20. Space Exploration Initiative Fuels, Materials and Related Nuclear Propulsion Technologies Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Olsen, C.; Cooper, R.; Matthews, R. B.; Walter, C.; Titran, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts.

  1. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  2. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  3. Military aircraft and missile technology at the Langley Research Center: A selected bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    A compilation of reference material is presented on the Langley Research Center's efforts in developing advanced military aircraft and missile technology over the past twenty years. Reference material includes research made in aerodynamics, performance, stability, control, stall-spin, propulsion integration, flutter, materials, and structures.

  4. Aircraft fuel conservation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning means to conserve fuel in airline operations. Included are abstracts dealing with aircraft design, engine design, propulsion efficiency, fuels, and operating procedures which conserve fuel.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  6. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winterberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving mag...

  7. Development of Waterjet Propulsion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Figure I shows the configuration of the proposed propulsion system in the aft end of an LVTP-7A1. A 20-inch diameter impeller is to be housed in a...16A the straamlne0 1 ig. 30Reato between vltys coff "scienw C+ andrust r atio o nd no l ocit in 09- 046 Anlyi to 12e e1Pople 16 is 20 s 24 262n3 Fig

  8. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  9. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  10. High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer Missions in Cislunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) in transporting cargo and propellant from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the first Earth-Moon Lagrange point (EML1) is examined. The baseline NEP vehicle utilizes a fission reactor system with Brayton power conversion for electric power generation to power multiple liquid hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Vehicle characteristics and performance levels are based on technology availability in a fifteen to twenty year timeframe. Results of numerical trajectory analyses are also provided.

  11. The impact of technology on fighter aircraft requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Foss, W. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Technology integration studies were made to examine the impact of emerging technologies on fighter aircraft. The technologies examined included advances in aerodynamics, controls, structures, propulsion, and systems and were those which appeared capable of being ready for application by the turn of the century. A primary impetus behind large increases in figher capability will be the rapid increase in fighter engine thrust-to-weight ratio. High thrust-weight engines, integrated with other advanced and emerging technologies, can result in small extremely maneuverable fighter aircraft that have thrust-weight ratios of 1.4+ and weight one-half as much as today's fighters. Future fighter aircraft requirements are likely to include a turn capability in excess of 7g's throughout much of the maneuver envelope, post-stall maneuverability, STOVL or VTOL, and a single engine for low cost.

  12. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  13. Bioelectric Control of a 757 Class High Fidelity Aircraft Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Wheeler, Kevin; Stepniewski, Slawomir; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results of a recent experiment in fine grain Electromyographic (EMG) signal recognition, We demonstrate bioelectric flight control of 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport. The physical instrumentality of a pilot control stick is not used. A pilot closes a fist in empty air and performs control movements which are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm, analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. A Vision Dome immersive display is used to create a VR world for the aircraft body mechanics and flight changes to pilot movements. Inner loop surfaces and differential aircraft thrust is controlled using a hybrid neural network architecture that combines a damage adaptive controller (Jorgensen 1998, Totah 1998) with a propulsion only based control system (Bull & Kaneshige 1997). Thus the 757 aircraft is not only being flown bioelectrically at the pilot level but also demonstrates damage adaptive neural network control permitting adaptation to severe changes in the physical flight characteristics of the aircraft at the inner loop level. To compensate for accident scenarios, the aircraft uses remaining control surface authority and differential thrust from the engines. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time real time bioelectric fine-grained control, differential thrust based control, and neural network damage adaptive control have been integrated into a single flight demonstration. The paper describes the EMG pattern recognition system and the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology.

  14. Powered Flight The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Greatrix, David R

    2012-01-01

    Whilst most contemporary books in the aerospace propulsion field are dedicated primarily to gas turbine engines, there is often little or no coverage of other propulsion systems and devices such as propeller and helicopter rotors or detailed attention to rocket engines. By taking a wider viewpoint, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion aims to provide a broader context, allowing observations and comparisons to be made across systems that are overlooked by focusing on a single aspect alone. The physics and history of aerospace propulsion are built on step-by-step, coupled with the development of an appreciation for the mathematics involved in the science and engineering of propulsion. Combining the author’s experience as a researcher, an industry professional and a lecturer in graduate and undergraduate aerospace engineering, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion covers its subject matter both theoretically and with an awareness of the practicalities of the industry. To ...

  15. Propulsion in cubomedusae: mechanisms and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H; Katija, Kakani; Seymour, Jamie; Kiefer, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary constraints which limit the forces produced during bell contractions of medusae affect the overall medusan morphospace such that jet propulsion is limited to only small medusae. Cubomedusae, which often possess large prolate bells and are thought to swim via jet propulsion, appear to violate the theoretical constraints which determine the medusan morphospace. To examine propulsion by cubomedusae, we quantified size related changes in wake dynamics, bell shape, swimming and turning kinematics of two species of cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie. During growth, these cubomedusae transitioned from using jet propulsion at smaller sizes to a rowing-jetting hybrid mode of propulsion at larger sizes. Simple modifications in the flexibility and kinematics of their velarium appeared to be sufficient to alter their propulsive mode. Turning occurs during both bell contraction and expansion and is achieved by generating asymmetric vortex structures during both stages of the swimming cycle. Swimming characteristics were considered in conjunction with the unique foraging strategy used by cubomedusae.

  16. Propulsion System Models for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design code NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) was initially implemented to model conventional rotorcraft propulsion systems, consisting of turboshaft engines burning jet fuel, connected to one or more rotors through a mechanical transmission. The NDARC propulsion system representation has been extended to cover additional propulsion concepts, including electric motors and generators, rotor reaction drive, turbojet and turbofan engines, fuel cells and solar cells, batteries, and fuel (energy) used without weight change. The paper describes these propulsion system components, the architecture of their implementation in NDARC, and the form of the models for performance and weight. Requirements are defined for improved performance and weight models of the new propulsion system components. With these new propulsion models, NDARC can be used to develop environmentally-friendly rotorcraft designs.

  17. Physics and potentials of fissioning plasmas for space power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Fissioning uranium plasmas are the nuclear fuel in conceptual high-temperature gaseous-core reactors for advanced rocket propulsion in space. A gaseous-core nuclear rocket would be a thermal reactor in which an enriched uranium plasma at about 10,000 K is confined in a reflector-moderator cavity where it is nuclear critical and transfers its fission power to a confining propellant flow for the production of thrust at a specific impulse up to 5000 sec. With a thrust-to-engine weight ratio approaching unity, the gaseous-core nuclear rocket could provide for propulsion capabilities needed for manned missions to the nearby planets and for economical cislunar ferry services. Fueled with enriched uranium hexafluoride and operated at temperatures lower than needed for propulsion, the gaseous-core reactor scheme also offers significant benefits in applications for space and terrestrial power. They include high-efficiency power generation at low specific mass, the burnup of certain fission products and actinides, the breeding of U-233 from thorium with short doubling times, and improved convenience of fuel handling and processing in the gaseous phase.

  18. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  19. Emergency Control Aircraft System Using Thrust Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A digital longitudinal Aircraft Propulsion Control (APC system of a multiengine aircraft is provided by engine thrust modulation in response to comparing an input flightpath angle signal (gamma)c from a pilot thumbwheel. or an ILS system with a sensed flightpath angle y to produce an error signal (gamma)e that is then integrated (with reasonable limits) to generate a drift correction signal to be added to the error signal (gamma)e after first subtracting a lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) for phugoid damping. The output error signal is multiplied by a constant to produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC of suitable amplitude to drive a throttle servo for all engines. each of which includes its own full-authority digital engine control (FADEC) computer. An alternative APC system omits sensed flightpath angle feedback and instead controls the flightpath angle by feedback of the lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) which also inherently provides phugoid damping. The feature of drift compensation is retained.

  20. Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    RD-A124 Wi CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION (U) ARIZONA 112 UNIV TUCSON ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION PARK ET AL. 01 APR 82 1248-9 N814...395 CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION Prepared for Office of Naval Research Code 431 Arlington, Virginia Prepared by J. S. Park, M. F...FOR SHIP PROPULSION By J. S. Park, M. F. Taylor and D. M. McEligot Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department University of Arizona Tucson

  1. Propulsion Design with Freeform Fabrication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propulsion Design with Freeform Fabrication (PDFF) will develop and implement a novel design methodology that leverages the rapidly evolving Solid Freeform...

  2. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Ali [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan 313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestanian, Ramin [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-04-13

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.

  3. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, F

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving magnetic insulation and GeV electrostatic potentials

  4. Conceptual design of inherently safe integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I.; Chang, M. H.; Lee, D. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    The design concept of a 300 MWt inherently safe integral reactor(ISIR) for the propulsion of extra large and superhigh speed container ship was developed in this report. The scope and contents of this report are as follows : 1. The state of the art of the technology for ship-mounted reactor 2. Design requirements for ISIR 3. Fuel and core design 4. Conceptual design of fluid system 5. Conceptual design of reactor vessel assembly and primary components 6. Performance analyses and safety analyses. Installation of two ISIRs with total thermal power of 600MWt and efficiency of 21% is capable of generating shaft power of 126,000kW which is sufficient to power a container ship of 8,000TEU with 30knot cruise speed. Larger and speedier ship can be considered by installing 4 ISIRs. Even though the ISIR was developed for ship propulsion, it can be used also for a multi-purpose nuclear power plant for electricity generation, local heating, or seawater desalination by mounting on a movable floating barge. (author)

  5. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  6. A critical assembly designed to measure neutronic benchmarks in support of the space nuclear thermal propulsion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Edward J.; Ball, Russell M.; Hoovler, Gary S.; Selcow, Elizabeth C.; Cerbone, Ralph J.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor designed to perform criticality experiments in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program is currently in operation at the Sandia National Laboratories' reactor facility. The reactor is a small, water-moderated system that uses highly enriched uranium particle fuel in a 19-element configuration. Its purpose is to obtain neutronic measurements under a variety of experimental conditions that are subsequently used to benchmark rector-design computer codes. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Babcock & Wilcox, and Sandia National Laboratories participated in determining the reactor's performance requirements, design, follow-on experimentation, and in obtaining the licensing approvals. Brookhaven National Laboratory is primarily responsible for the analytical support, Babcock & Wilcox the hardware design, and Sandia National Laboratories the operational safety. All of the team members participate in determining the experimentation requirements, performance, and data reduction. Initial criticality was achieved in October 1989. An overall description of the reactor is presented along with key design features and safety-related aspects.

  7. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  8. Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, E.D. (ed.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Sikes, W.C. (ed.) (Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., VA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

  9. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  10. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

  11. Analysis of the Space Propulsion System Problem Using RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    diego mandelli; curtis smith; cristian rabiti; andrea alfonsi

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the solution of the space propulsion problem using a PRA code currently under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENviroment) is a multi-purpose Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) software framework that allows dispatching different functionalities. It is designed to derive and actuate the control logic required to simulate the plant control system and operator actions (guided procedures) and to perform both Monte- Carlo sampling of random distributed events and Event Tree based analysis. In order to facilitate the input/output handling, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a post-processing data-mining module are available. RAVEN allows also to interface with several numerical codes such as RELAP5 and RELAP-7 and ad-hoc system simulators. For the space propulsion system problem, an ad-hoc simulator has been developed and written in python language and then interfaced to RAVEN. Such simulator fully models both deterministic (e.g., system dynamics and interactions between system components) and stochastic behaviors (i.e., failures of components/systems such as distribution lines and thrusters). Stochastic analysis is performed using random sampling based methodologies (i.e., Monte-Carlo). Such analysis is accomplished to determine both the reliability of the space propulsion system and to propagate the uncertainties associated to a specific set of parameters. As also indicated in the scope of the benchmark problem, the results generated by the stochastic analysis are used to generate risk-informed insights such as conditions under witch different strategy can be followed.

  12. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  13. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have—...

  14. Overview of DOE space nuclear propulsion programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Department of Energy space nuclear propulsion programs is presented in outline and graphic form. DOE's role in the development and safety assurance of space nuclear propulsion is addressed. Testing issues and facilities are discussed along with development needs and recent research activities.

  15. Cycle Trades for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Guidos, M.; Greene, W.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been used as a reliable source for utility power in the United States for decades. Even in the 1940's, long before the United States had a viable space program, the theoretical benefits of nuclear power as applied to space travel were being explored. These benefits include long-life operation and high performance, particularly in the form of vehicle power density, enabling longer-lasting space missions. The configurations for nuclear rocket systems and chemical rocket systems are similar except that a nuclear rocket utilizes a fission reactor as its heat source. This thermal energy can be utilized directly to heat propellants that are then accelerated through a nozzle to generate thrust or it can be used as part of an electricity generation system. The former approach is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and the latter is Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), which is then used to power thruster technologies such as ion thrusters. This paper will explore a number of indirect-NTP engine cycle configurations using assumed performance constraints and requirements, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each cycle configuration, and present preliminary performance and size results. This paper is intended to lay the groundwork for future efforts in the development of a practical NTP system or a combined NTP/NEP hybrid system.

  16. Nuclear rockets: High-performance propulsion for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. W.

    1994-05-01

    A new impetus to manned Mars exploration was introduced by President Bush in his Space Exploration Initiative. This has led, in turn, to a renewed interest in high-thrust nuclear thermal rocket propulsion (NTP). The purpose of this report is to give a brief tutorial introduction to NTP and provide a basic understanding of some of the technical issues in the realization of an operational NTP engine. Fundamental physical principles are outlined from which a variety of qualitative advantages of NTP over chemical propulsion systems derive, and quantitative performance comparisons are presented for illustrative Mars missions. Key technologies are described for a representative solid-core heat-exchanger class of engine, based on the extensive development work in the Rover and NERVA nuclear rocket programs (1955 to 1973). The most driving technology, fuel development, is discussed in some detail for these systems. Essential highlights are presented for the 19 full-scale reactor and engine tests performed in these programs. On the basis of these tests, the practicality of graphite-based nuclear rocket engines was established. Finally, several higher-performance advanced concepts are discussed. These have received considerable attention, but have not, as yet, developed enough credibility to receive large-scale development.

  17. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  18. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  19. Thermohydraulics of reactors; Thermohydraulique des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J.M

    2008-07-01

    This scientific and technical handbook about PWR reactors thermohydraulics is the result of many years of teaching in the framework of the CEA-INSTN's atomic engineering training courses, in engineering schools and during continuing training activities. Its main goal is to present in a rigorous and pedagogical way the basic knowledge necessary for the understanding and modeling of single phase and two-phase thermohydraulic phenomena encountered during the design and operation of nuclear reactors. In particular, heat transfers in two-phase flows are presented in a detailed way. Most chapters include some nuclear engineering examples of application of the studied concepts, and some exercises aiming at mastering these concepts. Each example or exercise is accompanied by its detailed solution. Content: - thermohydraulic characteristics of reactors; - design and thermal dimensioning of reactors; - thermal engineering of the fuel element; - two-phase flow configurations in ducts; - recalls about single-phase flow equations; - basic equations for two-phase flows; - modeling of two-phase flows inside ducts; - pressure drops in ducts; - boiling and vapor condensation heat transfers; - two-phase flow instabilities in ducts; - two-phase flow blocking; thermohydraulics of naval propulsion reactors.

  20. First Breakthrough for Future Air-Breathing Magneto-Plasma Propulsion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Goksel, Berkant

    2016-01-01

    A new breakthrough in jet propulsion technology since the invention of the jet engine is achieved. The first critical tests for future air-breathing magneto-plasma propulsion systems have been successfully completed. In this regard, it is also the first time that a pinching dense plasma focus discharge could be ignited at one atmosphere and driven in pulse mode using very fast, nanosecond electrostatic excitations to induce self-organized plasma channels for ignition of the propulsive main discharge. Depending on the capacitor voltage (200-600 V) the energy input at one atmosphere varies from 52-320 J/pulse corresponding to impulse bits from 1.2-8.0 mNs. Such a new pulsed plasma propulsion system driven with one thousand pulses per second would already have thrust-to-area ratios (50-150 kN/m2) of modern jet engines. An array of thrusters could enable future aircrafts and airships to start from ground and reach altitudes up to 50km and beyond. The needed high power could be provided by future compact plasma fu...

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  3. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  4. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Rich; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets.The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The paper will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe

  5. A Review of Carbide Fuel Corrosion for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Butt, Darryl P.

    1994-07-01

    At the operation conditions of interest in nuclear thermal propulsion reactors, carbide materials have been known to exhibit a number of life limiting phenomena. These include the formation of liquid, loss by vaporization, creep and corresponding gas flow restrictions, and local corrosion and fuel structure degradation due to excessive mechanical and/or thermal loading. In addition, the radiation environment in the reactor core can produce a substantial change in its local physical properties, which can produce high thermal stresses and corresponding stress fractures (cracking). Time-temperature history and cyclic operation of the nuclear reactor can also accelerate some of these processes. The University of New Mexico's Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, under NASA sponsorship has recently initiated a study to model the complicated hydrogen corrosion process. In support of this effort, an extensive review of the open literature was performed, and a technical expert workshop was conducted. This paper summarizes the results of this review.

  6. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  7. Nuclear Propulsion for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, M. G.; Bechtel, R. D.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Basics of Nuclear Systems: Long history of use on Apollo and space science missions. 44 RTGs and hundreds of RHUs launched by U.S. during past 4 decades. Heat produced from natural alpha (a) particle decay of Plutonium (Pu-238). Used for both thermal management and electricity production. Used terrestrially for over 65 years. Fissioning 1 kg of uranium yields as much energy as burning 2,700,000 kg of coal. One US space reactor (SNAP-10A) flown (1965). Former U.S.S.R. flew 33 space reactors. Heat produced from neutron-induced splitting of a nucleus (e.g. U-235). At steady-state, 1 of the 2 to 3 neutrons released in the reaction causes a subsequent fission in a "chain reaction" process. Heat converted to electricity, or used directly to heat a propellant. Fission is highly versatile with many applications.

  8. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  9. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John W.; Martinell, John; Clark, John S.; Perkins, David

    1993-04-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies; this final report

  10. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John W.; Martinell, John; Clark, John S.; Perkins, David

    1993-01-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies; this final report

  11. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  12. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  13. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  14. The Rationale/Benefits of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion for NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  15. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  16. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  17. Marquardt's Mach 4.5 Supercharged Ejector Ramjet (SERJ) High-Performance Aircraft Engine Project: Unfulfilled Aspirations Ca.1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.; Roddy, Jordan E.; Hyde, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    The Supercharged Ejector Ramjet (SERJ) engine developments of the 1960s, as pursued by The Marquardt Corporation and its associated industry team members, are described. In just three years, engineering work on this combined-cycle powerplant type evolved, from its initial NASA-sponsored reusable space transportation system study status, into a U.S. Air Force/Navy-supported exploratory development program as a candidate 4.5 high-performance military aircraft engine. Bridging a productive transition from the spaceflight to the aviation arena, this case history supports the expectation that fully-integrated airbreathing/rocket propulsion systems hold high promise toward meeting the demanding propulsion requirements of tomorrow's aircraft-like Spaceliner class transportation systems. Lessons to be learned from this "SERJ Story" are offered for consideration by today's advanced space transportation and combined-cycle propulsion researchers and forward-planning communities.

  18. The development and flight test of an electronic integrated propulsion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H. J.; Painter, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced technical features of the electronic integrated propulsion control system (IPCS) and flight evaluation tests of IPCS (F-111E with TF30-P-9 engines as test vehicle) are described. Nine baseline flight tests and 15 IPCS flight tests were conducted. Instrumentation, data acquisition and data processing systems, software maintenance procedures, flight test procedures, flight safety criteria, flight test results, and ground and flight testing of the aircraft system are described. Advantages conferred by IPCS include: faster accelerations (both gas generator and afterburner performance), better thrust and flight control, reduced flight idle thrust, reduced engine ground trim, extended service ceiling, automatic stall detection, and stall recovery detection.

  19. Evaluation of High-Performance Space Nuclear Electric Generators for Electric Propulsion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion applications are enhanced by high power-to-mass ratios for their electric power sources. At multi-megawatt levels, we can expect thrust production systems to be less than 5 kg/kWe. Application of nuclear electric propulsion to human Mars missions becomes an attractive alternative to nuclear thermal propulsion if the propulsion system is less than about 10 kg/kWe. Recent references have projected megawatt-plus nuclear electric sources at specific mass values from less than 1 kg/kWe to about 5 kg/kWe. Various assumptions are made regarding power generation cycle (turbogenerator; MHD (magnetohydrodynamics)) and reactor heat source design. The present paper compares heat source and power generation options on the basis of a parametric model that emphasizes heat transfer design and realizable hardware concept. Pressure drop (important!) is included in the power cycle analysis, and MHD and turbogenerator cycles are compared. Results indicate that power source specific mass less than 5 kg/kWe is attainable, even if peak temperatures achievable are limited to 1500 K. Projections of specific mass less than 1 kg/kWe are unrealistic, even at the highest peak temperatures considered.

  20. The external gamma radiation environment from the Kiwi Phoebus, and Pewee reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    During the past few years, ground tests of high-powered propulsion-prototype reactors have provided several opportunities to observe the external radiation environment. Reactor tests have been conducted in free air and inside of open well shields. Measurements were taken over distances ranging from contact with the pressure vessel out to greater than 5000' both during operation and after shutdown. Some measurements characteristic of each of the systems are presented and compared with results of calculations.

  1. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  2. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  3. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  4. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  5. Authentication for Propulsion Test Streaming Video Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An application was developed that could enforce two-factor authentication for NASA access to the Propulsion Test Streaming Video System.  To gain access to the...

  6. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to develop and optimize an electrode-less plasma propulsion system that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) that is being developed...

  7. Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Gasdynamic Mirror, or GDM, is an example of a magnetic mirror-based fusion propulsion system. Its design is primarily consisting of a long slender solenoid surrounding a vacuum chamber that contains plasma. The bulk of the fusion plasma is confined by magnetic field generated by a series of toroidal-shaped magnets in the center section of the device. the purpose of the GDM Fusion Propulsion Experiment is to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to demonstrate many of the operational characteristics of a full-size plasma can be confined within the desired physical configuration and still reman stable. This image shows an engineer from Propulsion Research Technologies Division at Marshall Space Flight Center inspecting solenoid magnets-A, an integrate part of the Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment.

  8. Reservoir Scandate Cathode for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to combine two revolutionary cathode technologies into a single device for use in electric space propulsion. This will overcome problems that both...

  9. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  10. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Gary A.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program is presented in graphic form. A program organizational chart is presented that shows the government and industry participants. Enabling technologies and test facilities and approaches are also addressed.

  11. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Roland Antonius; Herdrich, Georg

    2015-11-01

    This article offers a summary of past efforts in the development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems for space transportation. First, the generic principle of thermal propulsion is outlined: a propellant is directly heated by a power source prior to being expanded which creates a thrusting force on the rocket. This enables deriving a motivation for the use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) relying on nuclear power sources. Then, a summary of major families of NTP systems is established on the basis of a literature survey. These families are distinguished by the nature of their power source, the most important being systems with radioisotope, fission, and fusion cores. Concepts proposing to harness the annihilation of matter and anti-matter are only touched briefly due to their limited maturity. For each family, an overview of physical fundamentals, technical concepts, and - if available - tested engines' propulsion parameters is given.

  12. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new thruster has been conceived and tested that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) plasma wave. In this new method of propulsion, an antenna generates and...

  13. Automatic aircraft recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  14. Propulsion in the Chameleon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2008-01-01

    The Chameleon model-thin-shell mechanism-proposed by Khoury and Weltman presents a likeness to a stationary warp bubble about masses of significant size and interest to space propulsion. A difference being that the thin-shell mechanism masks the mass of an object from an external Chameleon field comparable to the gravitational field in warp-drive theory. However, the thin-shell mechanism couples to the gravitational field by causing small perturbations limited to an object's effective range, which in essence could act like a warp-bubble under some ``yet to be defined'' conditions where the coupling is made stronger. In this paper, the thin-shell mechanism is discussed and shown to be the underlying physics behind rocket propulsion through the concept of localized oscillating dark matter comprising an increase in the thin-shell localized to a region on one side of an object. This is accomplished by drawing a connection between the localized oscillation of dark matter in this thin-shell region and the rocket equations. As such, it appears that a new physics effect is applied to normal matter; indicating that the results should have been observed decades ago. We argue that the Chameleon Model's thin-shell mechanism is a dark matter/energy field, which has always been in all momentum systems at or above the atomic scale where the mass has some physical significance in respect to the Chameleon model. Therefore, its physical (momentum) effects have already been observed. Further, since the analysis indicates that any motion of an object implies a change to the distribution of dark matter about an object, one can speculate that ``inertia is the change in the dark energy distribution about a mass.'' This being the case, the Chameleon dark matter/energy field about a mass has effects in many aspects of physics, but the laws have not (yet) been formulated to take advantage of the vacuum field aspects, which may provide the connection needed to extend modern rocketry to

  15. Superconducting Electric Machines for Ship Propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-14

    ship propulsion applications. These concepts evolved from previous work at MIT on superconducting AC machines. The superconducting machines considered were: (1) multipole, low-speed motors, (2) torque compensated motors, (3) high-speed generator, (4) rotating air-gap armature induction motor, (5) thyristor switched AC motors. The first four machine types were studied theoretically while experimental models were constructed of the last two. Preliminary designs were completed...of the five mahcines for an appropriate ship ... propulsion application. In

  16. Plasma Detachment Mechanisms in Propulsive Magnetic Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    modified. For instance, a non - Maxwellian distribution function of electrons could modify the results. Also, a downstream plasma detachment model would...Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Plasmas and Space Propulsion Team Calle Ramiro de Maeztu 7 Madrid, Spain 28040 EOARD Grant 12-2043 Report...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Plasmas and Space Propulsion Team Calle Ramiro de Maeztu 7 Madrid

  17. MEGAHIT Roadmap: Applications for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank; Semenkin, Alexander; Bauer, Waldemar; WORMS, Jean-Claude; Detsis, Emmanouil; CLIQUET-MORENO, Elisa; Masson, Frederic; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Gaia, Enrico; Cristina, T.M.; Tinsley, Tim; Hodgson, Zara

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the three EC funded nuclear electric propulsion funded projects DiPoP, MEGAHIT and DEMOCRITOS. It describes in detail the European-Russian MEGAHIT project - the study outputs, the proposal for a key technology plan, a plan for a political and public supportable reference space mission. Moreover the content of the MEGAHIT global roadmap for international realization of the INPPS (International Nuclear Power and Propulsion System) is sketched.

  18. Computational Investigation of a Boundary-Layer Ingesting Propulsion System for the Common Research Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Brennan T.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Maughmer, Mark D.; Schmitz, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a Boundary-Layer Ingestion (BLI) propulsion system into a typical commercial aircraft using the Common Research Model (CRM) geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment is used to generate engine conditions for CFD analysis. Improvements to the BLI geometry are made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Previous studies have shown reductions of up to 25% in terms of propulsive power required for cruise for other axisymmetric geometries using the BLI concept. An analysis of engine power requirements, drag, and lift coefficients using the baseline and BLI geometries coupled with the NPSS model are shown. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method, and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown and any improvements between subsequent BLI designs presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet and an angle of attack of 2 deg for all geometries. A comparison between available wind tunnel data, previous computational results, and the original CRM model is presented for model verification purposes along with full results for BLI power savings. Results indicate a 14.4% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration over the baseline geometry. Minor shaping of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to increase the benefit from Boundary-Layer Ingestion further, resulting in a 15.6% reduction in power requirements for cruise as well as a drag reduction of eighteen counts over the baseline geometry.

  19. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  20. A New Capability for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Benjamin W.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Sims, Bryan T.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a new capability for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) design that has been developed, and presents the results of some analyses performed with this design tool. The purpose of the tool is to design to specified mission and material limits, while maximizing system thrust to weight. The head end of the design tool utilizes the ROCket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) code to generate a system design and system design requirements as inputs to the core analysis. ROCETS is a modular system level code which has been used extensively in the liquid rocket engine industry for many years. The core design tool performs high-fidelity reactor core nuclear and thermal-hydraulic design analysis. At the heart of this process are two codes TMSS-NTP and NTPgen, which together greatly automate the analysis, providing the capability to rapidly produce designs that meet all specified requirements while minimizing mass. A PERL based command script, called CORE DESIGNER controls the execution of these two codes, and checks for convergence throughout the process. TMSS-NTP is executed first, to produce a suite of core designs that meet the specified reactor core mechanical, thermal-hydraulic and structural requirements. The suite of designs consists of a set of core layouts and, for each core layout specific designs that span a range of core fuel volumes. NTPgen generates MCNPX models for each of the core designs from TMSS-NTP. Iterative analyses are performed in NTPgen until a reactor design (fuel volume) is identified for each core layout that meets cold and hot operation reactivity requirements and that is zoned to meet a radial core power distribution requirement.

  1. Roadmap for In-Space Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael; Johnson, Les; Palaszewski, Bryan; Coote, David; Goebel, Dan; White, Harold

    2012-01-01

    NASA has created a roadmap for the development of advanced in-space propulsion technologies for the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This roadmap was drafted by a team of subject matter experts from within the Agency and then independently evaluated, integrated and prioritized by a National Research Council (NRC) panel. The roadmap describes a portfolio of in-space propulsion technologies that could meet future space science and exploration needs, and shows their traceability to potential future missions. Mission applications range from small satellites and robotic deep space exploration to space stations and human missions to Mars. Development of technologies within the area of in-space propulsion will result in technical solutions with improvements in thrust, specific impulse (Isp), power, specific mass (or specific power), volume, system mass, system complexity, operational complexity, commonality with other spacecraft systems, manufacturability, durability, and of course, cost. These types of improvements will yield decreased transit times, increased payload mass, safer spacecraft, and decreased costs. In some instances, development of technologies within this area will result in mission-enabling breakthroughs that will revolutionize space exploration. There is no single propulsion technology that will benefit all missions or mission types. The requirements for in-space propulsion vary widely according to their intended application. This paper provides an updated summary of the In-Space Propulsion Systems technology area roadmap incorporating the recommendations of the NRC.

  2. NSTAR Ion Propulsion System Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is currently developing a high performance, simplified ion propulsion system. This propulsion system, which is throttleable from 0.5- to 2.3-kW output power to the thruster, targets primary propulsion applications for planetary and Earth-space missions and has been baselined as the primary propulsion system for the first New Millennium spacecraft. The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the design and delivery of a breadboard power processing unit (PPU) and an engineering model thruster (EMT) for this system and will manage the contract for the delivery of the flight hardware to JPL. The PPU requirements, which dictate a mass of less than 12 kg with an efficiency of 0.9 or greater at a 2.3-kW output, forced a departure from the state-of-the-art ion thruster PPU design. Several innovations--including dual-use topologies, simplified thruster control, and the use of ferrite magnetic materials--were necessary to meet these requirements.

  3. Propulsion in cubomedusae: mechanisms and utility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Colin

    Full Text Available Evolutionary constraints which limit the forces produced during bell contractions of medusae affect the overall medusan morphospace such that jet propulsion is limited to only small medusae. Cubomedusae, which often possess large prolate bells and are thought to swim via jet propulsion, appear to violate the theoretical constraints which determine the medusan morphospace. To examine propulsion by cubomedusae, we quantified size related changes in wake dynamics, bell shape, swimming and turning kinematics of two species of cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie. During growth, these cubomedusae transitioned from using jet propulsion at smaller sizes to a rowing-jetting hybrid mode of propulsion at larger sizes. Simple modifications in the flexibility and kinematics of their velarium appeared to be sufficient to alter their propulsive mode. Turning occurs during both bell contraction and expansion and is achieved by generating asymmetric vortex structures during both stages of the swimming cycle. Swimming characteristics were considered in conjunction with the unique foraging strategy used by cubomedusae.

  4. Electric-bicycle propulsion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oman, H.; Morchin, W.C. [Electro-Bicycle, Inc., Auburn, WA (United States); Jamerson, F.E. [Electric Battery Bicycle Co., Naples, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In a human-powered hybrid electric vehicle (HPHEV) the travel distance available from a single battery charge can be lengthened with power from another source, the cyclist`s leg muscles. In a battery-powered electric bicycle the propulsion power goes mostly into overcoming aerodynamic drag. For example, at 18 km per hour (11 miles per hour) this drag represents 200 watts at the tire-to-road interface for a typical cyclist`s shape and clothing. Today`s typical electrical bicycle is propelled by a high-speed dc motor which is powered from a lead-acid battery. The combined efficiency of the motor and its speed-reducing gears is 50 to 65 percent. In this paper we calculate available travel distances, as a function of speed, grade, and the battery energy-content as measured in watt-hours per kg. We show the effect of battery cost and charge/discharge cycle-life on travel cost in terms of cents per kilometer travelled. Designs used in today`s electric bicycles are illustrated.

  5. Unsteady propulsion in ground effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Goon; Kim, Boyoung; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    Many animals in nature experience hydrodynamic benefits by swimming or flying near the ground, and this phenomenon is commonly called 'ground effect'. A flexible fin flapping near the ground was modelled, inspired by animals swimming. A transverse heaving motion was prescribed at the leading edge, and the posterior parts of the fin were passively fluttering by the fin-fluid interaction. The fin moved freely horizontally in a quiescent flow, by which the swimming speed was dynamically determined. The fin-fluid interaction was considered by using the penalty immersed boundary method. The kinematics of the flexible fin was altered by flapping near the ground, and the vortex structures generated in the wake were deflected upward, which was qualitatively analyzed by using the vortex dipole model. The swimming speed and the thrust force of the fin increased by the ground effects. The hydrodynamic changes from flapping near the ground affected the required power input in two opposite ways; the increased and decreased hydrodynamic pressures beneath the fin hindered the flapping motion, increasing the power input, while the transversely reduced flapping motion induced the decreased power input. The Froude propulsive efficiency was increased by swimming in the ground effects Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  6. Assessing Hypothetical Gravity Control Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Millis, M G

    2006-01-01

    Gauging the benefits of hypothetical gravity control propulsion is difficult, but addressable. The major challenge is that such breakthroughs are still only notional concepts rather than being specific methods from which performance can be rigorously quantified. A recent assessment by Tajmar and Bertolami used the rocket equation to correct naive misconceptions, but a more fundamental analysis requires the use of energy as the basis for comparison. The energy of a rocket is compared to an idealized space drive for the following cases: Earth-to-orbit, interstellar transit, and levitation. The space drive uses 3.6 times less energy for Earth to orbit. For deep space travel, space drive energy scales as the square of delta-v, while rocket energy scales exponentially. This has the effect of rendering a space drive 150-orders-of-magnitude better than a 17,000-sec Specific Impulse rocket for sending a modest 5000 kg probe to traverse 5 light-years in 50 years. Indefinite levitation, which is impossible for a rocket...

  7. The future of cryogenic propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palerm, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Guelou, Y.; Chopinet, J. N.; Danous, P.

    2015-07-01

    As the French Space Agency, CNES is funding an ambitious program to identify, develop and evaluate the technologies and skills that will enable to design cost efficient future launchers. This program deals together with, researches for mastering complex physical phenomena, set ups of robust and efficient numerical tools for design and justification, and identification of innovative manufacturing processes and hardware. It starts from low Technical Readiness Level (TRL 2) up to a maturation of TRL 6 with the use of demonstrators, level that allows to be ready for a development. This paper focuses on cryogenic propulsion activities conducted with SNECMA and French laboratories to prepare next generation engines. The physics in that type of hardware addresses a large range of highly complex phenomena, among them subcritical and supercritical combustion and possible associated High Frequency oscillations in combustion devices, tribology in bearings and seals, cavitation and rotordynamics in turbopump. The research activities conducted to master those physical phenomena are presented. Moreover, the operating conditions of these engines are very challenging, both thermally and mechanically. The innovative manufacturing processes and designs developed to cope with these conditions while filling cost reduction requirements are described. Finally, the associated demonstrators put in place to prepare the implementation of these new technologies on future engines are presented.

  8. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  9. Toward Reduced Aircraft Community Noise Impact Via a Perception-Influenced Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This is an exciting time for aircraft design. New configurations, including small multi-rotor uncrewed aerial systems, fixed- and tilt-wing distributed electric propulsion aircraft, high-speed rotorcraft, hybrid-electric commercial transports, and low-boom supersonic transports, are being made possible through a host of propulsion and airframe technology developments. The resulting noise signatures may be radically different, both spectrally and temporally, than those of the current fleet. Noise certification metrics currently used in aircraft design do not necessarily reflect these characteristics and therefore may not correlate well with human response. Further, as operations and missions become less airport-centric, e.g., those associated with on-demand mobility or package delivery, vehicles may operate in closer proximity to the population than ever before. Fortunately, a new set of tools are available for assessing human perception during the design process in order to affect the final design in a positive manner. The tool chain utilizes system noise prediction methods coupled with auralization and psychoacoustic testing, making possible the inclusion of human response to noise, along with performance criteria and certification requirements, into the aircraft design process. Several case studies are considered to illustrate how this approach could be used to influence the design of future aircraft.

  10. Status of Propulsion Technology Development Under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Kamhawi, Hani; Patterson, Mike; Pencil, Eric; Pinero, Luis; Falck, Robert; Dankanich, John

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies for NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for future NASA Discovery, New Frontiers, Flagship and sample return missions currently under consideration. The ISPT program is currently developing technology in three areas that include Propulsion System Technologies, Entry Vehicle Technologies, and Systems/Mission Analysis. ISPT's propulsion technologies include: 1) the 0.6-7 kW NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) gridded ion propulsion system; 2) a 0.3-3.9kW Halleffect electric propulsion (HEP) system for low cost and sample return missions; 3) the Xenon Flow Control Module (XFCM); 4) ultra-lightweight propellant tank technologies (ULTT); and 5) propulsion technologies for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The NEXT Long Duration Test (LDT) recently exceeded 50,000 hours of operation and 900 kg throughput, corresponding to 34.8 MN-s of total impulse delivered. The HEP system is composed of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HIVHAC) thruster, a power processing unit (PPU), and the XFCM. NEXT and the HIVHAC are throttle-able electric propulsion systems for planetary science missions. The XFCM and ULTT are two component technologies which being developed with nearer-term flight infusion in mind. Several of the ISPT technologies are related to sample return missions needs: MAV propulsion and electric propulsion. And finally, one focus of the Systems/Mission Analysis area is developing tools that aid the application or operation of these technologies on wide variety of mission concepts. This paper provides a brief overview of the ISPT program, describing the development status and technology infusion readiness.

  11. QSRA Joint Navy/NASA sea trials. [Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, S.; Cochrane, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), used to conduct a broad program of terminal area and low speed propulsive-lift flight research, is discussed. Flight performance of the QSRA is presented together with the results of the joint Navy/NASA flight program. It is found that both free-deck takeoffs and unarrested landings can be conducted with winds across the deck of zero to 35 knots on an aircraft carrier the size of the USS Kitty Hawk with all engines operating. QSRA characteristics and aerodynamic data are included.

  12. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  13. Intelligent modeling and identification of aircraft nonlinear flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Roudbari; Fariborz Saghafi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach has been proposed to identify and model the dynamics of a highly maneuverable fighter aircraft through artificial neural networks (ANNs). In general, air-craft flight dynamics is considered as a nonlinear and coupled system whose modeling through ANNs, unlike classical approaches, does not require any aerodynamic or propulsion information and a few flight test data seem sufficient. In this study, for identification and modeling of the aircraft dynamics, two known structures of internal and external recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and a proposed structure called hybrid combined recurrent neural network have been used and compared. In order to improve the training process, an appropriate evolutionary method has been applied to simultaneously train and optimize the parameters of ANNs. In this research, it has been shown that six ANNs each with three inputs and one output, trained by flight test data, can model the dynamic behavior of the highly maneuverable aircraft with acceptable accuracy and without any priori knowledge about the system.

  14. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  15. Effect of workload setting on propulsion technique in handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, DirkJan (H E. J); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of workload setting (speed at constant power, method to impose power) on the propulsion technique (i.e. force and timing characteristics) in handrim wheelchair propulsion. Method: Twelve able-bodied men participated in this study. External forces were measured

  16. Optimum cycle frequencies in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; Sargeant, A J

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of different cycle frequencies on cardio-respiratory responses and propulsion technique in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion, experienced wheelchair sportsmen (WS group; n = 6) and non-wheelchair users (NW group; n = 6) performed wheelchair exercise tests on a motor-driven treadmill

  17. ESCORT: A Pratt & Whitney nuclear thermal propulsion and power system for manned mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Gerald J.; Joyner, Russell

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of an upgrade to the Pratt & Whitney ESCORT nuclear thermal rocket engine. The ESCORT is a bimodal engine capable of supporting a wide range of vehicle propulsive and electrical power requirements. The ESCORT engine is powered by a fast-spectrum beryllium-reflected CERMET-fueled nuclear reactor. In propulsive mode, the reactor is used to heat hot hydrogen to approximately 2700 K which is expanded through a converging/diverging nozzle to generate thrust. Heat pickup in the nozzle and the radial beryllium reflectors is used to drive the turbomachinery in the ESCORT expander cycle. In electrical mode, the reactor is used to heat a mixture of helium and xenon to drive a closed-loop Brayton cycle in order to generate electrical energy. This closed loop system has the additional function of a decay heat removal system after the propulsive mode operation is discontinued. The original ESCORT design was capable of delivering 4448.2 N (1000 lbf) of thrust at a vacuum impulse level of approximately 900 s. Design Reference Mission requirements (DRM) from NASA Johnson Space Center and NASA Lewis Research Center studies in 1997 and 1998 have detailed upgraded requirements for potential manned Mars missions. The current NASA DRM requires a nuclear thermal propulsion system capable of delivering total mission requirements of 200170 N (45000 lbf) thrust and 50 kWe of spacecraft electrical power. This is met assuming three engines capable of each delivering 66723 N (15000 lbf) of vacuum thrust and 25 kWe of electrical power. The individual engine requirements were developed assuming three out of three engine reliability for propulsion and two out of three engine reliability for spacecraft electrical power. The approximate target vacuum impulse is 925 s. The Pratt & Whitney ESCORT concept was upgraded to meet these requirements. The hexagonal prismatic fuel elements were modified to address the uprated power requirements

  18. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  20. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  1. Finite-thrust optimization of interplanetary transfers of space vehicle with bimodal nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharytonov, Oleksii M.; Kiforenko, Boris M.

    2011-08-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is one of the leading promising technologies for primary space propulsion for manned exploration of the solar system due to its high specific impulse capability and sufficiently high thrust-to-weight ratio. Another benefit of NTR is its possible bimodal design, when nuclear reactor is used for generation of a jet thrust in a high-thrust mode and (with an appropriate power conversion system) as a source of electric power to supply the payload and the electric engines in a low-thrust mode. The model of the NTR thrust control was developed considering high-thrust NTR as a propulsion system of limited power and exhaust velocity. For the proposed model the control of the thrust value is accomplished by the regulation of reactor thermal power and propellant mass flow rate. The problem of joint optimization of the combination of high- and low-thrust arcs and the parameters of bimodal NTR (BNTR) propulsion system is considered for the interplanetary transfers. The interplanetary trajectory of the space vehicle is formed by the high-thrust NTR burns, which define planet-centric maneuvers and by the low-thrust heliocentric arcs where the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is used. The high-thrust arcs are analyzed using finite-thrust approach. The motion of the corresponding dynamical system is realized in three phase spaces concerning the departure planet-centric maneuver by means of high-thrust NTR propulsion, the low-thrust NEP heliocentric maneuver and the approach high-thrust NTR planet-centric maneuver. The phase coordinates are related at the time instants of the change of the phase spaces due to the relations between the space vehicle masses. The optimal control analysis is performed using Pontryagin's maximum principle. The numerical results are analyzed for Earth-Mars "sprint" transfer. The optimal values of the parameters that define the masses of NTR and NEP subsystems have been evaluated. It is shown that the low

  2. A Closed Brayton Power Conversion Unit Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude Russell; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt & Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level.

  3. NASA Propulsion Investments for Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Free, James M.; Klem, Mark D.; Priskos, Alex S.; Kynard, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests in chemical and electric propulsion systems to achieve future mission objectives for both human exploration and robotic science. Propulsion system requirements for human missions are derived from the exploration architecture being implemented in the Constellation Program. The Constellation Program first develops a system consisting of the Ares I launch vehicle and Orion spacecraft to access the Space Station, then builds on this initial system with the heavy-lift Ares V launch vehicle, Earth departure stage, and lunar module to enable missions to the lunar surface. A variety of chemical engines for all mission phases including primary propulsion, reaction control, abort, lunar ascent, and lunar descent are under development or are in early risk reduction to meet the specific requirements of the Ares I and V launch vehicles, Orion crew and service modules, and Altair lunar module. Exploration propulsion systems draw from Apollo, space shuttle, and commercial heritage and are applied across the Constellation architecture vehicles. Selection of these launch systems and engines is driven by numerous factors including development cost, existing infrastructure, operations cost, and reliability. Incorporation of green systems for sustained operations and extensibility into future systems is an additional consideration for system design. Science missions will directly benefit from the development of Constellation launch systems, and are making advancements in electric and chemical propulsion systems for challenging deep space, rendezvous, and sample return missions. Both Hall effect and ion electric propulsion systems are in development or qualification to address the range of NASA s Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics mission requirements. These address the spectrum of potential requirements from cost-capped missions to enabling challenging high delta-v, long-life missions. Additionally, a high

  4. Relativistic propulsion using directed energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip M.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a directed energy orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the evaporation point as a futuristic but feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. The system is based on recent advances in high efficiency photonic systems. The system could also be used for propulsion of kinetic or nuclear tipped asteroid interceptors or other interplanetary spacecraft. A photon drive is possible using direct photon pressure on a spacecraft similar to a solar sail. Given a laser power of 70GW, a 100 kg craft can be propelled to 1AU in approximately 3 days achieving a speed of 0.4% the speed of light, and a 10,000 kg craft in approximately 30 days. We call the system DE-STAR for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. DE-STAR is a modular phased array of solid-state lasers, powered by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight. The system is scalable and completely modular so that sub elements can be built and tested as the technology matures. The sub elements can be immediately utilized for testing as well as other applications including space debris mitigation. The ultimate objective of DE-STAR would be to begin direct asteroid vaporization and orbital modification starting at distances beyond 1 AU. Using phased array technology to focus the beam, the surface spot temperature on the asteroid can be raised to more than 3000K, allowing evaporation of all known substances. Additional scientific uses of DE-STAR are also possible.

  5. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  6. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian D.; Caffrey, Jarvis; Hedayat, Ali; Stephens, Jonathan; Polsgrove, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic fluid management (CFM) is critical to the success of future nuclear thermal propulsion powered vehicles. While this is an issue for any propulsion system utilizing cryogenic propellants, this is made more challenging by the radiation flux produced by the reactor in a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Managing the cryogenic fuel to prevent propellant loss to boil off and leakage is needed to limit the required quantity of propellant to a reasonable level. Analysis shows deposition of energy into liquid hydrogen fuel tanks in the vicinity of the nuclear thermal engine. This is on top of ambient environment sources of heat. Investments in cryogenic/thermal management systems (some of which are ongoing at various organizations) are needed in parallel to nuclear thermal engine development in order to one day see the successful operation of an entire stage. High durability, low thermal conductivity insulation is one developmental need. Light weight cryocoolers capable of removing heat from large fluid volumes at temperatures as low as approx. 20 K are needed to remove heat leak from the propellant of an NTR. Valve leakage is an additional CFM issue of great importance. Leakage rates of state of the art, launch vehicle size valves (which is approximately the size valves needed for a Mars transfer vehicle) are quite high and would result in large quantities of lost propellant over a long duration mission. Additionally, the liquid acquisition system inside the propellant tank must deliver properly conditioned propellant to the feed line for successful engine operation and avoid intake of warm or gaseous propellant. Analysis of the thermal environment and the CFM technology development are discussed in the accompanying presentation.

  7. High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE Missions to Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James

    2003-01-01

    This documents the results of a one-year multi-center NASA study on the prospect of sending humans to Jupiter's moon, Callisto, using an all Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) space transportation system architecture with magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The fission reactor system utilizes high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten (W) metal matrix cermet fuel and electricity is generated using advanced dynamic Brayton power conversion technology. The mission timeframe assumes on-going human Moon and Mars missions and existing space infrastructure to support launch of cargo and crewed spacecraft to Jupiter in 2041 and 2045, respectively.

  8. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  9. Integration of noise control into the product design process : a case study : the Silent Aircraft Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faszer, A. [Noise Solutions Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The Silent Aircraft Initiative (SAI) is a study being conducted by the Cambridge-MIT Institute to discover ways to significantly reduce aircraft noise. Part of the study focuses on developing aircraft and engine designs that meet the SAI objectives. This presentation included several illustrations of the favoured configuration of a blended wing design, with 4 engines located on the upper surface of a shallow wing which shields engine noise. This presentation described various engine parts such as the low specific thrust turbofan, the variable area nozzle and the acoustic treatment in the intake and exhaust turbomachinery that minimizes noise. The requirements for market viability of the aircraft were discussed as well as the technical challenges in terms of its propulsion systems; structural analysis; mechanical design; low speed aerodynamic performance; cabin layout; and maintenance considerations. It was concluded that the SAI has achieved a credible conceptual aircraft design given the high risk of the technologies used. The project has met objectives of a functionally silent and fuel efficient aircraft. The new conceptual aircraft has potential for fuel burn of 149 pax-miles per imperial gallon and noise of 63 dBA near the perimeter of airports. 1 tab., 48 figs.

  10. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary

  11. An Examination of the Effect of Boundary Layer Ingestion on Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Huyn Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    A Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system differs from other propulsion systems by the use of electrical power to transmit power from the turbine to the fan. Electrical power can be efficiently transmitted over longer distances and with complex topologies. Also the use of power inverters allows the generator and motors speeds to be independent of one another. This decoupling allows the aircraft designer to place the core engines and the fans in locations most advantageous for each. The result can be very different installation environments for the different devices. Thus the installation effects on this system can be quite different than conventional turbofans where the fan and core both see the same installed environments. This paper examines a propulsion system consisting of two superconducting generators, each driven by a turboshaft engine located so that their inlets ingest freestream air, superconducting electrical transmission lines, and an array of superconducting motor driven fan positioned across the upper/rear fuselage area of a hybrid wing body aircraft in a continuous nacelle that ingests all of the upper fuselage boundary layer. The effect of ingesting the boundary layer on the design of the system with a range of design pressure ratios is examined. Also the impact of ingesting the boundary layer on off-design performance is examined. The results show that when examining different design fan pressure ratios it is important to recalculate of the boundary layer mass-average Pt and MN up the height for each inlet height during convergence of the design point for each fan design pressure ratio examined. Correct estimation of off-design performance is dependent on the height of the column of air measured from the aircraft surface immediately prior to any external diffusion that will flow through the fan propulsors. The mass-averaged Pt and MN calculated for this column of air determine the Pt and MN seen by the propulsor inlet. Since the height

  12. Biologically-Inspired Water Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Sioma

    2013-01-01

    Most propulsion systems of vehicles travelling in the aquatic environment are equipped with propellers.Observations of nature,however,show that the absolute majority of organisms travel through water using wave motion,paddling or using water jet power.Inspired by these observations of nature,an innovative propulsion system working in aquatic environment was developed.This paper presents the design of the water propulsion system.Particular attention was paid to the use of paddling techniques and water jet power.A group of organisms that use those mechanisms to travel through water was selected and analysed.The results of research were used in the design of a propulsion system modelled simultaneously on two methods of movement in the aquatic environment.A method for modelling a propulsion system using a combination of the two solutions and the result were described.A conceptual design and a prototype constructed based on the solution were presented.With respect to the solution developed,studies and analyses of selected parameters of the prototype were described.

  13. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  14. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  15. Architecture, Voltage, and Components for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Blackwelder, Mark; Bollman, Andrew; Ross, Christine; Campbell, Angela; Jones, Catherine; Norman, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The development of a wholly superconducting turboelectric distributed propulsion system presents unique opportunities for the aerospace industry. However, this transition from normally conducting systems to superconducting systems significantly increases the equipment complexity necessary to manage the electrical power systems. Due to the low technology readiness level (TRL) nature of all components and systems, current Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) technology developments are driven by an ambiguous set of system-level electrical integration standards for an airborne microgrid system (Figure 1). While multiple decades' worth of advancements are still required for concept realization, current system-level studies are necessary to focus the technology development, target specific technological shortcomings, and enable accurate prediction of concept feasibility and viability. An understanding of the performance sensitivity to operating voltages and an early definition of advantageous voltage regulation standards for unconventional airborne microgrids will allow for more accurate targeting of technology development. Propulsive power-rated microgrid systems necessitate the introduction of new aircraft distribution system voltage standards. All protection, distribution, control, power conversion, generation, and cryocooling equipment are affected by voltage regulation standards. Information on the desired operating voltage and voltage regulation is required to determine nominal and maximum currents for sizing distribution and fault isolation equipment, developing machine topologies and machine controls, and the physical attributes of all component shielding and insulation. Voltage impacts many components and system performance.

  16. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  17. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft.

  18. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  19. Propfan test assessment propfan propulsion system static test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orourke, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    The propfan test assessment (PTA) propulsion system successfully completed over 50 hours of extensive static ground tests, including a 36 hour endurance test. All major systems performed as expected, verifying that the large-scale 2.74 m diameter propfan, engine, gearbox, controls, subsystems, and flight instrumentation will be satisfactory with minor modifications for the upcoming PTA flight tests on the GII aircraft in early 1987. A test envelope was established for static ground operation to maintain propfan blade stresses within limits for propfan rotational speeds up to 105 percent and power levels up to 3880 kW. Transient tests verified stable, predictable response of engine power and propfan speed controls. Installed engine TSFC was better than expected, probably due to the excellent inlet performance coupled with the supercharging effect of the propfan. Near- and far-field noise spectra contained three dominant components, which were dependent on power, tip speed, and direction. The components were propfan blade tones, propfan random noise, and compressor/propfan interaction noise. No significant turbine noise or combustion noise was evident.

  20. Early aerospaceplane propulsion research: Marquardt Corporation: ca 1956-1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary is presented of the very early days of aerospaceplane propulsion and concept research, from a viewpoint based in the Astro Division of Marquardt Aircraft Co. in the years listed, with some view into later times that were on Bill Escher's watch and others. Other groups who were pursuing the same goals by various routes are discussed by some following speakers. The chief purpose is to bring out background information that may be of value to members of the workshop and future workers in the field. The state of engine and airframe technology at those times must be understood to make sense of the effort. Operational kerosene fueled ramjets were routinely flying Mach 2 to 3 in the Bomarc and Talos interceptors. One Marquardt ramjet had accelerated a Lockheed X-7 test vehicle to about Mach 4.7 in an all-out test, holding it at nearly 1 'G' until the fuel ran out. Development of further research at Marquardt is outlined.

  1. ASPECTS RELATED TO THE PROPULSION HYDRAFOIL SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent ALI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze some aspects related to the propulsion of hydrofoil ships. They are very important for the success of the mission if they are military ships and for cargo security, if they are civilian transport ships, especially when navigating at high speed on their hydrofoil wings in rough sea conditions. This paper presents an original procedure for estimating the propulsion of hydrofoil ships. This procedure has enabled the development of a computer program that can predict both those types of ship propulsion regime imposed at a quasi-stationary speed and the march regime on wings. The calculation software obtained may serve to design any type of hydrofoil ship.

  2. The electric rail gun for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.; Vahlberg, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytic feasibility investigation of an electric propulsion concept for space application is described. In this concept, quasistatic thrust due to inertial reaction to repetitively accelerated pellets by an electric rail gun is used to propel a spacecraft. The study encompasses the major subsystems required in an electric rail gun propulsion system. The mass, performance, and configuration of each subsystem are described. Based on an analytic model of the system mass and performance, the electric rail gun mission performance as a reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is analyzed and compared to a 30 cm ion thruster system (BIMOD) and a chemical propulsion system (IUS) for payloads with masses of 1150 kg and 2300 kg. For system power levels in the range from 25 kW(e) to 100 kW(e) an electric rail gun OTV is more attractive than a BIMOD system for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit transfer durations in the range from 20 to 120 days.

  3. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-23

    This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this presentation and it is shown how these devices have been used to accomplish two recent space missions. The microwave thruster is then described and it is explained how the thrust and specific impulse of the thruster can be measured. Calculations of the gas temperature and plasma properties in the microwave thruster are discussed. In addition a potential mission for the microwave thruster involving the orbit raising of a space station is explored.

  4. Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) test program is being lead by NASA Ames for Configuration Aerodynamics (CA). Representatives from CA, Technology Integration (TI), Inlet, and the Nozzle ITD's are working with Ames in defining and executing this test program. The objective of the CA 4-14 milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) and design variations using computational and experimental methods. The experimental aspect includes static calibrations, transonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. The test program will generate a comprehensive database that will include all appropriate wind tunnel corrections, with emphasis placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the TCA.

  5. Dynamic simulator for PEFC propulsion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraide, Masataka; Kaneda, Eiichi; Sato, Takao [Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The work presented here focuses on a simulation study on PEFC propulsion plant performance, and particularly on the system response to changes in load. Using a dynamic simulator composed of system components including fuel cell, various simulations were executed, to examine the performance of the system as a whole and of the individual system components under quick and large load changes such as occasioned by maneuvering operations and by racing when the propeller emerges above water in heavy sea.

  6. Propulsion System Choices and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude R., II; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell, E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In defining a space vehicle architecture, the propulsion system and related subsystem choices will have a major influence on achieving the goals and objectives desired. There are many alternatives and the choices made must produce a system that meets the performance requirements, but at the same time also provide the greatest opportunity of reaching all of the required objectives. Recognizing the above, the SPST Functional Requirements subteam has drawn on the knowledge, expertise, and experience of its members, to develop insight that wiIJ effectively aid the architectural concept developer in making the appropriate choices consistent with the architecture goals. This data not only identifies many selected choices, but also, more importantly, presents the collective assessment of this subteam on the "pros" and the "cons" of these choices. The propulsion system choices with their pros and cons are presented in five major groups. A. System Integration Approach. Focused on the requirement for safety, reliability, dependability, maintainability, and low cost. B. Non-Chemical Propulsion. Focused on choice of propulsion type. C. Chemical Propulsion. Focused on propellant choice implications. D. Functional Integration. Focused on the degree of integration of the many propulsive and closely associated functions, and on the choice of the engine combustion power cycle. E. Thermal Management. Focused on propellant tank insulation and integration. Each of these groups is further broken down into subgroups, and at that level the consensus pros and cons are presented. The intended use of this paper is to provide a resource of focused material for architectural concept developers to use in designing new advanced systems including college design classes. It is also a possible source of input material for developing a model for designing and analyzing advanced concepts to help identify focused technology needs and their priorities.

  7. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  8. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  9. Aircraft Emissions Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    sample from each trap through a heated (1500C) six-port valve ’ Carle Instruments Model 5621) and onto the analytical column. The coLoponents in each...Environmental Protection, Vol. II. Aircraft Engine Emissions, Int. Civil Aviation Organ., 1981. 7. Nebel , G. J., "Benzene in Auto Exhaust," J. Air Poll

  10. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  11. Mars Ascent Propulsion Trades with Trajectory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J

    2004-04-22

    Optimized trajectories to a 500 km circular orbit are calculated for vehicles having a 100 kg Mars launch mass. Staging trades, thrust optimization, and the importance of vehicle shape for drag are all taken into consideration. The high acceleration of solid rockets requires a steep trajectory for drag avoidance, followed by a relatively large circularization burn, appropriate for a second stage. Liquid thrust reduces drag, resulting in less steep trajectories which have small circularization burns. Liquid propulsion requires less total {Delta}v, and offers options for multiple stages or just one. Graphs of payload mass versus stage propellant fractions are compared for liquid and solid propulsion.

  12. SEGMAG Machines for Marine Electrical Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-13

    ship propulsion drives. It encompasses the conceptual design of a 40,000 horsepower per shaft, two shaft, drive system for a destroyer type vessel and a 20,000 horsepower per shaft, two shaft, drive system for a hydrofoil type vessel. It also includes a detail design and initiated construction of a 3,000 horsepower per shaft, two shaft, prototype drive system for a land based demonstration. All three drive systems utilize gas turbines for prime movers. In addition to the main propulsion machinery designs, the auxiliaries required for the systems are also

  13. Micro turbine engines for drones propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutczak, J.

    2016-09-01

    Development of micro turbine engines began from attempts of application of that propulsion source by group of enthusiasts of aviation model making. Nowadays, the domain of micro turbojet engines is treated on a par with “full size” aviation constructions. The dynamic development of these engines is caused not only by aviation modellers, but also by use of micro turbojet engines by army to propulsion of contemporary drones, i.e. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). On the base of selected examples the state of art in the mentioned group of engines has been presented in the article.

  14. Advanced Propulsion Physics Lab: Eagleworks Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro Optical laboratory (EOL) at Johnson Space Center. These investigations are pursuing technology necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system and beyond.

  15. Green Liquid Monopropellant Thruster for In-space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. and AMPAC In-space Propulsion propose to develop a unique chemical propulsion system for the next generation NASA science spacecraft and...

  16. Miniature Nontoxic Nitrous Oxide-Propane (MINNOP) Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Miniature Nontoxic Nitrous Oxide-Propane (MINNOP) propulsion system, a small bipropellant propulsion system which we offer as an...

  17. Hydrogen Wave Heater for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Component Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) as a propulsion concept which could provide the fastest trip times to Mars and as the preferred concept for...

  18. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  19. Low-order nonlinear dynamic model of IC engine-variable pitch propeller system for general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jacques C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of an internal combustion engine coupled to a variable pitch propeller. The low-order, nonlinear time-dependent model is useful for simulating the propulsion system of general aviation single-engine light aircraft. This model is suitable for investigating engine diagnostics and monitoring and for control design and development. Furthermore, the model may be extended to provide a tool for the study of engine emissions, fuel economy, component effects, alternative fuels, alternative engine cycles, flight simulators, sensors, and actuators. Results show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the propulsion system dynamics from zero to 10 Hertz.

  20. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  1. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  2. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  3. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  4. Reactivity variation's analysis in nuclear propulsion considering the operational real conditions requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Leonardo Paredes; Santos, Rubens Souza dos; Lapa, Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: leonardo_paredes@icloud.com, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The work presented in this paper highlights the need for the study to determine the reactivity variation ramps needed and possible to meet the real operational conditions required by a nuclear submarine in this several operating phases. In accordance with the operational needs and necessary maneuvers in certain tactical situations, large power variations in the propulsion are demanded. As these sudden and severe changes in propulsion come from the thermal power of nuclear origin, the operation of the nuclear island has to know what kind of answers and criticality variations are necessary to meet each demand speed required. It should be noted that these criticality inserts are conditioned, not only by the propulsion needs, but fundamentally by the imperative need to ensure the core integrity and the chain reaction sustainability considering the phenomenons and complex effects, nonlinear and retro-fed involved. It has to be determined what is the past and required time for each criticality insertion is perceived as motor power. Considering the highlighted aspects, this article concludes and indicates to its end, the need to establish a base operating transitional agenda, according to the naval combat doctrine, to be tested and analyzed under the aspects and peculiarities of kinetic reactors, with the purpose of being generated the appropriate criticality curves for each real need and their respective times of anticipated action. (author)

  5. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  6. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): Micro Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propulsion technology is often critical for space missions. High-value missions could be done with very small spacecraft, even CubeSats, but these...

  7. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  8. Statistical modelling for ship propulsion efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jóan Petur; Jacobsen, Daniel J.; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art systems approach to statistical modelling of fuel efficiency in ship propulsion, and also a novel and publicly available data set of high quality sensory data. Two statistical model approaches are investigated and compared: artificial neural networks...

  9. Radial-Gap Motor for Ship Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamoto, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Minoru

    The KHI team has developed radial gap high-temperature superconducting (HTS) motors of three sizes, 1 MW-class, 3 MW, and 20 MW, to be used for electric propulsion systems for ships. The volumetric torque density of the assembled 3 MW HTS motor was recorded at 40 kNm/m3 in the load test; the world's highest in the class.

  10. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    -tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other...

  11. On-Orbit Propulsion OMS/RCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle's On-Orbit Propulsion systems: the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and the Reaction Control System (RCS). The functions of each of the systems is described, and the diagrams of the systems are presented. The OMS/RCS thruster is detailed and a trade study comparison of non-toxic propellants is presented.

  12. MSFC Propulsion Systems Department Knowledge Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccioli, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Knowledge Management (KM) project of the Propulsion Systems Department at Marshall Space Flight Center. KM is needed to support knowledge capture, preservation and to support an information sharing culture. The presentation includes the strategic plan for the KM initiative, the system requirements, the technology description, the User Interface and custom features, and a search demonstration.

  13. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  14. Heavy Ion Propulsion in the Megadalton Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    atomizacidn electrostdtica, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (2006) 15. D. Garoz, "Sintesis, estudio y mezclas de nuevos combustibles basados en...propellants for electrical propulsion from Taylor cones in vacuo), Proyecto fin de carrera (Senior Thesis), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Marzo 2004

  15. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

  16. Prospective of Photon Propulsion for Interstellar Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young K.

    Mastering photon propulsion is proposed to be the key to overcoming the limit of the current propulsion technology based on conventional rocketry and potentially opening a new space era. A perspective on photon propulsion is presented here to elucidate that interstellar manned roundtrip flight could be achievable in a century within a frame of exiting scientific principles, once the required existing technologies are further developed. It is shown that the developmental pathway towards the interstellar flight demands not only technological breakthroughs, but consistent long-term world-scale economic interest and investment. Such interest and investment will result from positive financial returns from routine interstellar commutes that can transport highly valuable commodities in a profitable manner. The Photonic Railway, a permanent energy-efficient transportation structure based on the Beamed-Laser Propulsion (BLP) by Forward and the Photonic Laser Thruster (PLT) by the author, is proposed to enable such routine interstellar commutes via Spacetrains. A four-phased evolutionary developmental pathway towards the Interstellar Photonic Railway is proposed. Each phase poses evolutionary, yet daunting, technological and financial challenges that need to be overcome within each time frame of 20 _ 30 years, and is projected to generate multitudes of applications that would lead to sustainable reinvestment into its development. If successfully developed, the Photonic Railway would bring about a quantum leap in the human economic and social interests in space from explorations to terraforming, mining, colonization, and permanent habitation in exoplanets.

  17. Overview 1993: Chemical propulsion at CSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical Propulsion at CSTAR continues to expand its activities and areas of interest. Several new initiatives are being developed which are extensions of, or replacements for, earlier projects. One current focus is on reassessing promising engine cycles and the enabling technologies for implementing them. These engine cycles which include advanced hybrids, and staged combustion cycles have the use of oxygen as a working fluid and coolant in common. Oxygen is used as a turbine drive gas, tank pressurant and as a cooling medium for combustion devices. CSTAR has interest in the propellant feed systems for advanced rocket engines, including propellant conditioning and tank pressurization, gas generators, and turbomachinery. CSTAR's interests also include propellant injection into the main chamber. These aspects of rocket propulsion embody a diverse range of technical disciplines and technologies, critical to the pursuit of low cost space access. The chemical propulsion program at CSTAR includes active projects investigating hybrid rocket engine oxygen feed systems, hybrid rocket injectors, gas fed hybrid rocket combustion, elements of main injectors for staged combustion devices. CSTAR is actively seeking industrial partners interested in joint participation in one or more phases of the analyses, design, development and application of propulsion technologies and related technical disciplines.

  18. New diesel-electric propulsion system topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondoin, D.; Menneron, F. [Alstom Power Conversion (France)

    2000-07-01

    The dual star winding synchronous motor (two 3 phases independent windings) supplied from a current source has now been used for numerous direct drive ship electric propulsion systems. The shaft Power of such systems ranges from a couple MW to 25 MW. Such variable speed drive technology is mature having it installed on many ships. ALSTOM has recently introduced a family of new large electric POD thrusters (functionally comparable to large out board propulsion motors driving directly the propeller) called MERMAID{sup TM}. The most powerful of such PODs were installed on the MILLENIUM cruise ships and is rated 20.1 MW. They include a dual star winding synchronous motor supplied by current source inverters operating without any motor rotor position sensor. In parallel, ALSTOM has provided a conventional electric propulsion still involving a dual star winding synchronous motor. This motor is powered from state of the art voltage source inverters: Taking advantage of the most recent Power electronic components development, the MISTRAL cruise ship (2.9 MW) is powered through inverters based on the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) strategy. This paper intends presenting the above technology evolutions then to marry them for the benefits of enhanced future ship electric propulsion systems. (authors)

  19. Use of non-petroleum fuels to reduce military energy vulnerabilities: self-sufficient bases and new weapon propulsion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The US fossil synfuels program may not have significant impact on domestic fuel supplies until near the year 2000, resulting in a continuing mobility fuels vulnerability for the US military until then. But there are other mobility fuel options for both propulsion systems and stationary base-energy sources, for which the base technology is commercially available or at least demonstrated. For example, for surface propulsion systems, hydrogen-fuel-cell/battery-electric hybrids may be considered; for weapons systems these may offer some new flexibilities, standardization possibilities, and multiple military-controlled fuel-supply options. Hydrogen-fueled aircraft may provide interesting longer-term possibilities in terms of military energy self-sufficiency and multiple supply options, as well as performance specifications. These scenarios will be discussed, along with possibilities for demonstrations in the MX-system ground vehicles.

  20. An overview of integrated flight-propulsion controls flight research on the NASA F-15 research airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.; Stewart, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting integrated flight-propulsion control flight research using the NASA F-15 airplane for the past 12 years. The research began with the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) project, followed by the F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD). HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) became the umbrella name for a series of experiments including: the Advanced Digital Engine Controls System (ADECS), a twin jet acoustics flight experiment, self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS), performance-seeking control (PSC), and propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA). The upcoming F-15 project is ACTIVE (Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles). This paper provides a brief summary of these activities and provides background for the PCA and PSC papers, and includes a bibliography of all papers and reports from the NASA F-15 project.

  1. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  2. Z-Pinch Magneto-Inertial Fusion Propulsion Engine Design Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Statham, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert B.; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabisinski, Leo; Maples, C. Dauphne; Percy, Thomas K.; Cortez, Ross J.; Cassibry, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small fusion reactor/engine assembly (1). The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an estimated axial current of approximately 100 MA. Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4) (2). The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this is repeated over short timescales (10(exp -6) sec). This plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing models (3-5). In order to be useful in engineering analysis, a simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic model was developed to determine the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, energy production, etc. to calculate the parameters that characterize a propulsion system. The amount of nuclear fuel per pulse, mixture ratio of the D-T and nozzle liner propellant, and assumptions about the efficiency of the engine, enabled the sizing of the propulsion system and resulted in an estimate of the thrust and Isp of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system for the concept vehicle. MIF requires a magnetic nozzle to contain and direct the nuclear pulses, as well as a robust structure and radiation shielding. The structure

  3. Hover performance estimation and validation of battery powered vertical takeoff and landing aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 侯中喜; 鲁亚飞; 朱雄峰

    2016-01-01

    Battery powered vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft attracts more and more interests from public, while limited hover endurance hinders many prospective applications. Based on the weight models of battery, motor and electronic speed controller, the power consumption model of propeller and the constant power discharge model of battery, an efficient method to estimate the hover endurance of battery powered VTOL aircraft was presented. In order to understand the mechanism of performance improvement, the impacts of propulsion system parameters on hover endurance were analyzed by simulations, including the motor power density, the battery capacity, specific energy and Peukert coefficient. Ground experiment platform was established and validation experiments were carried out, the results of which showed a well agreement with the simulations. The estimation method and the analysis results could be used for optimization design and hover performance evaluation of battery powered VTOL aircraft.

  4. Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats: Trajectory Control Strategies Using Micro Ion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats project aims to solve the challenges of integrating a micro electric propulsion system on a CubeSat in order to perform orbital maneuvers and control attitude. This represents a fundamentally new capability for CubeSats, which typically do not contain propulsion systems and cannot maneuver far beyond their initial orbits.

  5. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  6. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patrick; Beach, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this study was to (1) review and analyze the state-of-art in beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) by identifying potential game-changing applications, (2) formulate a roadmap of technology development, and (3) identify key near-term technology demonstrations to rapidly advance elements of BEP technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. The two major areas of interest were launching payloads and space propulsion. More generally, the study was requested and structured to address basic mission feasibility. The attraction of beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) is the potential for high specific impulse while removing the power-generation mass. The rapid advancements in high-energy beamed-power systems and optics over the past 20 years warranted a fresh look at the technology. For launching payloads, the study concluded that using BEP to propel vehicles into space is technically feasible if a commitment to develop new technologies and large investments can be made over long periods of time. From a commercial competitive standpoint, if an advantage of beamed energy for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) is to be found, it will rest with smaller, frequently launched payloads. For space propulsion, the study concluded that using beamed energy to propel vehicles from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and into deep space is definitely feasible and showed distinct advantages and greater potential over current propulsion technologies. However, this conclusion also assumes that upfront infrastructure investments and commitments to critical technologies will be made over long periods of time. The chief issue, similar to that for payloads, is high infrastructure costs.

  7. 2001 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John; Follen, Gregory; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac

    2002-01-01

    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA's Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 2000 effort and the actions taken over the past year to

  8. 2000 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective. high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA'S Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 1999 effort and the actions taken over the past year to

  9. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  10. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a signi cant challenge in dealing with the physiolog- ical issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as signi cant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long sur- face stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological e ects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hy- perbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a signi cant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power lev- els (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower speci c mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for ecient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo- Newtons of thrust at reasonably high speci c impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive trans-planetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation / EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  11. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a significant challenge in dealing with the physiological issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as significant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long surface stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological effects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hyperbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a significant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power levels (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower specific mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for efficient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust at reasonably high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive transplanetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation/EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  12. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  13. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications...

  14. Airline and Aircraft Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Hauka, Maris; Paramonovs, Jurijs

    2014-01-01

    Development of the inspection programme of fatigue-prone aircraft construction under limitation of airline fatigue failure rate. The highest economical effectiveness of airline under limitation of fatigue failure rate and failure probability is discussed. For computing is used exponential regression, Monte Carlo method, Log Normal distribution, Markov chains and semi-Markov process theory. The minimax approach is offered for processing the results of full-scale fatigue approval test of an air...

  15. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  16. N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Bonnefoy, P. A.; DelaRosaBlanco, E.; Dorbian, C. S.; Drela, M.; Hall, D. K.; Hansman, R. J.; Hileman, J. I.; Liebeck, R. H.; Levegren, J.; Mody, P.; Pertuze, J. A.; Sato, S.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Tan, C. S.; Hollman, J. S.; Duda, J. E.; Fitzgerald, N.; Houghton, J.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Kiwada, G. F.; Kordonowy, D.; Parrish, J. C.; Tylko, J.; Wen, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    MIT, Aerodyne Research, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Pratt & Whitney have collaborated to address NASA s desire to pursue revolutionary conceptual designs for a subsonic commercial transport that could enter service in the 2035 timeframe. The MIT team brings together multidisciplinary expertise and cutting-edge technologies to determine, in a rigorous and objective manner, the potential for improvements in noise, emissions, and performance for subsonic fixed wing transport aircraft. The collaboration incorporates assessment of the trade space in aerodynamics, propulsion, operations, and structures to ensure that the full spectrum of improvements is identified. Although the analysis focuses on these key areas, the team has taken a system-level approach to find the integrated solutions that offer the best balance in performance enhancements. Based on the trade space analyses and system-level assessment, two aircraft have been identified and carried through conceptual design to show both the in-depth engineering that underpins the benefits envisioned and also the technology paths that need to be followed to enable, within the next 25 years, the development of aircraft three generations ahead in capabilities from those flying today.

  17. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  18. Advanced propulsion options for the Mars cargo mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.; Sargent, Mark S.; Gowda, Nandini

    1990-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion options for a split-mission piloted Mars exploration scenario are presented. The primary study focus is on identifying concepts that can reduce total initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) for the cargo delivery portion of the mission; in addition, concepts that can reduce the trip time of the piloted option are assessed. The propulsion options considered are nuclear thermal propulsion, solar sails, multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion, solar electric propulsion, magnetic sails, mass drivers, rail guns, solar thermal rockets, beamed-energy propulsion systems, and tethers. For the cargo mission, solar sails are found to provide the greatest mass savings over the baseline chemical system, although they suffer from having very long trip times; a good performance compromise between a low IMLEO and a short trip time can be obtained using multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  19. Solar-Powered Electric Propulsion Systems: Engineering and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J. W.; Kerrisk, D. J.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight, multikilowatt solar power arrays in conjunction with electric propulsion offer potential improvements to space exploration, extending the usefulness of existing launch vehicles to higher-energy missions. Characteristics of solar-powered electric propulsion missions are outlined, and preliminary performance estimates are shown. Spacecraft system engineering is discussed with respect to parametric trade-offs in power and propulsion system design. Relationships between mission performance and propulsion system performance are illustrated. The present state of the art of electric propulsion systems is reviewed and related to the mission requirements identified earlier. The propulsion system design and test requirements for a mission spacecraft are identified and discussed. Although only ion engine systems are currently available, certain plasma propulsion systems offer some advantages in over-all system design. These are identified, and goals are set for plasma-thrustor systems to make them competitive with ion-engine systems for mission applications.

  20. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  1. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  2. Resource Prospector Propulsion System Cold Flow Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Addona, Brad; Trinh, Huu

    2015-01-01

    Resource Prospector (RP) is a NASA mission being led by NASA Ames Research Center with current plans to deliver a scientific payload package aboard a rover to the lunar surface. As part of an early risk reduction activity, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) have jointly developed a government-version concept of a lunar lander for the mission. The spacecraft consists of two parts, the lander and the rover which carries the scientific instruments. The lander holds the rover during launch, cruise, and landing on the surface. Following terminal descent and landing the lander portion of the spacecraft become dormant after the rover embarks on the science mission. The lander will be equipped with a propulsion system for lunar descent and landing, as well as trajectory correction and attitude control maneuvers during transit to the moon. Hypergolic propellants monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide will be used to fuel sixteen 70-lbf descent thrusters and twelve 5-lbf attitude control thrusters. A total of four metal-diaphragm tanks, two per propellant, will be used along with a high-pressure composite-overwrapped pressure vessel for the helium pressurant gas. Many of the major propulsion system components are heritage missile hardware obtained by NASA from the Air Force. In parallel with the flight system design activities, a simulated propulsion system based on flight drawings was built for conducting a series of water flow tests to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. The primary objective of the cold flow testing was to simulate the RP propulsion system fluid flow operation through water flow testing and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. All design and

  3. Dynamic Response Testing in an Electrically Heated Reactor Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Morton, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and full nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE-100a heat pipe cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware, utilizing a one-group solution to the point kinetics equations to simulate the expected neutronic response of the system (Bragg-Sitton, 2005). The current paper applies the same testing methodology to a direct drive gas cooled reactor system, demonstrating the applicability of the testing methodology to any reactor type and demonstrating the variation in system response characteristics in different reactor concepts. In each testing application, core power transients were controlled by a point kinetics model with reactivity feedback based on core average temperature; the neutron generation time and the temperature feedback coefficient are provided as model inputs. Although both system designs utilize a fast spectrum reactor, the method of cooling the reactor differs significantly, leading to a variable system response that can be demonstrated and assessed in a non-nuclear test facility.

  4. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  5. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra

    2005-01-01

    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  6. Computer code and users' guide for the preliminary analysis of dual-mode space nuclear fission solid core power and propulsion systems, NUROC3A. AMS report No. 1239b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.A.; Smith, W.W.

    1976-06-30

    The three-volume report describes a dual-mode nuclear space power and propulsion system concept that employs an advanced solid-core nuclear fission reactor coupled via heat pipes to one of several electric power conversion systems. The second volume describes the computer code and users' guide for the preliminary analysis of the system.

  7. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  8. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  9. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  10. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  11. Spectrally resolved resonant propulsion of dielectric microspheres

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yangcheng; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I; Urbas, Augustine M; Astratov, Vasily N

    2015-01-01

    Use of resonant light forces opens up a unique approach to high-volume sorting of microspherical resonators with much higher uniformity of resonances compared to that in coupled-cavity structures obtained by the best semiconductor technologies. In this work, the spectral response of the propulsion forces exerted on polystyrene microspheres near tapered microfibers is directly observed. The measurements are based on the control of the detuning between the tunable laser and internal resonances in each sphere with accuracy higher than the width of the resonances. The measured spectral shape of the propulsion forces correlates well with the whispering-gallery mode resonances in the microspheres. The existence of a stable radial trap for the microspheres propelled along the taper is demonstrated. The giant force peaks observed for 20-{\\mu}m spheres are found to be in a good agreement with a model calculation demonstrating an efficient use of the light momentum for propelling the microspheres.

  12. Propulsion Mechanism of Catalytic Microjet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.; Hippler, Markus; Magdanz, Veronika; Soler, Lluís; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the propulsion mechanism of the catalytic microjet engines that are fabricated using rolled-up nanotech. Microjets have recently shown numerous potential applications in nanorobotics but currently there is a lack of an accurate theoretical model that describes the origin of the motion as well as the mechanism of self-propulsion. The geometric asymmetry of a tubular microjet leads to the development of a capillary force, which tends to propel a bubble toward the larger opening of the tube. Because of this motion in an asymmetric tube, there emerges a momentum transfer to the fluid. In order to compensate this momentum transfer, a jet force acting on the tube occurs. This force, which is counterbalanced by the linear drag force, enables tube velocities of the order of 100 μm/s. This mechanism provides a fundamental explanation for the development of driving forces that are acting on bubbles in tubular microjets. PMID:25177214

  13. Solar Electric Propulsion for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Use of high-power solar arrays, at power levels ranging from approximately 500 KW to several megawatts, has been proposed for a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) demonstration mission, using a photovoltaic array to provide energy to a high-power xenon-fueled engine. One of the proposed applications of the high-power SEP technology is a mission to rendezvous with an asteroid and move it into lunar orbit for human exploration, the Asteroid Retrieval mission. The Solar Electric Propulsion project is dedicated to developing critical technologies to enable trips to further away destinations such as Mars or asteroids. NASA needs to reduce the cost of these ambitious exploration missions. High power and high efficiency SEP systems will require much less propellant to meet those requirements.

  14. Solar Thermal Propulsion Investigation Activities in NAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Hironori; Shimizu, Morio

    2004-03-01

    We successfully developed the ultra-light single shell paraboloidal concentrators made of a sheet of aluminized or silvered polymer membrane, formed via plastic deformation due to stress relaxation under high temperature condition by means of Straight Formation Method. Furthermore, we improved the precision of the concentrators by taking the elastic deformation of residual stress into consideration, and obtained the best concentration performance equivalent to a highly precise paraboloidal glass mirror. In solar concentration, the diameter of solar focal image via the single shell polymer concentrator is almost equal to that via the glass mirror and they are twice as large as that of the theoretical. The ultra-light single shell polymer concentrators are very useful for the concentrator in solar thermal propulsion system and solar power station in particular, and also promising item for beamed energy propulsion.

  15. Conceptual designs for antiproton space propulsion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassenti, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Five conceptual designs for antimatter space propulsion systems were compared in terms of their performance characteristics. The systems examined included solid-core liquid-propellant rockets; magnetically confined gaseous-core rockets using liquid or solid propellants; plasma-core rockets; pion rockets, which are driven directly by the mass annihilation products; and ram-augmented rockets, in which antiproton annihilation is used to heat hydrogen collected in interstellar space. It was found that, in general, as the specific impulse of the propulsion system increases, the thrust decreases. The comparison between designs showed that only fusion rockets have the capability to compete in performance with mass annihilation rockets. For very-high-speed interstellar missions, pion rockets, which can have a specific impulse of 20 million sec (although with a thrust-to-engine mass ratios of only 0.01 G) will offer best performance. 36 refs.

  16. Interplanetary space transport using inertial fusion propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, C.D.

    1998-04-20

    In this paper, we indicate how the great advantages that ICF offers for interplanetary propulsion can be accomplished with the VISTA spacecraft concept. The performance of VISTA is expected to surpass that from other realistic technologies for Mars missions if the energy gain achievable for ICF targets is above several hundred. Based on the good performance expected from the U. S. National Ignition Facility (NIF), the requirements for VISTA should be well within the realm of possibility if creative target concepts such as the fast ignitor can be developed. We also indicate that a 6000-ton VISTA can visit any planet in the solar system and return to Earth in about 7 years or less without any significant physiological hazards to astronauts. In concept, VISTA provides such short-duration missions, especially to Mars, that the hazards from cosmic radiation and zero gravity can be reduced to insignificant levels. VISTA therefore represents a significant step forward for space-propulsion concepts.

  17. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  18. LDRD final report on nanovehicle light-driven propulsion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anup K.; van Swol, Frank B.; Shelnutt, John Allen; Medforth, Craig J.; Song, Yujiang

    2004-12-01

    Having demonstrated the possibility of constructing nanoscale metallic vehicular bodies as described in last year's proposal, our goals have been to make uniform preparations of the metallized lipid assemblies and to determine the feasibility of powering these nanostructures with biological motors that are activated and driven by visible light. We desired that the propulsion system be constructed entirely by self-assembly and powered by a photocatalytic process partially already built into the nanovehicle. The nanovehicle we desire to build is composed of both natural biological components (ATPase, kinesin-microtubules) and biomimetic components (platinized liposomes, photosynthetic membrane) as functional units. The vehicle's body was originally envisioned to be composed of a surfactant liposomal bilayer coated with platinum nanoparticles, but instead of the expected nanoparticles we were able to grow dendritic 2-nm thick platinum sheets on the liposomes. Now, we have shown that it is possible to completely enclose the liposomes with sheeting to form porous platinum spheres, which show good structural stability as evidenced by their ability to survive the stresses of electron-microscopy sample preparation. Our goals were to control the synthesis of the platinized liposomes well enough to make uniform preparations of the coated individual liposomes and to develop the propulsion system for these nanovehicles a hydrogen-evolving artificial photosynthetic system in the liposomal bilayer that generates the pH gradient across the membrane that is necessary to drive the synthesis of ATP by ATP-synthase incorporated in the membrane. ATP produced would fuel the molecular motor (kinesin) attached to the vehicle, needing only light, storable ADP, phosphate, and an electron donor to be produced by ATP-synthase in the membrane. These research goals appear to be attainable, but growing the uniform preparations of the liposomes coated with dendritic platinum sheeting

  19. Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion for Smaller Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, John

    1998-01-01

    As satellite designs shrink, providing maneuvering and control capability falls outside the realm of available propulsion technology. While cold gas has been used on the smallest satellites, hydrogen peroxide propellant is suggested as the next step in performance and cost before hydrazine. Minimal toxicity and a small scale enable bench top propellant preparation and development testing. Progress toward low-cost thrusters and self-pressurizing tank systems is described.

  20. Disruptive Propulsive Technologies for European Space Missions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Advanced space technologies have been reviewed and analysed in view of heavy interplanetary missions of interest for Europe and European industry capabilities. Among the missions of interest: o Heavy robotic missions to outer planets, o Asteroid deflection missions, o Interplanetary manned mission (at longer term). These missions involve high speed increments, generally beyond the capability of chemical propulsion (except if gravitational swing-by can be used). For missions bey...