WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft materials

  1. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  2. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  3. Study of materials performance model for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, K.; Skratt, J.

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration version of an aircraft interior materials computer data library was developed and contains information on selected materials applicable to aircraft seats and wall panels, including materials for the following: panel face sheets, bond plies, honeycomb, foam, decorative film systems, seat cushions, adhesives, cushion reinforcements, fire blocking layers, slipcovers, decorative fabrics and thermoplastic parts. The information obtained for each material pertains to the material's performance in a fire scenario, selected material properties and several measures of processability.

  4. Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravi B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Holzwarth, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of current applications of composite materials and structures in military, transport and General Aviation aircraft is presented to assess the maturity of composites technology, and the payoffs realized. The results of the survey show that performance requirements and the potential to reduce life cycle costs for military aircraft and direct operating costs for transport aircraft are the main reasons for the selection of composite materials for current aircraft applications. Initial acquisition costs of composite airframe components are affected by high material costs and complex certification tests which appear to discourage the widespread use of composite materials for aircraft applications. Material suppliers have performed very well to date in developing resin matrix and fiber systems for improved mechanical, durability and damage tolerance performance. The next challenge for material suppliers is to reduce material costs and to develop materials that are suitable for simplified and inexpensive manufacturing processes. The focus of airframe manufacturers should be on the development of structural designs that reduce assembly costs by the use of large-scale integration of airframe components with unitized structures and manufacturing processes that minimize excessive manual labor.

  5. Quality-Oriented Classification of Aircraft Material Based on SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing material classification is proposed to improve the inventory management. However, different materials have the different quality-related attributes, especially in the aircraft industry. In order to reduce the cost without sacrificing the quality, we propose a quality-oriented material classification system considering the material quality character, Quality cost, and Quality influence. Analytic Hierarchy Process helps to make feature selection and classification decision. We use the improved Kraljic Portfolio Matrix to establish the three-dimensional classification model. The aircraft materials can be divided into eight types, including general type, key type, risk type, and leveraged type. Aiming to improve the classification accuracy of various materials, the algorithm of Support Vector Machine is introduced. Finally, we compare the SVM and BP neural network in the application. The results prove that the SVM algorithm is more efficient and accurate and the quality-oriented material classification is valuable.

  6. Problems and perspectives of application of composite materials in aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Savchenko, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Aircraft uses a very wide range of constructional technologies, but the technological progress and economic crisis lead to the research of composite materials with high mechanical and operational properties level. The advantage of such materials is the low density, which reduces the overall weight and increase fuel economy and increases airplanes' passenger capacity. Methodology. The values of the exploitation characteristics (specific strength, specific stiffness) of composite mater...

  7. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  8. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some aircraft seat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Fewell, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen samples of aircraft seat materials were evaluated for relative toxicity using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Nine samples were upholstery fabrics and nine samples were cushioning foams. Under these particular conditions of test, the aromatic phenolic and aromatic polyamide fabrics exhibited less toxicity than the samples of wool and wool/nylon fabrics, and the samples of neoprene foams exhibited less toxicity than the samples of polyurethane foams. These relative toxicity rankings were obtained using both apparent lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test animals (ALC50), and time to death (Td) at a fixed weight of material.

  9. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  10. Graphene/Epoxy Coating as Multifunctional Material for Aircraft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Monetta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of graphene as a conductive nanofiller in the preparation of inorganic/polymer nanocomposites has attracted increasing interest in the aerospace field. The reason for this is the possibility of overcoming problems strictly connected to the aircraft structures, such as electrical conductivity and thus lightning strike protection. In addition, graphene is an ideal candidate to enhance the anti-corrosion properties of the resin, since it absorbs most of the light and provides hydrophobicity for repelling water. An important aspect of these multifunctional materials is that all these improvements can be realized even at very low filler loadings in the polymer matrix. In this work, graphene nanoflakes were incorporated into a water-based epoxy resin, and then the hybrid coating was applied to Al 2024-T3 samples. The addition of graphene considerably improved some physical properties of the hybrid coating as demonstrated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS analysis, ameliorating anti-corrosion performances of raw material. DSC measurements and Cross-cut Test showed that graphene did not affect the curing process or the adhesion properties. Moreover, an increment of water contact angle was displayed.

  11. Developments in new aircraft tire tread materials. [fatigue life of elastomeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.; Mccarty, J. L.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Golub, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Comparative laboratory and field tests were conducted on experimental and state-of-the-art aircraft tire tread materials in a program aimed at seeking new elastomeric materials which would provide improved aircraft tire tread wear, traction, and blowout resistance in the interests of operational safety and economy. The experimental stock was formulated of natural rubber and amorphous vinyl polybutadiene to provide high thermal-oxidative resistance, a characteristic pursued on the premise that thermal oxidation is involved both in the normal abrasion or wear of tire treads and probably in the chain of events leading to blowout failures. Results from the tests demonstrate that the experimental stock provided better heat buildup (hysteresis) and fatigue properties, at least equal wet and dry traction, and greater wear resistance than the state-of-the-art stock.

  12. Special Issue: Adaptive/Smart Structures and Multifunctional Materials with Application to Morphing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafic Ajaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in smart structures and multifunctional materials have facilitated many novel aerospace technologies such as morphing aircraft. A morphing aircraft, bio-inspired by natural fliers, has gained a lot of interest as a potential technology to meet the ambitious goals of the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE Vision 2020 and the FlightPath 2050 documents. A morphing aircraft continuously adjusts its wing geometry to enhance flight performance, control authority, and multi-mission capability.[...

  13. Graphene/Epoxy Coating as Multifunctional Material for Aircraft Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tullio Monetta; Annalisa Acquesta; Francesco Bellucci

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the use of graphene as a conductive nanofiller in the preparation of inorganic/polymer nanocomposites has attracted increasing interest in the aerospace field. The reason for this is the possibility of overcoming problems strictly connected to the aircraft structures, such as electrical conductivity and thus lightning strike protection. In addition, graphene is an ideal candidate to enhance the anti-corrosion properties of the resin, since it absorbs most of the light and provides ...

  14. MIIT Convened Work Meeting for Upstream and Downstream Cooperation Mechanism of Aluminum Material For Civilian Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On September 15,2015,the Department of Raw Material Industry and the Department of Equipment Industry of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology(MIIT)jointly organized and convened the first work meeting for upstream and downstream cooperation mechanism of aluminum material for civilian aircraft in Shanghai.Entrusted by Vice

  15. A Web-based Computer-Aided Material-Selection System for Aircraft Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanpei Lan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A web-based computer-aided material-selection system for aircraft design was put forward, applying a material-selection strategy combined screening and ranking methods. This combined strategy could make good use of selection experience and material testing data, thus making the selection results more reasonable and bringing more standardization to the material selection process. The system’s Browser/ Server (B/S architecture together with its implementation details was described. The B/S system could be accessed with web browser conveniently. The system’s effectiveness was demonstrated by two aircraft-design material-selection case in actual applications. This system could help designer select suitable materials for airframe, provide knowledge for inexperienced engineer and accumulate enterprise-level material-selection expertise.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Nitrile Containing Polysiloxanes and Their Corresponding Networks as Aircraft Sealant Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyt, Jennifer K.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Polysiloxane networks have excellent oxidative and good UV environmental stability, flexibility at low temperatures, and thermal stability at higher temperatures. This wide service temperature range makes these materials a candidate class of materials for high performance adhesives and sealants, and in particular for applications on high speed aircraft. Polar polysiloxane networks were prepared with cyanopropyl substituents to lower any propensity for the materials to swell in ...

  17. First Principles Identification of New Aircraft Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The identification of new, structurally sound, thermally stable materials for aviation applications will enable a wide range of technologies. The identification of...

  18. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notification is defined under the provisions of the regulations for execution of the aviation law. Terms of exclusive loading and container are explained. Transportable radioactive materials hereunder exclude naturally igniting fluid materials, substances necessary to be contained in vessels which filtrate interior gas with filters or refrigerate contents with cooling devices, etc., or BM loads necessary to be continuously ventilated. Radioactive materials to be conveyed as radioactive loads and L loads are prescribed with tables attached. Technical standards for radioactive loads are stipulated for L, A, BM and BU loads respectively. Confirmation of safety of radioactive loads may be made by examiniation of documents prepared by persons acknowledged proper by the Minister of Transportation. Radioactive materials are uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238, 239 and 241, their compounds and those materials which include one or more than two of such substances. Materials whose quantities or quantities of components are less than 15 grams and natural or depleted uranium are excluded. The maximum doses of containers with radioactive loads shall not exceed for an hour 200 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at a distance of 1 meter from the surface. Confirmation of safety of transport, method of loading, prevention of criticality, restriction of mixed shipment, transport index, signals and others are provided for in detail. (Okada, K.)

  19. Design of materials for noise reduction in aircraft engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paun, F.; Gasser, St. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. of Metallic Materials and Processing, 92 - Chatillon (France); Leylekian, L. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. of Composite Systems and Materials, 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2003-01-01

    We would like to present in this paper, research that ONERA teams are making in the field of acoustic absorption materials at high temperatures. Some significant results are shown as well as some important findings for future investigation. Research performed in understanding the acoustic and mechanical behaviour of different classes of porous materials and developed processing methods will be described. Our interest was to demonstrate the feasibility of reducing noise produced by aeronautical turbo engines by means of appropriate passive acoustic treatments applied directly to the exhausters. (authors)

  20. NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report is concerned with 'Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft' which was initiated to identify the technology needs associated with advanced, low-cost aluminum base materials for use as primary structural materials. Using a reference baseline aircraft, these materials concept will be further developed and evaluated both technically and economically to determine the most attractive combinations of designs, materials, and manufacturing techniques for major structural sections of an HSCT. Once this has been accomplished, the baseline aircraft will be resized, if applicable, and performance objectives and economic evaluations made to determine aircraft operating costs. The two primary objectives of this study are: (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials, and (2) to assess these materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT.

  1. Worn surface characteristics of Cu-based powder metallurgy bake materials for aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ping-ping; SHENG Hong-chao; XIONG Xiang; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Cu-based powder metallurgy brake materials are used for aircraft widely and successfully. The characteristics of worn surface of Cu-based powder metallurgy brake materials for aircraft after working under service condition were studied, and two main wear mechanisms were discussed. The results show that the main components of worn surface are graphite, SiO2, Fe, Cu and oxide of Fe (Fe3O4 and FeO); the worn surface can be divided into three zones: severe wear zone, mild wear zone, and low wear zone; fatigue wear and grain wear are the main wear mechanisms of Cu-based materials. Some debris kept between brake discs reduce the wear rate to a certain extent by taking part in the regeneration of friction film.

  2. Experimental performance of an ablative material as an external insulator for a hypersonic research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puster, R. L.; Chapman, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    An ablative material composed of silica-filled elastomeric silicone was tested to evaluate its thermal and structural performance as an external insulator, or heat shield, for a hypersonic research aircraft. The material was also tested to determine whether it would form a durable char layer when initially heated and thereafter function primarily as an insulator with little further pyrolysis or char removal. Aerothermal tests were representative of nominal Mach 6 cruise conditions of the aircraft, and additional tests were representative of Mach 8 cruise and interference heating conditions. Radiant heating tests were used to simulate the complete nominal Mach 6 surface-temperature history. The silica char that formed during aerothermal tests was not durable. The char experienced a general and preferential surface recession, with the primary mechanism for char removal being erosion. Tests revealed that radiant heating is not a valid technique for simulating aerodynamic heating of the material.

  3. Certification of Discontinuous Composite Material Forms for Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Michael Roger

    New, high performance chopped, discontinuous, or short fiber composites (DFCs), DFCs, such as HexMC and Lytex, made by compression molding of randomly oriented pre-impregnated unidirectional tape, can be formed into complex geometry while retaining mechanical properties suitable for structural use. These DFCs provide the performance benefits of Continuous Fiber Composites (CFCs) in form factors that were previously unavailable. These materials demonstrate some notably different properties from continuous fiber composites, especially with respect to damage tolerance and failure behavior. These behaviors are not very well understood, and fundamental research efforts are ongoing to better characterize the material and to ease certification for future uses. Despite this, these new DFCs show such promise that they are already in service in the aerospace industry, for instance in the Boeing 787. Unfortunately, the relative novelty of these parts means that they needed to be certified by “point design”, an excess of physical testing, rather than by a mix of physical testing and finite element analysis, which would be the case for CFCs or metals. In this study, one particular approach to characterizing both linear-elastic and failure behaviors are considered. The Stochastic Laminate Analogy, which represents a novel approach to modeling DFCs, and its combination with a Ply Discount scheme. Owing to limited available computational resources, only preliminary results are available, but those results are quite promising and warrant further investigation.

  4. X-ray inspection of composite materials for aircraft structures using detectors of Medipix type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an overview of promising X-ray imaging techniques employed for non-destructive defectoscopy inspections of composite materials intended for the Aircraft industry. The major emphasis is placed on non-tomographic imaging techniques which do not require demanding spatial and time measurement conditions. Imaging methods for defects visualisation, delamination detection and porosity measurement of various composite materials such as carbon fibre reinforced polymers and honeycomb sendwiches are proposed. We make use of the new large area WidePix X-ray imaging camera assembled from up to 100 edgeless Medipix type detectors which is highly suitable for this type of measurements

  5. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  6. Methods of saving energy and materials in the manufacture of integrated aircraft structure components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, J.C.; Welschof, K.; Janssen, W.; Mahlke, M.; Sprangers, W.; Binding, J.

    1987-11-01

    In the framework of a special research unit, methods for saving energy and raw materials are investigated for selected production processes. Integral construction components of the aircraft industry which today are mostly produced by metal-cutting processes, are the basis of the joint research work of six of the total of nineteen participating projects. Research is carried out on the possibilities for reducing the expenditure of material and energy by the application of alternative production processes in the field of primary shaping, deforming and joining as well as by structural optimization. By means of a computer-aided evaluation of the possible production methods, the alternatives can be compared with regard to their energy and raw material requirements.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingyuan (王清远); N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials are known to have a considerable scatter due to the random nature of materials,loading,and environmental conditions.A probabilistic approach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effect of the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigue process (i.e.the pit nucleation and growth,pit-crack transition,short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size,corrosion pitting current,and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data.Monte Carlo simulations were performed to define the failure probability distribution.Predicted cumulative distribution functions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  8. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清远; N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials axe known to have a considerablescatter due to the random nature of materials, loading, and environmental conditions. A probabilisticapproach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effectof the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigueprocess (i.e. the pit nucleation and growth, pit-crack transition, short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size, corrosion pittingcurrent, and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data. Monte Carlo simu-lations were performed to define the failure probability distribution. Predicted cumulative distributionfunctions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  9. Standard Test Method for Stress-Corrosion of Titanium Alloys by Aircraft Engine Cleaning Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a test procedure for determining the propensity of aircraft turbine engine cleaning and maintenance materials for causing stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloy parts. 1.2 The evaluation is conducted on representative titanium alloys by determining the effect of contact with cleaning and maintenance materials on tendency of prestressed titanium alloys to crack when subsequently heated to elevated temperatures. 1.3 Test conditions are based upon manufacturer's maximum recommended operating solution concentration. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see and .

  10. Analysis of dental materials as an aid to identification in aircraft accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.S.; Cruickshanks-Boyd, D.W.

    1982-04-01

    The failure to achieve positive identification of aircrew following an aircraft accident need not prevent a full autopsy and toxicological examination to ascertain possible medical factors involved in the accident. Energy-dispersive electron microprobe analysis provides morphological, qualitative, and accurate quantitative analysis of the composition of dental amalgam. Wet chemical analysis can be used to determine the elemental composition of crowns, bridges and partial dentures. Unfilled resin can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of filled composite restorative resins has not yet been achieved in the as-set condition to permit discrimination between manufacturers' products. Future work will involve filler studies and pyrolysis of the composite resins by thermogravimetric analysis to determine percentage weight loss when the sample examined is subjected to a controlled heating regime. With these available techniques, corroborative evidence achieved from the scientific study of materials can augment standard forensic dental results to obtain a positive identification.

  11. The effect of material heterogeneity in curved composite beams for use in aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, Brendan J.; Santare, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    A design tool is presented for predicting the effect of material heterogeneity on the performance of curved composite beams for use in aircraft fuselage structures. Material heterogeneity can be induced during processes such as sheet forming and stretch forming of thermoplastic composites. This heterogeneity can be introduced in the form of fiber realignment and spreading during the manufacturing process causing a gradient in material properties in both the radial and tangential directions. The analysis procedure uses a separate two-dimensional elasticity solution for the stresses in the flanges and web sections of the beam. The separate solutions are coupled by requiring the forces and displacements match at the section boundaries. Analysis is performed for curved beams loaded in pure bending and uniform pressure. The beams can be of any general cross-section such as a hat, T-, I-, or J-beam. Preliminary results show that geometry of the beam dictates the effect of heterogeneity on performance. Heterogeneity plays a much larger role in beams with a small average radius to depth ratio, R/t, where R is the average radius of the beam and t is the difference between the inside and outside radius. Results of the analysis are in the form of stresses and displacements, and they are compared to both mechanics of materials and numerical solutions obtained using finite element analysis.

  12. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  13. Standard Test Method for Effects of Cleaning and Chemical Maintenance Materials on Painted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of cleaning solutions and liquid cleaner concentrates on painted aircraft surfaces (Note 1). Streaking, discoloration, and blistering may be determined visually. Softening is determined with a series of specially prepared pencils wherein determination of the softest pencil to rupture the paint film is made. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any paint film that is exposed to cleaning materials. MIL-PRF-85285 has been selected as a basic example. When other paint finishes are used, refer to the applicable material specification for panel preparation and system curing prior to testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user ...

  14. Influence of Implementation of Composite Materials in Civil Aircraft Industry on reduction of Environmental Pollution and Greenhouse Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-based Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) models were carried out to compare lightweight composites with the traditional aluminium over their useful lifetime. The analysis included raw materials, production, useful life in operation and disposal at the end of the material's useful life. The carbon fibre epoxy resin composite could in some cases reduce the weight of a component by up to 40 % compared to aluminium. As the fuel consumption of an aircraft is strongly influenced by its total weight, the emissions can be significantly reduced by increasing the proportion of composites used in the aircraft structure. Higher emissions, compared to aluminium, produced during composites production meet their 'break even' point after certain number of time units when used in aircraft structures, and continue to save emissions over their long-term operation. The study highlighted the environmental benefits of using lightweight structures in aircraft design, and also showed that utilisation of composites in products without energy saving may lead to increased emissions in the environment.

  15. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  16. Costs and benefits of composite material applications to a civil STOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Costs and benefits of advanced composite primary airframe structure were studied to determine cost-effective applications to a civil STOL aircraft designed for introduction in the early 1980 time period. Applications were assessed by comparing costs and weights with a baseline metal aircraft which served as a basis of comparison throughout the study. Costs as well as weights were estimated from specific designs of principal airframe components, thus establishing a cost-data base for the study. Cost effectiveness was judged by an analysis that compared direct operating costs and return on investment of the composite and baseline aircraft. A systems operations analysis was performed to judge effects of the smaller, lighter composite aircraft. It was determined that broad applications of advanced composites to the airframe considered could be cost-effective, but this advantage is strongly influenced by structural configuration and several key cost categories.

  17. Material combinations and parametric study of thermal and mechanical performance of pyramidal core sandwich panels used for hypersonic aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiping; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Lorenzini, Giulio; Xie, Gongnan

    2016-07-01

    A novel kind of lightweight integrated thermal protection system, named pyramidal core sandwich panel, is proposed to be a good safeguard for hypersonic aircrafts in the current study. Such system is considered as not only an insulation structure but also a load-bearing structure. In the context of design for hypersonic aircrafts, an efficient optimization should be paid enough attention. This paper concerns with the homogenization of the proposed pyramidal sandwich core panel using two-dimensional model in subsequent research for material selection. According to the required insulation performance and thermal-mechanical properties, several suitable material combinations are chosen as candidates for the pyramidal core sandwich panel by adopting finite element analysis and approximate response surface. To obtain lightweight structure with an excellent capability of heat insulation and load-bearing, an investigation on some specific design variables, which are significant for thermal-mechanical properties of the structure, is performed. Finally, a good balance between the insulation performance, the capability of load-bearing and the lightweight has attained.

  18. The impact of self healing materials on telecommunication: towards a concrete aircraft?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmets, A. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of a material for a specific application is governed by considerations on the expected conditions during its lifetime. For aerospace applications for instance, lightness, reliability and thermal stability ofthe material are of major importance. No material will ever possess all the desired properties at the same time. Therefore the engineer is left with optimising the materials and minimise the impact of the ever-present 'disadvantageous' properties. By introducing the potential of 'S...

  19. The impact of self healing materials on telecommunication: towards a concrete aircraft?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmets, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of a material for a specific application is governed by considerations on the expected conditions during its lifetime. For aerospace applications for instance, lightness, reliability and thermal stability ofthe material are of major importance. No material will ever possess all the desired p

  20. Energy absorption capability of foam-based composite materials and their applications as seat cushions in aircraft crashworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kh. Beheshti, Hamid

    This study is focusing on the application of foam materials in aviation. These materials are being used for acoustic purposes, as padding in the finished interior panels of the aircraft, and as seat cushions. Foams are mostly used in seating applications. Since seat cushion is directly interacting with the body of occupant, it has to be ergonomically comfortable beside of absorbing the energy during the impact. All the seats and seat cushions have to pass regulations defined by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In fact, all airplane companies are required to certify the subcomponents of aircrafts before installing them on the main structure, fuselage. Current Federal Aviation Administration Regulations require a dynamic sled test of the entire seat system for certifying the seat cushions. This dynamic testing is required also for replacing the deteriorated cushions with new cushions. This involves a costly and time-consuming certification process. AGATE group has suggested a procedure based on quasi-static testing in order to certify new seat cushions without conducting full-scale dynamic sled testing. AGATE subcomponent methodology involves static tests of the energy-absorbing foam cushions and design validation by conducting a full-scale dynamic seat test. Microscopic and macroscopic studies are necessary to provide a complete understanding about performance of foams during the crash. Much investigation has been done by different sources to obtain the reliable modeling in terms of demonstration of mechanical behavior of foams. However, rate sensitivity of foams needs more attention. A mathematical hybrid dynamic model for the cushion underneath of the human body will be taken into consideration in this research. Analytical and finite element codes such as MADYMO and LS-DYNA codes have the potential to greatly speed up the crashworthy design process, to help certify seats and aircraft to dynamic crash loads, to predict seat and occupant response to impact

  1. Lightning effects on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  2. Innovative Structural and Material Concepts for Low-Weight Low-Drag Aircraft Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this multi-phase project is to explore, develop, integrate, and test several innovative structural design concepts and new material...

  3. A domain-specific design architecture for composite material design and aircraft part redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punch, W. F., III; Keller, K. J.; Bond, W.; Sticklen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composites have been targeted as a 'leapfrog' technology that would provide a unique global competitive position for U.S. industry. Composites are unique in the requirements for an integrated approach to designing, manufacturing, and marketing of products developed utilizing the new materials of construction. Numerous studies extending across the entire economic spectrum of the United States from aerospace to military to durable goods have identified composites as a 'key' technology. In general there have been two approaches to composite construction: build models of a given composite materials, then determine characteristics of the material via numerical simulation and empirical testing; and experience-directed construction of fabrication plans for building composites with given properties. The first route sets a goal to capture basic understanding of a device (the composite) by use of a rigorous mathematical model; the second attempts to capture the expertise about the process of fabricating a composite (to date) at a surface level typically expressed in a rule based system. From an AI perspective, these two research lines are attacking distinctly different problems, and both tracks have current limitations. The mathematical modeling approach has yielded a wealth of data but a large number of simplifying assumptions are needed to make numerical simulation tractable. Likewise, although surface level expertise about how to build a particular composite may yield important results, recent trends in the KBS area are towards augmenting surface level problem solving with deeper level knowledge. Many of the relative advantages of composites, e.g., the strength:weight ratio, is most prominent when the entire component is designed as a unitary piece. The bottleneck in undertaking such unitary design lies in the difficulty of the re-design task. Designing the fabrication protocols for a complex-shaped, thick section composite are currently very difficult. It is in

  4. Materials and Additive Manufacturing for Energy Efficiency in Wind Turbine and Aircraft Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, Panos G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clemons, Art [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bolton, Paul [Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Hollander, Aaron [First Aviation Services Inc., Westport, CT (United States)

    2016-05-04

    The purpose of this project was to develop surface treatments which will inhibit the formation of ice on turbine blades and propellers. ORNL worked with Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC and First Aviation Services Inc. to demonstrate a new surface treatment for two primary markets, aviation and wind turbines, as well as secondary markets such as power lines, bridges, boats, roofs and antennas among others. Exploring alternative surface treatments for wind turbines will provide anti-icing properties and erosion/abrasion prevention properties similar to those for aviation applications. A series of superhydrophobic coating materials was synthesized and successfully applied on anti-ice tape materials that could be used in a wide range of wind turbine and aviation applications to prevent ice accumulation. The coatings developed in this project were based on superhydrophobic particles of different geometries and sizes that were homogeneously dispersed in polymeric binders. The superhydrophobic features of the coatings are volumetric and their abrasion resistance was evaluated. Future research will involve the demonstration of anti-icing properties of the surface treatment developed in this project.

  5. Effect of Wire Material on Productivity and Surface Integrity of WEDM-Processed Inconel 706 for Aircraft Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyaranjan; Chakradhar, D.; Narendranath, S.

    2016-07-01

    Inconel 706 is a recently developed superalloy for aircraft application, particularly in turbine disk which is among the most critical components in the gas turbine engines. Recently, wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) attained success in machining of gas turbine components which require complex shape profiles with high precision. To achieve the feasibility in machining of these components, the research work has been conducted on Inconel 706 superalloy using WEDM process. And, the effect of different wire materials (i.e., hard brass wire, diffused wire, and zinc-coated wire) on WEDM performance characteristics such as cutting speed, surface topography, surface roughness, recast layer formation, residual stresses, and microstructural and metallurgical alterations have been investigated. Even though, zinc-coated wire exhibits improved productivity, hard brass wire was found to be beneficial in terms of improved surface quality of the machined parts. Additionally, lower tensile residual stresses were obtained with hard brass wire. However, diffused wire has a moderate effect on productivity and surface quality. Under high discharge energy, higher elemental changes were observed and also the white layer was detected.

  6. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  7. The application of EOQ and lead time crashing cost models in material with limited life time (Case study: CN-235 Aircraft at PT Dirgantara Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina Hidayat, Yosi; Ria Kasanah, Aprilia; Yudhistira, Titah

    2016-02-01

    PT. Dirgantara Indonesia, one of State Owned Enterprises engaging in the aerospace industry, targets to control 30% of world market for light and medium sized aircraft. One type of the aircrafts produced by PT. DI every year is CN-235. Currently, the cost of material procurement reaches 50% of the total cost of production. Material has a variety of characteristics, one of which is having a lifetime. The demand characteristic of the material with expiration for the CN-235 aircraft is deterministic. PT DI does not have any scientific background for its procurement of raw material policy. In addition, there are two methods of transportation used for delivering materials, i.e. by land and air. Each method has different lead time. Inventory policies used in this research are deterministic and probabilistic. Both deterministic and probabilistic single and multi-item inventory policies have order quantity, time to order, reorder point, and lead time as decision variables. The performance indicator for this research is total inventory cost. Inventory policy using the single item EOQ and considering expiration factor inventory results in a reduction in total costs up to 69.58% and multi item results in a decrease in total costs amounted to 71.16%. Inventory policy proposal using the model of a single item by considering expiration factor and lead time crashing cost results in a decrease in total costs amounted to 71.5% and multi item results in a decrease in total costs amounted to 71.62%. Subsequently, wasted expired materials, with the proposed models have been successfully decreased to 95%.

  8. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and...

  9. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  10. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  11. Aircraft Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  12. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site in Fairfield, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that, after remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed (1) 30 mrem/yr for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or (2) 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation

  13. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  14. Deformation of Titanium Alloy Materials for China Aircraft%我国航空用变形钛合金材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利军; 薛祥义; 常辉

    2012-01-01

    Titanium alloy appears as a mid-twentieth century, and developed new structural materials, because of its excellent corrosion resistance, high specific strength and non-magnetic and a series of unique advantages, such as high-end in the aerospace industry access to a wide range of applications, the current structure of the airframe bulkheads, beams, landing gear and the aircraft engine compressor tray, roulette, blades and other parts of extensive use of titanium bearing materials. 60s in the last century, the United States, Britain, the former Soviet Union and other industrialized countries has been in the manufacture of aircraft and aero-engine heavy use of titanium material. Titanium alloy material of the application in the aviation industry started late 80's until the last century, one after another in the manufacture of aircraft and aircraft engines use a small amount of titanium alloy materials, but the 21st century, China~ aviation induswy application level of a large titanium alloy Rate increase, this article in China has entered the industrial production of and access to en- gineering applications in the aviation industry formulation of deformation of titanium alloy materials.%钛合金材料作为一种20世纪中叶出现并发展起来的新兴结构材料,因其具有优异的耐腐蚀性、高的比强度以及无磁性等一系列独特的优点,在航空航天等高端工业部门获得了广泛应用,目前飞机机体结构中的隔框、大梁、起落架以及航空发动机压气机匣、轮盘、叶片等承力部件大量使用钛合金材料制造。在上世纪60年代,美国、英国、前苏联等工业发达国家就已经在弋机及航空发动机制造中大量使用钛合金材料。我国钛合金材料在航空工业中的应用起步较晚,上世纪80年代开始才陆续在飞机及航空发动机制造中少量使用钛合金材料,但是进入21世纪之后,我国航空工业钛合金材料的应用水平大

  15. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  16. Structural Framework for Flight: NASA's Role in Development of Advanced Composite Materials for Aircraft and Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Johnston, Norman J.; Pipes, R. Byron; McGuire, Jack F.

    2011-01-01

    This serves as a source of collated information on Composite Research over the past four decades at NASA Langley Research Center, and is a key reference for readers wishing to grasp the underlying principles and challenges associated with developing and applying advanced composite materials to new aerospace vehicle concepts. Second, it identifies the major obstacles encountered in developing and applying composites on advanced flight vehicles, as well as lessons learned in overcoming these obstacles. Third, it points out current barriers and challenges to further application of composites on future vehicles. This is extremely valuable for steering research in the future, when new breakthroughs in materials or processing science may eliminate/minimize some of the barriers that have traditionally blocked the expanded application of composite to new structural or revolutionary vehicle concepts. Finally, a review of past work and identification of future challenges will hopefully inspire new research opportunities and development of revolutionary materials and structural concepts to revolutionize future flight vehicles.

  17. APPLICATION FOR AIRCRAFT TRACKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroumov, Ivan; Kuz’menko, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In the article the important problems of software development for aircraft tracking have beendiscussed. Position reports of ACARS have been used for aircraft tracking around the world.An algorithm of aircraft coordinates decoding and visualization of aircraft position on the map has beenrepresented.Keywords: ACARS, aircraft, internet, position, software, tracking.

  18. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  19. Neural Networks Based Aircraft Fault Tolerant Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lunlong; Mora-Camino, Félix

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to deal with the case in which an aerodynamic actuator failure occurs to an aircraft while it has to perform guidance maneuvers. The problem considered deals with the reallocation of redundant actuators to perform the required maneuvers and maintain the structural integrity of the aircraft. A Nonlinear Inverse Control technique is used to generate online nominal moment along the three axis of the aircraft. Then, taking into account all material and structu...

  20. Noise control mechanisms of inside aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, A. Ya.

    2016-07-01

    World trends in the development of methods and approaches to noise reduction in aircraft cabins are reviewed. The paper discusses the mechanisms of passive and active noise and vibration control, application of "smart" and innovative materials, new approaches to creating all fuselage-design elements, and other promising directions of noise control inside aircraft.

  1. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  2. 10 CFR 70.14 - Foreign military aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign military aircraft. 70.14 Section 70.14 Energy....14 Foreign military aircraft. The regulations in this part do not apply to persons who carry special nuclear material (other than plutonium) in aircraft of the armed forces of foreign nations subject to 49...

  3. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 5: Flight service and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizer, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Inspections of the C-130 composite-reinforced center wings were conducted over the flight service monitoring period of more than six years. Twelve inspections were conducted on each of the two C-130H airplanes having composite reinforced center wing boxes. Each inspection consisted of visual and ultrasonic inspection of the selective boron-epoxy reinforced center wings which included the inspection of the boron-epoxy laminates and the boron-epoxy reinforcement/aluminum structure adhesive bondlines. During the flight service monitoring period, the two C-130H aircraft accumulated more than 10,000 flight hours and no defects were detected in the inspections over this period. The successful performance of the C-130H aircraft with composite-reinforced center wings allowed the transfer of the responsibilities of inspecting and maintaining these two aircraft to the U. S. Air Force.

  4. Corrosion Sensor Development for Condition-Based Maintenance of Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gino Rinaldi; Trisha Huber; Heather McIntosh; Les Lebrun; Heping Ding; John Weber

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft routinely operate in atmospheric environments that, over time, will impact their structural integrity. Material protection and selection schemes notwithstanding, recurrent exposure to chlorides, pollution, temperature gradients, and moisture provide the necessary electrochemical conditions for the development and profusion of corrosion in aircraft structures. For aircraft operators, this becomes an important safety matter as corrosion found in a given aircraft must be assumed to be p...

  5. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  6. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  7. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 3: Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvill, W. E.; Kays, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    The manufacturing plan for three C-130 aircraft center wing box test articles, selectively reinforced with boron-epoxy composites, is outlined for the following tasks: (1) tooling; (2) metal parts fabrication: (3) reinforcing laminate fabrication; (4) laminate-to-metal parts bonding; and (5) wing box assembly. The criteria used for reliability and quality assurance are discussed, and several solutions to specific manufacturing problems encountered during fabrication are given. For Vol. 1, see N73-13011; for Vol. 2, see N73-22929.

  8. Computer Aided Visual Inspection of Aircraft Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Rafia Mumtaz; Mustafa Mumtaz; Atif Bin Mansoor; Hassan Masood

    2012-01-01

    Non Destructive Inspections (NDI) plays a vital role in aircraft industry as it determines the structural integrity of aircraft surface and material characterization. The existing NDI methods are time consuming, we propose a new NDI approach using Digital Image Processing that has the potential to substantially decrease the inspection time. Automatic Marking of cracks have been achieved through application of Thresholding, Gabor Filter and Non Subsampled Contourlet transform. For a novel meth...

  9. Designing A Conventional Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Sonei, Arash

    2014-01-01

    This paper is explaining the important design phases of dimensioning an unmanned conventional aircraft from scratch and will also design one according to a few chosen requirements. The design phases discussed will be all from wing dimensioning to stability and spin recovery, aircraft performance requirements and how to select a motor which overcomes these. As well as the optimal rate of climb for improved efficiency is discussed. In the end an aircraft which manages the set requirements and i...

  10. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10-6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  11. Cooling system for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, P. L.; Pagel, L. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The system eliminates the necessity of shielding an aircraft airframe constructed of material such as aluminum. Cooling is accomplished by passing a coolant through the aircraft airframe, the coolant acting as a carrier to remove heat from the airframe. The coolant is circulated through a heat pump and a heat exchanger which together extract essentially all of the added heat from the coolant. The heat is transferred to the aircraft fuel system via the heat exchanger and the heat pump. The heat extracted from the coolant is utilized to power the heat pump. The heat pump has associated therewith power turbine mechanism which is also driven by the extracted heat. The power turbines are utilized to drive various aircraft subsystems, the compressor of the heat pump, and provide engine cooling.

  12. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    work demonstrates the development of a probabilistic corrosion failure model using survival analysis methods and techniques. Using a parsimonious approach, the coefficients of a Cox proportional hazards model were derived from a set of environmental, geographical and operational predictor variables. To determine if the variables satisfied the proportional hazard assumption, numerous statistical tests were performed---such as the equivalence tests of the log rank, Wilcoxon, Peto-Peto and Fleming-Harrington---and graphical plots generated such as observed-versus-expected plots and log(-log) survival curves. Finally, in a paradigm enhancement to current design methodologies, this dissertation place sets survival analysis modeling in the context of an emerging holistic structural integrity philosophy. While traditional aircraft design and life prediction methodologies consider only the cyclic fatigue domain without consideration to the environmental or unique operating spectrum that aircraft may fly in, a holistic approach considers the cradle-to-grave driving forces in the life of a component, such as corrosion assisted crack nucleation in a material. This dissertation, which uses real-world failure data obtained from structural aircraft components, is poised to narrow the cradle-to-grave loop and provide holistic feedback in the understanding of aircraft structural system failures.

  13. Aircraft fault tolerant control based on active set method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lunlong; Mora-Camino, Félix

    2013-01-01

    This communication considers the case in which an aerodynamic actuator failure occurs to an aircraft while it has to perform a guidance manoeuver. The problem considered deals with the reassignment of the remaining actuators to continue to perform the maneuver while maintaining the structural integrity of the aircraft. A nonlinear inverse control technique is used to generate online nominal moments along the three main axes of the aircraft. Then, taking into account all material and structura...

  14. ACEE Composite Structures Technology: Review of selected NASA research on composite materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program was designed to develop technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Research on composite materials, aircraft structures, and aircraft design is presented herein. The following parameters of composite materials were addressed: residual strength, damage tolerance, toughness, tensile strength, impact resistance, buckling, and noise transmission within composite materials structures.

  15. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  16. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  17. Multifunctional Composite Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polymeric composite materials that are currently utilized in aircraft structures are susceptible to significant damage from lightning strikes. Enhanced electrical...

  18. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  19. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  20. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  1. Solar thermal aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  2. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications of this division in aviation, data optimization and comparison has been quite an important task. The interest in using data acquisition boards is being driven by the technology and design standards in the new generation of aircraft and the ongoing efforts of reducing weight and, in some cases addressing the safety risks. This paper presents a sum of technical report data from post processing and diversification of data acquisition from Arinc 429 interface on a research aircraft platform. Arinc 429 is by far the most common data bus in use on civil transport aircraft, regional jets and executive business jets today. Since its introduction on the Boeing 757/767 and Airbus aircraft in the early 1980s hardly any aircraft has been produced without the use of this data bus. It was used widely by the air transport indu

  3. Development of powder metallurgy 2XXX series Al alloy plate and sheet materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications, FY 1983/1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to fabricate and evaluate PM 2124 Al alloy plate and sheet materials according to NASA program goals for damage tolerance and fatigue resistance. Previous research has indicated the outstanding strength-toughness relationship available with PM 2124 Al-Zr modified alloy compositions in extruded product forms. The range of processing conditions was explored in the fabrication of plate and sheet gage materials, as well as the resultant mechanical and metallurgical properties. The PM composition based on Al-3.70 Cu-1.85 Mg-0.20 Mn with 0.60 wt. pct. Zr was selected. Flat rolled material consisting of 0.250 in. thick plate was fabricated using selected thermal mechanical treatments (TMT). The schedule of TMT operations was designed to yield the extreme conditions of grain structure normally encountered in the fabrication of flat rolled products, specifically recrystallized and unrecrystallized. The PM Al alloy plate and sheet materials exhibited improved strength properties at thin gages compared to IM Al alloys, as a consequence of their enhanced ability to inhibit recrystallization and grain growth. In addition, the PM 2124 Al alloys offer much better combinations of strength and toughnessover equivalent IM Al. The alloy microstructures were examined by optical metallographic texture techniques in order to establish the metallurgical basis for these significant property improvements.

  4. Modelling Lightning Initiation and Attachment to Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present initial calculations of the formation of streamers on an aircraft. A two-dimensional model has been used to determine electric field strengths and charge densities around solids of various geometries and electrical conductivities. The calculations take into account the distortion of the background electric fields by the solid material and the production and motion of charged species. Detailed time-dependent visualizations of the streamer initiation and propagation are presented. The effects of size and aspect ratio of the gross features of the aircraft on the development of the streamers is discussed

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  7. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  8. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  9. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  10. Accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities: DOE standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard provides the user with sufficient information to evaluate and assess the significance of aircraft crash risk on facility safety without expending excessive effort where it is not required. It establishes an approach for performing a conservative analysis of the risk posed by a release of hazardous radioactive or chemical material resulting from an aircraft crash into a facility containing significant quantities of such material. This can establish whether a facility has a significant potential for an aircraft impact and whether this has the potential for producing significant offsite or onsite consequences. General implementation guidance, screening and evaluation guidelines, and methodologies for the evaluations are included

  11. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  12. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 4: Ground/flight acceptance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvill, W. E.; Kizer, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The advantageous structural uses of advanced filamentary composites are demonstrated by design, fabrication, and test of three boron-epoxy reinforced C-130 center wing boxes. The advanced development work necessary to support detailed design of a composite reinforced C-130 center wing box was conducted. Activities included the development of a basis for structural design, selection and verification of materials and processes, manufacturing and tooling development, and fabrication and test of full-scale portions of the center wing box. Detailed design drawings, and necessary analytical structural substantiation including static strength, fatigue endurance, flutter, and weight analyses are considered. Some additional component testing was conducted to verify the design for panel buckling, and to evaluate specific local design areas. Development of the cool tool restraint concept was completed, and bonding capabilities were evaluated using full-length skin panel and stringer specimens.

  13. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  14. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  15. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, M.; Bertsch, E.L.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    A joint initiative of NLR, DLR, and TU Delft has been initiated to streamline the process of generating audible impressions of novel aircraft configurations. The integrated approach adds to the value of the individual tools and allows predicting the sound of future aircraft before they actually fly. Hence, an existing process for the aircraft design and system noise prediction at DLR has been upgraded to generate the required input data for an aircraft auralization framework developed by NLR ...

  16. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  17. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  18. Reengineering Aircraft Structural Life Prediction Using a Digital Twin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Tuegel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reengineering of the aircraft structural life prediction process to fully exploit advances in very high performance digital computing is proposed. The proposed process utilizes an ultrahigh fidelity model of individual aircraft by tail number, a Digital Twin, to integrate computation of structural deflections and temperatures in response to flight conditions, with resulting local damage and material state evolution. A conceptual model of how the Digital Twin can be used for predicting the life of aircraft structure and assuring its structural integrity is presented. The technical challenges to developing and deploying a Digital Twin are discussed in detail.

  19. Computer Aided Visual Inspection of Aircraft Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Mumtaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Non Destructive Inspections (NDI plays a vital role in aircraft industry as it determines the structural integrity of aircraft surface and material characterization. The existing NDI methods are time consuming, we propose a new NDI approach using Digital Image Processing that has the potential to substantially decrease the inspection time. Automatic Marking of cracks have been achieved through application of Thresholding, Gabor Filter and Non Subsampled Contourlet transform. For a novel method of NDI, the aircraft imagery is analyzed by three methods i.e Neural Networks, Contourlet Transform (CT and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. With the help of Contourlet Transform the two dimensional (2-D spectrum is divided into fine slices, using iterated directional filterbanks. Next, directional energy components for each block of the decomposed subband outputs are computed. These energy values are used to distinguish between the crack and scratch images using the Dot Product classifier. In next approach, the aircraft imagery is decomposed into high and low frequency components using DCT and the first order moment is determined to form feature vectors.A correlation based approach is then used for distinction between crack and scratch surfaces. A comparative examination between the two techniques on a database of crack and scratch images revealed that texture analysis using the combined transform based approach gave the best results by giving an accuracy of 96.6% for the identification of crack surfaces and 98.3% for scratch surfaces.

  20. The brace position for passenger aircraft: a biomechanical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Brownson, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Hypothesis A modified brace position would help to prevent injury to some aircraft passengers in the event of an impact accident. Aim of Experiments To evaluate a modified crash brace position. Materials and Methods 1. Impact Testing Impact testing was performed at the RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough. Aircraft seats, mounted on a sled, were propelled down a track at an acceleration of 16G. A 50% Hybrid III dummy was used as the experimental model. Four ...

  1. Reengineering Aircraft Structural Life Prediction Using a Digital Twin

    OpenAIRE

    Eric J. Tuegel; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; Eason, Thomas G.; S. Michael Spottswood

    2011-01-01

    Reengineering of the aircraft structural life prediction process to fully exploit advances in very high performance digital computing is proposed. The proposed process utilizes an ultrahigh fidelity model of individual aircraft by tail number, a Digital Twin, to integrate computation of structural deflections and temperatures in response to flight conditions, with resulting local damage and material state evolution. A conceptual model of how the Digital Twin can be used for predicting the lif...

  2. Corrosion Sensor Development for Condition-Based Maintenance of Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Rinaldi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft routinely operate in atmospheric environments that, over time, will impact their structural integrity. Material protection and selection schemes notwithstanding, recurrent exposure to chlorides, pollution, temperature gradients, and moisture provide the necessary electrochemical conditions for the development and profusion of corrosion in aircraft structures. For aircraft operators, this becomes an important safety matter as corrosion found in a given aircraft must be assumed to be present in all of that type of aircraft. This safety protocol and its associated unscheduled maintenance requirement drive up the operational costs of the fleet and limit the availability of the aircraft. Hence, there is an opportunity at present for developing novel sensing technologies and schemes to aid in shifting time-based maintenance schedules towards condition-based maintenance procedures. In this work, part of the ongoing development of a multiparameter integrated corrosion sensor is presented. It consists of carbon nanotube/polyaniline polymer sensors and commercial-off-the-shelf sensors. It is being developed primarily for monitoring environmental and material factors for the purpose of providing a means to more accurately assess the structural integrity of aerospace aluminium alloys through fusion of multiparameter sensor data. Preliminary experimental test results are presented for chloride ion concentration, hydrogen gas evolution, humidity variations, and material degradation.

  3. Improving aircraft accident forecasting for an integrated plutonium storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft accidents pose a quantifiable threat to facilities used to store and process surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently published its first aircraft accident analysis guidelines: Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities. This document establishes a hierarchy of procedures for estimating the small annual frequency for aircraft accidents that impact Pantex facilities and the even smaller frequency of hazardous material released to the environment. The standard establishes a screening threshold of 10-6 impacts per year; if the initial estimate of impact frequency for a facility is below this level, no further analysis is required. The Pantex Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) calculates the aircraft impact frequency to be above this screening level. The DOE Standard encourages more detailed analyses in such cases. This report presents three refinements, namely, removing retired small military aircraft from the accident rate database, correcting the conversion factor from military accident rates (accidents per 100,000 hours) to the rates used in the DOE model (accidents per flight phase), and adjusting the conditional probability of impact for general aviation to more accurately reflect pilot training and local conditions. This report documents a halving of the predicted frequency of an aircraft impact at Pantex and points toward further reductions

  4. Electrochemical Machining – Special Equipment and Applications in Aircraft Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszaj Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical machining is an unique method of shaping in which, for optimal parameters tool has no wear, surface layer properties after machining are similar to the core material and surface quality and accuracy increase together with material removal rate increase. Such advantages of electrochemical machining, besides of some ecological problems, create industry interest in the range of manufacturing elements made of materials with special properties (i.e. turbine blades of flow aircrafts engines. In the paper the nowadays possibilities and recent practical application of electrochemical machining in aircraft have been presented.

  5. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  6. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  7. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  8. Structural integrity in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardrath, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the current design philosophies for achieving long, efficient, and reliable service in aircraft structures. The strengths and weaknesses of these design philosophies and their demonstrated records of success are discussed. The state of the art has not been developed to the point where designing can be done without major test inspection and maintenance programs. A broad program of research is proposed through which a viable computerized design scheme will be provided during the next decade. The program will organize and correlate existing knowledge on fatigue and fracture behavior, identify gaps in this knowledge, and guide specific research to upgrade design capabilities.

  9. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  10. Adaptive structures for fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Willi; Jänker, Peter; Siemetzki, Markus; Lorkowski, Thomas; Grohmann, Boris; Maier, Rudolf; Maucher, Christoph; Klöppel, Valentin; Enenkl, Bernhard; Roth, Dieter; Hansen, Heinz

    2007-07-01

    Since more than 10 years EADS Innovation Works, which is the corporate research centre of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), is investigating smart materials and adaptive structures for aircraft in cooperation with EADS business units. Focus of research efforts are adaptive systems for shape control, noise reduction and vibration control of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as for lift optimisation of fixed wing aircraft. Two outstanding adaptive systems which have been pushed ahead in cooperation with Airbus Germany and Eurocopter Germany are adaptive servo flaps for helicopter rotor blades and innovative high lift devices for fixed wing aircraft which both were tested in flight for the first time representing world premieres. In this paper various examples of adaptive systems are presented which were developed and realized by EADS in recent years.

  11. Altus aircraft on runway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  12. Radial cylinder aircraft engines

    OpenAIRE

    Šimíček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Práce je zaměřena na konstrukční řešení letadlových hvězdicových motorů. Úvod je pojednáním o historii letadlových hvězdicových motorů a jejich vývoji v historickém kontextu. Druhá část je zaměřena na konstrukci letadlových hvězdicových motorů, následně jsou uvedena některá zajímavá konstrukční řešení a porovnání s motorem jiného druhu konstrukce. The bachelor's thesis is focused on design of aircraft radial engines. Home is a treatise on the history of aircraft radial engines and their de...

  13. The passive and active noise control strategy in the aircraft interior noise

    OpenAIRE

    Paonessa, A.

    1994-01-01

    The stringent comfort requirements that the airliners are providing to the aircraft manufacturers, also for the small regional commuter are increasing the attention of the aircraft designer to the aircraft interior noise performance. The research on the design methodologies is very much improved in the last years providing new materials and new system like the active noise control usefull to get a more comfortable interior and achieve a large competition on the market. In this paper a general...

  14. Alternative aircraft anti-icing formulations with reduced aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Harris; Joback, Kevin; Geis, Steven; Bowman, George; Mericas, Dean; Corsi, Steven R.; Ferguson, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The current research was conducted to identify alternative aircraft and pavement deicer and anti-icer formulations with improved environmental characteristics compared to currently used commercial products (2007). The environmental characteristics of primary concern are the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of the fully formulated products. Except when the distinction among products is necessary for clarity, “deicer” will refer to aircraft-deicing fluids (ADFs), aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAFs), and pavementdeicing materials (PDMs).

  15. Aviation industry-research in aircraft finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenthal, Joachim C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft values are key to aircraft financing decisions: Aircraft values act as a source of security for providers of debt capital and lessors failing to re-place aircraft, and as a source of upside potential to equity investors. Yet, aircraft values cannot be precisely and continuously monitored. This is because neither actual primary nor secondary aircraft transaction prices are disclosed. Various types of third party valuation estimates exist, but relying solely on third party appraisa...

  16. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  17. Corrosion detection in aircraft by X-ray backscatter methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limited-scan backscatter technique for detecting hidden corrosion and other flaws in aircraft has been demonstrated. Both simulation and experimental results indicate that as little as 5% material loss at depths up to 0.508 cm (0.200 in.) and 10% material loss at depths up to 0.635 cm (0.250 in.) beneath aircraft skin surfaces can be realiably detected. The technology involves analysis of backscattered photon data to yield a figure-of-merit whose value as a function of position indicates with high probability of detection whether or not flaws - such as corrosion, disbonding, macro-cracks, or voids - exist within scanned samples

  18. Fracture control procedures for aircraft structural integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of applied fracture mechanics in the design, analysis, and qualification of aircraft structural systems are reviewed. Recent service experiences are cited. Current trends in high-strength materials application are reviewed with particular emphasis on the manner in which fracture toughness and structural efficiency may affect the material selection process. General fracture control procedures are reviewed in depth with specific reference to the impact of inspectability, structural arrangement, and material on proposed analysis requirements for safe crack growth. The relative impact on allowable design stress is indicated by example. Design criteria, material, and analysis requirements for implementation of fracture control procedures are reviewed together with limitations in current available data techniques. A summary of items which require further study and attention is presented.

  19. Damage assessment of nuclear containment against aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Damage assessment of nuclear containment is studied against aircraft crash. • Four impact locations have been identified at the outer containment shell. • The mid of the total height has been found to be most vulnerable location. • The crown of dome has been found to be the strongest location. • Phantom F4 caused more localized and severe damage compared to other aircrafts. - Abstract: The behavior of nuclear containment structure has been studied against aircraft crash with an emphasis on the influence of strike location. The impact locations identified on the BWR Mark III type nuclear containment structure are mid-height, junction of dome and cylinder, crown of dome and arc of dome. The containment at each of the above locations has been impacted normally by Phantom F-4, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A320 aircrafts. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The concrete damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model. The mid-height of containment has been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft. Phantom F4 has been found to be most disastrous at each location. The results have been compared with those of the available studies with respect to the containment deformation

  20. Design of a Three Surfaces R/C Aircraft Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of a three lifting surfaces radio-controlled model has been carried out at Dipartimento di Progettazione Aeronautica (DPA by the authors in the last year. The model is intended to be a UAV prototype and is now under construction. The main goal of this small aircraft's design is to check the influence of the canard surface on the aircraft's aerodynamic characteristics and flight behavior, especially at high angles of attack. The aircraft model is also intended to be a flying platform to test sensors, measurement and acquisition systems for research purposes and a valid and low-cost teaching instrument for flight dynamics and flight maneuvering. The aircraft has been designed to fly with and without canard, and all problems relative to aircraft balance and stability have been carefully analyzed and solved. The innovative configuration and the mixed wooden-composite material structure has been obtained with very simple shapes and all the design is focused on realizing a low-cost model. A complete aerodynamic analysis of the configuration up to high angles of attack and a preliminary aircraft stability and performance prediction will be presented.

  1. Eagle RTS: A design for a regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Paul; Buckles, Jon; Lemke, Paul; Peake, Kirk

    1992-01-01

    This university design project concerns the Eagle RTS (Regional Transport System), a 66 passenger, twin turboprop aircraft with a range of 836 nautical miles. It will operate with a crew of two pilots and two flight attendents. This aircraft will employ the use of aluminum alloys and composite materials to reduce the aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. The Eagle RTS will use narrow body aerodynamics with a canard configuration to improve performance. Leading edge technology will be used in the cockpit to improve flight handling and safety. The Eagle RTS propulsion system will consist of two turboprop engines with a total thrust of approximately 6300 pounds, 3150 pounds thrust per engine, for the cruise configuration. The engines will be mounted on the aft section of the aircraft to increase passenger safety in the event of a propeller failure. Aft mounted engines will also increase the overall efficiency of the aircraft by reducing the aircraft's drag. The Eagle RTS is projected to have a takeoff distance of approximately 4700 feet and a landing distance of 6100 feet. These distances will allow the Eagle RTS to land at the relatively short runways of regional airports.

  2. Damage assessment of nuclear containment against aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Mohd Ashraf, E-mail: iqbal_ashraf@rediffmail.com; Sadique, Md. Rehan, E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Bhargava, Pradeep, E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ac.in; Bhandari, N.M., E-mail: nmbcefce@iitr.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Damage assessment of nuclear containment is studied against aircraft crash. • Four impact locations have been identified at the outer containment shell. • The mid of the total height has been found to be most vulnerable location. • The crown of dome has been found to be the strongest location. • Phantom F4 caused more localized and severe damage compared to other aircrafts. - Abstract: The behavior of nuclear containment structure has been studied against aircraft crash with an emphasis on the influence of strike location. The impact locations identified on the BWR Mark III type nuclear containment structure are mid-height, junction of dome and cylinder, crown of dome and arc of dome. The containment at each of the above locations has been impacted normally by Phantom F-4, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A320 aircrafts. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The concrete damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model. The mid-height of containment has been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft. Phantom F4 has been found to be most disastrous at each location. The results have been compared with those of the available studies with respect to the containment deformation.

  3. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  4. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The overall wing study objectives are to study and plan the effort by commercial transport aircraft manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current conventional materials and practices to extensive use of advanced composites in wings of aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Specific wing study objectives are to define the technology and data needed to support an aircraft manufacturer's commitment to utilize composites primary wing structure in future production aircraft and to develop plans for a composite wing technology program which will provide the needed technology and data.

  5. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment

  6. Assessment of sensors and aircraft for oil spill remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment Canada has assessed sensors and aircraft suitable for remote sensing, particularly the capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets. The assessment was based on past experience and technical considerations. The first sensor recommended for use is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This recommendation is based on the system's ability to detect oil and discriminate this from the background, and the low cost of these sensors. The laser fluorosensor is recommended as the second device, as it is the only unit capable of positively discriminating oil on water, among weeds, and in sediment or beach material. Cameras operating in the visible region of the spectrum are recommended for two functions: documentation and providing background or location imagery for other sensors. Imaging radars, be they SAR or SLAR, are recommended for long-range searches or for oil spill work at night or when fog is present. Radars are expensive and require dedicated aircraft. Passive microwave devices are currently being developed but have not been proven as an alternative to radar or for measuring slick thickness. A laser based thickness sensor is under development. Satellite systems were also assessed. Satellite sensors operating in the visible spectrum have only limited application to major oil spills. New radar sensors show limited potential. The major limitation of any satellite system is the limited coverage time that is a function of its orbit. A study of aircraft and aircraft modifications was carried out to catalog aircraft modifications necessary to operate oil spill remote sensors. A potential user could select modifications that are already approved and thus save the high costs of aircraft modification design. The modifications already approved in Canada and the US for a given aircraft provide criteria for the selection of an aircraft

  7. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  8. Administrative regulations concerning the carriage of dangerous substances by civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulations, which entered into force on the date they were adopted, apply to the transport of dangerous substances by civil aircraft in Norway and by aircraft registered in Norway for transport outside Norwegian territory. They provide that such substances, including radioactive materials, must be carried in accordance with the IATA Restricted Articles Regulations

  9. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  10. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  11. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  12. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  13. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard....

  14. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  15. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  16. Electromagnetic Interference In New Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews plans to develop tests and standards to ensure that digital avionics systems in new civil aircraft immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Updated standards reflect more severe environment and vulnerabilities of modern avionics.

  17. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  18. Challenges in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone A

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the problem of aircraft noise prediction using theoretical methods. The problem is set in context with the needs at several levels to produce noise characterisation from commercial aircraft powered by gas turbine engines. We describe very briefly the computational model (whilst referring the reader to the appropriate literature), and provide examples of noise predictions and comparisons with measured data, where possible. We focus on the issue of stochastic analysi...

  19. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  20. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  1. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  2. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  3. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  4. Integrated Control with Structural Feedback to Enable Lightweight Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation for the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference covers the benefits of active structural control, related research areas, and focuses on the use of optimal control allocation for the prevention of critical loads. Active control of lightweight structures has the potential to reduce aircraft weight and fuel burn. Sensor, control law, materials, control effector, and system level research will be necessary to enable active control of lightweight structures. Optimal control allocation with structural feedback has been shown in simulation to be feasible in preventing critical loads and is one example of a control law to enable future lightweight aircraft.

  5. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  6. Structural health monitoring and impact detection for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosters, Eric; van Els, Thomas J.

    2010-04-01

    The increasing use of thermoplastic carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials in the aerospace industry for primary aircraft structures, such as wing leading-edge surfaces and fuselage sections, has led to rapid growth in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Impact, vibration, and load can all cause failure, such as delamination and matrix cracking, in composite materials. Moreover, the internal material damage can occur without being visible to the human eye, making inspection of and clear insight into structural integrity difficult using currently available evaluation methods. Here, we describe the detection of impact and its localization in materials and structures by high-speed interrogation of multiple-fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors mounted on a composite aircraft component.

  7. NASA service experience with composite components. [for aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.; Chapman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    NASA Langley has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites during the past decade. A broad data base and confidence in the durability of composite structures are being developed. Flight service experience is reported for more than 140 composite aircraft components with up to 8 years service and almost two million successful component flight hours. Composite components are being evaluated on Boeing, Douglas, and Lockheed transport aircraft. Components are currently under development for service evaluation on Bell and Sikorsky helicopters. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results are reported for components currently in service. Components under development in the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program are discussed. Results of flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental tests on composite materials used in the flight service programs are also presented.

  8. Analysis of aircraft maintenance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed several organizational models of aircraft maintenance. All models presented so far have been in use in Air Forces, so that the advantages and disadvantages of different models are known. First it shows the current model of aircraft maintenance as well as its basic characteristics. Then the paper discusses two organizational models of aircraft maintenance with their advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages of different models are analyzed based on the criteria of operational capabilities of military units. In addition to operational capabilities, the paper presents some other criteria which should be taken into account in the evaluation and selection of an optimal model of aircraft maintenance. Performing a qualitative analysis of some models may not be sufficient for evaluating the optimum choice for models of maintenance referring to the selected set of criteria from the scope of operational capabilities. In order to choose the optimum model, it is necessary to conduct a detailed economic and technical analysis of individual tactical model maintenance. A high-quality aircraft maintenance organization requires the highest state and army authorities to be involved. It is necessary to set clear objectives for all the elements of modern air force technical support programs based on the given evaluation criteria.

  9. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Абрамова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation

  10. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje;

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures. The...... cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft/models to be...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the...

  11. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m3 LH2. This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  12. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  13. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  14. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  15. Nondestructive testing of aging aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft fleet in the US military is getting old, averaging over 40 years. These old planes are planned to be used for additional 20-30 years. Some commercial fleets are getting older as well, though not on the same level. Many NDT methods are in practice and new ones being developed. Corrosion and fatigue are the two main sources of damage to aircraft structures and require cost-effective NDT methods to detect and characterize the damage. Current approaches to this difficult task reviewed.

  16. Wireless microsensors for health monitoring of aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2003-01-01

    The integration of MEMS, IDTs (interdigital transducers) and required microelectronics and conformal antennas to realize programmable, robust and low cost passive microsensors suitable for many military structures and systems including aircraft, missiles and munitions is presented in this paper. The technology is currently being applied to the structural health monitoring of critical aircraft components. The approach integrates acoustic emission, strain gauges, MEMS accelerometers, gyroscopes and vibration monitoring devices with signal processing electronics to provide real-time indicators of incipient failure of aircraft components with a known history of catastrophic failure due to fracture. Recently a combination of the need for safety in the air and the desire to control costs is encouraging the use of in-flight monitoring of aircraft components and systems using light-weight, wireless and cost effective microsensors and MEMS. An in-situ Aircraft structural health monitoring (ASHM) system, with sensors embedded in the composite structure or surface-mounted on the structure, would permit the timely detection of damage in aircraft. Micromachining offers the potential for fabricating a range of microsensors and MEMS for structural applications including load, vibration and acoustics characterization and monitoring. Such microsensors are extremely small; they can be embedded into structural materials, can be mass-produced and are therefore potentially cheap. Additionally a range of sensor types can be integrated onto a single chip with built-in electronics and ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit), providing a low power Microsystems. The smart sensors are being developed using the standard microelectronics and micromachining in conjunction with novel Penn State smart electronics or wireless communication systems suitable for condition monitoring of aircraft structures in-flight. A hybrid accelerometer and gyroscope in a single chip suitable for inertial

  17. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  18. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  19. Estimate of aircraft crash hit frequencies on to facilities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities are required by DOE Order 5480.23, Section 8.b.(3)(k) to consider external events as initiating events to accidents within the scope of their Safety Analysis Reports (SAR). One of the external initiating events which should be considered within the scope of a SAR is an aircraft accident, i.e., an aircraft crashing into the nuclear facility with the related impact and fire leading to penetration of the facility and to the release of radioactive and/or hazardous materials. This report presents the results of an Aircraft Crash Frequency analysis performed for the Materials Management Area (MMA), and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 200. The analysis estimates only the aircraft crash hit frequency on to the analyzed facilities. No initial aircraft crash hit frequency screening structural response calculations of the facilities to the aircraft impact, or consequence analysis of radioactive/hazardous materials released following the aircraft impact are performed. The method used to estimate the aircraft crash hit frequencies on to facilities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) generally follows the procedure given by the DOE Standard 3014-96 on Aircraft Crash Analysis. However, certain adjustments were made to the DOE Standard procedure because of the site specific fight environment or because of facility specific characteristics

  20. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  1. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  2. The design and testing of subscale smart aircraft wing bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently costly periodic inspection is vital in guaranteeing the structural integrity of aircraft. This investigation assesses the potential for significantly reducing aircraft maintenance costs without modification of aircraft structures by implementing smart wing bolts, manufactured from TRIP steel, which can be monitored for damage in situ. TRIP steels undergo a transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite during deformation. Subscale smart aircraft wing bolts were manufactured from hot rolled TRIP steel. These wing bolts were used to demonstrate that washers incorporating embedded inductance coils can be utilized to measure the martensitic transformation occurring in the TRIP steel during bolt deformation. Early in situ warning of a critical bolt stress level was thereby facilitated, potentially reducing the costly requirement for periodic wing bolt removal and inspection. The hot rolled TRIP steels that were utilized in these subscale bolts do not however exhibit the mechanical properties required of wing bolt material. Thus warm rolled TRIP steel alloys were also investigated. The mechanical properties of the best warm rolled TRIP steel alloy tested almost matched those of AISI 4340. The warm rolled alloys were also shown to exhibit transformation before yield, allowing for earlier warning when overload occurs. Further work will be required relating to fatigue crack detection, environmental temperature fluctuation and more thorough material characterization. However, present results show that in situ early detection of wing bolt overload is feasible via the use of high alloy warm rolled TRIP steel wing bolts in combination with inductive sensor embedded washers. (paper)

  3. The design and testing of subscale smart aircraft wing bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugampore, J. M. V.; Bemont, C.

    2012-07-01

    Presently costly periodic inspection is vital in guaranteeing the structural integrity of aircraft. This investigation assesses the potential for significantly reducing aircraft maintenance costs without modification of aircraft structures by implementing smart wing bolts, manufactured from TRIP steel, which can be monitored for damage in situ. TRIP steels undergo a transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite during deformation. Subscale smart aircraft wing bolts were manufactured from hot rolled TRIP steel. These wing bolts were used to demonstrate that washers incorporating embedded inductance coils can be utilized to measure the martensitic transformation occurring in the TRIP steel during bolt deformation. Early in situ warning of a critical bolt stress level was thereby facilitated, potentially reducing the costly requirement for periodic wing bolt removal and inspection. The hot rolled TRIP steels that were utilized in these subscale bolts do not however exhibit the mechanical properties required of wing bolt material. Thus warm rolled TRIP steel alloys were also investigated. The mechanical properties of the best warm rolled TRIP steel alloy tested almost matched those of AISI 4340. The warm rolled alloys were also shown to exhibit transformation before yield, allowing for earlier warning when overload occurs. Further work will be required relating to fatigue crack detection, environmental temperature fluctuation and more thorough material characterization. However, present results show that in situ early detection of wing bolt overload is feasible via the use of high alloy warm rolled TRIP steel wing bolts in combination with inductive sensor embedded washers.

  4. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  5. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  6. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  7. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  8. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  9. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  10. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  12. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  13. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  14. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  15. HUMAN FACTOR IMPACT IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    MARINKOVIC SRBOLJUB J.; DRENOVAC ALEKSANDAR Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance, as a specific field of military materiel maintenance, is characterized by high reliability standards, based on regulations and technical standards. A system approach to maintenance represents the key element of maintenance quality, while aircraft maintenance staff has a crucial influence on the final outcome of aircraft maintenance.

  16. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  17. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  18. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  19. Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

  20. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  1. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  2. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  3. Improving aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, F. P.; Klineberg, J. M.; Kramer, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations conducted by a NASA task force concerning the development of aeronautical fuel-conservation technology are considered. The task force estimated the fuel savings potential, prospects for implementation in the civil air-transport fleet, and the impact of the technology on air-transport fuel use. Propulsion advances are related to existing engines in the fleet, to new production of current engine types, and to new engine designs. Studies aimed at the evolutionary improvement of aerodynamic design and a laminar flow control program are discussed and possibilities concerning the use of composite structural materials are examined.

  4. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  5. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  6. Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element  Method. The skin of the blade is calculated as a laminate and the foam core as a solid. A static and dynamic analysis were made. The RTM technology is compared with other technologies and is described in detail. 

  7. Fundamental Hyperelastic Material Study Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research is part of an innovative effort to use hyperelastic materials to produce flexible and seamless aircraft structures that reduce drag and...

  8. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  9. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  10. Aircraft emissions at Turkish airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with estimating aircraft landing and take-off (LTO) emissions (HC, CO, NOx, SO2) at 40 Turkish airports including the biggest airports, i.e. Ataturk International Airport (AIA) in Istanbul, Antalya Airport in Antalya and Esenboga Airport in Ankara in 2001. The calculation model is based on flight data recorded by the State Airports Authority. The flight data include the type and number of aircraft, number of passengers, amount of cargo etc., which depend on day-time and date. For the emission calculations the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)-Engine emission data bank, which includes minimum and maximum values for both fuel flow rates and emissions factors, is used. By using first the minimum and then the maximum values from the data bank, two estimations of aircraft LTO emissions at Turkish airports are calculated: i.e. minimum and maximum estimations. Total LTO emissions from aircraft at Turkish airports are estimated to be between 7614.34 and 8338.79 t/year. These results are comparable with those from USA airports. Approximately half of these amounts are produced at AIA. To predict future emissions, it is estimated that an increase of 25% in LTO cycles might cause a rise of between 31 and 33% in emissions. The estimations show that a decrease of 2 min in taxiing time results in a decrease of 6% in LTO emissions. The estimation model used in this study can be used for expansions and planning of airports from an environmental point of view. (author)

  11. Challenges of aircraft design integration

    OpenAIRE

    Kafyeke, F.; Abdo, M.; Pepin, F; Piperni, P.; Laurendeau, E.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a modern airplane brings together many disciplines: structures, aerodynamics, controls, systems, propulsion with complex interdependencies and many variables. Recent aircraft programs, such as Bombardier's Continental Jet program use participants located around the world and selected for their cost, quality and delivery capability. These participants share the risk on the program and must therefore be fully implicated in the design. A big challenge is to provide information on c...

  12. Modelling of the Wireless Propagation Characteristics inside Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Debono, Carl James; Farrugia, Reuben A.; Chetcuti, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This chapter has given the theoretical background necessary to develop a radio propagation map for an IEEE 802.11a system. The method is based on ray tracing techniques which rely on the theory of geometric optics. This solution can be applied to both commercial aircraft, like the A340-600 used in this case, and business jets. The flexibility of the simulator allows easy modifications to simulate different frequency bands and different furniture location and material. This makes the simulator...

  13. Premature failure of low pressure turbine blade of an aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low pressure turbine blade failed during the ground run of an aircraft engine. The failed blade was analyzed to find out the cause of failure. The material of the blade was Udimet -500, a high strength Ni-base super alloy. Low cycle fatigue was observed during fractography. Fatigue crack was originated from an ejected grain. When the crack reached to a critical size, the blade failed under overload condition. (author)

  14. Structural Weight Optimization of Aircraft Wing Component Using FEM Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Arockia Ruban M,; Kaveti Aruna

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges for the civil aviation industry is the reduction of its environmental impact by better fuel efficiency by virtue of Structural optimization. Over the past years, improvements in performance and fuel efficiency have been achieved by simplifying the design of the structural components and usage of composite materials to reduce the overall weight of the structure. This paper deals with the weight optimization of transport aircraft with low wing configuratio...

  15. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  16. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  17. Standard Test Method to Determine Color Change and Staining Caused by Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals upon Aircraft Cabin Interior Hard Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of color change and staining from liquid solutions, such as cleaning or disinfecting chemicals or both, on painted metallic surfaces and nonmetallic surfaces of materials being used inside the aircraft cabin. The effects upon the exposed specimens are measured with the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change and AATCC Gray Color Scale for Staining. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any colored nonmetallic hard surface in contact with liquids. The selected test specimens are chosen because these materials are present in the majority of aircraft cabin interiors. 1.2This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  19. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  20. Choice of Aircraft Size - Explanations and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Givoni, Moshe; Rietveld, Piet

    2006-01-01

    To keep load factors high while offering high frequency service, airlines tend to reduce the size of the aircraft they use. At many of the world’s largest airports there are fewer than 100 passengers per air transport movement, although congestion and delays are growing. Furthermore, demand for air transport is predicted to continue growing but aircraft size is not. This paper aims to investigate and explain this phenomenon, the choice of relatively small aircraft. It seems that this choice i...

  1. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  2. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  3. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  4. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  5. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the distribution of the frames in the population is dependent on structural variables related to the individual. To reveal subjects’ frames of aircraft noise a latent class model is estimated based on ...

  7. NDT applications in the aircraft industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) in the aircraft industry is used primarily to detect process defects in the manufacturing stage and failure defects in the in-service stage. Inspection techniques such as X- or gamma ray radiography are used for examination. Eddy current and ultrasonic are applied for examination, fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particles are applied for examination of aircraft and engine. With the wide scope of application, this paper discussed one type of NDT that is much used in aircraft being the latest technique in aircraft manufacturing. 1 fig

  8. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  9. Challenges for the aircraft structural integrity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six years ago the United States Air Force established the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) because flight safety had been degraded by fatigue failures of operational aircraft. This initial program evolved, but has been stable since the issuance of MIL-STD-1530A in 1975. Today, the program faces new challenges because of a need to maintain aircraft longer in an environment of reduced funding levels. Also, there is increased pressure to reduce cost of the acquisition of new aircraft. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the challenges for the ASIP and identify the changes in the program that will meet these challenges in the future.

  10. Development and characterization of Powder Metallurgy (PM) 2XXX series Al alloy products and Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) 2XXX Al/SiC materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.; Gurganus, T. B.; Walker, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a series of material studies performed by the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the time period from 1980 to 1991 are discussed. The technical objective of these evaluations was to develop and characterize advanced aluminum alloy materials with temperature capabilities extending to 350 F. An overview is given of the first five alloy development efforts under this contract. Prior work conducted during the first five modifications of the alloy development program are listed. Recent developments based on the addition of high Zr levels to an optimum Al-Cu-Mg alloy composition by powder metallurgy processing are discussed. Both reinforced and SiC or B4C ceramic reinforced alloys were explored to achieve specific target goals for high temperature aluminum alloy applications.

  11. 75 FR 51953 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... applicability of these regulations to unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The proposed definition stated... unmanned aircraft system that takes place between the time that the system is activated with the purpose of... notification and reporting of aircraft accidents or incidents by adding a definition of ``unmanned......

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  13. Altus I aircraft on lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft climbs away after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the

  14. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  15. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  16. Titanium Alloys and Processing for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William D.; Bird, R. Keith; Wallace, Terryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Commercially available titanium alloys as well as emerging titanium alloys with limited or no production experience are being considered for a variety of applications to high speed commercial aircraft structures. A number of government and industry programs are underway to improve the performance of promising alloys by chemistry and/or processing modifications and to identify appropriate alloys and processes for specific aircraft structural applications. This paper discusses some of the results on the effects of heat treatment, service temperatures from - 54 C to +177 C, and selected processing on the mechanical properties of several candidate beta and alpha-beta titanium alloys. Included are beta alloys Timetal 21S, LCB, Beta C, Beta CEZ, and Ti-10-2-3 and alpha-beta alloys Ti-62222, Ti-6242S, Timetal 550, Ti-62S, SP-700, and Corona-X. The emphasis is on properties of rolled sheet product form and on the superplastic properties and processing of the materials.

  17. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  18. Development of Textile Reinforced Composites for Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. Benson

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been a leader in development of composite materials for aircraft applications during the past 25 years. In the early 1980's NASA and others conducted research to improve damage tolerance of composite structures through the use of toughened resins but these resins were not cost-effective. The aircraft industry wanted affordable, robust structures that could withstand the rigors of flight service with minimal damage. The cost and damage tolerance barriers of conventional laminated composites led NASA to focus on new concepts in composites which would incorporate the automated manufacturing methods of the textiles industry and which would incorporate through-the-thickness reinforcements. The NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program provided the resources to extensively investigate the application of textile processes to next generation aircraft wing and fuselage structures. This paper discusses advanced textile material forms that have been developed, innovative machine concepts and key technology advancements required for future application of textile reinforced composites in commercial transport aircraft. Multiaxial warp knitting, triaxial braiding and through-the-thickness stitching are the three textile processes that have surfaced as the most promising for further development. Textile reinforced composite structural elements that have been developed in the NASA ACT Program are discussed. Included are braided fuselage frames and window-belt reinforcements, woven/stitched lower fuselage side panels, stitched multiaxial warp knit wing skins, and braided wing stiffeners. In addition, low-cost processing concepts such as resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI), and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are discussed. Process modeling concepts to predict resin flow and cure in textile preforms are also discussed.

  19. Structural Load Alleviation Applied to Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a goal of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Environmental impact of aviation is being addressed by novel aircraft configurations and materials that reduce aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. NASA is developing tools to address the challenges of increased airframe flexibility created by wings constructed with reduced structural material and novel light-weight materials. This talk will present a framework and demonstration of a flight control system using optimal control allocation with structural load feedback and constraints to achieve safe aircraft operation. As wind turbines age, they become susceptible to many forms of blade degradation. Results will be presented on work in progress that uses adaptive contingency control for load mitigation in a wind turbine simulation with blade damage progression modeled.

  20. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98.

  1. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section...

  2. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  3. Laminar flow control for transport aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of laminar flow control into transport aircraft is discussed. Design concepts for the wing surface panel of laminar flow control transport aircraft are described. The development of small amounts of laminar flow on small commercial transports with natural or hybrid flow control is examined. Techniques for eliminating the insect contamination problem in the leading-edge region are proposed.

  4. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources to...

  5. Wireless Network Simulation in Aircraft Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, John H.; Youssef, Mennatoallah; Vahala, Linda

    2004-01-01

    An electromagnetic propagation prediction tool was used to predict electromagnetic field strength inside airplane cabins. A commercial software package, Wireless Insite, was used to predict power levels inside aircraft cabins and the data was compared with previously collected experimental data. It was concluded that the software could qualitatively predict electromagnetic propagation inside the aircraft cabin environment.

  6. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  7. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  8. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  9. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  10. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  11. Infrared thermographic diagnostic aid to aircraft maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delo, Michael; Delo, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Thermographic data can be used as a supplement to aircraft maintenance operations in both back shop and flight line situations. Aircraft systems such as electrical, propulsion, environmental, pitot static and hydraulic/pneumatic fluid, can be inspected using a thermal infrared (IR) imager. Aircraft systems utilize electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical, and electro-pneumatic mechanisms, which, if accessible, can be diagnosed for faults using infrared technology. Since thermographs are images of heat, rather than light, the measurement principle is based on the fact that any physical object (radiating energy at infrared wavelengths within the IR portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum), can be imaged with infrared imaging equipment. All aircraft systems being tested with infrared are required to be energized for troubleshooting, so that valuable baseline data from fully operational aircraft can be collected, archived and referenced for future comparisons.

  12. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  13. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is...

  14. Study of thermal stability and degradation of fire resistant candidate polymers for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemistry of bismaleimide resins and phenolphthalein polycarbonate was studied. Both materials are fire-resistant polymers and may be suitable for aircraft interiors. The chemical composition of the polymers has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. Thermal properties of these polymers have been characterized by thermogravimetric analyses. Qualitative evaluation of the volatile products formed in pyrolysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions has been made using infrared spectrometry. The residues after pyrolysis were analyzed by elemental analysis. The thermal stability of composite panel and thermoplastic materials for aircraft interiors was studied by thermogravimetric analyses.

  15. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  16. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  17. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  18. Nondestructive materials characterization with applications to aerospace materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Peter; Rokhlin, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    With an emphasis on aircraft materials, this book describes techniques for the material characterization to detect and quantify degradation processes such as corrosion and fatigue. It introduces readers to these techniques based on x-ray, ultrasonic, optical and thermal principles and demonstrates the potential of the techniques for a wide variety of applications concerning aircraft materials, especially aluminum and titanium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are evaluated. An introductory chapter describes the typical degradation mechanisms that must be considered and the microstructure features that have to be detected by NDE methods. Finally, some approaches for making lifetime predictions are discussed. It is suitable as a textbook in special training courses in advanced NDE and aircraft materials characterization.

  19. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  20. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  1. Advanced aircraft analysis of an F-4 Phantom on a reinforced concrete building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Aircraft impact analyses are performed using the missile-target interaction method. • Three types of FE models of a F4-Phantom aircraft considering the fuel mass effect are considered with erosion effect. • The aircraft impact models are verified through the comparative studies with experimental data. • The parametric studies on the fictitious nuclear concrete containment wall are investigated. • The SPH or Hybrid models show severe damage to the deformable constrained concrete wall than does Lagrangian based model. - Abstract: The nonlinear dynamic fracture and collapse characteristics of an F-4 Phantom aircraft under an extreme load caused by the impact of an F-4 Phantom are investigated. Three types of FE models considering the fuel mass effect are developed to investigate the superiority of the developed model. A rigid wall impact test is conducted to determine the material properties and the eroding failure criteria. The impact forces exerted by the aircraft against mounted thick concrete walls are then verified by comparing the results here with earlier experimental data obtained from an actual-scale F-4 Phantom aircraft impact test conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. Validation of the methodology is further investigated by extending the comparative studies to a constrained thin concrete wall similar to the type used in nuclear power plant containment buildings. The experimental and simulation results are also analyzed and discussed

  2. Aircraft hazard analysis at the Pantex Plant: Data analysis, risk assessment, and risk reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Pantex Plant include assembly and dismantlement of nuclear weapons, as well as surveillance and interim storage of special nuclear material. The possibility of an aircraft crash into the Pantex Plant outside Amarillo, Texas, is of particular concern to the Department of Energy. In response to public concerns about such occurrences and in an effort to reduce risks associated with overflights of Pantex, several changes to navigational aids at the Amarillo International Airport are being implemented. Additionally, a radar airspace monitor and recording system have been connected to the airport surveillance radar at Amarillo to record all aircraft operations at the airport and those of aircraft flying over. This digitizer/controller and computer combination is allowing a database to be compiled that contains the number of aircraft operations, the type of aircraft involved, and the flightpath of each aircraft operating in the vicinity of the Pantex Plant. This observed data has provided a means to gain an objective understanding of overflight risk at Pantex

  3. Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Richard H.; Criswell, Thomas L.; Ikegami, Roy; Nelson, James; Normand, Eugene; Rutherford, Paul S.; Shrader, John E.

    1995-07-01

    Monitoring aging aircraft for hidden corrosion is a significant problem for both military and civilian aircraft. Under a Wright Laboratory sponsored program, Boeing Defense & Space Group is investigating three novel methods for detecting and monitoring hidden corrosion: (1) atmospheric neutron radiography, (2) 14 MeV neutron activation analysis and (3) fiber optic corrosion sensors. Atmospheric neutron radiography utilizes the presence of neutrons in the upper atmosphere as a source for interrogation of the aircraft structure. Passive track-etch neutron detectors, which have been previously placed on the aircraft, are evaluated during maintenance checks to assess the presence of corrosion. Neutrons generated by an accelerator are used via activation analysis to assess the presence of distinctive elements in corrosion products, particularly oxygen. By using fast (14 MeV) neutrons for the activation, portable, high intensity sources can be employed for field testing of aircraft. The third novel method uses fiber optics as part of a smart structure technology for corrosion detection and monitoring. Fiber optic corrosion sensors are placed in the aircraft at locations known to be susceptible to corrosion. Periodic monitoring of the sensors is used to alert maintenance personnel to the presence and degree of corrosion at specific locations on the aircraft. During the atmospheric neutron experimentation, we identified a fourth method referred to as secondary emission radiography (SER). This paper discusses the development of these methods.

  4. Aircraft impact on a spherical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power plants located in the immediate vicinity of cities and airports safeguarding against an accidental aircraft strike is important. Because of the complexity of such an aircraft crash the building is ordinarily designed for loading by an idealized dynamical load F(t), which follows from measurements (aircraft striking a rigid wall). The extent to which the elastic displacements of a structure influence the impact load F(t) is investigatd in this paper. The aircraft is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination which can easily be treated in computations and which can suffer elastic as well as plastic deformations. This 'aircraft' normally strikes a spherical shell at the apex. The time-dependent reactions of the shell as a function of the unknown impact load F(t) are expanded in terms of the normal modes, which are Legendre functions. The continuity condition at the impact point leads to an integral equation for F(t) which may be solved by Laplace transformation. F(t) is computed for hemispheres with several ratios of thickness to radius, several edge conditions and several 'aircraft' parameters. In all cases F(t) differs very little from that function obtained for the case of the aircraft striking a rigid wall. (Auth.)

  5. Influence of aircraft impact on seismic isolated SMR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades a lot of effort has been done to increase the reliability of NPP, particularly against the earthquakes effects, adopting the highly attractive strategy of the seismic isolation. Isolator bearings seem able to increase the safety margin/integrity of the safety relevant nuclear structures and to enable the standardization of the reactor design to be deployed across a wider range of sites. However in principle the design of a nuclear power plant depends on the safety aspects related also to other type of external events, like the aircraft impact that was/is of relevant importance for NPP safety (especially after the Sept. 2001) and must be considered in the design of both Generation III+ and IV reactors. This paper is related to a preliminary study of the global response of a seismically isolated reactor building subjected to a vicious commercial aircraft impact. In this framework the effects of impulsive loading due to the progressive aircraft crashing were evaluated, considering the potential for structural failure of the external building walls due to shearing and bending dynamic loads, with reference to the effects of the structure perforation, including concrete spalling of the internal surfaces and propagation of dynamic waves that could affect NPP safety systems and structures. To the purpose a rather refined numerical methodology was employed; three-dimensional models (FEM approach) of a reference SMR reactor containment and possible realistic aircraft structures were set up and used in the performed analyses, taking also into account suitable materials behaviour and constitutive laws. The structural analysis of the reference NPP internal components was carried out to appropriately check mainly the containment strength margin in the case of the considered accident and test the chosen models and numerical calculation approach. (author)

  6. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Product means an aircraft, aircraft engine, or aircraft propeller. Record means any writing, drawing, map... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally false statements. When conveying information related to an advertisement or sales transaction, no person may...

  7. Processing infrared images of aircraft lapjoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Hazari; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for processing IR images of aging aircraft lapjoint data are discussed. Attention is given to a technique for detecting disbonds in aircraft lapjoints which clearly delineates the disbonded region from the bonded regions. The technique is weak on unpainted aircraft skin surfaces, but can be overridden by using a self-adhering contact sheet. Neural network analysis on raw temperature data has been shown to be an effective tool for visualization of images. Numerical simulation results show the above processing technique to be an effective tool in delineating the disbonds.

  8. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lerner, J.; Shie, R. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  9. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagam, Richard N.; Lerner, Jeremy M.; Shie, Rick

    1995-07-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser TM (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  10. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  11. Hydrogen fueled subsonic aircraft - A prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The performance characteristics of hydrogen-fueled subsonic transport aircraft are compared with those of aircraft using conventional aviation kerosene. Results of the Cryogenically Fueled Aircraft Technology Program sponsored by NASA indicate that liquid hydrogen may be particularly efficient for subsonic transport craft when ranges of 4000 km or more are involved; however, development of advanced cryogenic tanks for liquid hydrogen fuel is required. The NASA-sponsored program also found no major technical obstacles for international airports converting the liquid hydrogen fueling systems. Resource utilization efficiency and fuel production costs for hydrogen produced by coal gasification or for liquid methane or synthetic aviation kerosene are also assessed.

  12. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  13. Adaptive Multigrid Methods for Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) Optimization in an Aircraft and Design of Integrated Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ebna Hai, Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood; Bause, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, advanced composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are being applied to many aircraft structures in order to improve performance and reduce weight. Most composites have strong, stiff fibres in a matrix which is weaker and less stiff. However, aircraft wings can break due to Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) oscillations or material fatigue. Material inspection by piezoelectric induced ultrasonic waves is a relatively new and an intelligent technique to moni...

  14. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.15 Detaining an...

  15. 42 CFR 71.44 - Disinsection of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disinsection of aircraft. 71.44 Section 71.44... Disinsection of aircraft. (a) The Director may require disinsection of an aircraft if it has left a foreign area that is infected with insect-borne communicable disease and the aircraft is suspected of...

  16. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used...

  17. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  18. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in §...

  19. 14 CFR 399.43 - Treatment of leased aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of leased aircraft. 399.43... Treatment of leased aircraft. In determining the appropriate treatment of leased aircraft for ratemaking... leased aircraft value (determined on a constructive depreciated basis) in relation to net book value...

  20. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  1. Development of composite wing carrythrough bulkheads for fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, J. C.; Behrens, R. S.; Libeskind, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Potential weight savings due to the use of composite materials for highly loaded primary structures are being demonstrated through the design, fabrication, and test of an all composite wing carrythrough bulkhead for the F/A-18 fighter aircraft. A one piece composite design which results in a 24 percent weight savings, relative to the existing aluminum bulkhead, was developed. Critical details of this design were evaluated through element tests, and a full scale prototype component was fabricated. The structural integrity of this design will be demonstrated in a comprehensive full scale test program.

  2. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  3. Smart structure application for the Challenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, L.; Blaha, Franz A.

    1994-09-01

    The Challenger aircraft fleet of the Canadian Forces will fly demanding missions, requiring the implementation of a fatigue management program based on the monitoring of in-flight aircraft load conditions. Conventional sensing techniques experience problems arising from severe electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper describes the development of an EMI- insensitive smart-structure sensing concept for loads monitoring. Fiber-optic strain sensors, incorporated at critical structural locations, are used to monitor the fatigue life of the aircraft wing, fuselage, and empennage. A fiber-optic accelerometer is also incorporated in the system. A long-term plan is presented for the development of an advanced smart-structure concept which can support the continuous monitoring of fatigue-prone components, and provide the aircraft with near real-time damage location and assessment.

  4. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  5. Directional monitoring terminal for aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genescà, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a concept of an aircraft noise monitoring terminal (NMT) that reduces background noise and the influence of ground reflection, in comparison with a single microphone. Also, it automatically identifies aircraft sound events based on the direction of arrival of the sound rather than on the sound pressure level (or radar data). And moreover, it provides an indicator of the quality of the sound pressure level measurement, i.e. if it is possibly disturbed by extraneous sources. The performance of this NMT is experimentally tested under real conditions in a measurement site close to Zurich airport. The results show that the NMT unambiguously identifies the noise events generated by the target aircraft, correctly detects those aircraft noise events that may be disturbed by the presence of other sources, and offers a substantial reduction in background and ground reflected sound.

  6. The drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program, which began in 1976, has mounted a development effort in four major transport aircraft technology fields: laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, flight controls, and composite structures. ACEE has explored two basic methods for achieving drag-reducing boundary layer laminarization: the use of suction through the wing structure (via slots or perforations) to remove boundary layer turbulence, and the encouragement of natural laminar flow maintenance through refined design practices. Wind tunnel tests have been conducted for wide bodied aircraft equipped with high aspect ratio supercritical wings and winglets. Maneuver load control and pitch-active stability augmentation control systems reduce fuel consumption by reducing the drag associated with high aircraft stability margins. Composite structures yield lighter airframes that in turn call for smaller wing and empennage areas, reducing induced drag for a given payload. In combination, all four areas of development are expected to yield a fuel consumption reduction of 40 percent.

  7. Engineering students win NASA aircraft design competition

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Centuria," a single-engine jet aircraft designed by undergraduate engineering students from Virginia Tech and their counterparts at Loughborough University in the U.K., has won the Best Overall Award in NASA's 2004 Revolutionary Vehicles and Concepts Competition.

  8. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  9. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  10. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  11. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  12. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft by illustrating the procedures for a long haul CTOL transport, a short haul VTOL transport, a long range SST, and a fighter aircraft. For the CTOL transport, it is shown that advances in noise technology and advanced turbine cooling technology will greatly reduce the airplane performance penalties associated with achieving low noise goals. A remote lift fan powered by a turbofan air generator is considered for the VTOL aircraft. In this case, the lift fan pressure ratio which maximizes payload also comes closest to meeting the noise goal. High turbine temperature in three different engines is considered for the SST. Without noise constraints it leads to an appreciable drop in DOC, but with noise constraints the reduction in DOC is very modest. For the fighter aircraft it is shown how specific excess power requirements play the same role in engine selection as noise constraints for commercial airplanes.

  13. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of...

  14. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered...

  15. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  16. Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Knowledge and support Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight Category: FAQ's Tags: Risks Archives Breast Cancer Survivors ... limb carefully) and apply pressure as needed. DURING FLIGHT Keep your seat belt loosely fastened so that ...

  17. Measurement and analysis of aircraft and vehicle LRCS in outfield test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang-Qing; Zeng, Xiao-dong; Fan, Zhao-jin; Feng, Zhe-jun; Lai, Zhi

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of aircraft and vehicle Laser Radar Cross Section (LRCS) is of crucial importance for the detection system evaluation and the characteristic research of the laser scattering. A brief introduction of the measuring theory of the laser scattering from the full-scale aircraft and vehicle targets is presented in this paper. By analyzing the measuring condition in outfield test, the laser systems and test steps are designed for full-scale aircraft and vehicle LRCS and verified by the experiment in laboratory. The processing data error 7% below is obtained of the laser radar cross section by using Gaussian compensation and elimination of sky background for original test data. The study of measurement and analysis proves that the proposed method is effective and correct to get laser radar cross section data in outfield test. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop structural concepts for different LRCS fuselage configurations constructed of conventional materials; (2) to compare these findings with those of aircrafts or vehicles; (3) to assess the application of advanced materials for each configuration; (4) to conduct an analytical investigation of the aerodynamic loads, vertical drag and mission performance of different LRCS configurations; and (5) to compare these findings with those of the aircrafts or vehicles.

  18. Floor Response Evaluation for Auxiliary Building Subjected to Aircraft Impact Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, a probabilistic safety assessment as well as deterministic approach for the damage of the internal component in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) subjected to aircraft crash is also needed. A probabilistic safety assessment for aircraft crash includes many uncertainties such as impact velocity, mass, impact location, shape, size, material etc. of aircraft. In this paper, an impact location was selected among the various parameters. This paper found the acceleration floor response spectra at specified locations (safety related components) on the target structure that assumed to be impact velocity 150m/s and maximum fuel for the specified aircraft model. In order to obtain the floor response in case of the crash with a various locations, the analyses for the auxiliary building subjected to aircraft impact were performed using Riera force history method and missile-target interaction method. The difference between responses in case of the building floor subjected to impact was occurred. Thus, in order to obtain the more accurate results, missile-target interaction method was used. This paper found the response at the selected point (node point No. 51). In order to probabilistic assessment for the safety related components, the assessment for a various parameters (velocity, mass, materials etc.) as well as impact locations should be needed

  19. Incidence of Fungal attack on Aircraft Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of fungal attack on the fuselage of a few Vampire aircraft has been observed. The fungus isolated from the infected regions has been tentatively indentified as TorulaSp. Laboratory experiments have revealed that within four weeks this fungus causes about 44 percent loss in the tensile strength of the brich plywood used in the manufacture of the fuselage of the aircraft.

  20. Schlieren Imaging Of An Aircraft In Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Technique for making schlieren images of airplanes and missiles in supersonic flight devised to help understand physics of compressible aerodynamic flows about complicated aircraft shapes. Technique also used to study far-field sonic booms. Data obtained from schlieren images useful in optimizing designs of prototype aircraft. Technique incorporates elements of focusing schlieren photography, astronomical photography, and streak photography. Using sun or moon as source of light, apparatus forms image revealing gradients of density in air flow.

  1. Aircraft Noise: Annoyance, House Prices and Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2006-01-01

    “Nobody wants to buy your house. It’s the aircraft noise. You’ll have to reduce the price a lot.” Aircraft noise around airports causes annoyance, and tends to reduce the price of affected properties. Can annoyance be ‘costed’ by examining house price reductions? Are there other ways of valuing annoyance in monetary terms? This short paper summarises key research results and poses some questions.

  2. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė; Raimondas Grubliauskas

    2013-01-01

    Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.T...

  3. An Optimization Model for Aircraft Service Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus; Cheung; W; H; Ip; Angel; Lai; Eva; Cheung

    2002-01-01

    Scheduling is one of the most difficult issues in t he planning and operations of the aircraft services industry. In this paper, t he various scheduling problems in ground support operation of an aircraft mainte nance service company are addressed. The authors developed a set of vehicle rout ings to cover each schedule flights; the objectives pursued are the maximization of vehicle and manpower utilization and minimization of operation time. To obta in the goals, an integer-programming model with geneti...

  4. Anti-aircraft Missiles and Gun Control

    OpenAIRE

    BLOCK, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Gun control is a highly debatable topic both in the popular and scholarly media. But what about anti-aircraft missiles? Should they be banned? On the one hand, there are fewer of them around, so their challenge is more tractable. On the other hand, they can do far more damage than handguns. The present paper is an attempt to wrestle with this challenge.Keywords. Gun control, Second amendment, Libertarianism, Anti-aircraft missiles.JEL. K15.

  5. Aircraft Wake Vortex Evolution and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Holzäpfel, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices constitute both a kaleidoscope of instructive fluid dynamics phenomena and a challenge for the sustained development of safety and capacity of the air-transportation industry. The current manuscript gives an overview on the wake vortex issue which commences at its historical roots and concludes with the current status of knowledge regarding the nature and characteristics, and the modeling of aircraft wakes. The incentive of today's wake vortex research still re...

  6. Aging aircraft wiring: a proactive management methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Tambouratzis, Vasileios.

    2001-01-01

    During the last years, military budgets have been dramatically reduced and the services have been unable to acquire sufficient new systems. Military aviation is one of the areas that have been severely impacted. The result is that the current fleet faces significant aging aircraft problems. Aircraft wiring is one of the areas that have severely affected by the aging process. Recent accidents involving aging wiring problems and reduced operational readiness due to aging wiring have made clear ...

  7. Crashworthiness of composite seats for civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been conducted into the design of civil aircraft seats which are forward-facing and use the lap-belt method of restraint. Within these terms of reference, the response of the seat restraint occupant system (SROS) to impact loading has been analysed using physical (dynamic testing) and analytical (computer simulation) modelling techniques. With the increasing use of fibre-reinforced polymer composites in aircraft for weight efficiency, and the consequent appearance of composite se...

  8. Design for Manufacturing of Composite Structures for Commercial Aircraft : The Development of a DFM strategy at SAAB Aerostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Frida; Hagqvist, Astrid; Sundin, Erik; Björkman, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Within the aircraft industry, the use of composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) is steadily increasing, especially in structural parts. Manufacturability needs to be considered in aircraft design to ensure a cost-effective manufacturing process. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a new strategy for how SAAB Aerostructures addressing manufacturability issues during the development of airframe composite structures. Through literature review, be...

  9. Maintenance program developmentandImport /Export of Aircraft in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Takele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis thesis discuss how United Parcel Service (UPS) develop its aircraft maintenanceprogram after import of McDonnell Douglas MD-11aircraft and the process of exporting newMD-11 aircraft from manufacturer in USA to European operator as passenger aircraft. It alsodiscusses the process of importing the same types of aircraft as freight carrier. The aircraftundergo, through different modifications at Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA)conversion from passenger to freight carrier, a pr...

  10. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eikmann; Christin Peschel; Cara Kahl; Dirk Schreckenberg; Markus Meis

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft n...

  11. Predictive Health Monitoring for Aircraft Systems using Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Unscheduled aircraft maintenance causes a lot problems and costs for aircraft operators. This is due to the fact that aircraft cause significant costs if flights have to be delayed or canceled and because spares are not always available at any place and sometimes have to be shipped across the world. Reducing the number of unscheduled maintenance is thus a great costs factor for aircraft operators. This thesis describes three methods for aircraft health monitoring and prediction; one method fo...

  12. High altitude aircraft flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David

    1996-03-01

    In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.

  13. Intelligent control of agile aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohler, R.R.; Zakrzewski, R.R. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A brief overview of adaptive and computer-aided flight control is presented as background for the evolution of recent research on nonlinear intelligent control. Here, several nonlinear control algorithms are investigated but emphasis is given to nearly time-optimal, neural-net generated feedback control which is trained on ideal minimum-time, open-loop trajectories. The minimum-time policies are computed by a new version of the switching-line-variational method (gradient algorithm). Critical control constraints and a benchmark for performance as well as a basis for training are obtained for the system design. This further demonstrates the need for an integrated controls and aircraft system design for full utilization of nonlinear control capability. Complex nonlinear simulations show the effectiveness of the derived nonlinear feedback controller for the high-angle-of-attack research vehicle (HARV) with stabilator and thrust-vector control. For example, angle of attack is controlled from near zero to sixty degrees in about two seconds with appropriate trim conditions at both ends. Such control greatly enhances maneuverability and general flight envelope admissibility.

  14. Beamforming for aircraft noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Robert P.

    2003-10-01

    Phased array beamforming for aircraft noise source location has a long history, including early work on jet noise, wind tunnel measurements, and flyover testing. In the last 10 years, advancements in sparse 2-D and 3-D arrays, wind tunnel test techniques, and computer power have made phased array measurements almost common. Large aerospace companies and national research institutes have an advantage in access to major facilities and hundreds of measurement microphones, but universities and even consulting companies can perform tests with electret microphones and PC data acquisition systems. The type of testing remains a blend of science and art. A complex noise source is approximated by a mathematical model, and the microphones are deployed to evaluate the parameters of the model. For example, the simplest, but often the best, approach is to assume a distribution of mutually incoherent monopoles. This leads to an imaging process analogous to photography. Other models include coherent distributions of multipoles or duct modes. It is sometimes important to simulate the results that would have been obtained from single microphone measurements of part of the airplane in an ideal environment, had such measurements been feasible.

  15. Pulsed-Magnetic Processing and Its Application in the Aircraft Industry in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.A.Glushchenkov

    2007-01-01

      Pulse-magnetic technology occupies one of technological fields in up-to-day aircraft manufacturing.This method of processing belongs to high-speed dynamical methods of processing,which are characterized by parameters providing high quality of finished products and save on material and labour costs.……

  16. Products of Ozone-Initiated Chemistry in a Simulated Aircraft Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Wyon, David P.;

    2005-01-01

    We used proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to examine the products formed when ozone reacted with the materials in a simulated aircraft cabin, including a loaded high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the return air system. Four conditions were examined: cabin (baseline...

  17. The effects of the aircraft cabin environment on passengers during simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated Boeing 767 aircraft cabin has been built in a climate chamber, simulating the cabin environment not only in terms of materials and geometry, but also in terms of cabin air and wall temperatures and ventilation with very dry air. This realistic simulation...

  18. 76 FR 68675 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Aircraft and Related Items...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... covering similar items. Paragraphs .l, .m, and .n would control Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-related items... Aerial Vehicles or drones. ECCN 9C610 would consist of materials specially designed for aircraft and... and safety effects, distribute impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the...

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts The Process for Budgeting to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.90 What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft transferred from another executive agency)? (a) The process for budgeting to acquire a...

  20. Material Characterization for Hypersonic Vehicles by the Fast Mutipole Boundary Element Method Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hypersonic aircraft are subjected to extreme conditions with respect to mechanical thermal and acoustic loads. Materials with complex microstructure, such as...

  1. Common factors in the withdrawal of European aircraft manufacturers from the regional aircraft market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Hans; Bruijn, de Erik J.; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the in

  2. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  3. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document...

  4. Factors Study Influencing on Numerical Simulation of Aircraft Windshield against Bird Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined model of UniGraphics(UG and ANSYS-LS-DYNA software and finite element (FE model of aircraft windshield and windshield structure for bird strike were built. The windshield structure is composed of windshield, framework, arc-frame and gasket. The factors influencing on dynamic response for bird strike were analyzed such as bird velocity, mesh density of windshield, mesh density of bird, boundary condition, material model of windshield, analytic methods and components of windshield structure. The results showed that these factors must be taken into account when FE analysis method is applied to aircraft anti-bird design.

  5. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composite materials in the wing structure of future production aircraft. The study accomplished the following: (1) definition of acceptance factors, (2) identification of technology issues, (3) evaluation of six candidate wing structures, (4) evaluation of five program options, (5) definition of a composite wing technology development plan, (6) identification of full-scale tests, (7) estimation of program costs for the total development plan, (8) forecast of future utilization of composites in commercial transport aircraft and (9) identification of critical technologies for timely program planning.

  6. Numerical simulation of aircraft crash on nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The deformation was more localised at the center of cylindrical portion. ► The peak deflection at the junction of dome and cylinder was found to be 67 mm. ► The peak deflection at midpoint of the cylindrical portion was found to be 88.9 mm. ► The strain rate was found to be an important parameter to effect the deformation. ► The model without strain rate and 290 s−1 strain rate predicted very high deformations. - Abstract: Numerical simulations were carried with ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code in order to predict the response of BWR Mark III type nuclear containment against Boeing 707-320 aircraft crash. The load of the aircraft was applied using and force history curve. The damaged plasticity model was used to predict the behavior of concrete while the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model was used to incorporate the behavior of steel reinforcement. The crash was considered to occur at two different locations i.e., the midpoint of the cylindrical portion and the junction of dome and cylinder. The midpoint of the cylindrical portion experienced more deformation. The strain rate in the material model was varied and found to have a significant effect on the response of containment. The results of the present investigation were compared with those of the studies available in literature and a close agreement with the previous results was found in terms of maximum target deformation.

  7. Experimental study on mechanical properties of aircraft honeycomb sandwich structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of sandwich panels under different conditions have been exprimentally studied in this research to increase the knowledge of aircraft sandwich panel structures and facilitate design criteria for aircraft structures. Tests were concentrated on the honeycomb sandwich structures under different loads including flexural, insert shear, flat wise tension and compression loads. Furthermore, effect of core density and face material on mechanical behavior of different samples were investigated and compared with analytical and FEM method. Effects of skin thickness on strength of honycomb sandwhich panels under shear pull out and moments have also been considerd in this study. According to this investigation, insert strength and flexural test under different load conditions is strongly affected by face thickness, but compression and tearoff (falt wise tensile properties of a sandwich panel depends on core material. The study concludes that the correlation between experimental results and the analytical predictions will enable the designer to predict the mechanical behaviour and strength of a sandwich beam; however, applied formula may lead engineers to unreliable results for shear modulus.

  8. Assessment of aircraft impact loads on the design of ITER buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of ITER buildings and main mechanical components must consider the effect of a variety of external hazards, being aircraft impact among them. Therefore, it is the objective of the work presented in this paper to perform a first assessment on the subject. The methodology proposed by ITER to assess the effect of aircraft impact on the design of the Tokamak Complex is inspired by ETCC, which was developed for the European Pressurized Reactor. Thus, its applicability to ITER experimental nuclear facilities may raise some specific problems, since the consequences of the methodology and model proposed for aircraft impacts are not very well known. The work presented in this paper aims to assess the applicability of the dynamic simplified model proposed by ITER and perform a first check of the basic design of the aircraft crash protection concrete structure of the Tokamak Complex. The analysis is based on the simplified methodology, and is limited to a limited number of configurations. Moreover, in order to provide a guide for definition of the final geometry, the material choices of concrete structures, and the steel reinforcement ratios of the aircraft crash protection structures, an optimization analyses has been performed. It is important to note that, since the Tokamak Complex is seismically isolated in the horizontal plane, the floor response spectra (FRS) caused by an aircraft impact could be more important than those induced by seismic action. Therefore, in order to make a preliminary assessment on this issue, the FRS caused by an aircraft impact in some representative scenarios has been generated.

  9. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.; Cardinale, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The effort required by commercial transport manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current construction materials and practices to extensive use of composites in aircraft wings was investigated. The engineering and manufacturing disciplines which normally participate in the design, development, and production of an aircraft were employed to ensure that all of the factors that would enter a decision to commit to production of a composite wing structure were addressed. A conceptual design of an advanced technology reduced energy aircraft provided the framework for identifying and investigating unique design aspects. A plan development effort defined the essential technology needs and formulated approaches for effecting the required wing development. The wing development program plans, resource needs, and recommendations are summarized.

  10. Improving Aircraft Design Robustness with Scenario Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strohmayer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other industries, the aerospace sector is characterized by long product cycles in a very complex environment. The aircraft manufacturer has to base his product strategy on a long-term view of risks and opportunities in the transport industry but he cannot predict the development of relevant factors in this market environment with any certainty. In this situation, scenario methods offer a pragmatic way to limit the uncertainties and to work them up methodically, in order to derive recommendations for cost-intensive strategic decisions like for example the go-ahead for a new aircraft concept. By including scenario methods in the aircraft design cycle, the ‘design robustness’ can be improved, i.e. the design is not optimised for a prognosticated operating environment, but can cope with various possible future developments. The paper will explain the three fundamental aspects in applying scenario planning to the aircraft design process: requirement definition, design evaluation and technology identification. For each aspect, methods will be shown, which connect the rather qualitative results of a scenario process with aircraft design, which typically demands a qualitative input.

  11. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  12. Aircraft impact analysis for the HFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analysis performed to determine the annual frequency at which aircraft are expected to strike the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) complex, located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Since the HFBR is not hardened against light aircraft, this report considers the impact of military, commercial, twin engine and single engine aircraft operating in the vicinity of the HFBR. The large volume of light aircraft operating in this area contributes heavily to the estimated annual impact frequency of 3.54E-05 impacts per year. There are two chapters and seven appendices in this report. The first chapter describes the airspace in the vicinity of the HFBR. This includes five airports, two major airways, one standard arrival route, as well as a significant volume of radar vectored and air-taxi traffic. The second chapter of this report presents the calculations by which the expected impact frequency was derived, and an assessment of the uncertainty in those calculations. The calculations were performed using the method outlined in the NRC Standard Review Plan. A separate set of calculations is presented for each of three sources of aircraft: airway traffic, Brookhaven Airport, and Calverton Airport. The appendices contain discussions and side calculations ancillary to the presentation in the second section. This includes a discussion of the data used to estimate traffic counts, information on accident rates, and several other points which would have only been distracting if included in the main discussion

  13. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    With a growing demand for fast international freight service, the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use will soon find a substantial portion of their clients looking elsewhere. One candidate for filling this expected gap in the freight market is a span-loading aircraft (or 'flying wing') capable of long-range operation with extremely large payloads. This report summarizes the design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long-haul, high-capacity cargo mission. The spanloader seeks to gain advantage over conventional aircraft by eliminating the aircraft fuselage and thus reducing empty weight. The primary disadvantage of this configuration is that the cargo-containing wing tends to be thick, thus posing a challenge to the airfoil designer. It also suffers from stability and control problems not encountered by conventional aircraft. The result is an interesting, challenging exercise in unconventional design. The report that follows is a student written synopsis of an effort judged to be the best of eight designs developed during the year 1988-1989.

  14. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  15. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft

  16. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced Aluminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft. (author)

  17. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  18. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  19. Rheological behavior of composites based on carbon fibers recycled from aircraft waste

    OpenAIRE

    Marcaníková, Lucie; Hausnerová, Berenika; Kitano, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Rheological investigation of composite materials prepared from the recycled aircraft waste materials based on thermoset (epoxy/resin) matrix and long carbon fibers (CF) is presented with the aim of their utilization in consumer industry applications. The carbon fibers recovered via thermal process of pyrolysis were cut into about 150 pm length and melt mixed with thermoplastic matrices based on polypropylene (PP) and polyamide 6 (PA) and various modifiers - ethylene-ethyl acrylate-maleic anhy...

  20. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  1. Development and utilization of composite honeycomb and solid laminate reference standards for aircraft inspections.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2004-06-01

    The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee, developed a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed. A suite of 64 honeycomb panels, representing the bounding conditions of honeycomb construction on aircraft, was inspected using a wide array of NDI techniques. An analysis of the resulting data determined the variables that play a key role in setting up NDT equipment. This has resulted in a set of minimum honeycomb NDI reference standards that include these key variables. A sequence of subsequent tests determined that this minimum honeycomb reference standard set is able to fully support inspections over the full range of honeycomb construction scenarios found on commercial aircraft. In the solid composite laminate arena, G11 Phenolic was identified as a good generic solid laminate reference standard material. Testing determined matches in key velocity and acoustic impedance properties, as well as, low attenuation relative to carbon laminates. Furthermore, comparisons of resonance testing response curves from the G11 Phenolic NDI reference standard was very similar to the resonance response curves measured on the existing carbon and fiberglass laminates. NDI data shows that this material should work for both pulse-echo (velocity-based) and resonance (acoustic impedance-based) inspections.

  2. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of

  3. 14 CFR 33.15 - Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials. 33.15 Section 33.15 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.15 Materials. The suitability and durability of materials used in the engine must— (a) Be established on the basis of experience or tests;...

  4. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  5. Requirements for the protection against aircraft noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, H; Ortscheid, J

    2004-01-01

    In preparation of the revised edition of the Air Traffic Noise Act the Federal Environmental Agency formulated targets for aircraft noise control. They were prepared oriented to the Federal Immission Control Act. The assessment periods were chosen analogously to the regulations on other traffic noise sources (rail traffic, road traffic). The control targets cover the following affected areas * aural, extra-aural health * night's sleep * annoyance * communication * recreation Considerable nuisance can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise(outside) to equivalent levels below 55 dB(A) by day and 45 dB(A) at night, and impairment of health can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise (outside) to equivalent levels below 60 dB(A) by day and 50 dB(A) at night. PMID:15703137

  6. Aircraft induced contrail cirrus over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Condensation trails (contrails) and aircraft induced cirrus are nowadays a common feature at the mid latitude skies. Previously the impact of aircraft induced cirrus changes has been roughly estimated from observed decadal trends in cirrus cover but the direct attribution of observed cirrus changes to changes in aviation activity remains uncertain. In this paper the amount of additional cirrus induced from spreading contrails in humid air is estimated from the direct correlation between observed cirrus cover derived with suitable methods from METEOSAT data and aviation flight density reported by EUROCONTROL at high spatial and temporal resolution from June 22 to July 27, 1998 and September 27 to October 21, 2000. The results indicate that the aircraft induced cirrus cover over Europe is about ten times larger than that of linear contrails in the same region. Radiative forcing from the additional cirrus may be more than 10 times higher than that of linear contrails and aviation induced CO{sub 2} increases. (orig.)

  7. Robotic aircraft scanner for neutron radiographic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robotic positioner and manipulator, a key component of a mobile neutron radiography system (MNRS) for aircraft inspection, is described. The MNRS is designed to inspect military aircraft for hidden corrosion in aluminum structures. The MNRS is comprised of an accelerator-based (Kaman A-711 sealed tube neutron generator using the deuterium-tritium reaction) thermal neutron source, electronic neutron imaging system, robotic positioner and manipulator for the source/imager, control trailer housing system control electronics and digital image processing system, mobile dark room for film processing, self-contained electrical power source, and radiation safety system. For in situ aircraft inspection, the robotic scanner is programmed (in a teach/learn mode) to scan a region of the components (e.g., wings, stabilizers, etc.) using a control pendant

  8. Electrical Characterizations of Lightning Strike Protection Techniques for Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Mielnik, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The growing application of composite materials in commercial aircraft manufacturing has significantly increased the risk of aircraft damage from lightning strikes. Composite aircraft designs require new mitigation strategies and engineering practices to maintain the same level of safety and protection as achieved by conductive aluminum skinned aircraft. Researchers working under the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project are investigating lightning damage on composite materials to support the development of new mitigation, diagnosis & prognosis techniques to overcome the increased challenges associated with lightning protection on composite aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the electrical characterizations being performed to support IVHM lightning damage diagnosis research on composite materials at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  9. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  10. ANASE: measuring aircraft noise annoyance very unreliably.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Does anyone who lives under a flight-path like aircraft noise? It is a political hot potato as well as a peace-destroyer. Tens of thousands of people will hear the noise from any third runway at Heathrow. So, when a study commissioned by the government claimed that people are becoming less tolerant of aircraft noise, it made highly unpleasant reading for supporters of a third runway. But the Department for Transport rejected the report as unreliable. Peter Brooker senses the vibrations.

  11. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  12. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  13. Aircraft concepts for service to small communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Small communities are served by trunk, local-service, and commuter carriers having a wide variety in route structure, type of service, and economic character, operating over stage lengths less than 400 statute miles. NASA studies have investigated various aircraft concepts for short-haul that have potential in this market area. Aircraft concepts for this market require a careful balancing of performance, technology, and design-to-cost considerations. This paper summarizes some results of recent NASA sponsored air transportation system studies applicable to small community arenas.

  14. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  15. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  16. Strain characterization of embedded aerospace smart materials using shearography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anisimov, A.; Muller, B.; Sinke, J.; Groves, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart materials for embedding in aerospace composites provides enhanced functionality for future aircraft structures. Critical flight conditions like icing of the leading edges can affect the aircraft functionality and controllability. Hence, anti-icing and de-icing capabilities a

  17. Worldwide flight and ground-based exposure of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.; Baker, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The long-term durability of those advanced composite materials which are applicable to aircraft structures was discussed. The composite components of various military and commercial aircraft and helicopters were reviewed. Both ground exposure and flight service were assessed in terms of their impact upon composite structure durability. The ACEE Program is mentioned briefly.

  18. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  19. The contribution of aircraft emissions to the atmospheric sulfur budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Feichter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Sausen, R.; Hein, R. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model including the atmospheric sulfur cycle has been used to investigate the impact of aircraft sulfur emissions on the global sulfur budget of the atmosphere. The relative contribution from aircraft sulfur to the atmospheric sulfate burden is larger than the ratio between aircraft emissions and surface emissions due to the calculated long turn-over time of aircraft sulfate (about 12 days). However, in terms of the sulfate mass balance, aircraft emissions are small, contributing about 1% of the total sulfate mass north of 40 deg C where the aircraft emissions are largest. Despite this small contribution to sulfate mass, the aircraft emissions could potentially significantly enhance the background number concentration of aerosol particles. Based on the model calculations the increased stratospheric background aerosol mass observed during the last decades can not be explained by increased aircraft sulfur emissions 50 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We...

  1. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  2. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  3. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  4. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  5. CAD SIMULATION & FEM ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh W. Nirwan; Dilip G. Gangwani,

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft landing gear supports the entire weight of an aircraft during landing and ground operations. They are attached to primary structural members of the aircraft. The type of gear depends on the aircraft design and its intended use. Most landing gear has wheels to facilitate operation to and from hard surfaces, such as airport runways. Other gear feature skids for this purpose, such as those found on helicopters, balloon gondolas, and in the tail area of some tail dragger airc...

  6. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel

    2011-01-01

    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  7. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  8. Actuation technology for flight control system on civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses the author’s Group Design Project (GDP) and Individual Research Project (IRP). The IRP is discussed primarily herein, presenting the actuation technology for the Flight Control System (FCS) on civil aircraft. Actuation technology is one of the key technologies for next generation More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and All Electric Aircraft (AEA); it is also an important input for the preliminary design of the Flying Crane, the aircraft designed in the author’s G...

  9. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  10. A measurement method to discriminate aircraft fly-over noise

    OpenAIRE

    Genesca Francitorra, Meritxell; Romeu Garbí, Jordi; Pàmies Gómez, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Currently aircraft noise monitoring systems use a mesh of single microphones distributed around an airport to continuously sample the noise level. This fact requires a manual process of aircraft noise event detection and classification in order to distinguish aircraft events from the rest of noise events in the recording. In the present paper a 3-meter-long 12-microphone linear array is used to automatically obtain a background noise free aircraft noise recording. The beamforming process sepa...

  11. Light shaping diffusers{trademark} improve aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shie, R.; Lerner, J. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Physical Optical Corporation has introduced a Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) for the specialized illumination requirements of aircraft inspection. Attached to a handheld, battery-powered flashlight, this light-weight, holographic diffuser element provides bright, even illumination as aircraft inspectors perform the important task of visually examining aircraft for possible structural defects. Field trials conducted by the Aging Aircraft Program at Sandia National Laboratories confirm that the LSD-equipped flashlights are preferred by visual inspectors over stock flashlights.

  12. Method Evaluating the Durability of Aircraft Piston Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca PIANCASTELLI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant issue in aircraft engines is quantifying residual life to overhaul. The algorithm described in this paper calculates with a good level of reliability the residual life of a petrol piston engine. The method was tested on small, latest-generation, naturally-aspirated aircraft and racing piston engines, and has been effective in several experiments. This method is implemented directly on the electronic control system of the engine with very few lines of C-code. The method can also be used in many industrial engines. This innovative method assumes that only two main factors (power level and wear affect engine durability or time between overhauls. These two factors are considered as separate and combined with worst case criteria. The wear is assumed to follow a logarithmic law and a formula similar to the Miner’s law for material fatigue is used, making it possible to calculate the power-level curve with knowledge of only two points. The wear-curve is also related to elapsed engine cycles. The algorithm is very simple and can be implemented with just a few lines of software code accessing data collected from existing sensors. The system is currently used to evaluate actual residual life of racing engines.

  13. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... of provisions pertaining to integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY: Federal... be levied on the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site operators, but prior to the close of the...

  14. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... revision process. Background: Under the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule, 69 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004,...

  15. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft....

  16. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with Federal...

  17. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  18. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  19. Northwest to Accelerate Retirement of Dc10 Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Northwest Airlines announced that it will accelerate the retirement of its remaining 12DC10-30 aircraft in service. The airline said that during the next seven months,it will replace DC10 aircraft with new Airbus A330s and Boeing 747-400aircraft being returned to service.Currently, seven routes are served with the DC10.

  20. 77 FR 24251 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with...

  1. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards...

  2. 75 FR 9327 - Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 91 RIN 2120-AJ31 Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations... operating rules to require U.S. operators flying outside the United States to carry aircraft noise..., Subpart III, Section 44715, Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom. Under that section, the FAA...

  3. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract...

  5. Commercial Aircraft Emission Scenario for 2020: Database Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkus, Donald J., Jr.; Baughcum, Steven L.; DuBois, Douglas P.; Wey, Chowen C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel use and emissions (NO(x), CO, and hydrocarbons) for the commercial aircraft fleet projected to 2020. Global totals of emissions and fuel burn for 2020 are compared to global totals from previous aircraft emission scenario calculations.

  6. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft...

  7. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industrial Mecanico AMT-200......... 912 A2 Metalurgica tda.....

  8. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Engine model Aeromot-Industria Mecanico AMT-200 912 A2. Metalurgica ltda. Diamond Aircraft...

  9. Mission management for unmanned aircraft systems

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Arroyo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design and implement a mission manager for unmanned aircraft systems. The mission manager will work under the USAL architecture designed by the ICARUS UAV group at the EPSC. The student will be able to learn programming skills, working with a group, and research.

  10. Ultrawideband Electromagnetic Interference to Aircraft Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Shaver, Timothy W.

    2002-01-01

    A very recent FCC Final Rule now permits marketing and operation of new products that incorporate Ultrawideband (UWB) technology into handheld devices. Wireless product developers are working to rapidly bring this versatile, powerful and expectedly inexpensive technology into numerous consumer wireless devices. Past studies addressing the potential for passenger-carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to interfere with aircraft electronic systems suggest that UWB transmitters may pose a significant threat to aircraft communication and navigation radio receivers. NASA, United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated have performed preliminary testing that clearly shows the potential for handheld UWB transmitters to cause cockpit failure indications for the air traffic control radio beacon system (ATCRBS), blanking of aircraft on the traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) displays, and cause erratic motion and failure of instrument landing system (ILS) localizer and glideslope pointers on the pilot horizontal situation and attitude director displays. This paper provides details of the preliminary testing and recommends further assessment of aircraft systems for susceptibility to UWB electromagnetic interference.

  11. Tactical aircraft optical cable plant program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Murdock, John K.; Ide, James R.

    1995-05-01

    A program was created with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to tactical aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits, including increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability from redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits will only be realized if fiber optics meets the unique requirements of aircraft networks. The application of fiber optics to tactical aircraft presents challenges to physical components which can only be met by a methodical attention to what is required, what are the conditions of use, and how will the components be produced in the broad context of a fiber optics using economy. For this purpose, the FLASH program has outlined a plan, and developed a team to evaluate requirements, delineate environmental and use conditions, and design practical, low cost components for tactical aircraft fiber optic cable plants including cables, connectors, splices, backplanes, manufacturing and installation methods, and test and maintenance methods.

  12. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

  13. Aircraft noise: Changes of biochemical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, E.; Moese, J.R.; Gallasch, E.; Fueger, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of stress caused by aircraft noise was studied on 14 female and 11 male volunteers, who were of a age ranging from 21 to 42 years and of a mean age of 25 years. The volunteers were exposed to an aircraft simulator the simulated the lowlevel flight of an airforce plane and produced a maximum noise level of 105 dB(A) for 3 sec. in a short time. Before and immediately after the exposure, the concentration of ACTH was measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. The ACTH is a hormone, responsible for initiating a chain-reaction that is characteristic for a stress reaction. In 100% of the cases the concentration of this hormone increased. It reached a pathological level in 28% of the cases. The effect on the lipid metabolism was expressed by an increase of total cholesterol and a decrease of the triglycerides in the serum. A slight increase in blood sugar which, together with the free fatty acids, is relatively quickly reduced to energy, could determined. The aircraft noise did not influence the activity of the liver transaminases in any way. A short-term exposure to aircraft noise is able to stimulate a stress reaction, whereby, the determination of the ACTH offers valuable informations.

  14. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  15. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  16. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  17. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João;

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial...

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  19. Recognition of aircraft using HRR features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossen, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) based on high resolution radar (HRR) features can be used to increase the confidence in aircraft class. Standard radar systems are not designed for performing classification and uses additional identification systems. It is shown that with the use of features the a

  20. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...), and (d) published at 78 FR 14920 on March 8, 2013, are effective on November 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER...-161, published at 78 FR 14920, March 8, 2013. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1187. The Commission... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  1. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6... safety. (a) The provisions of this part will be revised if at any time the Administrator determines...

  2. Atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaust emissions from aircraft include oxides of nitrogen (NOx), water vapor (H2O), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particles (soot and sulfates). These emissions are small compared to industrial/urban surface emissions. However, because (1) atmospheric residence times of exhaust constituents are longer at altitude, particularly in the stratosphere, than they are in the boundary layer, (2) their background concentrations at altitude are lower than those near the surface, (3) the radiation balance is the more sensitive to atmospheric trace constituents the colder the temperature aloft and (4) inter-hemispheric mixing of aircraft effluents is inhibited, aircraft emissions near and above the tropopause and polewards of 40 degrees latitude can be environmentally critical. That's why atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions have again received scientific, economic and political scrutiny in the last few years, motivated by growth of subsonic traffic at about 5% per year over the past two decades and the advent of a technologically feasible operation of a supersonic high speed commercial transport (HSCT) fleet

  3. Incident response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Jacobs, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) was granted by ASHRAE (1306-RP) to conduct scientfic review and feasibility analysis of technologies and methods for measuring aircraft power system contaminants in the cabin air during unanticipated adverse incidents. In particular,

  4. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  5. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    OpenAIRE

    Наумов, А. В.

    1999-01-01

    Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  7. Aircraft engine performance and integration in a flying wing aircraft conceptual design

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Zhisong.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand of more economical and environmentally friendly aero engines leads to the proposal of a new concept – geared turbofan. In this thesis, the characteristics of this kind of engine and relevant considerations of integration on a flying wing aircraft were studied. The studies can be divided into four levels: GTF-11 engine modelling and performance simulation; aircraft performance calculation; nacelle design and aerodynamic performance evaluation; preliminar...

  8. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Procedures for Aircraft;'' Final Rule, 38 FR 19088, July 17, 1973. \\12\\ U.S. EPA, ``Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 62 FR 25356... Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 70 FR 2521, November 17, 2005. E....

  9. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  10. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  11. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  12. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  13. Durability of commercial aircraft and helicopter composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified

  14. Optimization of fire blocking layers for aircraft seating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Ablative materials are used to provide thermal protection for heat sensitive substrates against large jet fuel fires. The present investigation is concerned with the possibility to increase the available egress time for passengers, from a transport aircraft, in which the flexible polyurethane seating is exposed to the action of a large pool fire. Suitable approaches for providing sufficient ablative protection for polyurethane cushioning are considered. The efficiency of any fire blocking layer is defined as the ratio of the incident radiant heating rate, to the rate of production of combustible gas produced per unit area per second, generated by the pyrolysis of the substrate polyurethane foam. It is found that adequate fire blocking protection can be achieved through replacement of cotton batting slip covers with a wide variety of fire blocking layers. Metallized high temperature resistant char forming ablatives appear to provide optimum protection.

  15. Structural Weight Optimization of Aircraft Wing Component Using FEM Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arockia Ruban M,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for the civil aviation industry is the reduction of its environmental impact by better fuel efficiency by virtue of Structural optimization. Over the past years, improvements in performance and fuel efficiency have been achieved by simplifying the design of the structural components and usage of composite materials to reduce the overall weight of the structure. This paper deals with the weight optimization of transport aircraft with low wing configuration. The Linear static and Normal Mode analysis were carried out using MSc Nastran & Msc Patran under different pressure conditions and the results were verified with the help of classical approach. The Stress and displacement results were found and verified and hence arrived to the conclusion about the optimization of the wing structure.

  16. On the methods and examples of aircraft impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: Aircraft impact analysis can be performed today within feasible run times using PCs and available advanced commercial finite element software tools. Adequate element and material model technologies exist. Explicit time integration enables analysis of very large deformation Missile/Target impacts. Meshless/particle based methods may be beneficial for large deformation concrete “punching shear” analysis – potentially solves the “element erosion” problem associated with FE, but are not generally implemented yet in major commercial software. Verification of the complicated modeling technologies continues to be a challenge. Not much work has been done yet on ACI shock loading – redundant and physically separated safety trains key to success. Analysis approach and detail should be “balanced” - commensurate with the significant uncertainties - do not “over-do” details of some parts of the model (e.g., the plane) and the analysis

  17. Durability of commercial aircraft and helicopter composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified.

  18. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eikmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  19. Power Generation and Distribution System of Modern Civil Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the aircraft industry is moving towards the all electric and More Electric Aircraft (MEA; is the future trend in adopting single power type for driving the non-propulsive aircraft systems; i.e. is the electrical power. The trend in the aircraft industry is to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems achieving more comfort and monitoring features. The structure of MEA distribution system improves aircraft maintainability, reliability, flight safety and efficiency. Moreover, MEA reduces the emissions of air pollutant gases from aircrafts, which can contribute in significantly solving some of the problems of climate change. However, the MEA puts some challenges on the aircraft electrical system, both in the amount of the required power and the processing and management of this power. MEA electrical distribution systems are mainly in the form of multi-converter power electronic system.

  20. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  1. Californium-based neutron radiography for corrosion detection in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of an overall program aimed at minimizing disassembly and reducing inspection time during aircraft maintenance, a series of projects has been carried out to determine the feasibility of applying neutron radiographic techniques to the nondestructive (NDT) inspection of aircraft and aircraft components. These investigations have clearly demonstrated the superiority of neutron radiography over all other NDT techniques in its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure. This capability is particularly significant where the corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in the wing tank of E-2C, C-130, and DC-9 aircraft; rear stabilators of F-4 and F-111 aircraft; aft spar, starboard and port wing, and rudder of the F-8; fuselage skin of the 727; rotary blades of AH-1 and SH-3 helicopters; rotary tail flaps of the UH-2 helicopter; and nose landing gear of A-7 aircraft

  2. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  3. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lovejoy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to unavoidable vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is anisotropic not isotropic. In this paper, we show how this can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 tropospheric data following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k−5/3 (although smoothed by aircraft intertia at scales <3 km. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations with all of these effects occurring over the entire range of scales so that the trajectories influence the wind measurements over large ranges of scale. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have no apparent scale breaks and the corresponding coherencies and phases are low reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions we then estimate the small and large scale exponents finding that they are close to the Kolmogorov values (5/3, 1/3 and the vertical values (2.4, 0.73 respectively (for the spectral and real space scaling exponents (β, H the latter are close to those estimated by drop sondes (2.4, 0.75 in the vertical direction. In addition, for each leg we estimate the energy flux, the sphero

  4. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis in Aircraft Lightning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuantong; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage and empennage structures, control surfaces and coverings. However, the potential damage from the direct and indirect effects of lightning strikes is of increased concern to aircraft designers and operators. When a lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface must be found by visual inspection, and then assessed for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. In this paper, a new method and system for aircraft in-situ damage detection and diagnosis are presented. The method and system are based on open circuit (SansEC) sensor technology developed at NASA Langley Research Center. SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect damage in composite materials. Damage in composite material is generally associated with a localized change in material permittivity and/or conductivity. These changes are sensed using SansEC. Unique electrical signatures are used for damage detection and diagnosis. NASA LaRC has both experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that SansEC sensors can be effectively used for in-situ composite damage detection.

  5. Numerical simulation of aircraft crash on nuclear containment structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Rai, S.; Sadique, M.R.; Bhargava, P. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deformation was more localised at the center of cylindrical portion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak deflection at the junction of dome and cylinder was found to be 67 mm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak deflection at midpoint of the cylindrical portion was found to be 88.9 mm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strain rate was found to be an important parameter to effect the deformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model without strain rate and 290 s{sup -1} strain rate predicted very high deformations. - Abstract: Numerical simulations were carried with ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code in order to predict the response of BWR Mark III type nuclear containment against Boeing 707-320 aircraft crash. The load of the aircraft was applied using and force history curve. The damaged plasticity model was used to predict the behavior of concrete while the Johnson-Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model was used to incorporate the behavior of steel reinforcement. The crash was considered to occur at two different locations i.e., the midpoint of the cylindrical portion and the junction of dome and cylinder. The midpoint of the cylindrical portion experienced more deformation. The strain rate in the material model was varied and found to have a significant effect on the response of containment. The results of the present investigation were compared with those of the studies available in literature and a close agreement with the previous results was found in terms of maximum target deformation.

  6. The vehicle design evaluation program - A computer-aided design procedure for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, B. H.; Kruse, G. S.; Schrader, O. E.

    1977-01-01

    The vehicle design evaluation program is described. This program is a computer-aided design procedure that provides a vehicle synthesis capability for vehicle sizing, external load analysis, structural analysis, and cost evaluation. The vehicle sizing subprogram provides geometry, weight, and balance data for aircraft using JP, hydrogen, or methane fuels. The structural synthesis subprogram uses a multistation analysis for aerodynamic surfaces and fuselages to develop theoretical weights and geometric dimensions. The parts definition subprogram uses the geometric data from the structural analysis and develops the predicted fabrication dimensions, parts material raw stock buy requirements, and predicted actual weights. The cost analysis subprogram uses detail part data in conjunction with standard hours, realization factors, labor rates, and material data to develop the manufacturing costs. The program is used to evaluate overall design effects on subsonic commercial type aircraft due to parameter variations.

  7. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  8. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  9. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  10. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  11. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  12. Effects of aircraft noise on human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Under controlled conditions in two test rooms, studies were made of the response of sleeping subjects to the stimuli of simulated sonic booms and subsonic jet aircraft noise. Children were relatively nonresponsive to the stimuli. In general, the older the subject, the more likely is behavioral awakening. The response rates to the two types of stimuli were essentially the same. The stimulus intensity had little, if any, effect on frequency of arousal, although other degrees of response did increase.

  13. Route optimization model for strike aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Steve H. K.

    1995-01-01

    A model is designed and implemented to construct a 'flyable,' least- risk route for strike aircraft from takeoff to target, through enemy radars, in a defined area of operations. A network is fust constructed by discretizing the airspace into a three-dimensional grid of nodes and then connecting adjacent nodes with arcs. A shortest-path model in this network is then constructed with arc lengths that are a function of the probability of detection by radars monitoring t...

  14. Force Feedback for Assembly of Aircraft Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marie; Murray, Tom; Robertsson, Anders; Stolt, Andreas; Ossbahr, Gilbert; Nilsson, Klas

    2010-01-01

    Variability in composite manufacture and the limitations in positional accuracy of common industrial robots have hampered automation of assembly tasks within aircraft manufacturing. One way to handle geometry variations and robot compliancy is to use force control. Force control technology utilizes a sensor mounted on the robot to feedback force data to the controller system so instead of being position driven, i.e. programmed to achieve a certain position with the tool, the robot can be prog...

  15. Study of hydrogen as an aircraft fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaravino, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The conversion to hydrogen as a naval aviation fuel would allow for independence on fuel cost and supply, as hydrogen is globally accessible. The biggest obstacle to using hydrogen is its very low density, a property that even combined with hydrogen's high heat of combustion still results in very large fuel tanks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) with its higher density would still require a larger volume than kerosene for the aircraft to achieve...

  16. Speed stress and the aircraft pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.T.V. Adiseshiah

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available When the human component in a man-machine system of pushed beyond the limits of human capacity in grasping information presented to senses or in executing a series of actions correctly, a condition of "speed stress" may be said to occur. Conditions encountered by aircraft at high speeds, make a consideration of the forms of speed stress, and of the measures to alleviate them, extremely important.

  17. Review Article: Influenza Transmission on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air travel is associated with the spread of influenza through infected passengers and potentially through in-flight transmission. Contact tracing after exposure to influenza is not performed systematically. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the evidence for influenza transmission aboard aircraft. Methods: Using PubMed and EMBASE databases, we identified and critically appraised identified records to assess the evidence of such transmission to passengers seated in close proximity to the index cases. We also developed a bias assessment tool to evaluate the quality of evidence provided in the retrieved studies. Results: We identified 14 peer-reviewed publications describing contact tracing of passengers after possible exposure to influenza virus aboard an aircraft. Contact tracing during the initial phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic was described in 11 publications. The studies describe the follow-up of 2,165 (51%) of 4,252 traceable passengers. Altogether, 163 secondary cases were identified resulting in an overall secondary attack rate among traced passengers of 7.5%. Of these secondary cases, 68 (42%) were seated within two rows of the index case. Conclusion: We found an overall moderate quality of evidence for transmission of influenza virus aboard an aircraft. The major limiting factor was the comparability of the studies. A majority of secondary cases was identified at a greater distance than two rows from the index case. A standardized approach for initiating, conducting, and reporting contact tracing could help to increase the evidence base for better assessing influenza transmission aboard aircraft. PMID:27253070

  18. Trajectory management for aircraft noise mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2009-01-01

    Comunicació convidada This paper gives an overview of aircraft trajectory management aimed at producing noise abatementprocedures. Area Navigation (RNAV) concepts play an important role in the design of flexible and, therefore, noise friendly depart or approach procedures. In addition, the lowest dispersion of RNAV tracks help to contain noise footprints in a smaller area if compared with footprints that are produced when conventional procedures are flown. However, RNAV turns still produce...

  19. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  20. Digital adaptive control laws for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.

    1979-01-01

    Honeywell has designed a digital self-adaptive flight control system for flight test in the VALT Research Aircraft (a modified CH-47). The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts: one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs are compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  1. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.

  2. Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Sven; Claesson, Ingvar

    2001-01-01

    A noisy environment dominated by low frequency noise can often be improved through the use of active noise control. This situation arises naturally in propeller aircraft where the propellers induce periodic low frequency noise inside the cabin. The cabin noise is typically rather high, and the passenger flight comfort could be improved considerably if this level were significantly reduced. This paper addresses same design aspects for multiple-reference active noise control systems based on th...

  3. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AS COMPLEX MULTISTRUCTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abufanas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The principles of constructing mathematical models of unmanned aircraft systems as complex systems consisting of a plurality ofsubsystems, each of which is considered as a system. In this case, the relationship between the subsystems are described by equations based on the topological graph theory, and for the preparation of component equations describing the dynamics of the subsystems is proposed to use differential equations discontinuous type based on systems theory of random structure.

  4. Aircraft System Simulation for Preliminary Design

    OpenAIRE

    Krus, Petter; Braun, Robert; Nordin, Peter; Eriksson, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Developments in computational hardware and simulation software have come to a point where it is possible to use whole mission simulation in a framework for conceptual/preliminary design. This paper is about the implementation of full system simulation software for conceptual/preliminary aircraft design. It is based on the new Hopsan NG simulation package, developed at the Linköping University. The Hopsan NG software is implemented in C++. Hopsan NG is the first simulation software that has su...

  5. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. The reactor auxiliary system building allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioctivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. In order not to increase the construction cost, and yet to assure the safety of the plant, some dynamic tests of conventionally reinforced slabs have to be performed all the way to collapse. These calculations have assumptions of achieving the maximum velocity instantaneously after impact, and take into account the kinetic energy in the broken wall. Nonlinear equations of motion are also formulated and solved. The results indicate that the phantom jet would go through the first wall. The second wall would stop the jet, but would sustain some permanent deformation and damage

  6. Structural ballistic armour for transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I; Austin, S J; Bishop, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the structural response of a current ceramic-faced composite armour system and a proposed structural armour system for aircraft use. The proposed structural ballistic armour system is shown to be capable of providing significant structural integrity even after ballistic impact whilst providing ballistic protection equivalent to an existing applique system. The addition of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic front panel to the existing ceramic faced composite armour system i...

  7. Passive Viscoelastic Constrained Layer Damping Application for a Small Aircraft Landing Gear System

    OpenAIRE

    Gallimore, Craig Allen

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this report was to test several common viscoelastic polymers and identify key attributes of their applicability to a small aircraft landing gear system for improved damping performance. The applied viscoelastic damping treatment to the gear was of a constrained layer type, promoting increased shear deformation over free surface treatments, and therefore enhanced energy dissipation within the viscoelastic layer. A total of eight materials were tested and analyzed using cy...

  8. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the...

  9. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  10. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    A plan is defined for a composite wing development effort which will assist commercial transport manufacturers in reaching a level of technology readiness where the utilization of composite wing structure is a cost competitive option for a new aircraft production plan. The recommended development effort consists of two programs: a joint government/industry material development program and a wing structure development program. Both programs are described in detail.

  11. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Pelliccioni, M; Villari, R

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H*(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. PMID:14978289

  12. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H *(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. (authors)

  13. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in, the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers sad and traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control functions. This paper describes a conflict detection, and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm, which is often used for missile guidance during the terminal phase. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection, and the conflict resolution methods.

  14. Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

  15. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem. The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article. The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise. Of the three main areas of the noise problem, i.e. generation, propagation, and radiation, propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation. Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model. Of the various classes of propagation equations, linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain. The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques, bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations, e.g. acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed, with differing degrees of success.

  16. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  17. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  18. Aircraft measurement of organic aerosols over China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Takami, Akinori; Li, Hong; Wang, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Lower to middle (0.5-3.0 km altitude) tropospheric aerosols (PM2.5) collected by aircraft over inland and east coastal China were, for the first time, characterized for organic molecular compositions to understand anthropogenic, natural, and photochemical contribution to the air quality. n-Alkanes, fatty acids, sugars, polyacids are detected as major compound classes, whereas lignin and resin products, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalic acids are minor species. Average concentrations of all the identified compounds excluding malic acid correspond to 40-50% of those reported on the ground sites. Relative abundances of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components such as malic acid are much higher in the aircraft samples, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production over China. Organic carbon (OC) concentrations in summer (average, 24.3 microg m(-3)) were equivalent to those reported on the ground sites. Higher OC/EC (elemental carbon) ratios in the summer aircraft samples also support a significant production of SOA over China. High loadings of organic aerosols in the Chinese troposphere may be responsible to an intercontinental transport of the pollutants and potential impact on the regional and global climate changes. PMID:17539513

  19. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingtao Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematical explanation of RISM is presented in this paper. The efficiency of RISM can be improved by four times compared with traditional static aeroelastic analysis. General purpose computing on graphical processing units (GPGPU is adopted to accelerate the RISM further, and GPU-accelerated RISM is constructed. The efficiency of GPU-accelerated RISM can be raised by about 239 times compared with that of the loosely coupled aeroelastic analysis. Test shows that the fidelity of GPU-accelerated RISM is high enough for optimization. Optimization framework based on Kriging model is constructed. The efficiency of the proposed optimization system can be improved greatly with the aid of GPU-accelerated RISM. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is optimized using this framework and the range is improved by 4.67% after optimization, which shows effectiveness and efficiency of this framework.

  20. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S. [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Seibersdorf (Austria); Latocha, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  1. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  2. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem.The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article.The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise.Of the three main areas of the noise problem,i.e.generation,propagation,and radiation,propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation.Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model.Of the various classes of propagation equations,linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain.The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques,bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations,e.g.acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed,with differing degrees of success.

  3. HPC in Computational Micromechanics of Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Blaheta, R. (Radim); Kolcun, A. (Alexej); Jakl, O. (Ondřej); Souček, K; Starý, J. (Jiří); Georgiev, J.

    2015-01-01

    By micromechanics we understand analysis of the macroscale response of materials through investigation of processes in their microstructure. Here by the macroscale, we mean the scale of applications, where we solve engineering problems involving materials. Examples could be analysis of aircraft constructions with different composite materials and analysis of rock behaviour and concrete properties in geo- and civil engineering applications. Analysis of bio-materials with many medicine...

  4. Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible, An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP total surface area. The radiological materials storage facilities aggregate areas are areas of concern usually requiring safety analyses, According to Department of Energy guidance, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. No individual facility in this analysis has a crash potential large enough to be credible. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility, but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas, The highest probability of concern in the study was for aircraft to crash into the aggregate area for radiological materials storage facilities at the ICPP during Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) test flights

  5. Development of a detailed aircraft tyre finite element model for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A full-scaled LS-Dyna finite element aircraft tyre model has been developed. • Rubber and fabric material properties have been characterized and correlated. • The FE tyre model has been validated by comparing static simulations with tests. • Dynamic simulations have been analyzed to achieve landing safety assessment. - Abstract: This paper describes the development of a detailed finite element (FE) model of an aircraft test tyre in order to investigate its performance and assess its safety criteria. It is noticed that rubber and fabric composite materials are the major components of this tyre model and their characterization requires tests and correlation. The characterization of such materials is of great importance in the model development process. Due to its complicated mechanical behaviour that exceeds the linear elastic theory, rubber is generally considered as hyperelastic material in FE analysis. It can be defined by a stored energy function with various coefficients that need to be determined by a series of experimental test data. The key issue is to define an appropriate energy function that can provide good fit with the experimental test data. Initially, a full-scaled LS-Dyna FE model has been development to replicate the actual geometry of the target test tyre. The material properties of each individual component have been characterized and correlated with industrial uniaxial tension test data. The inflation and static load simulations have been analyzed basing on the characterized tyre model, indicating its reliability. The dynamic simulations that aim to duplicate tyre load upon aircraft landing scenarios have also been analyzed. Following the comments and guidelines from aircraft industrial data, the dynamic simulations have covered the tyre loading scenarios from normal (soft) landing, hard landing to crash landing under different aircraft landing weights and vertical speeds. The tyre deflection rate and the contact load have

  6. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  7. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  8. Passenger life-saving in a badly damaged aircraft scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A

    2007-01-01

    Offered is a new method for saving passenger lives in any catastrofic situation, including total failure of aircraft control, extreme damage and loss aircraft wings, tail, breakdown all propelling engines, etc. It shown here that previous works which have proposed using only parachutes are useless because their proposers failed to consider the likely overload of the parachute jerk stress (at the moment of parachute release) and the impact of aircraft on Earth surface. These jeck and impact destroy aircraft and kill passengers. Offered is a connected series of related technical innovations which overcome these obvious difficalties and allow for a soft, near zero speed landing in any topographically suitable place, allowing potential to save aircraft. This method may be applied to all existing airplanes and increases their weight only about 1.5 - 2.5%. Also, the method may be used for vertically landing the already built aircraft, for example, when any runway is damaged or would become overloaded.

  9. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  10. Antifreeze Polysaccharide Coating Study for De-icing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Katsuaki; Sakaue, Hirotaka; Ando, Azuma; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Kawahara, Hidehisa

    2015-11-01

    Anti-icing or deicing of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Mechanical processes, such as heating and deicer boot, are widely used. Deicing fluids, such as propyrene glycol and ethylene glycol, are used to coat the aircraft. However, these should be coated every time before the take-off, since the fluids come off from the aircraft while cruising. We study an antifreeze polysaccharide (AFPS) coating as a deicer for an aircraft. It is designed to coat on the aircraft without removal. Since an AFPS coating removes ice by reducing the interfacial energy, it would be an alternative way to prevent ice on the aircraft. We provide a temperature-controlled room, which can control its temperature under icing conditions (-8 and -4 °C). Ice adhesion tests are performed for AFPS coating and compared with a fundamental specimen without the coating.

  11. Study on nuclear power plant aircraft accidents impacts PSA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) can be divided to internal events PSA and external events PSA. Because of the nature of aircraft accidents impacts, extreme in destroy degree and low frequency, analysts usually treat aircraft impacts as a special external event. There is not any mature method for NPP aircraft impacts PSA. The paper titled Accident For Aircraft Crash Into Analysis Hazardous Facilities is published by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE guide could be the main base for this paper, referring to the demand for aircraft impact in NUREG-0800, seeking to develop a particular method for NPP aircraft impacts PSA in China. The method and content in this paper can be applied in similar work and may provide some advices for the future work. (authors)

  12. A Comprehensive Program for Measurement of Military Aircraft Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    Emissions of gases and particulate matter by military aircraft were characterized inplume by 'extractive' and 'optical remote-sensing (ORS)' technologies. Non-volatile particle size distribution, number and mass concentrations were measured with good precision and reproducibly. Time-integrated particulate filter samples were collected and analyzed for smoke number, elemental composition, carbon contents, and sulfate. Observed at EEP the geometric mean diameter (as measured by the mobility diameter) generally increased as the engine power setting increased, which is consistent with downstream observations. The modal diameters at the downstream locations are larger than that at EEP at the same engine power level. The results indicate that engine particles were processed by condensation, for example, leading to particle growth in-plume. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present in the exhaust, while most of the exhaust materials in the particulate phase were carbon and sulfate (in the JP-8 fuel). CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, HCHO, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were measured. The last five species were most noticeable under engine idle condition. The levels of hydrocarbons emitted at high engine power level were generally below the detection limits. ORS techniques yielded real-time gaseous measurement, but the same techniques could not be extended directly to ultrafine particles found in all engine exhausts. The results validated sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile particulate aircraft emissions, which also highlighted the needs for further research on sampling and measurement for volatile particulate matter and semi-volatile species in the engine exhaust especially at the low engine power setting.

  13. Aircraft Structural Mass Property Prediction Using Conceptual-Level Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexstone, Matthew G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology that extends the use of the Equivalent LAminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) structural analysis code from conceptual-level aircraft structural analysis to conceptual-level aircraft mass property analysis. Mass property analysis in aircraft structures has historically depended upon parametric weight equations at the conceptual design level and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) at the detailed design level. ELAPS allows for the modeling of detailed geometry, metallic and composite materials, and non-structural mass coupled with analytical structural sizing to produce high-fidelity mass property analyses representing fully configured vehicles early in the design process. This capability is especially valuable for unusual configuration and advanced concept development where existing parametric weight equations are inapplicable and FEA is too time consuming for conceptual design. This paper contrasts the use of ELAPS relative to empirical weight equations and FEA. ELAPS modeling techniques are described and the ELAPS-based mass property analysis process is detailed. Examples of mass property stochastic calculations produced during a recent systems study are provided. This study involved the analysis of three remotely piloted aircraft required to carry scientific payloads to very high altitudes at subsonic speeds. Due to the extreme nature of this high-altitude flight regime, few existing vehicle designs are available for use in performance and weight prediction. ELAPS was employed within a concurrent engineering analysis process that simultaneously produces aerodynamic, structural, and static aeroelastic results for input to aircraft performance analyses. The ELAPS models produced for each concept were also used to provide stochastic analyses of wing structural mass properties. The results of this effort indicate that ELAPS is an efficient means to conduct multidisciplinary trade studies at the conceptual design level.

  14. Back pain and its consequences among Polish Air Force pilots flying high performance aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Truszczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Back pain in Air Force fast jet pilots has been studied by several air forces and found to be relatively common. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and degree of the pain intensity in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, subjective risk factors and their effect on the pilots' performance while flying high maneuver aircrafts and the consequences for cognitive deficiencies. Material and Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, anonymous questionnaire survey, collecting data on the age, aircraft type, flying hours, pain characteristics, physical activity, etc. The study was participated by 94 pilots aged 28-45 years (mean age: 35.9±3.3 years, actively flying fast jet aircrafts Su-22, Mig-29 and F-16. The estimates regarding the level of the subjective back pain were established using visual analogue scales (VAS. Results: The values of the Cochran and Cox T-test for heterogeneous variances are as follows: for the total number of flying hours: F = 2.53, p = 0.0145, for the pilot's age: F = 3.15, p = 0.003, and for the BMI factor F = 2.73, p = 0.008. Conclusions: Our questionnaire survey showed a significant problem regarding spinal conditions in high performance aircraft pilots. The determination of the risk factors may lead to solving this problem and help eliminate the effect of the unfavorable environment on piloting jet aircrafts. Experiencing back pain during the flight might influence the mission performance and flight safety. The costs of pilots education are enormous and inability to fly, or even disability, leads to considerable economic loss. More research on specific prevention strategies is warranted in order to improve the in-flight working environment of fighter pilots.

  15. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that

  16. Dedicated Solutions for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Components

    OpenAIRE

    Pitropakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft structures, like any other mechanical structure, are subjected to various external factors that influence their lifetime. Mechanicalnbsp;and the environment are only some of the factors that can degrade the structure of aircraft components. Monitoring of these degradations by regular inspections or automated data recording is vital for the structural health of the critical components of an aircraft. This research proposes a number of dedicated solutions for structural health monitori...

  17. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  18. UNOLS now oversees research aircraft facilities for ocean science

    OpenAIRE

    Bane, John M.; Bluth, Robert; Flagg, Charles; Jonsson, Haflidi; Melville, W. Kendall; Prince, Mike; Riemer, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    In recognition of the increasing importance and value of aircraft as observational platforms in oceanographic research, the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) has established the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR).SCOAR aims to establish procedures for research aircraft that follow the present UNOLS practices for research vessel use, with the goal of making it understandable, and easy, and thus desirable, for...

  19. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Jordan, Jay D.; Kim, Theodore J.

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  20. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and adva...

  1. Modelling and stability analysis of aircraft power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areerak, Kongpan

    2009-01-01

    The more-electric aircraft concept is a major trend in aircraft electrical power system engineering and results in an increase in electrical loads based on power electronic converters and motor drive systems. Unfortunately, power electronic driven loads often behave as constant power loads having the small-signal negative impedance that can significantly degrade the power system stability margin. Therefore, the stability issue of aircraft power systems is of great importance. The research of ...

  2. Investigation of cross flow fan propulsion for lightweight VTOL aircraft.

    OpenAIRE

    Gossett, Dean H.

    2000-01-01

    As world population increases, road and airport congestion will become increasingly prevalent. A small, cheap vTOL aircraft which can be flown from a driveway to the workplace parking lot would reduce traffic congestion and travel time. A lightweight, single seat commuter type VTOL aircraft is envisioned as the solution to this problem. To achieve a goal of minimum weight, the aircraft aerodynamic design should be optimized for forward flight. Vertical thrust augmentation from a propulsion un...

  3. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  4. Impact of Aircraft Performance Characteristics on Air Traffic Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Aydan CAVCAR; CAVCAR, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Air transportation has been suffering for decades from delays caused by air traffic congestion. This paper presents the effect of aircraft performance differences on air traffic delays. Rate of climb and cruising speeds of 70 different aircraft types are compared to demonstrate performance differences in the current transport aircraft fleet. The effect of these performance differences on air traffic delays is proved by a deterministic calculation of delays for a departure queue cons...

  5. Structural resource of the aircraft IAR-99 SOIM

    OpenAIRE

    Radu BISCA; Dorin LOZICI-BRINZEI

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft structure fatigue monitoring has been developed over decades presently reaching the stage where it became mandatory for all combat aircraft to be equipped with an airborne fatigue monitoring system. These systems usually collect operational data for calculating the safe fatigue life or inspection interval for the aircraft structure. This paper presents an analysis of the current state of fatigue monitoring systems on the IAR-99 SOIM based on the experience of international fatigue mo...

  6. Considerations of Unmanned Aircraft Classification for Civil Airworthiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Morris, A. Terry; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS) has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. Although use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in military and public service operations is proliferating, civil use of UAS remains limited in the United States today. This report focuses on one particular regulatory challenge: classifying UAS to assign airworthiness standards. Classification is useful for ensuring that meaningful differences in design are accommodated by certification to different standards, and that aircraft with similar risk profiles are held to similar standards. This paper provides observations related to how the current regulations for classifying manned aircraft, based on dimensions of aircraft class and operational aircraft categories, could apply to UAS. This report finds that existing aircraft classes are well aligned with the types of UAS that currently exist; however, the operational categories are more difficult to align to proposed UAS use in the NAS. Specifically, the factors used to group manned aircraft into similar risk profiles do not necessarily capture all relevant UAS risks. UAS classification is investigated through gathering approaches to classification from a broad spectrum of organizations, and then identifying and evaluating the classification factors from these approaches. This initial investigation concludes that factors in addition to those currently used today to group manned aircraft for the purpose of assigning airworthiness standards will be needed to adequately capture risks associated with UAS and their operations.

  7. Generalised Model for Aircraft Vulnerability by Different Weapon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Singh

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors earlier model for the vulnerability of aircraft where aircraft was considered as a combination of cylinder, cones and wedges has been extended to the case when structural data of aircraft as well as its vital parts are given in the form of three-dimensional curvilinear triangles. In the case of VT -fused ammunition, spherical normal distribution has been used to estimate the landing probability of the shell in a cylindrical vicinity region around the aircraft. Kill criteria of vital parts have been redefined.

  8. Aircraft Structural Analysis, Design Optimization, and Manufacturing Tool Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative research is proposed in integrating fundamental aircraft design processes with an emphasis on composite structures. Efficient, lightweight composite...

  9. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda;

    , satellites and manned aircraft are the traditional platforms on which scientists gather data of the atmosphere, sea ice, glaciers, fauna and vegetation. However, significant data gaps still exist over much of the Arctic because there are few research stations, satellites are often hindered by cloud cover......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS...

  10. Disruption Management for an Airline - Rescheduling of aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis;

    2002-01-01

    The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through a...... series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article demonstrates an effective method to solve ARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of a good quality in less than 10 seconds. This article is...

  11. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms for many aircraft subsystems are steadily maturing. Unfortunately there is little experience integrating these technologies...

  12. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  13. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A. [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1997-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  14. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  15. Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue,...

  16. Disruption Management for an Airline - Rescheduling of aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis; Clausen, Jens

    The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through a...... series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article demonstrates an effective method to solve ARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of a good quality in less than 10 seconds. This article is...

  17. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required

  18. Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project advanced acoustic blankets for improved low frequency interior noise control in aircraft will be developed and demonstrated. The improved...

  19. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  20. The ARCTAS aircraft mission: design and execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jacob

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008 and western Canada (June–July 2008. The goal of ARCTAS was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1 transport of mid-latitude pollution, (2 boreal forest fires, (3 aerosol radiative forcing, and (4 chemical processes. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with extensive aerosol payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train, by (1 validating the data, (2 improving constraints on retrievals, (3 making correlated observations, and (4 characterizing chemical and aerosol processes. The April flights (ARCTAS-A sampled pollution plumes from all three mid-latitude continents, fire plumes from Siberia and Southeast Asia, and halogen radical events. The June-July flights (ARCTAS-B focused on boreal forest fire influences and sampled fresh fire plumes from northern Saskatchewan as well as older fire plumes from Canada, Siberia, and California. The June–July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California sponsored by the California Air Resources Board (ARCTAS-CARB. The ARCTAS-CARB goals were to (1 improve state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2 provide observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. Extensive sampling across southern California and the Central Valley characterized emissions from urban centers, offshore shipping lanes, agricultural crops, feedlots, industrial sources, and wildfires.

  1. Forecasting for a Lagrangian aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A forecast system has been developed in preparation for an upcoming aircraft measurement campaign, where the same air parcels polluted by emissions over North America shall be sampled repeatedly as they leave the continent, during transport over the Atlantic, and upon their arrival over Europe. This paper describes the model system in advance of the campaign, in order to make the flight planners familiar with the novel model output. The aim of a Lagrangian strategy is to infer changes in the chemical composition and aerosol distribution occurring en route by measured upwind/downwind differences. However, guiding aircraft repeatedly into the same polluted air parcels requires careful forecasting, for which no suitable model system exists to date. This paper describes a procedure using both Eulerian-type (i.e. concentration fields and Lagrangian-type (i.e. trajectories model output from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to predict the best opportunities for a Lagrangian experiment. The best opportunities are defined as being highly polluted air parcels which receive little or no emission input after the first measurement, which experience relatively little mixing, and which are reachable by as many aircraft as possible. For validation the system was applied to the period of the NARE 97 campaign where approximately the same air masses were sampled on different flights. Measured upwind/downwind differences in carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 decreased significantly as the threshold values used for accepting cases as Lagrangian were tightened. This proves that the model system can successfully identify Lagrangian opportunities.

  2. 75 FR 50865 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... (75 FR 32315). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant... in any category: Type certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industria Mecanico...

  3. 75 FR 922 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), published in the Federal Register (FR), is available for inspection...'' in 73 FR 58520. This NPRM proposed and the final rule herein codifies the addition of five reportable... SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and...

  4. 76 FR 76686 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...) to an aircraft operating in class A airspace.'' 75 FR at 923. Although the NTSB believed the language... Federal Register (75 FR 922). The final rule implemented several changes to section 830.5, requiring... changes. (73 FR 58520; October 7, 2008). Several commenters stated they believed the language of...

  5. 75 FR 35329 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records'' in 73 FR 58520, and, on January 7, 2010, the NTSB published a final rule under the same title in 75 FR 922. The final rule codified the addition of five... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) and the final rule, published in the Federal Register (FR), are available...

  6. The Philosophy which underlies the structural tests of a supersonic transport aircraft with particular attention to the thermal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The information presented is based on data obtained from the Concorde. Much of this data also applies to other supersonic transport aircraft. The design and development of the Concorde is a joint effort of the British and French, and the structural test program is shared, as are all the other activities. Vast numbers of small specimens have been tested to determine the behavior of the materials used in the aircraft. Major components of the aircraft structure, totalling almost a complete aircraft, have been made and are being tested to help the constructors in each country in the design and development of the structure. Tests on two complete airframes will give information for the certification of the aircraft. A static test was conducted in France and a fatigue test in the United Kingdom. Fail-safe tests are being made to demonstrate the crack-propagation characteristics of the structure and its residual strength. Aspects of the structural test program are described in some detail, dealing particularly with the problems associated with the thermal cycle. The biggest of these problems is the setting up of the fatigue test on the complete airframe; therefore, this is covered more extensively with a discussion about how the test time can be shortened and with a description of the practical aspects of the test.

  7. Squeeze Film Damping for Aircraft Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Shende

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern aircraft gas turbine engines depend heavily on squeeze film damper supports at the bearings for abatement of vibrations caused by a number of probable excitation sources. This design ultimately results in light-weight construction together with higher efficiency and reliability of engines. Many investigations have been reported during past two decades concerning the functioning of the squeeze film damper, which is simple in construction yet complex in behaviour with its non-linearity and multiplicity of variables. These are reviewed in this article to throw light on the considerations involved in the design of rotor-bearing-casing systems incorporating squeeze film dampers.

  8. Flying Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pioneering various Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) technologies and procedures which may enable routine access to the National Airspace System (NAS), with an aim for Next Gen NAS. These tools will aid in the development of technologies and integrated capabilities that will enable high value missions for science, security, and defense, and open the door to low-cost, extreme-duration, stratospheric flight. A century of aviation evolution has resulted in accepted standards and best practices in the design of human-machine interfaces, the displays and controls of which serve to optimize safe and efficient flight operations and situational awareness. The current proliferation of non-standard, aircraft-specific flight crew interfaces in UAS, coupled with the inherent limitations of operating UAS without in-situ sensory input and feedback (aural, visual, and vestibular cues), has increased the risk of mishaps associated with the design of the "cockpit." The examples of current non- or sub- standard design features range from "annoying" and "inefficient", to those that are difficult to manipulate or interpret in a timely manner, as well as to those that are "burdensome" and "unsafe." A concerted effort is required to establish best practices and standards for the human-machine interfaces, for the pilot as well as the air traffic controller. In addition, roles, responsibilities, knowledge, and skill sets are subject to redefining the terms, "pilot" and "air traffic controller", with respect to operating UAS, especially in the Next-Gen NAS. The knowledge, skill sets, training, and qualification standards for UAS operations must be established, and reflect the aircraft-specific human-machine interfaces and control methods. NASA s recent experiences flying its MQ-9 Ikhana in the NAS for extended duration, has enabled both NASA and the FAA to realize the full potential for UAS, as well as understand the implications of

  9. Sensor Technology and Futuristic Of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rugambage Ndayishimiye

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation fighter Aircraft seeks a fighter with higher abilities in areas such as reach, persistence, survivability, net-centricity, situation awareness, human system integration and weapons effects. The future system will have to counter foe armed with next generation advanced electronic attack, sophisticated integrated air defense systems, directed energy weapons, passive detection, integrated self-protection and cyber-attack capabilities. It must be capable to operate in the anti-access area-denial (A2/AD environment that will exist in the next coming years.

  10. Recent Progress in Aircraft Noise Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the acoustics research at NASA under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes the rationale behind the noise reduction goals of the project in the context of the next generation air transportation system, and the emphasis placed on achieving these goals through a combination of the in-house and collaborative efforts with industry, universities and other government agencies. The presentation also describes the in-house research plan which is focused on the development of advanced noise and flow diagnostic techniques, next generation noise prediction tools, and novel noise reduction techniques that are applicable across a wide range of aircraft.

  11. Swarms of UAVs and fighter aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Stantz, K.M.; Gray, P.C.; Robinett, R.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes a method of modeling swarms of UAVs and/or fighter aircraft using particle simulation concepts. Recent investigations into the use of genetic algorithms to design neural networks for the control of autonomous vehicles (i.e., robots) led to the examination of methods of simulating large collections of robots. This paper describes the successful implementation of a model of swarm dynamics using particle simulation concepts. Several examples of the complex behaviors achieved in a target/interceptor scenario are presented.

  12. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish a benchmark experimental data base for a genetic hypersonic aircraft vehicle. Comprehensive measurements were made at Mach 7 to give flow visualization, surface pressure, surface convective heat transfer, and flow field Pitot pressure for a delta platform all-body vehicle. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Reynolds numbers sufficient to give turbulent flow. Comparisons are made of the experimental results with computational solutions of the flow by an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code developed at Ames. Good agreement of experiment with solutions by the code is demonstrated.

  13. Climatic impact of aircraft induced ozone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Feneberg, B.; Ponater, M. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The effect of aircraft induced ozone changes on the global climate is studied by means of the general circulation model ECHAM4. The zonal mean temperature signal is considered. In order to estimate the statistical significance of the climatic impact a multivariate statistical test hierarchy combined with the fingerprint method has been applied. Sensitivity experiments show a significant coherent temperature response pattern in the northern extra-tropics for mid-latitude summer conditions. It consists of a tropospheric warming of about 0.2 K with a corresponding stratospheric cooling of the same magnitude. (author) 16 refs.

  14. Analysis of cooling systems for hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program has been written to analyze cooling systems of hypersonic aircraft. This computer program called NASP/SINDA is written into the SINDA'85 command structure and uses the SINDA'85 finite difference subroutines. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer must be analyzed, because increased heating causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. Also local hot spots will cause a redistribution of the coolant in the system. Both steady state and transient analyses have been performed. Details of empirical correlations are presented. Results for two cooling system applications are given.

  15. Radiation exposure measurement onboard civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The active dosemeter DOSTEL based on two silicon planar detectors was flown on civil aircraft flights to study the radiation exposure of air crew members. The altitude and latitude dependence of count and dose rates as well as long-term variations are measured. After calibration of the DOSTEL response against measurements of a TEPC instrument, total dose-equivalent values for various flights are compared with H*(10) calculations by EPCARD yielding a ratio of 1.02 ± 0.09 (standard variation). (authors)

  16. Thermal barrier coating life modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissley, D. M.

    1997-03-01

    Analytical models for predicting ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) spalling life in aircraft gas tur-bine engines are presented. Electron beam/physical vapor-deposited and plasma-sprayed TBC systems are discussed. An overview of the following TBC spalling mechanisms is presented: (1) metal oxidation at the ceramic/metal interface, (2) ceramic/metal interface stresses caused by radius of curvature and inter-face roughness, (3) material properties and mechanical behavior, (4) component design features, (5) tem-perature gradients, (6) ceramic/metal interface stress singularities at edges and corners, and (7) object impact damage. Analytical models for TBC spalling life are proposed based on observations of TBC spall-ing and plausible failure theories. Spalling was assumed to occur when the imposed stresses exceed the material strength (at or near the ceramic/metal interface). Knowledge gaps caused by lack of experimen-tal evidence and analytical understanding of TBC failure are noted. The analytical models are considered initial engineering approaches that capture observed TBC spalling failure trends.

  17. Compliant load-bearing skins and structures for morphing aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kingnide Raymond

    Aircraft morphing has the potential to significantly improve the performance of an aircraft over its flight envelope and expand its ight capability to allow it to perform dramatically different missions. The multiple projects carried on in the past three decades have considerably helped improve the designing of actuation systems and the utilization of smart materials for morphing aircraft structures. However, morphing aircraft and especially aircraft undergoing large shape change still face some significant technical issues. Among them, the skin covering the morphing structure must meet challenging requirements that no current conventional material fully satisfy. The design of such skin, which should be able to undergo large deformations and to carry air-loads, has received some attention in the last several years but no satisfactory solution has been found yet. In the current study, the design of compliant cellular structures and flexible skins for morphing aircraft structures is investigated for two different morphing deformations. The first morphing deformation considered corresponds to one-dimensional morphing which is representative of a wing or blade changing its chord or span. The second morphing deformation considered is shear-compression morphing which can be found in some morphing wing undergoing change in area, sweep and chord such as NextGen Aeronautics' morphing wing. Topologies of compliant cellular structures which can be used for these two types of structures are first calculated using a multi-objective approach. These topologies are calculated based on linear kinematics but the effect of geometric nonlinearities is also investigated. Then, ways to provide a smooth surface were investigated by considering a general honeycomb substructure with infill, bonded face-sheet or scales. This allowed justifying an overall skin concept made of a cellular substructure with a bonded face-sheet. Lastly, the design of an improved skin for NextGen Aeronautics

  18. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  19. Engine-driven electrization of aircraft as a radio interference source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, A. A.; Gushchin, M. E.; Korobkov, S. V.; Kostrov, A. V.; Palochkin, Yu. P.; Priver, S. E.; Odzerikho, D. A.; Strikovskii, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Field measurements of the quasi-static electrical fields emerging due to the in-flight electrization of low-speed low-altitude aircraft (helicopters) were performed for the first time. It was found that the electrization of helicopters with gas turbine power plants is of a engine-driven nature: the accumulation of static positive charge at the fuselage is induced by a unipolar negatively charged exhaust stream. A static positive fuselage potential that reaches +30 or even +35 kV for certain helicopter models was determined. If dielectric and composite materials are used in the construction of helicopters and specific parts of the aircraft are isolated electrically from the fuselage, differential electrization occurs. In view of the high absolute value of the fuselage potential, this electrization results in the generation of high-voltage discharges that serve as a source of intense radio interference within a frequency band of from several megahertz to several hundred megahertz.

  20. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques. PMID:26263987