WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft engine exhaust

  1. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  2. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  3. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Lyon

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  4. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Spicer

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  5. Influence Of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions At A Global Level And Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Golubić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the differences in the aircraft engine exhaustemissions, as well as the impact of the emissions on theenvironment depending on several factors. These include theage of the engine, i. e. technical refinement, engine operating regimesat different thrusts during time periods: takeoff, climb,approach, etc. Also, the exhaust emissions do not have thesame influence on different atmospheric layers. The pollutantsemitted at higher altitudes during cruising have become agreater problem, although the volume of pollutants is smaller,due to the chemical complexity and sensitivity of these layers ascompared to the lower layers of atmosphere. One of the reasonswhy these problems have long remained outside the focus of interestof the environmentalists is that the air transport of goodsand people is performed at high altitudes, so that the pollutionof atmosphere does not present a direct threat to anyone, sincethe environment is being polluted at a global level and thereforeis more difficult to notice at the local level.

  6. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  7. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  8. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  9. Measurement of nitrogen species NO{sub y} at the exhaust of an aircraft engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristori, A [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Palaiseau (France); Baudoin, C [Societe Nationale d` Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d` Aviation (SNECMA), Villaroche (France)

    1998-12-31

    A research programme named AEROTRACE was supported by the EC (CEC contract AERA-CT94-0003) in order to investigate trace species measurements at the exhaust of aero-engines. Within this project, NO{sub y}, NO, HNO{sub 3} and HONO were measured at the exhaust of aircraft engine combustors. Major species (NO{sub y},NO) were measured by using a chemiluminescence instrument. Minor species (HNO{sub 3},HONO) were measured by using filter packs. Two combustors were tested under various running conditions; the first one at ONERA (Task 2) and the second one at DRA (Task 5). Results show that EI{sub NOy} < 50 g/kg, EI{sub HNO3} < 0.2 g/kg and EI{sub HONO} < 0.55 g/kg. Regarding ratios, (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub y}) < 0.5%, (HONO)/(NO{sub y}) < 8%, (HONO)/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 19.2%, and (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 0.8% was found. (author) 9 refs.

  10. Measurement of nitrogen species NO{sub y} at the exhaust of an aircraft engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristori, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Palaiseau (France); Baudoin, C. [Societe Nationale d`Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d`Aviation (SNECMA), Villaroche (France)

    1997-12-31

    A research programme named AEROTRACE was supported by the EC (CEC contract AERA-CT94-0003) in order to investigate trace species measurements at the exhaust of aero-engines. Within this project, NO{sub y}, NO, HNO{sub 3} and HONO were measured at the exhaust of aircraft engine combustors. Major species (NO{sub y},NO) were measured by using a chemiluminescence instrument. Minor species (HNO{sub 3},HONO) were measured by using filter packs. Two combustors were tested under various running conditions; the first one at ONERA (Task 2) and the second one at DRA (Task 5). Results show that EI{sub NOy} < 50 g/kg, EI{sub HNO3} < 0.2 g/kg and EI{sub HONO} < 0.55 g/kg. Regarding ratios, (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub y}) < 0.5%, (HONO)/(NO{sub y}) < 8%, (HONO)/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 19.2%, and (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 0.8% was found. (author) 9 refs.

  11. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  12. Non-intrusive measurement of emission indices. A new approach to the evaluation of infrared spectra emitted by aircraft engine exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, E.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik

    1997-12-31

    A non-intrusive method is used to determine the emission indices of a research aircraft`s engine in-flight. The principle is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer MIROR which was specifically designed and built for operation aboard aircrafts. This device measures the spectrum of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gas under cruise conditions. From these spectra mixing ratios and emission indices can be derived. An extension to previously applied evaluation schemes is proposed: Whereas formerly the plume was assumed a homogeneous layer of gas, temperature and concentration profiles are now introduced to the evaluation procedure. (author) 5 refs.

  13. EU-project AEROJET. Non-intrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K; Heland, J [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Burrows, R [Rolls-Royce Ltd. (United Kingdom). Engine Support Lab.; Bernard, M [AUXITROL, S.A. (France). Aerospace Equipment Div.; Bishop, G [British Aerospace (United Kingdom). Sowerby Research Centre; Lindermeir, E [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DLR), Bonn (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik; Lister, D H [Defence and Research Agency, Hants (United Kingdom). Propulsion and Development Dept.; Wiesen, P [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Gesamthochshule) (Germany); Hilton, M [University of Reading (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the AEROJET programme is to demonstrate the equivalence of remote measurement techniques to conventional extractive methods for both gaseous and particulate measurements. The different remote measurement techniques are compared and calibrated. A demonstrator measurement system for exhaust gases, temperature and particulates including data-analysis software is regarded as result of this project. Non-intrusive measurements are the method of choice within the AEROJET project promising to avoid the disadvantages of the gas sampling techniques which are currently used. Different ground based non-intrusive measurement methods are demonstrated during a final evaluation phase. Several non-intrusive techniques are compared with conventional gas sampling and analysis techniques. (R.P.) 3 refs.

  14. EU-project AEROJET. Non-intrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K.; Heland, J. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Burrows, R. [Rolls-Royce Ltd. (United Kingdom). Engine Support Lab.; Bernard, M. [AUXITROL, S.A. (France). Aerospace Equipment Div.; Bishop, G. [British Aerospace (United Kingdom). Sowerby Research Centre; Lindermeir, E. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DLR), Bonn (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik; Lister, D.H. [Defence and Research Agency, Hants (United Kingdom). Propulsion and Development Dept.; Wiesen, P. [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Gesamthochshule) (Germany); Hilton, M. [University of Reading (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The main goal of the AEROJET programme is to demonstrate the equivalence of remote measurement techniques to conventional extractive methods for both gaseous and particulate measurements. The different remote measurement techniques are compared and calibrated. A demonstrator measurement system for exhaust gases, temperature and particulates including data-analysis software is regarded as result of this project. Non-intrusive measurements are the method of choice within the AEROJET project promising to avoid the disadvantages of the gas sampling techniques which are currently used. Different ground based non-intrusive measurement methods are demonstrated during a final evaluation phase. Several non-intrusive techniques are compared with conventional gas sampling and analysis techniques. (R.P.) 3 refs.

  15. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  16. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    [email protected] . For legal questions concerning this action contact Karen Petronis, International Law... adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... regulation did not apply. The word ``exemption'' has a specific legal meaning. In 14 CFR Part 11 the FAA uses...

  17. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  18. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  19. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine exhaust. 1065.130 Section 1065... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.130 Engine exhaust. (a) General. Use the exhaust system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This...

  20. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Miake-Lye, R C; Anderson, M R; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1998-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  1. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  2. Ion-ion Recombination and Chemiion Concentrations In Aircraft Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.

    Jet aircraft emit large quantities of ultrafine volatile aerosols, as well as soot parti- cles, into the environment. To determine the long-term effects of these emissions, a better understanding of the mechanisms that control particle formation and evolution is needed, including the number and size dispersion. A recent explanation for aerosol nucleation in a jet wake involves the condensation of sulfuric acid vapor, and cer- tain organic compounds, onto charged molecular clusters (chemiions) generated in the engine combustors (Yu and Turco, 1997). Massive charged aggregates, along with sulfuric acid and organic precursor vapors, have been detected in jet plumes under cruise conditions. In developing the chemiion nucleation theory, Yu and Turco noted that ion-ion recombination in the engine train and jet core should limit the chemiion emission index to 1017/kg-fuel. This value is consistent with ion-ion recombination coefficients of 1×10-7 cm3/s over time scales of 10-2 s. However, the evolution of the ions through the engine has not been adequately studied. The conditions at the combustor exit are extreme-temperatures approach 1500 K, and pressures can reach 30 atmospheres. In this presentation, we show that as the combustion gases expand and cool, two- and three-body ion-ion recombination processes control the chemiion concentration. The concepts of mutual neutralization and Thomson recombination are first summarized, and appropriate temperature and pressure dependent recombination rate coefficients are derived for the aircraft problem. A model for ion losses in jet exhaust is then formulated using an "invariance" principle discussed by Turco and Yu (1997) in the context of a coagulating aerosol in an expanding plume. This recombina- tion model is applied to estimate chemiion emission indices for a range of operational engine conditions. The predicted ion emission rates are found to be consistent with observations. We discuss the sources of variance in chemiion

  3. Aircraft engines. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffles, P C

    1989-01-01

    Configurational design and thermodynamic performance gain trends are projected into the next 50 years, in view of the growing interest of aircraft manufacturers in both larger and more efficient high-bypass turbofan engines for subsonic flight and variable cycle engines for supersonic flight. Ceramic- and metal-matrix composites are envisioned as the key to achievement of turbine inlet temperatures 300 C higher than the 1400 C which is characteristic of the state-of-the-art, with the requisite high stiffness, strength, and low density. Such fiber-reinforced materials can be readily tailored to furnish greatest strength in a specific direction of loading. Large, low-density engines are critical elements of future 1000-seat aircraft.

  4. Exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-04

    A catalytic converter system for internal combustion engines is described that includes a means to maintain the catalyst temperature within a predetermined range for the efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Upstream of the catalytic converter, the exhaust pipe is encased in a structure such that a space is provided for the flow of a coolant around the exhaust pipe in response to the sensed catalytic temperature. A coolant control valve is actuated in response to the temperature sensor.

  5. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S.; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  6. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S; Stroem, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1998-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  7. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carduner, K.R.; Colvin, A.D.; Leong, D.Y.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  8. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  9. Exhaust gas afterburner for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, G

    1977-05-12

    The invention pertains to an exhaust gas afterburner for internal combustion engines, with an auxiliary fuel device arranged upstream from the afterburner proper and controlled by the rotational speed of the engine, which is additionally controlled by an oxygen or carbon monoxide sensor. The catalytic part of the afterburner, together with a rotochamber, is a separate unit.

  10. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  11. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust pipe... equipment might come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any...

  12. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be...

  13. Military Tactical Aircraft Engine Noise Matching to Infrared Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    Jet engine exhaust plumes also exhibit emission and absorption of radiation from their emitted chemical species, occurring at discrete spectra...Modulation,” Naval Postgraduate School MS thesis (1990). [8] Sinha, N., Ungewitter, R. J., Kenzakowski, D. C., and Seiner, J. M., “Gas Turbine Engine Jet...FINAL REPORT Military Tactical Aircraft Engine Noise Matching to Infrared Signatures SERDP Project WP-2404 JANUARY 2016 Dr

  14. A Lagrangian Simulation of Subsonic Aircraft Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Morris, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effect of subsonic and supersonic aircraft exhaust on the stratospheric concentration of NO(y), we employ a trajectory model initialized with air parcels based on the standard release scenarios. The supersonic exhaust simulations are in good agreement with 2D and 3D model results and show a perturbation of about 1-2 ppbv of NO(y) in the stratosphere. The subsonic simulations show that subsonic emissions are almost entirely trapped below the 380 K potential temperature surface. Our subsonic results contradict results from most other models, which show exhaust products penetrating above 380 K, as summarized. The disagreement can likely be attributed to an excessive vertical diffusion in most models of the strong vertical gradient in NO(y) that forms at the boundary between the emission zone and the stratosphere above 380 K. Our results suggest that previous assessments of the impact of subsonic exhaust emission on the stratospheric region above 380 K should be considered to be an upper bound.

  15. In situ measurements of HO{sub x} in super- and subsonic aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisco, T F; Wennberg, P O; Cohen, R C; Anderson, J G [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Fahey, D W; Keim, E R; Gao, R S; Wamsley, R C; Donnelly, S G; Del Negro, L A [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; others, and

    1998-12-31

    Concentrations of HO{sub x} (OH and HO{sub 2}) have been obtained in the exhaust plumes of an Air France Concorde and a NASA ER-2 in the lower stratosphere and the NASA DC-8 in the upper troposphere using instruments aboard the NASA ER-2. These fast-time response in situ measurements are used in conjunction with simultaneous in situ measurements of other key exhaust species (NO, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub y}, H{sub 2}O, and CO) to analyze the emissions of HO{sub x} from each aircraft under a variety of conditions. The data are used to establish a general description of gas phase plume chemistry that is easily implemented in a photochemical model. This model is used to determine the amount of HO{sub x} emitted from the engines and the gas phase oxidation rates of nitrogen and sulfur species in the exhaust plumes. (author) 10 refs.

  16. In situ measurements of HO{sub x} in super- and subsonic aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisco, T.F.; Wennberg, P.O.; Cohen, R.C.; Anderson, J.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Fahey, D.W.; Keim, E.R.; Gao, R.S.; Wamsley, R.C.; Donnelly, S.G.; Del Negro, L.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; and others

    1997-12-31

    Concentrations of HO{sub x} (OH and HO{sub 2}) have been obtained in the exhaust plumes of an Air France Concorde and a NASA ER-2 in the lower stratosphere and the NASA DC-8 in the upper troposphere using instruments aboard the NASA ER-2. These fast-time response in situ measurements are used in conjunction with simultaneous in situ measurements of other key exhaust species (NO, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub y}, H{sub 2}O, and CO) to analyze the emissions of HO{sub x} from each aircraft under a variety of conditions. The data are used to establish a general description of gas phase plume chemistry that is easily implemented in a photochemical model. This model is used to determine the amount of HO{sub x} emitted from the engines and the gas phase oxidation rates of nitrogen and sulfur species in the exhaust plumes. (author) 10 refs.

  17. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  18. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  19. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Based on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, a two dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the engine on the formation and growth of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols in the near field plume. The conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in the engine is predicted to significantly increase the number density and surface area density of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols and the chemical activation of exhaust soot particulates. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of exhaust SO{sub x} emissions to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions. (author) 18 refs.; Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters

  20. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Miake-Lye, R C; Anderson, M R; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1998-12-31

    Based on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, a two dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the engine on the formation and growth of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols in the near field plume. The conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in the engine is predicted to significantly increase the number density and surface area density of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols and the chemical activation of exhaust soot particulates. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of exhaust SO{sub x} emissions to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions. (author) 18 refs.; Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters

  1. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if installed in compliance with §§ 116.405(c) and 116.970 of this chapter. (2) Horizontal dry exhaust pipes are...) They are installed in compliance with §§ 116.405(c) and 116.970 of this chapter. (b) The exhaust pipe...

  2. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  3. Remote gas analysis of aircraft exhausts using FTIR-emission-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heland, J; Schaefer, K [Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    FITR emission spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component analyzing technique was investigated to determine the composition of aircraft exhausts at ground level. A multi-layer radiative transfer interpretation software based on a line-by-line computer algorithm using the HITRAN data base was developed. Measurements were carried out with different engine types to determine the traceable gas species and their detection limits. Finally validation measurements were made to compare the results of the system to those of conventional equipment. (author) 8 refs.

  4. Remote gas analysis of aircraft exhausts using FTIR-emission-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heland, J.; Schaefer, K. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    FITR emission spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component analyzing technique was investigated to determine the composition of aircraft exhausts at ground level. A multi-layer radiative transfer interpretation software based on a line-by-line computer algorithm using the HITRAN data base was developed. Measurements were carried out with different engine types to determine the traceable gas species and their detection limits. Finally validation measurements were made to compare the results of the system to those of conventional equipment. (author) 8 refs.

  5. Dispersion of aircraft exhaust in the late wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, T; Gerz, T; Doernbrack, A [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    The dispersion of aircraft emissions is investigated at cruising levels, i.e. in the free, stably stratified atmosphere near the tropopause. The study is based on large-eddy simulations in a domain of size 4.3 x 1.1{sup 2} km{sup 3} where the combined effects of typical atmospheric stratification, shear and turbulence are considered. The effect of a breaking gravity wave on the dispersion of the exhaust is analyzed. The mixing processes during the late wake flow are evaluated, i.e. in the dispersion and diffusion regimes when the organized flow by the wing tip vortices has ceased and the atmospheric motions gradually dominate the events. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  6. Dispersion of aircraft exhaust in the late wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, T.; Gerz, T.; Doernbrack, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The dispersion of aircraft emissions is investigated at cruising levels, i.e. in the free, stably stratified atmosphere near the tropopause. The study is based on large-eddy simulations in a domain of size 4.3 x 1.1{sup 2} km{sup 3} where the combined effects of typical atmospheric stratification, shear and turbulence are considered. The effect of a breaking gravity wave on the dispersion of the exhaust is analyzed. The mixing processes during the late wake flow are evaluated, i.e. in the dispersion and diffusion regimes when the organized flow by the wing tip vortices has ceased and the atmospheric motions gradually dominate the events. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  7. Trend of supersonic aircraft engine. Choonsokukiyo engine no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashima, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    The present paper explained the R and D trend of supersonic aircraft engine in Europe, USA and Japan. Taking the high speed flight resistance into consideration, the engine must be characterized by its high exhaust gas speed and high specific thrust (ratio of thrust to the airflow rate) to secure strong thrust by a low airflow rate. Therefore, the turbojet is appropriate. However to reduce the fuel consumption during the cruising flight, the turbofan is normally used with a low by-pass ratio of 0.2 to 0.9. The thrust-to-weight ratio (thrust per unit weight) of low by-pass ratio turbofan engine equipped with afterburner is 7 to 8 in case of stronger thrust than 70kN. Its target value of development is 10. The specific thrust which is a performance parameter of engine exceeds 120s for the fighter engine and is about 30s for the passenger plane engine. The turbine inlet temperature is 2073K at the stage of element research. The overall pressure ratio ranges from 25 to 30. The reheating turbofan engine experimentally built for the research in Japan is 34kN in thrust and 7 in thrust-to-weight ratio. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Oxboel, Arne [FORCE Technology, Park Alle 345, 2605 Broendby (Denmark)

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future. (author)

  9. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  10. Modelling exhaust plume mixing in the near field of an aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Garnier

    Full Text Available A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. Our investigation is focused on the near field, extending from the exit nozzle until about 30 s after the wake is generated, in the vortex phase. This study was performed by using an integral model and a numerical simulation for two large civil aircraft: a two-engine Airbus 330 and a four-engine Boeing 747. The influence of the wing-tip vortices on the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. In the early wake, the engine jet location (i.e. inboard or outboard engine jet has an important influence on the mixing rate. The plume streamlines inside the vortices are subject to distortion and stretching, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration is discussed. Qualitative comparison with contrail photograph shows similar features. Finally, tracer concentration of inboard engine centreline of B-747 are compared with other theoretical analyses and measured data.

  11. Air flow quality analysis of modenas engine exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriman A., B.; Mohamad Syafiq A., K.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Khairunizam W. A., N.; Hazry, D.; Afendi, Mohd; Daud, R.; Rahman, M. D. Tasyrif Abdul; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The simulation process being conducted to determine the air flow effect between the original exhaust system and modified exhaust system. The simulations are conducted to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases that will affect the performance of the engine. The back flow pressure in the original exhaust system is predicted toward this simulation. The design modification to the exhaust port, exhaust pipe, and exhaust muffler has been done during this simulation to reduce the back flow effect. The new designs are introduced by enlarging the diameter of the exhaust port, enlarge the diameter of the exhaust pipe and created new design for the exhaust muffler. Based on the result obtained, there the pulsating flow form at the original exhaust port that will increase the velocity and resulting the back pressure occur. The result for new design of exhaust port, the velocity is lower at the valve guide in the exhaust port. New design muffler shows that the streamline of the exhaust flow move smoothly compare to the original muffler. It is proved by using the modification exhaust system, the back pressure are reduced and the engine performance can be improve.

  12. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemori, M; Eguchi, N

    1975-01-07

    An exhaust gas recirculation device to reduce nitrogen oxides emission from internal combustion engines is described. The recirculation is achieved by employing a tube connecting between the exhaust pipe and intake tube. A throttle valve is installed within the exhaust pipe between the muffler and recirculation tube, and regulated by exhaust gas temperature. Whenever the gas temperature is high, the valve closes and increases the gas flow to the intake tube. A temperature sensor is installed within the exhaust pipe and controls a solenoid or magnetic air valve linking to the throttle valve through a relay. The recirculation tube can be cooled by a fan to improve the engine power.

  13. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  14. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  15. Secondary aerosol formation from photochemical aging of aircraft exhaust in a smog chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Miracolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were performed to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on fine particle emissions from an in-use CFM56-2B gas turbine engine mounted on a KC-135 Stratotanker airframe. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber from a rake inlet installed one-meter downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft. The chamber was then exposed to sunlight and/or UV lights to initiate photo-oxidation. Separate tests were performed at different engine loads (4, 7, 30, 85 %. Photo-oxidation created substantial secondary particulate matter (PM, greatly exceeding the direct PM emissions at each engine load after an hour or less of aging at typical summertime conditions. After several hours of photo-oxidation, the ratio of secondary-to-primary PM mass was on average 35 ± 4.1, 17 ± 2.5, 60 ± 2.2, and 2.7 ± 1.1 for the 4, 7, 30, and 85 % load experiments, respectively. The composition of secondary PM formed strongly depended on load. At 4 % load, secondary PM was dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA. At higher loads, the secondary PM was mainly secondary sulfate. A traditional SOA model that accounts for SOA formation from single-ring aromatics and other volatile organic compounds underpredicts the measured SOA formation by ~60 % at 4 % load and ~40 % at 85 % load. Large amounts of lower-volatiliy organic vapors were measured in the exhaust; they represent a significant pool of SOA precursors that are not included in traditional SOA models. These results underscore the importance of accounting for atmospheric processing when assessing the influence of aircraft emissions on ambient PM levels. Models that do not account for this processing will likely underpredict the contribution of aircraft emissions to local and regional air pollution.

  16. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  17. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...

  18. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  19. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  20. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  1. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  2. Study on afterburner of aircraft engine. Koku engine yo afterburner no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-03-01

    This paper explains concepts of aircraft engine afterburner, and describes history of afterburner study, and describe the result of major research items. An afterburner is located down stream of a fan, compressor, burner, and turbine in a jet engine. Its basic principle is that fuel is injected into turbine exhaust and fan air flows from an fuel injector, ignited by a spark plug using oxygen remaining in the exhaust gas flow, burned and flame-held by a flame stabilizer. The combustion gas of high temperature (1,700 to 1,800 {degree}c) thus generated is jetted out from an exhaust nozzle to increase the thrust. The prototype afterburner is featured by adoption of a mixed type fuel injection system that provides wide stable combustion range, and flame stabilizer with a scoop aimed at improving the ignition performance and combustion efficiency. A confirmation test verified smooth ignition and wide air to fuel ratio for stabilized combustion. 4 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensink, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures

  4. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  5. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  6. Number and mass analysis of particles emitted by aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions from aircraft is a complex issue because of the limited possibility of measurements in flight conditions. Most of the studies on this subject were performed on the basis of stationary test. Engine certification data is used to calculate total emissions generated by air transport. However, it doesnt provide any information about the local effects of air traffic. The main threat to local communities is particulate matter emissions, which adversely affects human health. Emissions from air transport affect air quality, particularly in the vicinity of the airports; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. The article presents the measurement results of the concentration and size distribution of particles emitted during aircraft landing operation. Measurements were carried out during the landings of aircraft at a civilian airport. It was found that a single landing operation causes particle number concentration value increase of several ten-fold in a short period of time. Using aircraft engine certification data, the methodology for determination of the total number of particles emitted during a single landing operation was introduced.

  7. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Fábry; Marek Češkovič

    2017-01-01

    In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections...

  8. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  9. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Double-reed exhaust valve engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2015-06-30

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a double reed outlet valve for controlling the flow of low-pressure working fluid out of the engine. The double reed provides a stronger force resisting closure of the outlet valve than the force tending to open the outlet valve. The double reed valve enables engine operation at relatively higher torque and lower efficiency at low speed, with lower torque, but higher efficiency at high speed.

  11. Dilution of aircraft exhaust and entrainment rates for trajectory box models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerz, T [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Kaercher, B [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung

    1998-12-31

    In order to match in-situ measured concentrations of NO and NO{sub 2} in the wake, dilution factors or entrainment rates have to be used which take into account that the largest fraction of the exhaust is captured by the wing tip vortices. This fraction defines the primary wake. Baroclinicity and turbulence detrains parts of it later into the secondary wake. Both wake regimes undergo different chemical and microphysical histories. The rates {omega} are determined at which ambient air becomes entrained into the primary and the secondary portion of the exhaust plume. Numerical simulations of the highly resolved wake is used of cruising aircraft under typical atmosphere conditions with and without ambient turbulence. The simulations are oriented on a case where exhaust and dynamical data behind an eastbound travelling B-747 aircraft have been collected in-situ over the North-Atlantic east of Ireland. (author) 7 refs.

  12. Dilution of aircraft exhaust and entrainment rates for trajectory box models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerz, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Kaercher, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung

    1997-12-31

    In order to match in-situ measured concentrations of NO and NO{sub 2} in the wake, dilution factors or entrainment rates have to be used which take into account that the largest fraction of the exhaust is captured by the wing tip vortices. This fraction defines the primary wake. Baroclinicity and turbulence detrains parts of it later into the secondary wake. Both wake regimes undergo different chemical and microphysical histories. The rates {omega} are determined at which ambient air becomes entrained into the primary and the secondary portion of the exhaust plume. Numerical simulations of the highly resolved wake is used of cruising aircraft under typical atmosphere conditions with and without ambient turbulence. The simulations are oriented on a case where exhaust and dynamical data behind an eastbound travelling B-747 aircraft have been collected in-situ over the North-Atlantic east of Ireland. (author) 7 refs.

  13. Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particles in Aircraft Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Goodman, J.; Strawa, A. W.; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft have become the fastest, fairly convenient and, in most cases of long-distance travel, most economical mode of travel. This is reflected in the increase of commercial air traffic at a rate of 6% per year since 1978. Future annual growth rates of passenger miles of 4% for domestic and 6% for international routes are projected. A still larger annual increase of 8.5% is expected for the Asia/Pacific region. To meet that growth, Boeing predicts the addition of 15,900 new aircraft to the world's fleets, valued at more than $1.1 trillion, within the next 20 years. The largest concern of environmental consequences of aircraft emissions deals with ozone (O3), because: (1) the O3 layer protects the blaspheme from short-ultraviolet radiation that can cause damage to human, animal and plant life, and possibly affect agricultural production and the marine food chain; (2) O3 is important for the production of the hydroxyl radical (OH) which, in turn, is responsible for the destruction of other greenhouse gases, e.g., methane (CH4) and for the removal of other pollutants, and (3) O3 is a greenhouse gas. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. REVIEW ARTICLE: MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF A GASOLINE ENGINE EXHAUST GAS SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    The engine exhaust gas behaviour is strongly influencing the engine performance. This paper presents the modelling and analysis of four stroke - gasoline engine exhaust gas systems. An automotive example is considered whereby the pulsating exhausts gas flow through an exhaust pipe and silencer are considered over a wide range of speeds. Analytical procedures are outlined enabling the general analysis and modelling of vehicle engine exhaust gas systems also in this paper present...

  15. Schlieren image velocimetry measurements in a rocket engine exhaust plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rudy; Peguero, Julio; Hargather, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) measures velocity fields by tracking the motion of naturally-occurring turbulent flow features in a compressible flow. Here the technique is applied to measuring the exhaust velocity profile of a liquid rocket engine. The SIV measurements presented include discussion of visibility of structures, image pre-processing for structure visibility, and ability to process resulting images using commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) codes. The small-scale liquid bipropellant rocket engine operates on nitrous oxide and ethanol as propellants. Predictions of the exhaust velocity are obtained through NASA CEA calculations and simple compressible flow relationships, which are compared against the measured SIV profiles. Analysis of shear layer turbulence along the exhaust plume edge is also presented.

  16. Opportunity to reduce the exhaust gases with engine adjust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Mucevski, Kiril

    2002-01-01

    According to statistics in the Republic of Macedonia, the number of old vehicles is about 90%. These are vehicles produced between 1975 and 1990 with classical systems for forming and burning the fuel mixture. The most of them do not have system for processing exhaust gases (catalytic converter) and are serious air pollutants of carbon monoxide (CO). In this article we try to make an attempt to reduce exhaust gases in some kinds of these vehicles with adjusting to the system for burning fuel mixture and with adjusting to the system for forming fuel mixture (carburetor). At the same time the changes on the rotate bending moment and engine power are followed. It is noticed that with a proper adjustment the emission of exhaust gases can be reduced without a serious depreciation of the rotate bending moment and the engine power. (Author)

  17. Active compressor engine silencer reduces exhaust noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denenberg, J.N.; Miller, S.K.; Jay, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    An active industrial silencer on a compressor engine at a Tenneco Gas station has reduced low-frequency 'rumbling' noise by 8 dB during trials while lowering backpressure about 90$. This 8 dB reduction of the piston firing frequency corresponds to a more than 80% decrease in emitted acoustic power. The silencing unit, installed on one of six engines at the station near Eden, N.Y., continues in operation. Based on the results, the manufacturer is identifying additional compressor sites for further tests. This paper reviews this project

  18. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  19. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  20. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Li, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response

  1. Study on afterburner of aircraft engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-07-01

    Study on the afterburner for aircraft engines was reported which is used as an optimum means to produce the supersonic capability of military aircrafts. The basic principle and types of the afterburner were outlined, and as the major problem concerning turbofan afterburners, a combustion capacity at low temperature in fan air flow was discussed, in particular, flame stabilization and combustion efficiency. Basic studies were conducted by fuel spray test, combustion stability test, sector model combustion test and numerical analysis of afterburner internal flow. As a result, a mixing spray fuel injection system with injection of a small amount of fuel into flameholder wake resulted in broadening of a combustible region, and an original flameholder combined with a scoop and double gutters caused a high combustion efficiency. The prototype afterburner was developed for F3 turbofan engines in association with Japan Defence Agency, and a combustion efficiency of 74% was obtained in on-engine running test. 4 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Fábry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections, if needed. Vibration sensors distribution, signal recording and processing are introduced in a paper. Recorded and re-calculated vibration parameters are used in role of health indicators.

  3. Model analysis of the chemical conversion of exhaust species in the expanding plumes of subsonic aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellhoff, M.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie; Sausen, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    A box model and two different one-dimensional models are used to investigate the chemical conversion of exhaust species in the dispersing plume of a subsonic aircraft flying at cruise altitude. The effect of varying daytime of release as well as the impact of changing dispersion time is studied with special respect to the aircraft induced O{sub 3} production. Effective emission amounts for consideration in mesoscale and global models are calculated. Simulations with modified photolysis rates are performed to show the sensitivity of the photochemistry to the occurrence of cirrus clouds. (author) 8 refs.

  4. Model analysis of the chemical conversion of exhaust species in the expanding plumes of subsonic aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellhoff, M; Hendricks, J; Lippert, E; Petry, H [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie; Sausen, R [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    A box model and two different one-dimensional models are used to investigate the chemical conversion of exhaust species in the dispersing plume of a subsonic aircraft flying at cruise altitude. The effect of varying daytime of release as well as the impact of changing dispersion time is studied with special respect to the aircraft induced O{sub 3} production. Effective emission amounts for consideration in mesoscale and global models are calculated. Simulations with modified photolysis rates are performed to show the sensitivity of the photochemistry to the occurrence of cirrus clouds. (author) 8 refs.

  5. Exhaust gas emissions evaluation in the flight of a multirole fighter equipped with a F100-PW-229 turbine engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of exhaust gas emission generated by turbine engines described in ICAO Annex 16 of the International Civil Aviation Convention includes a number of procedures and requirements. Their implementation is aimed at determining the value of the engine’s environmental parameters and comparing them to the values specified in the norms. The turbine engine exhaust gas emission test procedures are defined as stationary and the operating parameters values are set according to the LTO test. The engine load setting values refer to engine operating parameters that occur when the plane is in the vicinity of airports. Such a procedure is dedicated to civilian passenger and transport aircraft. The operating conditions of a multirole fighter aircraft vary considerably from passenger aircraft and the variability of their flight characteristics requires a special approach in assessing its environmental impact. This article attempts to evaluate the exhaust gas emissions generated by the turbine engine in a multirole fighter flight using the parameters recorded by the onboard flight recorder.

  6. PIXE analysis of exhaust gas from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Hirosi; Michijima, Masami; Onishi, Masayuki; Fujitani, Tatsuya.

    1986-01-01

    The variation of elemental concentrations in exhaust gas of a Diesel engine with the outputs was studied. Particulates in high temperature gas were collected on silica fiber filters and analyzed by PIXE method. Concentrations of S and V were nearly proportional to particulate masses and fuel consumption rates per discharging rates of exhaust gas respectively. While, concentrations of Fe and Mn were markedly increased together with engine outputs, and Mn/Fe ratios were nearly equal to those of the material of piston rings and the cylinder liner. Concentrations of the elements contained in lubricant, such as Ca and Mo, were also conspicuously increased with the outputs. It was shown that PIXE analysis is a useful tool for engine diagonostics owing to its high sensitive multi-elemental availability without chemical treatments. (author)

  7. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  8. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-04-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  9. Performance and exhaust emissions of a biodiesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, Mustafa [Kocaeli University, Technical Education Faculty, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Erdil, Ahmet [Kocaeli University, Engineering Faculty, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale University, Engineering Faculty, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    In this study, the applicabilities of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been investigated for the performance and exhaust-emission values of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesels from different feedstocks and petroleum diesel fuels. The engine performance and emissions characteristics of two different petroleum diesel-fuels (No. 1 and No. 2), biodiesels (from soybean oil and yellow grease), and their 20% blends with No. 2 diesel fuel were used as experimental results. The fuels were tested at full load (100%) at 1400-rpm engine speed, where the engine torque was 257.6Nm. To train the network, the average molecular weight, net heat of combustion, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, C/H ratio and cetane number of each fuel are used as the input layer, while outputs are the brake specific fuel-consumption, exhaust temperature, and exhaust emissions. The back-propagation learning algorithm with three different variants, single layer, and logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. By using weights in the network, formulations have been given for each output. The network has yielded R{sup 2} values of 0.99 and the mean % errors are smaller than 4.2 for the training data, while the R{sup 2} values are about 0.99 and the mean % errors are smaller than 5.5 for the test data. The performance and exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, using biodiesel blends with No. 2 diesel fuel up to 20%, have been predicted using the ANN model. sing the ANN model. (author)

  10. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F.; Jacquin, L.; Laverdant, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  11. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F; Jacquin, L; Laverdant, A [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  12. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

    2006-12-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

  13. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    is generalized to a class of first order Hammerstein systems with sensor delay and exponentially converging bounds of the control error are proven analytically. It is then shown how to apply the method to the EGR system of a two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. The controller is validated by closed loop......Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...

  14. Generation and characterization of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation exposure atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Barr, Edward B; White, Richard K; Kracko, Dean; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara; Grosjean, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Exposure atmospheres for a rodent inhalation toxicology study were generated from the exhaust of a 4.3-L gasoline engine coupled to a dynamometer and operated on an adapted California Unified Driving Cycle. Exposure levels were maintained at three different dilution rates. One chamber at the lowest dilution had particles removed by filtration. Each exposure atmosphere was characterized for particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and detailed chemical speciation. The majority of the mass in the exposure atmospheres was gaseous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organics, with small amounts of particle-bound carbon/ions and metals. The atmospheres varied according to the cycle, with the largest spikes in volatile organic and inorganic species shown during the "cold start" portion of the cycle. Ammonia present from the exhaust and rodents interacted with the gasoline exhaust to form secondary inorganic particles, and an increase in exhaust resulted in higher proportions of secondary inorganics as a portion of the total particle mass. Particle size had a median of 10-20 nm by number and approximately 150 nm by mass. Volatile organics matched the composition of the fuel, with large proportions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to low amounts of oxygenated organics. A new measurement technique revealed organics reacting with nitrogen oxides have likely resulted in measurement bias in previous studies of combustion emissions. Identified and measured particle organic species accounted for about 10% of total organic particle mass and were mostly aliphatic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  15. Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M D; Barrett, E G; Campen, M J; Divine, K K; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Seagrave, J C; Mauderly, J L; Seilkop, S K; Swenberg, J A

    2008-10-01

    Gasoline engine emissions are a ubiquitous source of exposure to complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) and non-PM pollutants; yet their health hazards have received little study in comparison with those of diesel emissions. As a component of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) multipollutant research program, F344 and SHR rats and A/J, C57BL/6, and BALBc mice were exposed 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 1 week to 6 months to exhaust from 1996 General Motors 4.3-L engines burning national average fuel on a simulated urban operating cycle. Exposure groups included whole exhaust diluted 1:10, 1:15, or 1:90, filtered exhaust at the 1:10 dilution, or clean air controls. Evaluations included organ weight, histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, cardiac electrophysiology, micronuclei in circulating cells, DNA methylation and oxidative injury, clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lung, and development of respiratory allergic responses to ovalbumin. Among the 120 outcome variables, only 20 demonstrated significant exposure effects. Several statistically significant effects appeared isolated and were not supported by related variables. The most coherent and consistent effects were those related to increased red blood cells, interpreted as likely to have resulted from exposure to 13-107 ppm carbon monoxide. Other effects supported by multiple variables included mild lung irritation and depression of oxidant production by alveolar macrophages. The lowest exposure level caused no significant effects. Because only 6 of the 20 significant effects appeared to be substantially reversed by PM filtration, the majority of effects were apparently caused by non-PM components of exhaust.

  16. Fractographic Analysis of High-Cycle Fatgue in Aircraft Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shockey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Fracture surfaces produced under systematically varied cydic load conditions in laboratory specimens of titanium turbine blade alloy were provided to the program by an aircraft engine manufacturer...

  17. Fractographic Analysis of High-Cycle Fatigue in Aircraft Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shockey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Fracture surfaces produced under systematically varied cyclic load conditions in laboratory specimens of titanium turbine blade alloy were provided to the program by an aircraft engine manufacturer...

  18. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  19. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y E; Karol, I L [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  20. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  1. Recent technologies for reduction of aircraft propulsion noise. Kokuki engine soon teigenka no saikin no gijutsu shinpo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, H [National Aerospace Lab., Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-10

    Inside the jet engine, the propulsion engine for an aircraft, a high speed air current is flowing, and the rotors such as the fan, compress or, turbine and so forth are rotating with a high speed in its flowing current. The flow itself in which a high speed exhaust jet is discharged in the air from engine exhaust port, and the aerodynamic noise generated by an interaction of the flow with the material bodies are the main noise sources of the aircraft engine. Because the supersonic planes are necessary to fly with mach number 2 - 3 during cruising, the turbojet engine with a large jet exhaust speed or the low bypass ratio turbofan engine is selected. Since a noise reduction by reducing the jet exhaust speed, which was an effective measure for the high subsonic speed passenger plane, can not be applied, a reduction of the supersonic jet noise, which is hard to be reduced, becomes a necessity. In addition, in recent years, a research and development of the advanced turbo prop (ATP) aircraft with a further higher thrust efficiency are advanced as well. The aerodynamical noise reduction technologies of these engines for supersonic airplanes are summarized. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    . Challenges with this technology include dosing the appropriate amount of urea to reach sufficient NOx conversion, while at the same time keeping NH3- slip from the exhaust system below the legislation. This requires efficient control algorithms. The focus of this thesis is modelling and control of the SCR...... parameters were estimated using bench-scale monolith isothermal data. Validation was done by simulating the out-put from a full-scale SCR monolith that was treating real engine gases from the European Transient Cycle (ETC). Results showed that the models were successfully calibrated, and that some......, and simulating the system....

  3. Potential of secondary aerosol formation from Chinese gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhuofei; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Qin, Yanhong; Niu, He; Li, Mengren; Yang, Yudong; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Shao, Min; Shuai, Shijin

    2018-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline vehicles have drawn public attention in China due to their significant primary emissions of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, little information on secondary aerosol formation from exhaust for Chinese vehicles and fuel conditions is available. In this study, chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from the exhaust of a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The engine and fuel used are common in the Chinese market, and the fuel satisfies the China V gasoline fuel standard. Substantial secondary aerosol formation was observed during a 4-5hr simulation, which was estimated to represent more than 10days of equivalent atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing. As a consequence, the extreme case secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production was 426±85mg/kg-fuel, with high levels of precursors and OH exposure. The low hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed inside the chamber suggests that SOA was the dominant chemical composition. Fourteen percent of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reductions of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles are essential to mediate pollution in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Observations and model calculations of B747 engine exhaust products at cruise altitude and inferred initial OH emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremmel, H.G.; Schlager, H.; Konopka, P.; Schulte, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F.; Klemm, M.; Droste-Franke, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    NO{sub y} (NO, HNO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3}) exhaust emissions in the near-field plume of two B747 jet airliners cruising in the upper troposphere were measured in situ using the DLR Falcon research aircraft. In addition CO{sub 2} was measured providing exhaust plume dilution rates for the species. The observations were used to estimate the initial OH concentration and NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio at the engine exit and the combustor exit by back calculations using a chemistry box model. From the two different plume events, and using two different model simulation modes in each case, we inferred OH emission indices EI(OH) = 0.32-0.39 g/kg fuel (OH{sub 0} = 9-14.4 ppmv) and (NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}){sub 0} = 0.12-0.17. Furthermore, our results indicate that the chemistry of the exhaust species during the short period between the combustion chamber exit and the engine exit must be considered, because OH is already consumed to a great extent in this engine section, due to conversion to HNO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3}. For the engines discussed here, the modeled OH concentration between combustor exit und engine exit decreases by a factor of about 350, leading to OH concentrations of 1-2.10{sup 12} molec/cm{sup 3} at the engine exit. (orig.) 45 refs.

  5. Trends in aircraft engines. Trends in aircraft gas turbines and subsonic engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murashima, Kanji

    1988-06-10

    While the emphasis of commercial, large aircraft engines is placed on low fuel consumption at high subsonic flight and the turbofan engines with high bypass ratio are dominating, high speed turboprop (ATP) of Mach 0.85 class with low fuel consumption are emerging. UHB with bypass ratio of 15 - 20 are planned with expection for application to intermediate size commercial planes. The pressure ratio is continuously rizing for improved cycle efficiency, reaching 35 - 40 in highest cases. Trends in design technique include: Use of computational aerodynamics and application of two-dimensional structural analysis and the digital simulation of engine characteristics. In the field of large, high bypass turbofan, serious competition is seen between GE and PNA at the thrust level of 5 - 60,000 pounds. Several engines for fighting planes have been approved in the type test and accepted as candidates for next generation of fighting planes including Japan. (15 figs, 36 refs)

  6. Exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnert, R.; Dommes, W.; Gerwig, W.

    1982-01-21

    The invention aimes at the heat protection of a turbocharger for internal combustion engines. The turbine is feeded with exhaust gas and drives the shaft of a compressor. For resolving this problem a thermal shield has been installed on the backside of the turbine. The shaft is sealed with an elastic gasket ring. This gasket avoids the deposition of dust and dirt. As a consequence of this constructive measure a growth of tinder and oxides can be avoided as well as the deposition of dirt. A constant reflection factor is ensured. The thermal shield can be manufactured of thin sheet with a nickel surface and can fastened with distance pieces on the backside of the turbine case. Furthermore it is possible to use a ceramic heat shield.

  7. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2018-03-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM 2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P 397 µg/m 3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM 2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM 2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. NOx Reduction Technology in Diesel Engine Exhaust by the Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joa, Sang Beom

    2008-02-01

    The diesel vehicle is relatively superior to gasoline vehicle on the fuel consumption, durability and combustion efficiency. However, exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles are known to be harmful to human health and environment. An experimental study of the diesel fuel reformation by a plasmatron and diesel engine exhaust cleaning by means of plasma chemical pretreatment of fuel is described. Plasma chemical reformation of fuel was carried by a DC arc plasmatron that was fabricated to increase an ability of the gas activation. Some portion of the fuel was activated in an arc discharge and turned into the hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. The yield of reformation for the diesel fuel showed 80 % ∼ 100 % when the small quantities of fuel (flow rate up to about 6 cc/min) were reformed. The regulation for an emission from the diesel vehicle is getting more stringent, the research in the field of the in-cylinder processing technologies (pretreatment) becomes more important issue as well as the catalyst after-treatment. The used high durability plasmatron has the characteristics of low contamination level, low anode erosion rate, low plasma temperature, and effective activation of the process gas. The developed fuel reformation system with the plasmatron was connected to the air feeding inlet sleeve of the diesel engine Kookje 3T90LT-AC (Korea) in order to study the reduction of NOx content in the engine's emission. Tubular reformation chamber was connected to the engine through the heat exchanger DOVER B10Hx20/1P-SC-S. Its cooling jacket was connected in series with the cooling system of the plasmatron. At the exit of this device gas temperature did not exceed ∼40 .deg. C at plasmatron power up to 1.5 kW which seemed quite acceptable. Gas composition was studied here using RBR-Ecom KD gas analyzer. The design of the DC arc plasmatron applied for the plasma chemical fuel reformation was improved boosting the degree of fuel-air mixture activation that provided the

  9. Study on the design of inlet and exhaust system of a stationary internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ugur

    2005-01-01

    The design and operational variables of inlet and exhaust systems are decisive to determine overall engine performance. The best engine overall performance can be obtained by proper design of the engine inlet and exhaust systems and by matching the correct turbocharger to the engine. This paper presents the results of investigations to design the inlet and exhaust systems of a stationary natural gas engine family. To do this, a computational model is verified in which zero dimensional phenomena within the cylinder and one dimensional phenomena in the engine inlet and exhaust systems are used. Using this engine model, the effects of the parameters of the inlet and exhaust systems on the engine performance are obtained. In particular, the following parameters are chosen: valve timing, valve diameter, valve lift profiles, diameter of the exhaust manifold, inlet and exhaust pipe lengths, and geometry of pipe junctions. Proper sizing of the inlet and exhaust pipe systems is achieved very precisely by these investigations. Also, valve timing is tuned by using the results obtained in this study. In general, a very high improvement potential for the engines studied here is presented

  10. Aircraft Engine Thrust Estimator Design Based on GSA-LSSVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hanlin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2017-08-01

    In view of the necessity of highly precise and reliable thrust estimator to achieve direct thrust control of aircraft engine, based on support vector regression (SVR), as well as least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and a new optimization algorithm - gravitational search algorithm (GSA), by performing integrated modelling and parameter optimization, a GSA-LSSVM-based thrust estimator design solution is proposed. The results show that compared to particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, GSA can find unknown optimization parameter better and enables the model developed with better prediction and generalization ability. The model can better predict aircraft engine thrust and thus fulfills the need of direct thrust control of aircraft engine.

  11. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  12. A Hybrid approach for aeroacoustic analysis of the engine exhaust system

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyanarayana, Y; Munjal, ML

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid approach for prediction of noise radiation from engine exhaust systems. It couples the time domain analysis of the engine and the frequency domain analysis of the muffler, and has the advantages of both. In this approach, cylinder/cavity is analyzed in the time domain to calculate the exhaust mass flux history at the exhaust valve by means of the method of characteristics, avoiding the tedious procedure of interpolation at every mesh point and solving a number...

  13. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.; Bourn, Gary D [Laramie, WY

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  14. Diesel engine exhaust initiates a sequence of pulmonary and cardiovascular effects in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Boere, A.J.F.; Leseman, D.L.A.C.; Fokkens, P.H.B.; Spronk, H.M.H.; Frederix, K.; Ten Cate, H.; Knaapen, A.M.; Vreman, H.J.; Cassee, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the sequence of events leading to cardiopulmonary effects following acute inhalation of diesel engine exhaust in rats. Rats were exposed for 2h to diesel engine exhaust (1.9mg/m3), and biological parameters related to antioxidant defense, inflammation,

  15. Investigation of Cooling Water Injection into Supersonic Rocket Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hansen; Jeansonne, Christopher; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    Water spray cooling of the exhaust plume from a rocket undergoing static testing is critical in preventing thermal wear of the test stand structure, and suppressing the acoustic noise signature. A scaled test facility has been developed that utilizes non-intrusive diagnostic techniques including Focusing Color Schlieren (FCS) and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) to examine the interaction of a pressure-fed water jet with a supersonic flow of compressed air. FCS is used to visually assess the interaction of the water jet with the strong density gradients in the supersonic air flow. PDPA is used in conjunction to gain statistical information regarding water droplet size and velocity as the jet is broken up. Measurement results, along with numerical simulations and jet penetration models are used to explain the observed phenomena. Following the cold flow testing campaign a scaled hybrid rocket engine will be constructed to continue tests in a combusting flow environment similar to that generated by the rocket engines tested at NASA facilities. LaSPACE.

  16. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aladayleh, Wail; Alahmer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively....

  17. Computational modelling of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for an aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Escalating fuel prices and carbon dioxide emission are causing new interest in methods to increase the thrust force of an aircraft engine with limitation of fuel consumption. One viable means is the conversion of exhaust engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy or to be used in the aircraft environmental system. A one-dimensional analysis method has been proposed for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for turbofan engine in this paper. The paper contains two main parts: validation of the numerical model and a performance prediction of turbofan engine integrated to an ORC system. The cycle is compared with industrial waste heat recovery system from Hangzhou Chinen Steam Turbine Power CO., Ltd. The results show that thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC of the turbofan engine reach lowest value at 0.91 lbm/lbf.h for 7000 lbf of thrust force. When the system installation weight is applied, the system results in a 2.0% reduction in fuel burn. Hence implementation of ORC system for waste heat recovery to an aircraft engine can bring a great potential to the aviation industry.

  18. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C..., analysis, and component test. * * * * * Issued in Washington, DC, on June 7, 2012. Lirio Liu, Acting...

  19. Exhaust gas concentration of CNG fuelled direct injection engine at MBT timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.K.; Aris, I.; Mahmod, S.; Sidek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents an experimental result of exhaust gas concentration of high compression engine fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at maximum brake torque (MBT). The engine uses central direct injection (DI) technique to inject the CNG into the cylinder. The engine geometry bases on gasoline engine with 14:1 compression ratio and called CNGDI engine. The injectors are positioned within a certain degrees of spark plug location. The objective of the experiment is to study the influence and significant of MBT timing in CNGDI engine towards exhaust gases. The experimental tests were carried out using computer-controlled eddy-current dynamometer, which measures the CNGDI engine performance. At MBT region, exhaust gas concentration as such CO, HC, NO x , O 2 and CO 2 , were recorded and analyzed during the test using the Horiba analyzer. A closed loop wide band lambda sensor has been mounted at the exhaust manifold to indicate the oxygen level during the exercise. (author)

  20. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft exhaust dispersion and deposition using a Lagrangian particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecorari, Eliana, E-mail: eliana.pecorari@unive.it [Department of Environmental Science, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca’ Foscari Venice, Calle Larga Santa Marta 2137, Dorsoduro, 30123 Venezia (Italy); Mantovani, Alice [OSMOTECH S.r.l., via Francesco Sforza, 15, 20122 Milano (Italy); Franceschini, Chiara [Department of Environmental Science, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca’ Foscari Venice, Calle Larga Santa Marta 2137, Dorsoduro, 30123 Venezia (Italy); Bassano, Davide [SAVE S.p.A., Marco Polo Venice airport viale G. Galilei 30/1, 30173 Tessera-Venezia (Italy); Palmeri, Luca [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, v. Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Rampazzo, Giancarlo [Department of Environmental Science, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca’ Foscari Venice, Calle Larga Santa Marta 2137, Dorsoduro, 30123 Venezia (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    The risk of air quality degradation is of considerable concern particularly for those airports that are located near urban areas. The ability to quantitatively predict the effects of air pollutants originated by airport operations is important for assessing air quality and the related impacts on human health. Current emission regulations have focused on local air quality in the proximity of airports. However, an integrated study should consider the effects of meteorological events, at both regional and local level, that can affect the dispersion and the deposition of exhausts. Rigorous scientific studies and extensive experimental data could contribute to the analysis of the impacts of airports expansion plans. This paper is focused on the analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft emission for the Marco Polo Airport in Venice. This is the most important international airport in the eastern part of the Po’ Valley, one of the most polluted area in Europe. Air pollution is exacerbated by meteorology that is a combination of large and local scale effects that do not allow significant dispersion. Moreover, the airport is located near Venice, a city of noteworthy cultural and architectural relevance, and nearby the lagoon that hosts several areas of outstanding ecological importance at European level (Natura 2000 sites). Dispersion and deposit of the main aircraft exhausts (NOx, HC and CO) have been evaluated by using a Lagrangian particle model. Spatial and temporal aircraft exhaust dispersion has been analyzed for LTO cycle. Aircraft taxiing resulted to be the most impacting aircraft operation especially for the airport working area and its surroundings, however occasionally peaks may be observed even at high altitudes when cruise mode starts. Mixing height can affect concentrations more significantly than the concentrations in the exhausts themselves. An increase of HC and CO concentrations (15–50%) has been observed during specific meteorological events

  2. Analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft exhaust dispersion and deposition using a Lagrangian particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecorari, Eliana; Mantovani, Alice; Franceschini, Chiara; Bassano, Davide; Palmeri, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The risk of air quality degradation is of considerable concern particularly for those airports that are located near urban areas. The ability to quantitatively predict the effects of air pollutants originated by airport operations is important for assessing air quality and the related impacts on human health. Current emission regulations have focused on local air quality in the proximity of airports. However, an integrated study should consider the effects of meteorological events, at both regional and local level, that can affect the dispersion and the deposition of exhausts. Rigorous scientific studies and extensive experimental data could contribute to the analysis of the impacts of airports expansion plans. This paper is focused on the analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft emission for the Marco Polo Airport in Venice. This is the most important international airport in the eastern part of the Po’ Valley, one of the most polluted area in Europe. Air pollution is exacerbated by meteorology that is a combination of large and local scale effects that do not allow significant dispersion. Moreover, the airport is located near Venice, a city of noteworthy cultural and architectural relevance, and nearby the lagoon that hosts several areas of outstanding ecological importance at European level (Natura 2000 sites). Dispersion and deposit of the main aircraft exhausts (NOx, HC and CO) have been evaluated by using a Lagrangian particle model. Spatial and temporal aircraft exhaust dispersion has been analyzed for LTO cycle. Aircraft taxiing resulted to be the most impacting aircraft operation especially for the airport working area and its surroundings, however occasionally peaks may be observed even at high altitudes when cruise mode starts. Mixing height can affect concentrations more significantly than the concentrations in the exhausts themselves. An increase of HC and CO concentrations (15–50%) has been observed during specific meteorological events

  3. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  4. Compact high-speed MWIR spectrometer applied to monitor CO2 exhaust dynamics from a turbojet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Herrero, R.; Vergara, G.; Gutiérrez Álvarez, R.; Fernández Montojo, C.; Gómez, L. J.; Villamayor, V.; Baldasano Ramírez, A.; Montojo, M. T.; Archilla, V.; Jiménez, A.; Mercader, D.; González, A.; Entero, A.

    2013-05-01

    Dfgfdg Due to international environmental regulations, aircraft turbojet manufacturers are required to analyze the gases exhausted during engine operation (CO, CO2, NOx, particles, unburned hydrocarbons (aka UHC), among others).Standard procedures, which involve sampling the gases from the exhaust plume and the analysis of the emissions, are usually complex and expensive, making a real need for techniques that allow a more frequent and reliable emissions measurements, and a desire to move from the traditional gas sampling-based methods to real time and non-intrusive gas exhaust analysis, usually spectroscopic. It is expected that the development of more precise and faster optical methods will provide better solutions in terms of performance/cost ratio. In this work the analysis of high-speed infrared emission spectroscopy measurements of plume exhaust are presented. The data was collected during the test trials of commercial engines carried out at Turbojet Testing Center-INTA. The results demonstrate the reliability of the technique for studying and monitoring the dynamics of the exhausted CO2 by the observation of the infrared emission of hot gases. A compact (no moving parts), high-speed, uncooled MWIR spectrometer was used for the data collection. This device is capable to register more than 5000 spectra per second in the infrared band ranging between 3.0 and 4.6 microns. Each spectrum is comprised by 128 spectral subbands with aband width of 60 nm. The spectrometer operated in a passive stand-off mode and the results from the measurements provided information of both the dynamics and the concentration of the CO2 during engine operation.

  5. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: ECunderground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies.

  6. Analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft exhaust dispersion and deposition using a Lagrangian particle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Eliana; Mantovani, Alice; Franceschini, Chiara; Bassano, Davide; Palmeri, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-15

    The risk of air quality degradation is of considerable concern particularly for those airports that are located near urban areas. The ability to quantitatively predict the effects of air pollutants originated by airport operations is important for assessing air quality and the related impacts on human health. Current emission regulations have focused on local air quality in the proximity of airports. However, an integrated study should consider the effects of meteorological events, at both regional and local level, that can affect the dispersion and the deposition of exhausts. Rigorous scientific studies and extensive experimental data could contribute to the analysis of the impacts of airports expansion plans. This paper is focused on the analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft emission for the Marco Polo Airport in Venice. This is the most important international airport in the eastern part of the Po' Valley, one of the most polluted area in Europe. Air pollution is exacerbated by meteorology that is a combination of large and local scale effects that do not allow significant dispersion. Moreover, the airport is located near Venice, a city of noteworthy cultural and architectural relevance, and nearby the lagoon that hosts several areas of outstanding ecological importance at European level (Natura 2000 sites). Dispersion and deposit of the main aircraft exhausts (NOx, HC and CO) have been evaluated by using a Lagrangian particle model. Spatial and temporal aircraft exhaust dispersion has been analyzed for LTO cycle. Aircraft taxiing resulted to be the most impacting aircraft operation especially for the airport working area and its surroundings, however occasionally peaks may be observed even at high altitudes when cruise mode starts. Mixing height can affect concentrations more significantly than the concentrations in the exhausts themselves. An increase of HC and CO concentrations (15-50%) has been observed during specific meteorological events

  7. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (see § 36.23(b)(2)). (3) In lieu of a space-place flame arrester, an exhaust-gas cooling box or... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for measuring the total back pressure in the system. The connection also shall be suitable for temporary attachment...

  8. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  9. Exhaust gas turbo-charger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnert, R.

    1982-01-07

    The invention is concerned with a exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. A turbine driving a compressor, is feeded with the exhaust gas. Intended is the over-temperature protection of the exhaust gas turbocharger. For this reason a ring shaped sheet with a well polished nickel surface, serves as thermal shield. A sealing avoids soiling of the turbine shaft. Due to the heat shielding effect no tinder, oxide or dirt deposition is possible. The heat reflection factor is constant.

  10. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Aladayleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively. The indication work, real shaft power and specific fuel consumption for Stirling engine, and the exhaust power losses for IC engine are calculated. The study shows the availability and possibility of recovery of the waste heat from internal combustion engine using Stirling engine.

  11. Effect of biodiesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emission for diesel dual fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Shihnan, A.H.; Nasri, N.S.; Sharer, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine and emission characteristics of biodiesel DDF engine system were measured. • Biodiesel DDF fuelled system produced high engine performance. • Lower hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide was emitted by biodiesel DDF system. • Biodiesel DDF produced slightly higher carbon monoxide and nitric oxides emission. - Abstract: Biodiesel derived from biomass is a renewable source of fuel. It is renovated to be the possible fuel to replace fossil derived diesel due to its properties and combustion characteristics. The integration of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engine known as diesel dual fuel (DDF) system offered better exhaust emission thus become an attractive option for reducing the pollutants emitted from transportation fleets. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emission of HINO H07C DDF engine; fuelled by diesel, biodiesel, diesel–CNG, and biodiesel–CNG, were experimentally studied. Biodiesel and diesel fuelled engine system respectively generated 455 N m and 287 N m of torque. The horse power of biodiesel was found to be 10–20% higher compared to diesel. Biodiesel–CNG at 20% (B20-DDF) produced the highest engine torque compared to other fuel blends Biodiesel significantly increase the carbon monoxide (15–32%) and nitric oxides (6.67–7.03%) but in contrast reduce the unburned hydrocarbons (5.76–6.25%) and carbon dioxide (0.47–0.58%) emissions level. These results indicated that biodiesel could be used without any engine modifications as an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel especially the heavy transportation fleets

  12. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part I Standard Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of diagnostic informativeness of exhaust gas temperature measurements in turbocharged marine internal combustion engines. Theoretical principles of the process of exhaust gas flow in turbocharger inlet channels are analysed in its dynamic and energetic aspects. Diagnostic parameters are defined which enable to formulate general evaluation of technical condition of the engine based on standard online measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. A proposal is made to extend the parametric methods of diagnosing workspaces in turbocharged marine engines by analysing time-histories of enthalpy changes of the exhaust gas flowing to the turbocompressor turbine. Such a time-history can be worked out based on dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature, performed using a specially designed sheathed thermocouple.

  13. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  14. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  15. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  16. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear...

  17. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  18. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H.

    2003-01-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O 2 concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O 2 ) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO x gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO x but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases

  20. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2003-11-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O{sub 2} concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O{sub 2}) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO{sub x} gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO{sub x} but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  1. Aircraft propulsion and gas turbine engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii xxxi xxxiii xxxv Part I Aero Engines and Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C...

  2. Exhaust gas purifying system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, H; Saito, Z

    1976-10-07

    The exhaust gas purification system is a so-called three-way catalytic converter. It consists of an oxidation converter, a reduction converter, or a thermal converter. An exhaust sensor made up of an oxygen sensor, a carbon sensor, a carbon monoxide sensor, hydrocarbon sensor, or a nitrogen peroxide sensor, tests the composition of the exhaust and controls the air-fuel feed system in dependence of the exhaust mixture in such a manner that in the intake system an air-fuel mixture is taken in which the stoichiometric air-fuel relation is produced. Moreover, a thermostatically controlled air intake device is built into the fuel injection system which supplies the air of the fuel injection system with a relatively consistent temperature.

  3. Structureborne noise investigations of a twin engine aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrelick, J. M.; Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K.

    1986-01-01

    The interior noise of aircraft powered by advanced turbo-prop concepts is likely to have nonnegligible contributions from structureborne paths, these paths being those involving propeller loads transmitted to the structures of the lifting surfaces. As a means of examining these paths, structural measurements have been performed on a small twin-engine aircraft, and in addition analytical models of the structure have been developed. In this paper results from both portions of this study are presented.

  4. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  5. Control-oriented modeling of two-stroke diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation for marine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas, Xavier; Eriksson, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Large marine two-stroke diesel engines are widely used as propulsion systems for shipping worldwide and are facing stricter NOx emission limits. Exhaust gas recirculation is introduced to these engines to reduce the produced combustion NOx to the allowed levels. Since the current number of engines built with exhaust gas recirculation is low and engine testing is very expensive, a powerful alternative for developing exhaust gas recirculation controllers for such engines is to use control-orien...

  6. Reduction of exhaust gas emission for marine diesel engine. Hakuyo engine no taisaku (hakuyo engine no mondaiten to tenbo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Y. (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-05

    Since bunker fuel became extremely expensive through the first and second oil crisis, the share of steam turbines having lower thermal efficiency than diesel engines became less, and at present, almost all ships and vessels are equipped with Diesel engines. Also fuel consumption of a diesel engine has successfully been reduced by 24% in about 10 years, but the discharge of air pollutant in the exhaust gas has shown a trend of increase. Air pollutant in exhaust gas of marine engines which has not drawn attention so far has also begun attracting notice, and as marine traffic increases, some control of it will be made sooner or later. Hence economical and effective counter measures against exhaust gas are necessary. In this article, as measures for reducing NO {sub x}, discussions are made on water-emulsion fuel, humidification of air supply, multi-nozzle atomization, injection time delaying and SCR (selective catalitic reduction). Also measures for reducing SO {sub x} is commented upon and the continuation of superiority of Diesel engines in the future is predicted. 5 figs.

  7. An approach for exhaust gas energy recovery of internal combustion engine: Steam-assisted turbocharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Deng, Banglin; Feng, Renhua; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Zhao, Xiaohuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The calculation method for SAT engine was developed and introduced. • SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine. • At 1500 r/min, intake pressure reaches target value and torque is increased by 25%. • The thermal efficiency of SAT engine only has a slight increase. - Abstract: An approach for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery, named as steam-assisted turbocharging (SAT), is developed to assist the exhaust turbocharger. A steam generating plant is coupled to the exhaust turbocharged engine’s exhaust pipe, which uses the high-temperature exhaust gas to generate steam. The steam is injected into turbine inlet and used as the supplementary working medium for turbine. By this means, turbine output power and then boosting pressure can be promoted due to the increase of turbine working medium. To reveal the advantages and energy saving potentials of SAT, this concept was applied to an exhaust turbocharging engine, and a parameter analysis was carried out. Research results show that, SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine, and make the peak torque shift to low-speed area. At 1500 r/min, the intake gas pressure can reach the desired value and the torque can be increased by 25.0% over the exhaust turbocharging engine, while the pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP) and thermal efficiency only have a slight increase. At 1000 r/min, the improvement of IC engine performances is very limited due to the low exhaust gas energy

  8. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  9. Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Roy, M.M. [Rajshahi Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2009-07-01

    A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N{sub 2} dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

  10. Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N.; Roy, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N 2 dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

  11. A review on the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Natalina; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Tong, Chong Wen; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Silitonga, Arridina Susan

    2018-06-01

    Biodiesels have gained much popularity because they are cleaner alternative fuels and they can be used directly in diesel engines without modifications. In this paper, a brief review of the key studies pertaining to the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends, exhaust aftertreatment systems, and low-temperature combustion technology is presented. In general, most biodiesel blends result in a significant decrease in carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions. There is also a decrease in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions while the engine performance increases for diesel engines fueled with biodiesels blended with nano-additives. The development of automotive technologies, such as exhaust gas recirculation systems and low-temperature combustion technology, also improves the thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reduces nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions.

  12. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    flying markets. The wing incorporates the drooped leading edge technology developed by NASA for more stability and spin resistance and its aerodynamic ...composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by

  13. Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Health Monitoring System by Real Flight Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustagime Tülin Yildirim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern condition monitoring-based methods are used to reduce maintenance costs, increase aircraft safety, and reduce fuel consumption. In the literature, parameters such as engine fan speeds, vibration, oil pressure, oil temperature, exhaust gas temperature (EGT, and fuel flow are used to determine performance deterioration in gas turbine engines. In this study, a new model was developed to get information about the gas turbine engine’s condition. For this model, multiple regression analysis was carried out to determine the effect of the flight parameters on the EGT parameter and the artificial neural network (ANN method was used in the identification of EGT parameter. At the end of the study, a network that predicts the EGT parameter with the smallest margin of error has been developed. An interface for instant monitoring of the status of the aircraft engine has been designed in MATLAB Simulink. Any performance degradation that may occur in the aircraft’s gas turbine engine can be easily detected graphically or by the engine performance deterioration value. Also, it has been indicated that it could be a new indicator that informs the pilots in the event of a fault in the sensor of the EGT parameter that they monitor while flying.

  14. Update of development on the new Audi NSU rotary engine generation. [for application to aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbasshuysen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Rotary engines with a chamber volume of 750 cc as a two rotor automotive powerplant, called KKM 871 are described. This engine is compared to a 3 liter or 183 cubic inch, six-cylinder reciprocating engine. Emphasis is placed on exhaust emission control and fuel economy.

  15. A combined thermodynamic cycle based on methanol dissociation for IC (internal combustion) engine exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Xu, Zhengxin; Ren, Chengqin; Deng, Banglin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for exhaust heat recovery was proposed to improve IC (internal combustion) engine fuel efficiency and also to achieve the goal for direct usage of methanol as IC engine fuel. An open organic Rankine cycle system using methanol as working medium is coupled to IC engine exhaust pipe for exhaust heat recovery. In the bottom cycle, the working medium first undergoes dissociation and expansion processes, and is then directed back to IC engine as fuel. As the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle are combined together, this scheme forms a combined thermodynamic cycle. Then, this concept was applied to a turbocharged engine, and the corresponding simulation models were built for both of the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle. On this basis, the energy saving potential of this combined cycle was estimated by parametric analyses. Compared to the methanol vapor engine, IC engine in-cylinder efficiency has an increase of 1.4–2.1 percentage points under full load conditions, while the external bottom cycle can increase the fuel efficiency by 3.9–5.2 percentage points at the working pressure of 30 bar. The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points. - Highlights: • A combined thermodynamic cycle using methanol as working medium for IC engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • The external bottom cycle of exhaust heat recovery and IC engine working cycle are combined together. • IC engine fuel efficiency could be improved from both in-cylinder working cycle and external bottom cycle. • The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points at full load

  16. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  17. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine

  18. New technology on Otto engines for reducing the exhaust emission toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikarovska, Vesna; Stojanovski, Vasko

    2003-01-01

    The exhaust emission from the Otto engines with internal combustion contains a lot of toxicant components for human being as well as for the surrounding. There are a lot of possibilities to realize the engine work with minimum emission of toxicant components. However, all solutions could not be racial, especially if the engine should work with minimum fuel consumption. The engineers look for the solutions where the reducing of the exhaust emission toxicity could be done with the total fuel utilization in the engine's cylinder, without additionally combustion in catalytic or thermal reactors. The paper describes the new technologies for detail investigation of the combustion processes and optimization of all influence parameters on exhaust gases emission. (Original)

  19. Equipment for heating the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines in order to improve afterburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki,

    1976-04-15

    The device described here serves to heat exhaust gases of internal combustion engines by heat exchange with hot gases and also, in cold engines, to raise the temperature of the fuel-air mixture drawn in by the engine. The device is installed next to the outlet opening of the engine. It consists of a burner to generate the hot gas, as well as a heat exchanger permitting heat supply to the exhaust gases and a hot-gas line leading to the intake line. Heating of the air is taken in leads to a better atomization of the mixture and thus to improved combustion. Heating of the exhaust gases improves afterburning. The burner generating the hot gas is shut off when the normal operational temperature of the engine is reached. The temperature is controlled by means of a temperature sensor installed in the device.

  20. Thermodynamic control-oriented modeling of cycle-to-cycle exhaust gas temperature in an HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani Firoozabadi, M.; Shahbakhti, M.; Koch, C.R.; Jazayeri, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First thermodynamic model in the literature to predict exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. • The model can be used for integrated control of HCCI combustion and exhaust temperature. • The model is experimentally validated at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. • Results show a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust temperatures. • Sensitivity of exhaust gas temperature to variation of engine variables is shown. - Abstract: Model-based control of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine exhaust temperature is a viable solution to optimize efficiency of both engine and the exhaust aftertreatment system. Low exhaust temperature in HCCI engines can limit the abatement of hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in an exhaust aftertreatment system. A physical–empirical model is described for control of exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. This model captures cycle-to-cycle dynamics affecting exhaust temperature and is based on thermodynamic relations and semi-empirical correlations. It incorporates intake and exhaust gas flow dynamics, residual gas mixing, and fuel burn rate and is validated with experimental data from a single cylinder engine at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. The validation results indicate a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust gas temperature

  1. Modeling Macro- and Micro-Scale Turbulent Mixing and Chemistry in Engine Exhaust Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent mixing and chemical processes in the near-field plume and plume-vortex regimes has been successfully carried out recently using a reduced gas phase kinetics mechanism which substantially decreased the computational cost. A detailed mechanism including gas phase HOx, NOx, and SOx chemistry between the aircraft exhaust and the ambient air in near-field aircraft plumes is compiled. A reduced mechanism capturing the major chemical pathways is developed. Predictions by the reduced mechanism are found to be in good agreement with those by the detailed mechanism. With the reduced chemistry, the computer CPU time is saved by a factor of more than 3.5 for the near-field plume modeling. Distributions of major chemical species are obtained and analyzed. The computed sensitivities of major species with respect to reaction step are deduced for identification of the dominant gas phase kinetic reaction pathways in the jet plume. Both the near field plume and the plume-vortex regimes were investigated using advanced mixing models. In the near field, a stand-alone mixing model was used to investigate the impact of turbulent mixing on the micro- and macro-scale mixing processes using a reduced reaction kinetics model. The plume-vortex regime was simulated using a large-eddy simulation model. Vortex plume behind Boeing 737 and 747 aircraft was simulated along with relevant kinetics. Many features of the computed flow field show reasonable agreement with data. The entrainment of the engine plumes into the wing tip vortices and also the partial detrainment of the plume were numerically captured. The impact of fluid mechanics on the chemical processes was also studied. Results show that there are significant differences between spatial and temporal simulations especially in the predicted SO3 concentrations. This has important implications for the prediction of sulfuric acid aerosols in the wake and may partly explain the discrepancy between past numerical studies

  2. Rotor Systems of Aircraft Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kamenický

    2000-01-01

    engine's both coaxial rotors, their supports (including their hydrodynamic dampers, and its casing as well. Besides the short description of the engine design peculiarities and of its calculating model, there is also a short description of the used method of calculations, with focus on its peculiarities as well. Finally, some results of calculations and conclusions that follow from them are presented.

  3. Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hazar; S. Sap

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating th...

  4. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  5. Exergetic analysis of an aircraft turbojet engine with an afterburner

    OpenAIRE

    Ehyaei M.A.; Anjiridezfuli A.; Rosen M.A.

    2013-01-01

    An exergy analysis is reported of a J85-GE-21 turbojet engine and its components for two altitudes: sea level and 11,000 meters. The turbojet engine with afterburning operates on the Brayton cycle and includes six main parts: diffuser, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, afterburner and nozzle. Aircraft data are utilized in the analysis with simulation data. The highest component exergy efficiency at sea level is observed to be for the compressor, at 9...

  6. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricocchi, Antonio; Bartz, Andi; Wortman, David

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micron (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  7. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of LOX/Kerosene Engine Exhaust Plume Flow Field Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hua Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at calculating and studying the flow field characteristics of engine exhaust plume and comparative analyzing the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on the engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics, a method considering fully the combustion state influence is put forward, which is applied to exhaust plume flow field calculation of multinozzle engine. On this basis, a three-dimensional numerical analysis of the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on LOX/kerosene engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics was carried out. It is found that multistep chemical reaction can accurately describe the combustion process in the LOX/kerosene engine, the average chamber pressure from the calculation is 4.63% greater than that of the test, and the average chamber temperature from the calculation is 3.34% greater than that from the thermodynamic calculation. The exhaust plumes of single nozzle and double nozzle calculated using the global chemical reaction are longer than those using the multistep chemical reaction; the highest temperature and the highest velocity on the plume axis calculated using the former are greater than that using the latter. The important influence of chemical reaction mechanism must be considered in the study of the fixing structure of double nozzle engine on the rocket body.

  8. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    From current projections of the availability of high-quality petroleum crude oils, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the specifications for hydrocarbon jet fuels may have to be modified. The problems that are most likely to be encountered as a result of these modifications relate to engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance. The effect on engine performance will be associated with changes in specific fuel consumption, ignition at relight limits, at exhaust emissions. Durability and maintenance will be affected by increases in combustor liner temperatures, carbon deposition, gum formation in fuel nozzles, and erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes. Aircraft fuel-system performance will be affected by increased deposits in fuel-system heat exchangers and changes in the pumpability and flowability of the fuel. The severity of the potential problems is described in terms of the fuel characteristics most likely to change in the future. Recent data that evaluate the ability of current-technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  9. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  10. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  11. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  12. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  13. HEAT TRANSFER IN EXHAUST SYSTEM OF A COLD START ENGINE AT LOW ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana D Petković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the engine cold start, there is a significantly increased emission of harmful engine exhaust gases, particularly at very low environmental temperatures. Therefore, reducing of emission during that period is of great importance for the reduction of entire engine emission. This study was conducted to test the activating speed of the catalyst at low environmental temperatures. The research was conducted by use of mathematical model and developed computer programme for calculation of non-stationary heat transfer in engine exhaust system. During the research, some of constructional parameters of exhaust system were adopted and optimized at environmental temperature of 22 C. The combination of design parameters giving best results at low environmental temperatures was observed. The results showed that the temperature in the environment did not have any significant influence on pre-catalyst light-off time.

  14. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  15. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  16. Heat transfer modeling in exhaust systems of high-performance two-stroke engines

    OpenAIRE

    Lujan Martinez, José Manuel; Climent Puchades, Héctor; Olmeda González, Pablo Cesar; JIMENEZ MACEDO, VICTOR DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer from the hot gases to the wall in exhaust systems of high-performance two-stroke engines is underestimated using steady state with fully developed flow empirical correlations. This fact is detected when comparing measured and modeled pressure pulses in different positions in the exhaust system. This can be explained taking into account that classical expressions have been validated for fully developed flows, a situation that is far from the flow behavior in reciprocating interna...

  17. A Research on The Exhaust Emission of The Gasoline Engines in Tekirdag

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Durgut; S. Arin; E.Kilic

    2006-01-01

    The exhaust gases as a result of combustion in internal combustion engines, sump ventilatory systemand vaporization of fuel system are the pollution sources caused by the vehicles. Preventing the pollution inits source is the main method for controlling the pollution: In this study, the exhaust emissions of 1844vehicles with gasoline were examined randomly applied to measuring station. The measured CO, CO2 HC,O2 values were discussed in their suitability to the limits determined by Turkish St...

  18. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Naeimi Hessamedin; Domiry Ganji Davood; Gorji Mofid; Javadirad Ghasem; Keshavarz Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction loss...

  19. Identification of informative features for predicting proinflammatory potentials of engine exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Ying-Chi; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Jhang, Syu-Ruei; Tung, Chun-Wei

    2017-08-18

    The immunotoxicity of engine exhausts is of high concern to human health due to the increasing prevalence of immune-related diseases. However, the evaluation of immunotoxicity of engine exhausts is currently based on expensive and time-consuming experiments. It is desirable to develop efficient methods for immunotoxicity assessment. To accelerate the development of safe alternative fuels, this study proposed a computational method for identifying informative features for predicting proinflammatory potentials of engine exhausts. A principal component regression (PCR) algorithm was applied to develop prediction models. The informative features were identified by a sequential backward feature elimination (SBFE) algorithm. A total of 19 informative chemical and biological features were successfully identified by SBFE algorithm. The informative features were utilized to develop a computational method named FS-CBM for predicting proinflammatory potentials of engine exhausts. FS-CBM model achieved a high performance with correlation coefficient values of 0.997 and 0.943 obtained from training and independent test sets, respectively. The FS-CBM model was developed for predicting proinflammatory potentials of engine exhausts with a large improvement on prediction performance compared with our previous CBM model. The proposed method could be further applied to construct models for bioactivities of mixtures.

  20. Research regarding reverse engineering for aircraft components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udroiu Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering is a useful technique used in manufacturing and design process of new components. In aerospace industry new components can be developed, based on existing components without technical Computer Aided Design (CAD data, in order to reduce the development cycle of new products. This paper proposes a methodology wherein the CAD model of turbine blade can be build using computer aided reverse engineering technique utilising a 5 axis Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM. The proposed methodology uses a scanning strategy by features, followed by a design methodology for 3D modelling of complex shapes.

  1. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  2. Exergetic analysis of an aircraft turbojet engine with an afterburner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehyaei M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An exergy analysis is reported of a J85-GE-21 turbojet engine and its components for two altitudes: sea level and 11,000 meters. The turbojet engine with afterburning operates on the Brayton cycle and includes six main parts: diffuser, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, afterburner and nozzle. Aircraft data are utilized in the analysis with simulation data. The highest component exergy efficiency at sea level is observed to be for the compressor, at 96.7%, followed by the nozzle and turbine with exergy efficiencies of 93.7 and 92.3%, respectively. At both considered heights, reducing of engine intake air speed leads to a reduction in the exergy efficiencies of all engine components and overall engine. The exergy efficiency of the turbojet engine is found to decrease by 0.45% for every 1°C increase in inlet air temperature.

  3. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  4. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  5. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  6. Study on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using exhaust gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Raman Lakshmipathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas re-circulation is a method used in compression ignition engines to control and reduce NOx emission. These emissions are controlled by reducing the oxygen concentration inside the cylinder and thereby reducing the flame temperature of the charge mixture inside the combustion chamber. In the present investigation, experiments were performed to study the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on performance and emission characteristics in a four stroke single cylinder, water cooled and constant speed diesel engine. The experiments were performed to study the performance and emissions for different exhaust gas re-circulation ratios of the engine. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, total fuel consumption and emission parameters such as oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke opacity were measured. Reductions in NOx and CO2 were observed but other emissions like HC, CO, and smoke opacity were found to have increased with the usage of exhaust gas re-circulation. The 15% exhaust gas re-circulation was found optimum for the engine in the aspects of performance and emission.

  7. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on some combustion characteristics of dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2003-03-01

    Combustion pressure rise rate and thermal efficiency data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on a dual fuel of Diesel and compressed natural gas and utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. The experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion and the thermal efficiency at different EGR ratios. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on a dual fuel of Diesel and compressed natural gas and having an exhaust gas recycling system is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data and crank angle data are stored in a PC for offline analysis. The effects of EGR ratio, engine speeds, loads, temperature of recycled exhaust gases, intake charge pressure and engine compression ratio on combustion noise and thermal efficiency are examined for the dual fuel engine. The combustion noise and thermal efficiency of the dual fuel engine are found to be affected when EGR is used in the dual fuel engine. (Author)

  8. Study of SI engine fueled with methanol vapor and dissociation gas based on exhaust heat dissociating methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Deng, Banglin; Liu, Jingping; Wang, Linjun; Xu, Zhengxin; Yang, Jing; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The full load power decreases successively from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine. • Both power and thermal efficiency of dissociated methanol engine can be improved by boosting pressure. • The conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is largely influenced by the BMEP. • At the same BMEP, dissociated methanol engine has higher thermal efficiency than methanol vapor engine and gasoline engine. - Abstract: To improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engine and also achieve the goal of direct usage of methanol fuel on IC engine, an approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol was investigated, which is a kind of method for IC engine exhaust heat recovery (EHR). A bottom cycle system is coupled with the IC engine exhaust system, which uses the exhaust heat to evaporate and dissociate methanol in its catalytic cracker. The methanol dissociation gas (including methanol vapor) is used as the fuel for IC engine. This approach was applied to both naturally aspirated (NA) engine and turbocharged engine, and the engine performance parameters were predicted by the software GT-power under various kinds of operating conditions. The improvement to IC engine performance and the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy can be evaluated by comparing the performances of IC engine fueled with various kinds of fuels (or their compositions). Results show that, from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine, the full load power decreases successively in the entire speed area due to the declining of volumetric efficiency, while it is contrary in the thermal efficiency at the same brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) level because of the improving of fuel heating value. With the increase of BMEP, the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is promoted. All those results indicate that the approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol has large

  9. Investigation and design optimization of exhaust-based thermoelectric generator system for internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Diao, Hai; Yu, Shuhai; Jiao, Kui; Du, Qing; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for exhaust-based thermoelectric waste heat recovery is developed. • Various heat, mass and electric transfer characteristics are elucidated. • Channel size needs to be moderate to balance heat transfer and pressure drop. • Bafflers need to be placed at all locations near all TEG modules. • Baffler angle needs to be sufficiently large, especially for downstream locations. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generator (TEG) has attracted considerable attention for the waste heat recovery of internal combustion engine. In this study, a 3-D numerical model for engine exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (ETEG) system is developed. By considering the detailed geometry of thermoelectric generator (TEG) and exhaust channel, the various transport phenomena are investigated, and design optimization suggestions are given. It is found that the exhaust channel size needs to be moderate to balance the heat transfer to TEG modules and pressure drop along channel. Increasing the number of exhaust channels may improve the performance, however, since more space and TEG modules are needed, the system size and cost need to be considered as well. Although only placing bafflers at the channel inlet could increase the heat transfer coefficient for the whole channel, the near wall temperature downstream might decrease significantly, leading to performance degradation of the TEG modules downstream. To ensure effective utilization of hot exhaust gas, the baffler angle needs to be sufficiently large, especially for the downstream locations. Since larger baffler angles increase the pressure drop significantly, it is suggested that variable baffler angles, with the angle increasing along the flow direction, might be a middle course for balancing the heat transfer and pressure drop. A single ETEG design may not be suitable to all the engine operating conditions, and making the number of exhaust channels and baffler angle adjustable according to different engine

  10. A Framework for Modular Modeling of the Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Hansen, Thomas Klint; Linde, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Pollutants from diesel engines have a negative effect on urban air quality. Because of this and new legislation restricting the emission level, it is necessary to develop exhaust gas treatment systems for diesel engines that can reduce the amount of pollutants. A modular model capable of simulating...... model. Four different models in the automotive diesel exhaust gas cleaning system are presented briefly. Based on the presented methodology, it is discussed which changes are needed to the models to create a modular model of the whole catalytic system....

  11. Fluid dynamic modeling of junctions in internal combustion engine inlet and exhaust systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalet, David; Chesse, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    The modeling of inlet and exhaust systems of internal combustion engine is very important in order to evaluate the engine performance. This paper presents new pressure losses models which can be included in a one dimensional engine simulation code. In a first part, a CFD analysis is made in order to show the importance of the density in the modeling approach. Then, the CFD code is used, as a numerical test bench, for the pressure losses models development. These coefficients depend on the geometrical characteristics of the junction and an experimental validation is made with the use of a shock tube test bench. All the models are then included in the engine simulation code of the laboratory. The numerical calculation of unsteady compressible flow, in each pipe of the inlet and exhaust systems, is made and the calculated engine torque is compared with experimental measurements.

  12. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  13. Characterization of Rotating Detonation Engine Exhaust Through Nozzle Guide Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ENY/13-M09 Abstract A Rotating Detonation Engine ( RDE ) has higher thermal efficiencies in comparison to its traditional gas turbine counterparts. Thus...as budgets decrease and fuel costs increase, RDEs have become a research focus for the United States Air Force. An integration assembly for attaching...the first Nozzle Guide Vane (NGV) section from a T63 gas turbine engine to a 6 inch diameter RDE was designed and built for this study. Pressure

  14. State of Aircraft Turboshaft Engines by Means of Tribotechnical Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalčová, Janka

    2018-03-01

    The contribution describes concrete example of application of tribotechnical methods for the determination of the bearing wear state in aircraft turboshaft engines. Tribotechnical methods, which will be mentioned, deal with qualitative and quantitative characterization of particles occurred in oil. Here belong method optical emission spectrometry method with rotating disc electrode for determination of chemical elements concentration in oil. Method of optical particles counting for detection of particles distribution according to their scale, determination of their number and ferrographic analysis. Exploitation of these methods make it possible to determine quickly and correctly the friction regime and wearing of friction pair that is washed by oil in observed engines.

  15. Study of reaction between water and exhaust gases from diesel engines used in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazukhina, S.I.; Kalabin, G.V.; Romanov, V.S.

    1988-05-01

    A method of mathematical simulation, based on the principle of local equilibrium of the kinetic components, was proposed for formulating and solving problems related to the combustion of fuel and the treatment of exhaust gases from a diesel engine in underground workings. Results of a study of the effects of exhaust gas quantity and composition on the reaction between the gases and water are presented. It is shown that the kinetic model correlates well with the equilibrium model, adequately describes the process, and gives a reliable picture of the changes over a period of time. The proposed method can be used to study the gas emission with different fuel mixtures and liquid neutralizing agents with a view to reducing the toxicity of diesel-engine exhaust gases.

  16. Flow effects due to pulsation in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using POD analysis to identify large coherent flow structures in a complex geometry. • Flow field alters significant for constant and pulsating boundary conditions. • The discharge coefficient of the exhaust port decreases 2% with flow pulsation. • Pulsation causes a pumping mechanism due to a phase shift of pressure and momentum. - Abstract: In an internal combustion engine, the residual energy remaining after combustion in the exhaust gasses can be partially recovered by a downstream arranged device. The exhaust port represents the passage guiding the exhaust gasses from the combustion chamber to the energy recovering device, e.g. a turbocharger. Thus, energy losses in the course of transmission shall be reduced as much as possible. However, in one-dimensional engine models used for engine design, the exhaust port is reduced to its discharge coefficient, which is commonly measured under constant inflow conditions neglecting engine-like flow pulsation. In this present study, the influence of different boundary conditions on the energy losses and flow development during the exhaust stroke are analyzed numerically regarding two cases, i.e. using simple constant and pulsating boundary conditions. The compressible flow in an exhaust port geometry of a truck engine is investigated using three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The results contrast the importance of applying engine-like boundary conditions in order to estimate accurately the flow induced losses and the discharge coefficient of the exhaust port. The instantaneous flow field alters significantly when pulsating boundary conditions are applied. Thus, the induced losses by the unsteady flow motion and the secondary flow motion are increased with inflow pulsations. The discharge coefficient decreased about 2% with flow pulsation. A modal flow decomposition method, i.e. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), is used to analyze the coherent structures induced with the particular

  17. Three dimensional model calculations of the global dispersion of high speed aircraft exhaust and implications for stratospheric ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.; Jackman, Charles H.; Weaver, Clark J.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional (zonally averaged) photochemical models are commonly used for calculations of ozone changes due to various perturbations. These include calculating the ozone change expected as a result of change in the lower stratospheric composition due to the exhaust of a fleet of supersonic aircraft flying in the lower stratosphere. However, zonal asymmetries are anticipated to be important to this sort of calculation. The aircraft are expected to be restricted from flying over land at supersonic speed due to sonic booms, thus the pollutant source will not be zonally symmetric. There is loss of pollutant through stratosphere/troposphere exchange, but these processes are spatially and temporally inhomogeneous. Asymmetry in the pollutant distribution contributes to the uncertainty in the ozone changes calculated with two dimensional models. Pollutant distributions for integrations of at least 1 year of continuous pollutant emissions along flight corridors are calculated using a three dimensional chemistry and transport model. These distributions indicate the importance of asymmetry in the pollutant distributions to evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on ozone. The implications of such pollutant asymmetries to assessment calculations are discussed, considering both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions.

  18. Experimental investigation on the influences of exhaust gas recirculation coupling with intake tumble on gasoline engine economy and emission performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Zhu, Guohui; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Jingping; Xia, Yan; Wang, Shuqian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In-cylinder residual gas fraction almost increases linearly with exhaust gas recirculation rate. • Heat transfer loss and exhaust gas energy loss decrease with exhaust gas recirculation rate. • Engine indicated thermal efficiency can be increased by 4.29% at 1600 r/min and 2.94 bar. • The effective range of exhaust gas recirculation rate can be extended by intake tumble. - Abstract: To improve the economy and emission performance of gasoline engine under part load, the approach of exhaust gas recirculation coupling with intake tumble was investigated by bench testing. Based on a naturally aspirated gasoline engine, the sweeping test of exhaust gas recirculation rate was conducted in two intake modes (with/without intake tumble), and the parameters related to engine heat-work conversion process and emission performance were measured. Through comparing and analyzing the measured data, the effects of exhaust gas recirculation coupling with intake tumble on gasoline engine economy and emission performance were revealed. The results show that pumping loss decreases gradually while in-cylinder residual gas fraction increases linearly with the exhaust gas recirculation rate increasing; the high-pressure cycle efficiency ascends with exhaust gas recirculation rate increasing due to the decrease of heat transfer loss and exhaust gas energy loss. Thus, the improvement of indicated thermal efficiency is the superposition of double benefits of low-pressure cycle and high-pressure cycle. At 1600 r/min and 2.94 bar, the indicated thermal efficiency can be increased by 4.29%. With the increase of exhaust gas recirculation rate, nitrogen oxide emissions almost fall linearly, but hydrocarbon and carbonic oxide emissions have no obvious change in the effective range of exhaust gas recirculation rate. The biggest advantage of intake tumble is that it can extend the effective range of exhaust gas recirculation rate. As a result, the potential of energy

  19. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  20. Effects of Heat Addition After the Exhaust Valve on a Small Turbocharged Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Brandon, Sidney Jordan

    2006-01-01

    Designers of engines have always looked for ways to improve the power to weight ratio of mobile internal combustion engines. This was especially true in aircraft engine design and engines for various forms of racing. Today designers are looking for ways to make everything from cars to road tractors to farm tractors lighter and thereby more efficient. In addition, in many cases these vehicles only need the maximum power that an engine can produce for a small amount of time. What is needed is ...

  1. The determination of aldehydes in the exhaust gases of LPG fuelled engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.A.F.M.; Burtner, C.W.J.; Visser, H.; Rijks, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust gas of a LPG fuelled engine is drawn through two bubblers in series in an ice bath, and filled with saturated 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in 2M HCl. After heating the derivatives are extracted with toluene-cyclohexane and 1l samples injected on-column on a OV1 capillary column. Using an

  2. Multi-Stage Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penetrante, B

    1997-01-01

    .... A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO2. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NOx in lean-burn engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.

  3. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust due to the inhibiting effect of excess oxygen. In this study, a novel electrochemical deNOx system was developed, which eliminated the need for additional reducing materials or a sophisticated controlling system as used...

  4. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  5. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in lymphocyte subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel; Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Hu, Wei; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Xu, Jun; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Zhou, Baosen; Yang, Jufang; Ye, Meng; Jia, Xiaowei; Meng, Tao; Bin, Ping; Kim, Christopher; Bassig, Bryan A; Hosgood, H Dean; Silverman, Debra; Zheng, Yuxin; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure-response relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism by which DEE

  6. CONCEPT AND MODELS FOR EVALUATION OF BLACK AND WHITE SMOKE COMPONENTS IN DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor BLYANKINSHTEIN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A method for measuring exhaust smoke opacity has been developed, which allows estimating the differentiated components forming black exhaust and those forming white smoke. The method is based on video recording and special software for processing the video recording data. The flow of the diesel exhaust gas is visualised using the digital camera, against the background of the screen, on a cut of an exhaust pipe, and with sufficient illumination of the area. The screen represents standards of whiteness and blackness. The content of the black components (soot is determined by the degree of blackening of the white standard in the frames of the video, and the content of whitish components (unburned fuel and oil, etc. is determined by the degree of whitening of black standard on the frames of the video. The paper describes the principle and the results of testing the proposed method of measuring exhaust smoke opacity. We present an algorithm for the frame-by-frame analysis of the video sequence, and static and dynamic mathematical models of exhaust opacity, measured under free-acceleration of a diesel engine.

  7. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

    2014-02-11

    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  8. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  9. HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Murari Mohon

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO), acrolein (H 2 C=CHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH 3 CH 2 CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH 3 ) 2 CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in HPLC is introduced instead of the trapping gas sampling method. The superiority of the bag sampling method is its transient gas checking capability. In the second part of this study, HPLC results are applied to compare exhaust odor and irritation of exhaust gases in different types of gasoline and diesel engines. Exhaust odor, irritation and aldehydes are found worst in direct injection (DI) diesel engines and best in some good multi-point injection (MPI) gasoline and direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines showed odor, irritation and aldehydes in between the levels of MPI gasoline, DIG and DI diesel engines

  10. Occupational exposures to engine exhausts and other PAHs and breast cancer risk: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajni; Glass, Deborah C; Heyworth, Jane S; Saunders, Christobel; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that exposure to engine exhausts may increase risk of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Western Australia we assessed occupational exposure to engine exhausts using questionnaires and telephone interviews. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (OR 1.07, 95%CI: 0.81-1.41), gasoline exhaust (OR 0.98, 95%CI: 0.74-1.28), or other exhausts (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 0.29-4.08). There were also no significant dose- or duration-response relationships. This study did not find evidence supporting the association between occupational exposures to engine exhausts and breast cancer risk. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:437-444, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  12. Temperature monitoring of vehicle engine exhaust gases under vibration condition using optical fibre temperature sensor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W Z; Suna, T; Grattana, K T V; Shen, Y H; Wei, C L; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2006-01-01

    Two optical approaches, comprising and contracting both the fluorescence decay lifetime and the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) methods, were developed and evaluated for temperature monitoring of exhaust gases for use on a vehicle engine. The FBGs used in the system were written into specially designed Bi-Ge co-doped photosensitive fibres, to enable them to sustain high temperatures to over 800 0 C, which is far beyond that of FBGs written into most commercial photosensitive fibres. The sensors were subjected to a range of vibration tests, as a part of an optical exhaust monitoring network under development, and results from the test carried out are reported

  13. Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies.

  14. Uncertainty quantification in computational fluid dynamics and aircraft engines

    CERN Document Server

    Montomoli, Francesco; D'Ammaro, Antonio; Massini, Michela; Salvadori, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces novel design techniques developed to increase the safety of aircraft engines. The authors demonstrate how the application of uncertainty methods can overcome problems in the accurate prediction of engine lift, caused by manufacturing error. This in turn ameliorates the difficulty of achieving required safety margins imposed by limits in current design and manufacturing methods. This text shows that even state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are not able to predict the same performance measured in experiments; CFD methods assume idealised geometries but ideal geometries do not exist, cannot be manufactured and their performance differs from real-world ones. By applying geometrical variations of a few microns, the agreement with experiments improves dramatically, but unfortunately the manufacturing errors in engines or in experiments are unknown. In order to overcome this limitation, uncertainty quantification considers the probability density functions of manufacturing errors...

  15. Design and evaluation of combustors for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.; Grobman, J.

    1973-01-01

    Various techniques and test results are briefly described and referenced for detail. The effort arises from the increasing concern for the measurement and control of emissions from gas turbine engines. The greater part of this research is focused on reducing the oxides of nitrogen formed during takeoff and cruise in both advanced CTOL, high pressure ratio engines, and advanced supersonic aircraft engines. The experimental approaches taken to reduce oxides of nitrogen emissions include the use of: multizone combustors incorporating reduced dwell time, fuel-air premixing, air atomization, fuel prevaporization, water injection, and gaseous fuels. In the experiments conducted to date, some of these techniques were more successful than others in reducing oxides of nitrogen emissions. Tests are being conducted on full-annular combustors at pressures up to 6 atmospheres and on combustor segments at pressures up to 30 atmospheres.

  16. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines: Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is amending the existing emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for new commercial aircraft engines. These standards are equivalent to the NOx emission standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  17. Exhaust gas heat recovery through secondary expansion cylinder and water injection in an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri Toosi Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance thermal efficiency and increase performance of an internal combustion engine, a novel concept of coupling a conventional engine with a secondary 4-stroke cylinder and direct water injection process is proposed. The burned gases after working in a traditional 4-stroke combustion cylinder are transferred to a secondary cylinder and expanded even more. After re-compression of the exhaust gases, pre-heated water is injected at top dead center. The evaporation of injected water not only recovers heat from exhaust gases, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the overall thermal efficiency. A 0-D/1-D model is used to numerically simulate the idea. The simulations outputs showed that the bottoming cycle will be more efficient at higher engines speeds, specifically in a supercharged/turbocharged engine, which have higher exhaust gas pressure that can reproduce more positive work. In the modeled supercharged engine, results showed that brake thermal efficiency can be improved by about 17%, and brake power by about 17.4%.

  18. Impact of the injection dose of exhaust gases, on work parameters of combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    This article is another one from the series in which were presented research results indicated the possible areas of application of the pneumatic injection using hot combustion gases proposed by Professor Jarnuszkiewicz. This publication present the results of the control system of exhaust gas recirculation. The main aim of this research was to determine the effect of exhaust gas recirculation to the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine on the basis of laboratory measurements. All measurements were performed at a constant engine speed. These conditions correspond to the operation of the motor operating an electrical generator. The study was conducted on the four-stroke two-cylinder engine with spark ignition. The study were specifically tested on the air injection system and therefore the selection of the rotational speed was not bound, as in conventional versions of operating parameters of the electrical machine. During the measurement there were applied criterion which used power control corresponding to the requirements of load power, at minimal values of engine speed. Recirculation value determined by the following recurrent position control valve of the injection doses inflator gas for pneumatic injection system. They were studied and recorded, the impact of dose of gases recirculation to the operating and ecological engine parameters such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, efficiency, air fuel ratio, exhaust gas temperature and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.

  19. Monitoring of diesel engine combustions based on the acoustic source characterisation of the exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Gu, F.; Gennish, R.; Moore, D. J.; Harris, G.; Ball, A. D.

    2008-08-01

    Acoustic methods are among the most useful techniques for monitoring the condition of machines. However, the influence of background noise is a major issue in implementing this method. This paper introduces an effective monitoring approach to diesel engine combustion based on acoustic one-port source theory and exhaust acoustic measurements. It has been found that the strength, in terms of pressure, of the engine acoustic source is able to provide a more accurate representation of the engine combustion because it is obtained by minimising the reflection effects in the exhaust system. A multi-load acoustic method was then developed to determine the pressure signal when a four-cylinder diesel engine was tested with faults in the fuel injector and exhaust valve. From the experimental results, it is shown that a two-load acoustic method is sufficient to permit the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities in the pressure signal, caused by the faults. This then provides a novel and yet reliable method to achieve condition monitoring of diesel engines even if they operate in high noise environments such as standby power stations and vessel chambers.

  20. Performance optimization of a Two-Stroke supercharged diesel engine for aircraft propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Antonio Paolo; Ficarella, Antonio; Trullo, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Two-Stroke diesel engine for aircraft propulsion was modeled with a 0D/1D approach. • The results of the 0D/1D model are compared with those resulting from a 3D model. • The effect of several design and thermodynamic parameters have been analyzed. • Guidelines for the optimization of engine performance are provided. - Abstract: In Two-Stroke engines, the cylinder filling efficiency is antithetical to the cylinder scavenging efficiency; moreover, both of them are influenced by geometric and thermodynamic parameters characterizing the design and operation of both the engine and the related supercharging system. Aim of this work is to provide several guidelines about the definition of design and operation parameters for a Two-Stroke two banks Uniflow diesel engine, supercharged with two sequential turbochargers and an aftercooler per bank, with the goal of either increasing the engine brake power at take-off or decreasing the engine fuel consumption in cruise conditions. The engine has been modeled with a 0D/1D modeling approach. Then, the model capability in describing the effect of several parameters on engine performance has been assessed comparing the results of 3D simulations with those of 0D/1D model. The validated 0D/1D model has been used to simulate the engine behavior varying several design and operation engine parameters (exhaust valves opening and closing angles and maximum valve lift, scavenging ports opening angle, distance between bottom edge of the scavenging ports and bottom dead center, area of the single scavenging port and number of ports, engine volumetric compression ratio, low and high pressure compressor pressure ratios, air/fuel ratio) on a wide range of possible values. The parameters most influencing the engine performance are then recognized and their effect on engine thermodynamic behavior is discussed. Finally, the system configurations leading to best engine power at sea level and lowest fuel consumption in cruise

  1. Internal combustion engine exhaust pipe flow simulation. Part I: theoretical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady gas flow theory can be used for simulating a spark ignition internal combustion engine’s exhaust system, using pressure waves. The method explained here is based on the discretization of interpolated spaces (called meshes which are located throughout the whole length of the exhaust pipe, irrespective of its form or size. The most important aspects of this theory are theoretically explored, such as pressure wave movement and shock and their application to cases found in real engines’ exhaust pipes. This work also considers how the simulation must be made, based on the previous exploration. The results (presented as e- quations in this first paper show the great influence exerted by pressure wave movement on flow through the engine and there- fore on its final performance.

  2. A Mathematical Model for the Exhaust Gas Temperature Profile of a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, C. H. G.; Maia, C. B.; Sodré, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a heat transfer model for the exhaust gas of a diesel power generator to determine the gas temperature profile in the exhaust pipe. The numerical methodology to solve the mathematical model was developed using a finite difference method approach for energy equation resolution and determination of temperature profiles considering turbulent fluid flow and variable fluid properties. The simulation was carried out for engine operation under loads from 0 kW to 40 kW. The model was compared with results obtained using the multidimensional Ansys CFX software, which was applied to solve the governor equations of turbulent fluid flow. The results for the temperature profiles in the exhaust pipe show a good proximity between the mathematical model developed and the multidimensional software.

  3. The Australian Work Exposures Study: prevalence of occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in occupational settings. Diesel exhaust has been classified as a lung carcinogen, but data on number of workers exposed to different levels of diesel exhaust are not available in Australia. The aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of exposure to diesel engine exhaust in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of Australian males and females (18-65 years old) in current paid employment was undertaken. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Semi-quantitative occupational exposure levels to diesel exhaust were assigned using programmed decision rules and numbers of workers exposed in Australia in 2011 were estimated. We defined substantial exposure as exposed at a medium or high level, for at least 5h per week. Substantial occupational exposure to diesel exhaust was experienced by 13.4% of the respondents in their current job. Exposure prevalence varied across states, ranging from 6.4% in the Australian Capital Territory to 17.0% in Western Australia. Exposures occurred mainly in the agricultural, mining, transport and construction industries, and among mechanics. Men (20.4%) were more often exposed than women (4.7%). Extrapolation to the total working population indicated that 13.8% (95% confidence interval 10.0-20.4) of the 2011 Australian workforce were estimated to be substantially exposed to diesel exhaust, and 1.8% of the workers were estimated to experience high levels of exposures in their current job. About 1.2 million Australian workers were estimated to have been exposed to diesel exhaust in their workplace in 2011. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational diesel exhaust exposure in Australia and will enable estimation of the number of lung cancers attributable to diesel exhaust exposure in the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  4. Observations of primary and secondary emissions in a B747 exhaust plume in the upper troposphere and inferred engine exit plane OH concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H; Schulte, P; Tremmel, H G; Ziereis, H [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F; Droste-Franke, B; Klemm, M; Schneider, J [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The speciation of NO{sub y} exhaust emissions in the near-field plume of a B747 cruising at 9.2 km was measured in situ using the DLR Falcon research aircraft instrumented with a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer of MPI-K and a chemiluminescence NO detector of DLR. In addition, CO{sub 2} was measured providing a dilution factor for the exhaust species. Observed maximum peak concentrations above background in the plume 60 s after emission were 25.4 ppmv (CO{sub 2}), 184 ppbv (NO), 2.6 ppbv (HNO{sub 2}), and 1.3 ppbv (HNO{sub 3}). The observations were used to infer the initial OH concentration (15.4 ppmv) and NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio (0.08) at the engine exit by back calculations using a chemistry box model. (author) 20 refs.

  5. Observations of primary and secondary emissions in a B747 exhaust plume in the upper troposphere and inferred engine exit plane OH concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H.; Schulte, P.; Tremmel, H.G.; Ziereis, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F.; Droste-Franke, B.; Klemm, M.; Schneider, J. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The speciation of NO{sub y} exhaust emissions in the near-field plume of a B747 cruising at 9.2 km was measured in situ using the DLR Falcon research aircraft instrumented with a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer of MPI-K and a chemiluminescence NO detector of DLR. In addition, CO{sub 2} was measured providing a dilution factor for the exhaust species. Observed maximum peak concentrations above background in the plume 60 s after emission were 25.4 ppmv (CO{sub 2}), 184 ppbv (NO), 2.6 ppbv (HNO{sub 2}), and 1.3 ppbv (HNO{sub 3}). The observations were used to infer the initial OH concentration (15.4 ppmv) and NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio (0.08) at the engine exit by back calculations using a chemistry box model. (author) 20 refs.

  6. REQUIREMENT VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM by Theresa L. Thomas September... ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Theresa L. Thomas 7...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) systems engineering technical review (SETR) process does not

  7. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  8. Development status of rotary engine at Toyo Kogyo. [for general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of rotary engines which use a thermal reactor as the primary part of the exhaust emission control system is reviewed. Possibilities of further improvements in fuel economy of future rotary engines are indicated.

  9. A fully adaptive hybrid optimization of aircraft engine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L.; Druez, B.; Lecerf, N.

    2009-10-01

    A new fully adaptive hybrid optimization method (AHM) has been developed and applied to an industrial problem in the field of the aircraft engine industry. The adaptivity of the coupling between a global search by a population-based method (Genetic Algorithms or Evolution Strategies) and the local search by a descent method has been particularly emphasized. On various analytical test cases, the AHM method overperforms the original global search method in terms of computational time and accuracy. The results obtained on the industrial case have also confirmed the interest of AHM for the design of new and original solutions in an affordable time.

  10. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  11. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... with an electronic engine control (EEC), also known as a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC... engine design certification, and the certification requirements for engine control systems are driven by... aircraft supplied power and data failures on the engine control system, and the resulting effects on engine...

  12. Review of organic Rankine cycles for internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, Charles; Depcik, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and future carbon dioxide emission limits are creating a renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of engines beyond the limit of in-cylinder techniques. One promising mechanism that accomplishes both objectives is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. This paper reviews the history of internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery focusing on Organic Rankine Cycles since this thermodynamic cycle works well with the medium-grade energy of the exhaust. Selection of the cycle expander and working fluid are the primary focus of the review, since they are regarded as having the largest impact on system performance. Results demonstrate a potential fuel economy improvement around 10% with modern refrigerants and advancements in expander technology. -- Highlights: ► This review article focuses on engine exhaust waste heat recovery works. ► The organic Rankine cycle is superior for low to medium exergy heat sources. ► Working fluid and expander selection strongly influence efficiency. ► Several authors demonstrate viable systems for vehicle installation

  13. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  14. Conceptual study of advanced VTOL transport aircraft engine; Kosoku VTOL kiyo engine no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y; Endo, M; Matsuda, Y; Sugiyama, N; Watanabe, M; Sugahara, N; Yamamoto, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    This report proposes the concept of an ultra-low noise engine for advanced high subsonic VTOL transport aircraft, and discusses its technological feasibility. As one of the applications of the previously reported `separated core turbofan engine,` the conceptual engine is composed of 3 core engines, 2 cruise fan engines for high subsonic cruising and 6 lift fan engines producing thrust of 98kN (10000kgf)/engine. The core turbojet engine bleeds a large amount of air at the outlet of a compressor to supply driving high-pressure air for fans to other engines. The lift fan engine is composed of a lift fan, driving combustor, turbine and speed reduction gear, and is featured by not only high operation stability and thin fan engine like a separated core engine but also ultra-low noise operation. The cruise fan engine adopts the same configuration as the lift fan engine. Since this engine configuration has no technological problems difficult to be overcome, its high technological feasibility is expected. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Aircraft Flight Modeling During the Optimization of Gas Turbine Engine Working Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, A. Yu; Kuz'michev, V. S.; Krupenich, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    The article describes a method for simulating the flight of the aircraft along a predetermined path, establishing a functional connection between the parameters of the working process of gas turbine engine and the efficiency criteria of the aircraft. This connection is necessary for solving the optimization tasks of the conceptual design stage of the engine according to the systems approach. Engine thrust level, in turn, influences the operation of aircraft, thus making accurate simulation of the aircraft behavior during flight necessary for obtaining the correct solution. The described mathematical model of aircraft flight provides the functional connection between the airframe characteristics, working process of gas turbine engines (propulsion system), ambient and flight conditions and flight profile features. This model provides accurate results of flight simulation and the resulting aircraft efficiency criteria, required for optimization of working process and control function of a gas turbine engine.

  16. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  17. Advanced engine management of individual cylinders for control of exhaust species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Ronald L [Knoxville, TN; West, Brian H [Knoxville, TN; Huff, Shean P [Knoxville, TN; Parks, II, James E

    2008-12-30

    A method and system controls engine-out exhaust species of a combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders. The method typically includes various combinations of steps such as controlling combustion parameters in individual cylinders, grouping the individual cylinders into a lean set and a rich set of one or more cylinders, combusting the lean set in a lean combustion parameter condition having a lean air:fuel equivalence ratio, combusting the rich set in a rich combustion parameter condition having a rich air:fuel equivalence ratio, and adjusting the lean set and the rich set of one or more cylinders to generate net-lean combustion. The exhaust species may have elevated concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen.

  18. Fate of SO(sub 2) During Plasma Treatment of Diesel Engine Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    Several catalytic aftertreatment technologies rely on the conversion of NO to NO(sub 2) to achieve efficient reduction of NO(sub x) and particulates in diesel engine exhaust. These technologies require low sulfur fuel because the catalyst component that is active in converting NO to NO(sub 2) is also active in converting SO(sub 2) to SO(sub 3). A non-thermal plasma can be used for the selective partial oxidation of NO to NO(sub 2) in the gas-phase under diesel engine exhaust conditions. This paper discusses how a non-thermal plasma can efficiently oxidize NO to NO(sub 2) without oxidizing SO(sub 2) to SO(sub 3). It is shown that the presence of hydrocarbons in the plasma is essential for enhancing the selective partial oxidation of NO and suppressing the oxidation of SO(sub 2)

  19. DETERMINATION OF CO2 MASSES IN THE EXHAUST GASES OF THE MARINE DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru COSOFRET

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, reducing CO2 emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect is currently under attention of the relevant international bodies. In the field of maritime transport, in 2011 International Maritime Organization (IMO has taken steps to reduce emissions of CO2 from the exhaust gases of marine diesel engines on ships, by imposing their energy efficiency standards. In this regard, we conducted a laboratory study on a 4-stroke diesel engine naturally aspirated by using to power it diesel and different blends of biodiesel with diesel fuel. The purpose of the study was to determine the formulas for calculating the mass flow rates of CO2 from exhaust gases’ concentrations experimentally determined. Determining the mass flow of CO2 is necessary to calculate the energy efficiency coefficient of the ship to assess the energy efficiency of the board of the limits imposed by the IMO.

  20. Session 4: On-board exhaust gas reforming for improved performance of natural gas HCCI engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amieiro, A.; Golunski, S.; James, D. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Sonning Common, Reading (United Kingdom); Miroslaw, Wyszynski; Athanasios, Megaritis; Peucheret, S. [Birmingham Univ., School of Engineering, Future Power Systems Research Group (United Kingdom); Hongming, Xu [Jaguar Cars Ltd, W/2/021 Engineering Centre, Whitley, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Although natural gas (NG) is a non-renewable energy source, it is still a very attractive alternative fuel for transportation - it is inexpensive, abundant, and easier to refine than petroleum. Unfortunately the minimum spark energy required for NG ignition is higher than for liquid fuels, and engine performance is reduced since the higher volume of NG limits the air breathing capacity of the cylinders. On the other hand, the flammability range of NG is wider than for other hydrocarbons, so the engine can operate under leaner conditions. Environmentally, the use of NG is particularly attractive since it has a low flame temperature (resulting in reduced NO{sub x} emissions) and a low carbon content compared to diesel or gasoline (resulting in less CO, CO{sub 2} and particulate). In addition, NG is easily made sulphur-free, and has a high octane rating (RON = 110-130) which makes it suitable for high compression engine applications. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) into an engine is known to reduce both flame temperature and speed, and therefore produce lower NO{sub x} emissions. In general, a given volume of exhaust gas has a greater effect on flame speed and NO{sub x} emissions than the same quantity of excess air, although there is a limit to the amount of exhaust gas recirculation that can be used without inhibiting combustion. However, hydrogen addition to exhaust gas recirculation has been proved to reduce emissions while increasing flame speed, so improving both the emissions and the thermal efficiency of the engine. On-board reforming of some of the fuel, by reaction with exhaust gas during EGR, is a novel way of adding hydrogen to an engine. We have carried out reforming tests on mixtures of natural gas and exhaust gas at relatively low temperatures (400-600 C), to mimic the low availability of external heat within the integrated system. The reforming catalyst is a nickel-free formulation, containing precious metals promoted by metal oxides. The roles of

  1. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  2. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  3. Modified pressure loss model for T-junctions of engine exhaust manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaolu; Cui, Yi; Deng, Kangyao

    2014-11-01

    The T-junction model of engine exhaust manifolds significantly influences the simulation precision of the pressure wave and mass flow rate in the intake and exhaust manifolds of diesel engines. Current studies have focused on constant pressure models, constant static pressure models and pressure loss models. However, low model precision is a common disadvantage when simulating engine exhaust manifolds, particularly for turbocharged systems. To study the performance of junction flow, a cold wind tunnel experiment with high velocities at the junction of a diesel exhaust manifold is performed, and the variation in the pressure loss in the T-junction under different flow conditions is obtained. Despite the trend of the calculated total pressure loss coefficient, which is obtained by using the original pressure loss model and is the same as that obtained from the experimental results, large differences exist between the calculated and experimental values. Furthermore, the deviation becomes larger as the flow velocity increases. By improving the Vazsonyi formula considering the flow velocity and introducing the distribution function, a modified pressure loss model is established, which is suitable for a higher velocity range. Then, the new model is adopted to solve one-dimensional, unsteady flow in a D6114 turbocharged diesel engine. The calculated values are compared with the measured data, and the result shows that the simulation accuracy of the pressure wave before the turbine is improved by 4.3% with the modified pressure loss model because gas compressibility is considered when the flow velocities are high. The research results provide valuable information for further junction flow research, particularly the correction of the boundary condition in one-dimensional simulation models.

  4. Modelling for Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Zander, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) reduces NOx emissions by reducing O2 concentration for the combustion and is a preferred way to obtain emission regulations that will take effect from 2016. If not properly controlled, reduction of O2 has adverse side eects and proper control requires proper dynami...... principles followed by parameter identication and compares the results of these approaches. The paper performs a validation against experimental data from a test engine and presents a linearised model for EGR control design....

  5. The effect of oil additives on exhaust emission of internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, M.B.; Kuzmanovski, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    An attempt was conducted to acquire data on connection between motor oil and motor oil additives and exhaust emission of internal combustion engine. The consulted literature did not contain enough data, so experiments were conducted. The results of the experiments are presented on diagrams that have been processed in the computer program EXCEL. Conclusions that were made out of that work show the need of expanding research on the subject. (Author)

  6. Multi-stage selective catalytic reduction of NOx in lean burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. Some effort has been devoted to separating the oxidative and reductive functions of the catalyst in a multi-stage system. This method works fine for systems that require hydrocarbon addition. The hydrocarbon has to be injected between the NO oxidation catalyst and the NO{sub 2} reduction catalyst; otherwise, the first-stage oxidation catalyst will also oxidize the hydrocarbon and decrease its effectiveness as a reductant. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is appropriate for diesel engine exhausts since they contain insufficient hydrocarbons for SCR, and the hydrocarbons can be added at the desired location. For lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts, the hydrocarbons already present in the exhausts will make it necessary to find an oxidation catalyst that can oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} but not oxidize the hydrocarbon. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. Plasma oxidation has several advantages over catalytic oxidation. Plasma-assisted catalysis can work well for both diesel engine and lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts. This is because the plasma can oxidize NO in the presence of hydrocarbons without degrading the effectiveness of the hydrocarbon as a reductant for SCR. In the plasma, the hydrocarbon enhances the oxidation of NO, minimizes the electrical energy requirement, and prevents the oxidation of SO{sub 2}. This paper discusses the use of multi-stage systems for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is compared to the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme.

  7. Prediction of emissions and exhaust temperature for direct injection diesel engine with emulsified fuel using ANN

    OpenAIRE

    KÖKKÜLÜNK, Görkem; AKDOĞAN, Erhan; AYHAN, Vezir

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust gases have many effects on human beings and the environment. Therefore, they must be kept under control. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), which is concerned with the prevention of marine pollution, limits the emissions according to the regulations. In Emission Control Area (ECA) regions, which are determined by MARPOL as ECAs, the emission rates should be controlled. Direct injection (DI) diesel engines are commonly used as a prop...

  8. A source-independent empirical correction procedure for the fast mobility and engine exhaust particle sizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wang, Jonathan M.; Ramos, Manuel; Wallace, James S.; Evans, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    The TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) provide size distributions for 6-560 nm particles with a time resolution suitable for characterizing transient particle sources; however, the accuracy of these instruments can be source dependent, due to influences of particle morphology. The aim of this study was to develop a source-independent correction protocol for the FMPS and EEPS. The correction protocol consists of: (1) broadening the >80 nm size range of the distribution to account for under-sizing by the FMPS and EEPS; (2) applying an existing correction protocol in the 8-93 nm size range; and (3) dividing each size bin by the ratio of total concentration measured by the FMPS or EEPS and a water-based Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) as a surrogate scaling factor to account for particle morphology. Efficacy of the correction protocol was assessed for three sources: urban ambient air, diluted gasoline direct injection engine exhaust, and diluted diesel engine exhaust. Linear regression against a reference instrument, the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), before and after applying the correction protocol demonstrated that the correction ensured agreement within 20%.

  9. Flow effects due to valve and piston motion in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow regime identification depending on the valve lift during the exhaust stroke. • Analysis of the valve motion effect onto the flow development in the exhaust port. • Physical interpretation of commonly used discharge and flow coefficient formulations. • Illustration of flow effects in junction regions with pulsatile flow. - Abstract: Performance optimization regarding e.g. exhaust valve strategies in an internal combustion engine is often performed based on one-dimensional simulation investigation. Commonly, a discharge coefficient is used to describe the flow behavior in complex geometries, such as the exhaust port. This discharge coefficient for an exhaust port is obtained by laboratory experiments at fixed valve lifts, room temperatures, and low total pressure drops. The present study investigates the consequences of the valve and piston motion onto the energy losses and the discharge coefficient. Therefore, Large Eddy Simulations are performed in a realistic internal combustion geometry using three different modeling strategies, i.e. fixed valve lift and fixed piston, moving piston and fixed valve lift, and moving piston and moving valve, to estimate the energy losses. The differences in the flow field development with the different modeling approaches is delineated and the dynamic effects onto the primary quantities, e.g. discharge coefficient, are quantified. Considering the motion of piston and valves leads to negative total pressure losses during the exhaust cycle, which cannot be observed at fixed valve lifts. Additionally, the induced flow structures develop differently when valve motion is taken into consideration, which leads to a significant disparity of mass flow rates evolving through the two individual valve ports. However, accounting for piston motion and limited valve motion, leads to a minor discharge coefficient alteration of about one to two percent

  10. Failure Investigation of WB-57 Aircraft Engine Cowling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Gafka, T.; Figert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the home of the NASA WB-57 High Altitude Research Program. Three fully operational WB-57 aircraft are based near JSC at Ellington Field. The aircraft have been flying research missions since the early 1960's, and continue to be an asset to the scientific community with professional, reliable, customer-oriented service designed to meet all scientific objectives. The NASA WB-57 Program provides unique, high-altitude airborne platforms to US Government agencies, academic institutions, and commercial customers in order to support scientific research and advanced technology development and testing at locations around the world. Mission examples include atmospheric and earth science, ground mapping, cosmic dust collection, rocket launch support, and test bed operations for future airborne or spaceborne systems. During the return from a 6 hour flight, at 30,000 feet, in the clean configuration, traveling at 175 knots indicated airspeed, in un-accelerated flight with the auto pilot engaged, in calm air, the 2-man crew heard a mechanical bang and felt a slight shudder followed by a few seconds of high frequency vibration. The crew did not notice any other abnormalities leading up to, or for the remaining 1 hour of flight and made an uneventful landing. Upon taxi into the chocks, the recovery ground crew noticed the high frequency long wire antenna had become disconnected from the vertical stabilizer and was trailing over the left inboard wing, and that the left engine upper center removable cowling panel was missing, with noticeable damage to the left engine inboard cowling fixed structure. The missing cowling panel was never recovered. Each engine cowling panel is attached to the engine nacelle using six bushings made of 17-4 PH steel. The cylinder portions of four of the six bushings were found still attached to the aircraft (Fig 1). The other two bushings were lost with the panel. The other four bushings exhibited

  11. Mass spectral chemical fingerprints reveal the molecular dependence of exhaust particulate matters on engine speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Zongshan; Tian, Yong; Liu, Kun; Jie, Feifan; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matters (PMs) emitted by automobile exhaust contribute to a significant fraction of the global PMs. Extractive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (EAPCI-MS) was developed to explore the molecular dependence of PMs collected from exhaust gases produced at different vehicle engine speeds. The mass spectral fingerprints of the organic compounds embedded in differentially sized PMs (e.g., 0.22-0.45, 0.45-1.00, 1.00-2.00, 2.00-3.00, 3.00-5.00, and 5.00-10.00μm) generated at different engine speeds (e.g., 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000r/min) were chemically profiled in the mass range of mass to charge ratio (m/z) 50-800. Organic compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, and esters, were detected in all the PMs tested, with varied concentration levels for each individual PM sample. At relatively low engine speeds (≤1500r/min), the total amount of organic species embedded in PMs of 0.22-1.00μm was greater than in PMs of other sizes, while more organic species were found in PMs of 5.00-10.00μm at high engine speeds (≥3000r/min), indicating that the organic compounds distributed in different sizes of PMs strongly correlated with the engine speed. The experimental data showed that the EAPCI-MS technique enables molecular characterization of PMs in exhaust, revealing the chemical dependence of PMs on the engine speeds (i.e., the combustion conditions) of automobiles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. 76 FR 40219 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... forced landing, damage to the aeroplane and injury to occupants. This AD requires actions that are... engine shutdown leading to a forced landing. A forced landing could result in damage to the airplane and...-hours per product to comply with the basic requirements of this AD. The average labor rate is $85 per...

  13. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely engine wear and escape into the atmosphere.

  14. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C P; Davy, Martin H; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  15. Exhaust temperature analysis of four stroke diesel engine by using MWCNT/Water nanofluids as coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, M.; Mukesh Kumar, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a continuous improvement in designing of cooling system and in quality of internal combustion engine coolants. The liquid engine coolant used in early days faced many difficulties such as low boiling, freezing points and inherently poor thermal conductivity. Moreover, the conventional coolants have reached their limitations of heat dissipating capacity. New heat transfer fluids have been developed and named as nanofluids to try to replace traditional coolants. Moreover, many works are going on the application of nanofluids to avail the benefits of them. In this experimental investigation, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% volume concentrations of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/water nanofluids have been prepared by two step method with surfactant and is used as a coolant in four stroke single cylinder diesel engine to assess the exhaust temperature of the engine. The nanofluid prepared is characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to confirm uniform dispersion and stability of nanotube with zeta potential analyzer. Experimental tests are performed by various mass flow rate such as 270 300 330 LPH (litre per hour) of coolant nanofluids and by changing the load in the range of 0 to 2000 W and by keeping the engine speed constant. It is found that the exhaust temperature decreases by 10-20% when compared to water as coolant at the same condition.

  16. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection Diesel engine when operating on shale oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on Diesel fuel and shale oil that is produced in Estonia from local oil shale. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of practical usage of the shale oil as the alternative fuel for a high speed Diesel engine as well as to evaluate the combustion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, emission composition changes and the smoke opacity of the exhausts. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with shale oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.3% and 20.4%. However, the brake thermal efficiencies do not differ widely and their maximum values remain equal to 0.36-0.37 for Diesel fuel and 0.32-0.33 for shale oil. The total nitrogen oxide emissions from the shale oil at engine partial loads remain considerably lower although when running at the maximum torque and rated power, the NO x emissions become correspondingly higher by 21.8% and 27.6%. The smoke opacity of the fully loaded engine at a wide range of speeds is lower by 30-35%, whereas the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhausts at moderate and full load regimes do not undergo significant changes

  17. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  18. A highly efficient six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle with water injection for in-cylinder exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, James C.; Szybist, James P.

    2010-01-01

    A concept adding two strokes to the Otto or Diesel engine cycle to increase fuel efficiency is presented here. It can be thought of as a four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. A partial exhaust event coupled with water injection adds an additional power stroke. Waste heat from two sources is effectively converted into usable work: engine coolant and exhaust gas. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection and expansion was used to investigate this modification. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during the exhaust stroke, the optimum amount of exhaust can be recompressed, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEP steam ). The valve closing timing for maximum MEP steam is limited by either 1 bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens. The range of MEP steam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline engine and is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEP combustion ) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

  19. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  20. Exhaust Recirculation Control for Reduction of NOx from Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder

    Increased awareness of the detrimental effects on climate, ecosystems and human health have led to numerous restrictions of the emissions from internal combustion engines. Recently the International Maritime Organization has introduced the Tier III standard, which includes a significantly stricter...... the automotive industry, but have only recently been introduced commercially to large two-stroke diesel engines. Recirculation of exhaust gas to the cylinders lowers the oxygen availability and increases the heat capacity during combustion, which in turn leads to less formation of NOx. Experience shows...... of the Tier III standard, while still maintaining maneuverability performance without smoke formation. The design methods acknowledge that engine specific parameter tuning is a scarce resource in the industry and controller complexity is kept to a minimum. An existing dynamic model of the engine and EGR...

  1. 76 FR 72087 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ...; Special Conditions No. 23-253-SC] Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG..., Model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with an... include the new model DA- 40NG with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 Aircraft Diesel Engine (ADE). The...

  2. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to adopt emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  3. Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Ali Can; Uludamar, Erinc; Aydin, Kadir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH{sub (aq)}, NaOH{sub (aq)}, NaCl{sub (aq)}) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on exhaust emissions and engine performance characteristics were investigated. Experiments showed that constant HHO flow rate at low engine speeds (under the critical speed of 1750 rpm for this experimental study), turned advantages of HHO system into disadvantages for engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and specific fuel consumption (SFC). Investigations demonstrated that HHO flow rate had to be diminished in relation to engine speed below 1750 rpm due to the long opening time of intake manifolds at low speeds. This caused excessive volume occupation of hydroxy in cylinders which prevented correct air to be taken into the combustion chambers and consequently, decreased volumetric efficiency was inevitable. Decreased volumetric efficiency influenced combustion efficiency which had negative effects on engine torque and exhaust emissions. Therefore, a hydroxy electronic control unit (HECU) was designed and manufactured to decrease HHO flow rate by decreasing voltage and current automatically by programming the data logger to compensate disadvantages of HHO gas on SFC, engine torque and exhaust emissions under engine speed of 1750 rpm. The flow rate of HHO gas was measured by using various amounts of KOH, NaOH, NaCl (catalysts). These catalysts were added into the water to diminish hydrogen and oxygen bonds and NaOH was specified as the most appropriate catalyst. It was observed that if the molality of NaOH in solution exceeded 1% by mass, electrical current supplied from the battery increased dramatically due to the too much

  4. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9678-1] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages 36341-36386 in the issue of Monday, June 18, 2012, make the following corrections: Sec. 87.2...

  5. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation in diesel engines featuring late PCCI type combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects that a high EGR rate can have on PCCI type combustion strategies have been analyzed. • The dependence of engine emissions and combustion noise on EGR has been addressed. • The time histories of the main in-cylinder variables have been plotted for different EGR rates. - Abstract: The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been analyzed considering experimental results obtained from a Euro 5 diesel engine calibrated with an optimized pilot-main double injection strategy. The engine features a late premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) type combustion mode. Different steady-state key-points that are representative of the engine application in a passenger car over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) have been studied. The engine was fully instrumented to obtain a complete overview of the most important variables. The pressure time history in the combustion chamber has been measured to perform calculations with single and three-zone combustion diagnostic models. These models allow the in-cylinder emissions and the temperature of the burned and unburned zones to be evaluated as functions of the crankshaft angle. The EGR mass fraction was experimentally varied within the 0–50% range. The results of the investigation have shown the influence that high EGR rates can have on intake and exhaust temperatures, in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate time histories, engine-out emissions (CO, HC, NO_x, soot), brake specific fuel consumption and combustion noise for a PCCI type combustion strategy. The outputs of the diagnostic models have been used to conduct a detailed analysis of the cause-and-effect relationships between the EGR rate variations and the engine performance. Finally, the effect of the EGR on the cycle-to-cycle variability of the engine torque has been experimentally investigated.

  6. Safety Assessment of a Metal Cask under Aircraft Engine Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of a dual-purpose metal cask currently under development by the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD was evaluated, through numerical simulations and a model test, under high-speed missile impact reflecting targeted aircraft crash conditions. The impact conditions were carefully chosen through a survey on accident cases and recommendations from literature. In the impact scenario, a missile flying horizontally hits the top side of the cask, which is freestanding on a concrete pad, with a velocity of 150 m/s. A simplified missile simulating a commercial aircraft engine was designed from an impact load–time function available in literature. In the analyses, the dynamic behavior of the metal cask and the integrity of the containment boundary were assessed. The simulation results were compared with the test results for a 1:3 scale model. Although the dynamic behavior of the cask in the model test did not match exactly with the prediction from the numerical simulation, other structural responses, such as the acceleration and strain history during the impact, showed very good agreement. Moreover, the containment function of the cask survived the missile impact as expected from the numerical simulation. Thus, the procedure and methodology adopted in the structural numerical analyses were successfully validated.

  7. Aircraft crash protection from a military engineering point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The general problem is to investigate the situation of an aircraft crash on a reactor building. One aspect of the problem is to determine if the structural conditions required to protect the environment against the results of an impact at the center of a 10 m by 10 m reinforced concrete wall slab are reasonable. This paper discusses the dynamic structural response problem, using the analytical methods developed for military structures designed to resist blast loading. The military protection problem is quite similar to reactor protection in that extensive analysis is required to define the threat or loading conditions. The post-dynamic-loading structural requirements must also be defined, since every possible source of resistance is used to obtain a structure which protects against the stated threat at the lowest cost. Such a structural design contains the lowest possible factor of safety, using reasonable analytical techniques, and is more properly called collapse design. If more protection is provided than required, the cost will be greater than necessary. An aircraft jet engine impact is selected as the loading condition for the protection requirements of the reactor wall panel. Analytical investigation of the impact indicates that the load function can be reasonably well approximated by the half sine wave pressure-time curve. Thus, the maximum pressure and duration of the half sine pressure pulse completely define the load-time history. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  9. Prehistory and state of catalytic exhaust gas detoxification of vehicle engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischinger, F

    1985-01-01

    The application of catalyst techniques to exhaust gas detoxification of car engines has a prehistory of about 60 years. There were important attempts at further development in the 1940's and 1950's in connection with efforts to comply with the legal measures in California caused by the smog problem in Los Angeles. The technical difficulties had been overcome by the mid-1970's, so that catalytic converters could be introduced into mass production of cars in the USA. Their function was first mainly limited to oxidation of noxious substances in the exhaust gas. Catalysts were first used to reduce nitrogen oxide emission in 1977. The 3 way catalyst now used in mass production in the USA permits the simultaneous reduction of all three important types of noxious substances emitted from petrol engines. In order to ensure the most favourable composition of the exhaust gas for this purpose, the 3 way catalyst is combined with electronic control of the formation of the mixture. The catalytic converter for cars represents by far the most economically important industrial application of catalyst techniques today. There is not other alternative for achieving the low emission of noxious substances which can be reached by this technique. (HW).

  10. IDI diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using biodiesel with an artificial neural network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prasada Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its fuel properties and compatibility. This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder four stroke indirect diesel injection (IDI engine fueled with Rice Bran Methyl Ester (RBME with Isopropanol additive. The investigation is done through a combination of experimental data analysis and artificial neural network (ANN modeling. The study used IDI engine experimental data to evaluate nine engine performance and emission parameters including Exhaust Gas Temperature (E.G.T, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, Brake Thermal Efficiency (B.The and various emissions like Hydrocarbons (HC, Carbon monoxide (CO, Carbon dioxide (CO2, Oxygen (O2, Nitrogen oxides (NOX and smoke. For the ANN modeling standard back propagation algorithm was found to be the optimum choice for training the model. A multi-layer perception (MLP network was used for non-linear mapping between the input and output parameters. It was found that ANN was able to predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions with a correlation coefficient of 0.995, 0.980, 0.999, 0.985, 0.999, 0.999, 0.980, 0.999, and 0.999 for E.G.T, BSFC, B.The, HC, O2, CO2, CO, NOX, smoke respectively.

  11. Aerotrace. Measurement of trace species in the exhaust of aero engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottington, R V [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    There is growing evidence that trace species, both gaseous and particulate, play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Very little is currently known about the nature and concentration of these species emitted by aircraft engines. The purpose of AEROTRACE, therefore, is to make representative measurements of trace species emissions, such as particulates, hydrocarbon constituents and various nitrogen compounds, from engine combustors over the entire flight altitude range from ground level to cruise conditions. An overview of the programme and progress to date is presented. (author)

  12. Aerotrace. Measurement of trace species in the exhaust of aero engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottington, R.V. [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    There is growing evidence that trace species, both gaseous and particulate, play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Very little is currently known about the nature and concentration of these species emitted by aircraft engines. The purpose of AEROTRACE, therefore, is to make representative measurements of trace species emissions, such as particulates, hydrocarbon constituents and various nitrogen compounds, from engine combustors over the entire flight altitude range from ground level to cruise conditions. An overview of the programme and progress to date is presented. (author)

  13. Experimental Study on the Plasma Purification for Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zu, Kan; Wang, Mei

    2018-02-01

    It is known that the use of ternary catalysis is capable of significantly reducing the emission of pollutants from petrol vehicles. However, the disadvantages such as the temperature and other limitations make it unsuitable for diesel engines. The plasma-assisted catalyst technology has been applied in dealing with the diesel exhaust in the experiment in order to do further research on the effects of plasma in exhaust processing. The paper not only includes the experimental observation on the change of particle concentration after the operation of purification device, but also builds the kinetic model of chemical reactions to simulate the reactions of nitrogen oxides in plasma through using the software of Matlab, then compares the calculation results with experimental samples and finally gets some useful conclusions in practice.

  14. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimi Hessamedin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction losses from the total energy losses. The total pressure loss coefficient has been related to the extrapolated Mach number in the common branch and to the mass flow rate ratio between branches at different flow configurations, in both combining and dividing flows. The study indicate that the numerical results were generally in good agreement with those of experimental data from the literature and will be applied as a boundary condition in one-dimensional global simulation models of fluid systems in which these components are present.

  15. Investigation of diesel engine for low exhaust emissions with different combustion chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodke Pundlik R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upcoming stringent Euro-6 emission regulations for passenger vehicle better fuel economy, low cost are the key challenges for engine development. In this paper, 2.2L, multi cylinder diesel engine have been tested for four different piston bowls designed for compression ratio of CR 15.5 to improve in cylinder performance and reduce emissions. These combustion chambers were verified in CFD at two full load points. 14 mode points have been derived using vehicle model run in AVL CRUISE software as per NEDC cycle based on time weightage factor. Base engine with compression ratio CR16.5 for full load performance and 14-mode points on Engine test bench was taken as reference for comparison. The bowl with flat face on bottom corner has shown reduction 25% and 12 % NOx emissions at 1500 and 3750 rpm full load points at same level of Soot emissions. Three piston bowls were tested for full load performance and 14 mode points on engine test bench and combustion chamber ‘C’ has shown improvement in thermal efficiency by 0.8%. Combinations of cooled EGR and combustion chamber ‘C’ with geometrical changes in engine have reduced exhaust NOx, soot and CO emissions by 22%, 9 % and 64 % as compared to base engine at 14 mode points on engine test bench.

  16. Ion beam analyses of particulate matter in exhaust gas of a ship diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Yuichi, E-mail: furuyama@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukae-Minami-Machi, Higashinada-Ku, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan); Fujita, Hirotsugu; Taniike, Akira; Kitamura, Akira [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukae-Minami-Machi, Higashinada-Ku, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    There is an urgent need to reduce emission of the particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship diesel engines causing various health hazards and serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships is of low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, the emission of PM along with exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues. However, the PM fundamental properties are not well known. Therefore, it is important to perform elemental analysis of the PM. The HFO contains sulfur with a relatively high concentration of a few percent. It is important to make quantitative measurements of sulfur in the PM, because this element is poisonous for the human body. In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a test engine, and RBS and PIXE analyses were applied successfully to quantitative analysis of the PM samples. The RBS analysis enabled quantitative analysis of sulfur and carbon in the collected PM, while heavier elements such as vanadium and iron were analyzed quantitatively with the PIXE analysis. It has been found that the concentration ratio of sulfur to carbon was between 0.007 and 0.012, and did not strongly depend on the output power of the engine. The S/C ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the HFO used in the present work, 0.01. From the known conversion ratio 0.015 of sulfur in the HFO to sulfates, the conversion ratio of carbon in the HFO to the PM is found to be 0.01-0.02 by the RBS measurements. On the other hand, the PIXE analysis revealed a vanadium enrichment of one order of magnitude in the PM.

  17. Designing a heat pipe to improve the exhaust emissions from petrol engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmabrouk, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The national engineering Laboratory and the Shell research laboratory have co-operated in applying the heat pipe to the problem of exhaust emission from petrol engine. It is known that the carbon monoxide CO, un-burnt hydrocarbons (H x C y ) and oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ) content of the exhaust will vary with air to fuel ratio as shown in figure (1), in a conventional car engine the maximum efficiency is achieved at 15:1 and maximum power is obtained at 12:1. It's known that as the air fuel ratio increases, the CO content decreases and H x C y , NO x go through a minimum and maximum respectively. A considerable important in both CO and NO x content could be chivied by selecting a very weak mixture, but this not possible in a standard engine carburetor system due to the ignition difficulty, because the fuel is not fully vaporized, and because the fuel is not distributed equally between the cylinders and the vapor content is not as high as it should be due to the pressure of liquid fuel. This problem could be solved by designing a heat pipe that can transferring a certain quantities of heat from the exhaust to the induction manifold at the carburetor outlet as shown in figure (2). Under this condition a mixture as lean as 22:1 will ignite with out difficulty. In this paper, a complete design of heat pipe is carried out, taking into account the necessary criteria to decide various geometrical parameters. The design has been carried out using basic formulas in thermodynamics, heat transfer and physics. The result of this design have been checked for various practical limits. (author)

  18. Effects of a biodiesel blend on energy distribution and exhaust emissions of a small CI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, Agnese; Mancaruso, Ezio; Vaglieco, Bianca Maria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • B20 does not affect the brake thermal efficiency and the engine energetic flows with respect to diesel fuel. • B20 is characterized by lower combustion noise than diesel fuel. • B20 emits lower CO, HC and PM in the most of the operating conditions. • A definite trend of NO x emissions for B20 with respect to diesel fuel was not found. • B20 emits more nuclei particles than diesel fuel. - Abstract: This paper investigates the energy distribution and the waste heat energy characteristics of a compression ignition engine for micro-cogeneration applications, at different engine speeds and loads. The experimental activity was carried out on a three-cylinder, 1028 cc, common-rail engine. Tests were performed with diesel fuel and a 20% v/v biodiesel blend (B20). The quantity and the quality of the waste heat energy were studied through energy and exergy analyses, respectively. Combustion characteristics were investigated by means of indicating data. Gaseous emissions were measured and particles were characterized in terms of number and size at exhaust. It was found out that the addition of 20% v/v of RME to diesel fuel does not affect significantly the brake fuel conversion efficiency and the energetic flows. On the other hand, biodiesel blend allows to reduce the combustion noise and the pollutants emissions in most of the operating conditions. A proper phasing of the injection strategy for the biodiesel blend could further reduce the exhaust emissions, mainly at high engine speeds. The results presented in this paper could be useful for the development of diesel engine based micro-cogeneration systems working at different engine speeds and loads

  19. Aircraft and ancillary materials. 2. ; Engine materials. Kokuki to sono shuhen zairyo. 2. ; Engine zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-05

    This paper summarizes materials for aircraft engines. Jet engines are the mainstream today, which are classified according to their operation process into a turbo jet engine, a turbo prop engine, a turbo shaft engine, and a turbo fan engine. Japan has produced 1543 engines in the past decade, almost all of which are supplied to the Defense Agency. Jet engines use mainly Ni-group heat-resistant alloys, titanium alloys and steels. Improvement of engine efficiency has caused turbine inlet temperatures to rise to 1400[degree]C to 1500[degree]C that give rise to grain boundary cracking. To prevent this, discussions are in progress on monocrystal blades replacing the conventional polycrystal precision casts. Intermetallic compounds including Al/Ti are expected especially of use as jet engine constructing materials from their high melting point and formability. Discussions are preceding on ceramics as to coating them intended of improving heat resistance. Composite materials have a problem of insufficient mechanical strength remaining unsolved. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Sustainability assessment of turbofan engine with mixed exhaust through exergetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadon, S.; Redzuan, M. S. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the theory, methods and example application are described for a CF6 high-bypass turbofan engine with mixed exhaust flow based on exergo-sustainable point of view. To determine exergetic sustainability index, the turbofan engine has to undergo detailed exergy analysis. The sustainability indicators reviewed here are the overall exergy efficiency of the system, waste exergy ratio, exergy destruction factor, environmental effect factor and the exergetic sustainability index. The results obtained for these parameters are 26.9%, 73.1%, 38.6%, 2.72 and 0.37, respectively, for the maximum take-off condition of the engine. These results would be useful to better understand the connection between the propulsion system parameters and their impact to the environment in order to make it more sustainable for future development.

  1. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Müller, Andreas; Schott, Andreas; Zöllner, Christian; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD) of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF) to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the “engine-out” soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS) agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content. PMID:26580621

  2. Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation--a review on advanced and novel concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ming E-mail: mzheng@uwindsor.ca; Reader, Graham T.; Hawley, J. Gary

    2004-04-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NO{sub x} reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous emissions and even power losses. In this research, the paths and limits to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from Diesel engines are briefly reviewed, and the inevitable uses of EGR are highlighted. The impact of EGR on Diesel operations is analyzed and a variety of ways to implement EGR are outlined. Thereafter, new concepts regarding EGR stream treatment and EGR hydrogen reforming are proposed.

  3. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Müller, Andreas; Schott, Andreas; Zöllner, Christian; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-11-13

    Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD) of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF) to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the "engine-out" soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS) agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content.

  4. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Feulner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the “engine-out” soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content.

  5. Photochemical transformation of aircraft exhausts at their transition from the plume to the large scale dispersion in the Northern temperature belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karol, I L; Kiselev, A A [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The 2-D diurnally varying photochemical model of the Northern temperate zonal tropospheric belt with fixed (off line) temperature and air transport is used for the description of the formation of aircraft exhaust concentration distribution in the North Atlantic commercial flight corridor, based on actual flights in summer and winter. A strong diurnal and seasonal variation of emitted NO{sub x} oxidation rate is revealed and evaluated. (author) 11 refs.

  6. Photochemical transformation of aircraft exhausts at their transition from the plume to the large scale dispersion in the Northern temperature belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The 2-D diurnally varying photochemical model of the Northern temperate zonal tropospheric belt with fixed (off line) temperature and air transport is used for the description of the formation of aircraft exhaust concentration distribution in the North Atlantic commercial flight corridor, based on actual flights in summer and winter. A strong diurnal and seasonal variation of emitted NO{sub x} oxidation rate is revealed and evaluated. (author) 11 refs.

  7. Investigation of microalgae HTL fuel effects on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions using surrogate fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Farhad M.; Nabi, Md. Nurun; Rainey, Thomas J.; Bodisco, Timothy; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Suara, Kabir; Rahman, S.M.A.; Van, Thuy Chu; Ristovski, Zoran; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a microalgae HTL surrogate of biocrude fuel using chemical compounds. • Physiochemical properties of surrogate blends were analysed. • Experimentally investigated diesel engine performance and emissions using surrogate fuels. • No significant changes in engine performance were observed with HTL surrogate blends. • Major emissions including PM, PN and CO were reduced significantly with increasing of NOx emission. - Abstract: This paper builds on previous work using surrogate fuel to investigate advanced internal combustion engine fuels. To date, a surrogate fuel of this nature has not been used for microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) biocrude. This research used five different chemical groups found in microalgae HTL biocrude to design a surrogate fuel. Those five chemical groups constitute around 65% (by weight) of a microalgae biocrude produced by HTL. Weight percentage of the microalgae HTL biocrude chemical compounds were used to design the surrogate fuel, which was miscible with diesel at all percentages. The engine experiments were conducted on a EURO IIIA turbocharged common-rail direct-injection six-cylinder diesel engine to test engine performance and emissions. Exhaust emissions, including particulate matter and other gaseous emissions, were measured with the surrogate fuel and a reference diesel fuel. Experimental results showed that without significantly deteriorating engine performance, lower particulate mass, particulate number and CO emissions were observed with a penalty in NOx emissions for all surrogate blends compared to those of the reference diesel.

  8. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications. Koku engine yo zairyo no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The thrust/weight ratio which is thrust per unit weight of engine is a parameter of aircraft engine performance. With a mean material density of 6.6g/cm[sup 3], some of the supersonic plane engines are 7.9 in thrust/weight ratio. Its attaining 20 is predicted by some reports. The turbine inlet temperature is a parameter of engine temperature heightening exceeds 1400[degree]C. Its attaining 2000[degree]C in the 21st century is also predicted by some reports. By dividing the aircraft engine materials into both improvement and innovation material systems, the present paper explained the characteristics and present status of materials, and how to put them in practical use. As an improvement material, titanium alloy, nickel base alloy and resinous composite materials were exhibited with examples of having improved the established material system in performance and cost. Used as a turbine vane member, the nickel base alloy contributes, as a unidirectional coagulation alloy, single crystal alloy and oxide dispersion exciting alloy, to the creep resistance strengthening at high temperatures against the fatigue due to thermal strain. It is also explained how to put TiAl and FRM to practical use. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Experimental analysis of diffusion absorption refrigerator driven by electrical heater and engine exhaust gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge ADJIBADE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of H20-NH3-H2 diffusion absorption refrigeration under two types of energy sources, i.e. the conventional electric energy from grid (electric and exhaust gas from internal combustion engine. Dynamic method is used to evaluate the behavior of the components of the system for both energy sources. Results obtained show that the performance of each component under different types of energy sources is almost coherent. For the generator, the electrical heater system requires more time to warm up, around three minutes, compared to the 40 s for system running with exhaust gas. For the evaporator, the decreasing rate is higher for the exhaust gas source and it took only about two hours to reach steady-state while for the electrical heat, the steady-state is reached after about seven hours of operation. For both energy sources, the evaporation temperature stabilizes to 3 °C and the minimum temperature to boil off ammonia is around 140 °C.

  10. Device for the catalytic after-burning of exhaust gases in the exhaust gas system of an internal-combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, K

    1975-06-19

    The invention deals with a device which protects the catalyst for the after-burning of exhaust gases against damage by high temperatures. When the catalyst temperature reaches a certain limiting value, a throttle is activated by an electrical control device influenced by a temperature sensor via a servomotor. The throttle valve opens a by-pass for the exhaust gases which had previously flowed through the system for catalytic after-burning. In order to prevent the throttle from rusting due to its rare use, it is regularly put into use after switching off the ignition of the internal-combustion engine by the still briefly present oil pressure in the engine via an oil pressure switch and the mentioned control device.

  11. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  12. Development of Advanced Carbon Face Seals for Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaleev, S. V.; Bondarchuk, P. V.; Tisarev, A. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Modern aircraft gas turbine engines require the development of seals which can operate for a long time with low leakages. The basic type of seals applied for gas turbine engine rotor supports is face seal. To meet the modern requirements of reliability, leak-tightness and weight, low-leakage gas-static and hydrodynamic seals have to be developed. Dry gas seals use both gas-static and hydrodynamic principles. In dry gas seals microgrooves are often used, which ensure the reverse injection of leakages in the sealed cavity. Authors have developed a calculation technique including the concept of coupled hydrodynamic, thermal and structural calculations. This technique allows to calculate the seal performance taking into account the forces of inertia, rupture of the lubricant layer and the real form of the gap. Authors have compared the efficiency of seals with different forms of microgrooves. Results of calculations show that seal with rectangular form of microgrooves has a little gap leading to both the contact of seal surfaces and the wear. Reversible microgrooves have a higher oil mass flow rate, whereas HST micro-grooves have good performance, but they are difficult to produce. Spiral microgrooves have both an acceptable leakages and a high stiffness of liquid layer that is important in terms of ensuring of sealing performance at vibration conditions. Therefore, the spiral grooves were chosen for the developed seal. Based on calculation results, geometric dimensions were chosen to ensure the reliability of the seal operation by creating a guaranteed liquid film, which eliminates the wear of the sealing surfaces. Seals designed were tested both at the test rig and in the engine.

  13. Research and development of turbofan engine for supersonic aircraft. Choonsokukiyo turbofan engine no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashima, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-01-01

    This paper described the researched results of the demonstrator of a turbofan engine for supersonic aircraft (IHI-17). A turbofan engine with an afterburner was experimentally fabricated and various engine tests have been carried out since 1988. Although the engine size is small, the fighter engine specifications were applied to its design and the prior or simultaneous research on each component was carried out. As a result, the system integration technique by which an engine was assembled by integrating each component could be established. New materials and new manufacturing techniques such as turbine blades of single crystal, turbine disks of powder metallurgy and deep chemical milling for a duct were developed to use for the long term engine test and the prospect to commercialization could be obtained. The following techniques have been established and the results satisfying target specifications could be achieved: the three dimensional aerodynamic design of compressor and turbine, the adoption of air blast fuel atomizer to suppress the smoke generation, an afterburner of spray bar system and the mounting type FADEC (full authority digital electronic control) to control the engine with the afterburner. 4 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  15. Comparative study of different exhaust heat exchangers effect on the performance and exergy analysis of a diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatami, M.; Boot, M.D.; Ganji, D.D.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the effect of three designed heat exchangers on the performance of an OM314 diesel engine and its exergy balance is investigated. Vortex generator heat exchanger (HEX), optimized finned-tube HEX and non-optimized HEX are considered and mounted on the exhaust of diesel engine.

  16. Application of L.D.A. to measure instantaneous flow velocity field in the exhaust of a combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutrif, M.S.; Thelliez, M.

    1993-01-01

    We present experimental results of instantaneous velocity measurement, which were obtained by application of the laser Doppler anemometry (L.D.A.) at the exhaust pipe of a reciprocating engine under real working conditions. First of all, we show that the instantaneous velocity is monodimensional along a straight exhaust pipe, and that the boundary layer develops within a 2 mm thickness. We also show that the cylinder discharges in two phases: the blow down period and the final part of exhaust stroke. We also make obvious, that the flow escapes very quickly: its velocity varies betwen -100 m/s and 200 m/s within a period shorter than 1 ms; thereby, we do record the acoustic resonance phenomenon, when the engine speed is greater than 3 000 rpm. Finally, we show that in the exhaust pipe the apparent fluctuation - i.e. the cyclic dispersion and the actual turbulence - may reach 15%. (orig.)

  17. Oxidative destruction of biomolecules by gasoline engine exhaust products and detoxifying effects of the three-way catalytic converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaurock, B; Hippeli, S; Metz, N; Elstner, E F

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of engine exhaust condensation products were derived from cars powered by diesel or four-stroke gasoline engines (with and without three-way catalytic converter). The cars were operated on a static test platform. Samples of the different exhaust solutions accumulated in a Grimmer-type distillation trap (VDI 3872) during standard test programs (Federal Test Procedure) were incubated with important biomolecules. As indicators of reactive oxygen species or oxidative destruction, ascorbic acid, cysteine, glutathione, serum albumin, the enzymes glycerinaldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, and the oxygen free-radical indicator keto-methylthiobutyrate were used. During and after the incubations, oxygen activation (consumption) and oxidative destruction were determined. Comparison of the oxidative activities of the different types of exhaust condensates clearly showed that the exhaust condensate derived from the four-stroke car equipped with a three-way catalytic converter exhibited by far the lowest oxidative and destructive power.

  18. Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Natural-Gas Fueled Dual-Fuel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioji, Masahiro; Ishiyama, Takuji; Ikegami, Makoto; Mitani, Shinichi; Shibata, Hiroaki

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, experiments were done for some operational parameters on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the pilot fuel quantity should be increased and its injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission in the middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. Unburned hydrocarbon emission and thermal efficiency are improved by avoiding too lean natural gas mixture by restricting intake charge air. However, the improvement is limited because the ignition of pilot fuel deteriorates with excessive throttling. It is concluded that an adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation.

  19. Influence of metallic based fuel additives on performance and exhaust emissions of diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Tarsus Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin, E-mail: mguru@gazi.edu.t [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this experimental study, influence of the metallic-based additives on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engine were investigated. The metallic-based additives were produced by synthesizing of resin acid (abietic acid) with MnO{sub 2} or MgO. These additives were doped into diesel fuel at the rate of 8 {mu}mol/l and 16 {mu}mol/l for preparing test fuels. Both additives improved the properties of diesel fuel such as viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point. The fuels with and without additives were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. Maximum reduction of specific fuel consumption was recorded as 4.16%. CO emission and smoke opacity decreased by 16.35% and by 29.82%, respectively. NO{sub x} emission was measured higher and CO{sub 2} emission was not changed considerably with the metallic-based additives.

  20. Optical system for CO and NO gas detection in the exhaust manifold of combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.; De Vittorio, M.; Passaseo, A.; Lomascolo, M.; De Risi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental characterization of an innovative optical system for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitride oxide (NO) in the exhaust manifold of otto and diesel engines is reported. A photodetector based on gallium nitride (GaN) and an UV light source are integrated in a chamber of analysis and form the detection system. The UV light source, consisting of a spark produced by an arc discharge, induces electronic transitions in the gas molecules flowing between the light source and the GaN photodetector. The transitions modify the fraction of light in the UV spectral region which is detected by the GaN photodetector, as a function of the species concentration. By means of its structural properties, gallium nitride (GaN) allows to operate at high temperature and high speed and to work in situ in the exhaust manifold of combustion engines at temperatures as high as 600 o C, at which the deposited organic residuals on the detector can be oxidized. This assures a clear surface necessary for a real time optical measurement of the species concentration to be used for a closed loop control of the fuel injection process. The system was applied to the detection of CO and NO with concentration between 0% and 2% in a buffer of pure nitrogen gas, showing an increase in the measured photocurrent as a function of the above gases

  1. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  2. Primary Emission and the Potential of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Chinese Gasoline Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Qin, Yanhong; Du, Zhuofei; Li, Mengjin; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Guo, Song; Shao, Min; Wang, Yinhui; Shuai, Shijin

    2017-04-01

    Along with the urbanization and economic growth, vehicle population in China reached 269 million, ranked the second in the world in 2015. Gasoline vehicle is identified to be the main source for urban PM2.5 in China, accounting for 15%-31%. In this study the impact of fuel components on PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) engine and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine are discussed. Results show that, higher proportion of aromatics, alkenes or sulfur in gasoline fuel will lead to higher PM emissions. The PM from the PFI engine mainly consists of OC and a small amount of EC and inorganic ions, while the PM discharge from the GDI engine mainly consists of EC, OM and a small amount of inorganic ions. Since the GDI engines can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, and it would become more and more popular in the near future. The characteristics of POM component, emission factors and source profile were investigated from GDI engine, particularly focused on the effect of engine speed, load and the catalyst, which will be very much helpful for source identification as source indicators. Chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from exhaust of a PFI gasoline engine and China V gasoline fuel. During 4-5 h simulation, equivalent to10 days of atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing, the extreme SOA production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg fuel, with high precursors and OH exposure. 14% of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatility organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reduction of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles is essential to mediate pollution in China.

  3. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines: Class T1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Small jet aircraft engines (EPA class T1, turbojet and turbofan engines of less than 35.6 kN thrust) were evaluated with the objective of attaining emissions reduction consistent with performance constraints. Configurations employing the technological advances were screened and developed through full scale rig testing. The most promising approaches in full-scale engine testing were evaluated.

  4. Aircraft Engine Life-Consumption Monitoring for Real-Time Reliability Determination, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The object of this research is to develop an in-service life-monitor system for the prediction of the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The...

  5. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Run-to-Failure Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are...

  6. Some failure analyses of South African Air Force aircraft engine and airframe components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure analyses of various engine and airframe components from South African Air Force aircraft have been performed by the Division of Materials Science and Technology over several years and these have ranged from crash investigations to minor...

  7. Potential for Fuel Tank Fire and Hydrodynamic Ram from Uncontained Aircraft Engine Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the potential consequences of the impact and penetration of fuel tanks by debris from uncontained engine failures on commercial jet aircraft. The report presents a brief review of accident data and of the pertinent technical lit...

  8. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... data approved by the Administrator. (e) The holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in light-sport category for return to service, as...

  9. Evaluation of SI engine exhaust gas emissions upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M.; Costa, M.; Farias, T.L.; Santos, H.

    2006-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of a catalytic converter, mounted on a vehicle equipped with a 2.8 l spark ignition engine, was evaluated under steady state operating conditions. The inlet and outlet chemical species concentration, temperature and air fuel ratio (A/F) were measured as a function of the brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and engine speed (rpm). Oil temperature, coolant temperature, brake power and spark advance were also monitored. In parallel, a mathematical model for the catalytic converter has been developed. The main inputs of the model are the temperature, flow rate, chemical species mass flow and local A/F ratio as measured at the catalyst inlet section. The main conclusions are: (i) the exhaust gas and substrate wall temperatures at the catalyst outlet increase with BMEP and rpm; (ii) the HC conversion efficiency increases with the value of BMEP up to a maximum beyond which it decreases; (iii) the CO conversion efficiencies typically increase with BMEP; (iv) the NO x conversion efficiency remains nearly constant regardless of BMEP and rpm; (v) except for idle, the NO x conversion efficiency is typically the highest, followed in turn by the CO and HC conversion efficiencies; (vi) conversion efficiencies are lower for idle conditions, which can be a problem under traffic conditions where idle is a common situation; (vii) regardless of rpm and load, for the same flow rate the conversion efficiency is about the same; (viii) the model predictions slightly over estimate the exhaust gas temperature data at the catalyst outlet section with the observed differences decreasing with BMEP and engine speed; (ix) in general, the model predictions of the conversion efficiencies are satisfactory

  10. Perm State University HPC-hardware and software services: capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenev, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    The present work is devoted to analyze high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructure capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving at Perm State University. We explore here the ability to develop new computational aeroacoustics methods/solvers for computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems to handle complicated industrial problems of engine noise prediction. Leading aircraft engine engineering company, including “UEC-Aviadvigatel” JSC (our industrial partners in Perm, Russia), require that methods/solvers to optimize geometry of aircraft engine for fan noise reduction. We analysed Perm State University HPC-hardware resources and software services to use efficiently. The performed results demonstrate that Perm State University HPC-infrastructure are mature enough to face out industrial-like problems of development CAE-system with HPC-method and CFD-solvers.

  11. Numerical simulations on increasing turbojet engines exhaust mixture ratio using fluidic chevrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian GRUZEA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to some aspects regarding the terms “chevron” and “fluidic chevron” and to the process of increasing the jet engines exhaust mixing rate towards achieving noise reduction. One of the noise reduction methods consists in covering the high velocity main flow with a secondary one, having a much lower velocity, similar to the turbofan engines. The fluidic chevrons try to accomplish these requirements, being used just in particular moments of the flight. This study will be based on numerical simulations carried using the commercial software ANSYS. The geometry used will the based on the micro jet engine JetCat P80, equipping the turbines laboratory from the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering. A research based on the measured geometric, gasodynamic and cinematic parameters will be carried varying the mass flow and keeping the immersion angle constant. As a result of these simulations we’ll observe the influence of the mentioned parameters on the jet’s flow field.

  12. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  13. Analysis of benefits of using internal exhaust gas recirculation in biogas-fueled HCCI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozarac, Darko; Vuilleumier, David; Saxena, Samveg; Dibble, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of EGR on combustion of biogas fueled HCCI was investigated. • The aim was to reduce intake temperature requirement by internal EGR. • Combustion products caused the delay of combustion in similar conditions. • Internal EGR enabled by negative valve overlap increased cylinder temperature. • This increase was not enough to significantly reduce the intake temperature. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical study that analyzed the influence of combustion products (CP) concentration on the combustion characteristics (combustion timing and combustion duration) of a biogas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine and the possibility of reducing the high intake temperature requirement necessary for igniting biogas in a HCCI engine by using internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) enabled by negative valve overlap (NVO). An engine model created in AVL Boost, and validated against experimental engine data, was used in this study. The results show, somewhat counter-intuitively, that when CP concentrations are increased the required intake temperature for maintaining the same combustion timing must be increased. When greater NVO is used to increase the in-cylinder CP concentration, the in-cylinder temperature does increase, but the chemical dilution influence of CP almost entirely counteracts this thermal effect. Additionally, it has been observed that with larger fractions of CP some instability of combustion in the calculation was obtained which indicates that the increase of internal EGR might produce some combustion instability

  14. The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doğan, Battal; Erol, Derviş; Yaman, Hayri; Kodanli, Evren

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Examining the performance of ethanol-gasoline blend. • Evaluation of the exhaust emissions. • Energy and exergy analysis. • Calculation of irreversibility from cooling system and the exhaust resulting. - Abstract: Ethanol which is considered as an environmentally cleaner alternative to fossil fuels is used on its own or blended with other fuels in different ratios. In this study, ethanol which has high octane rating, low exhaust emission, and which is easily obtained from agricultural products has been used in fuels prepared by blending it with gasoline in various ratios (E0, E10, E20, and E30). Ethanol-gasoline blends have been used in a four-cylinder four-stroke spark ignition engine for performance and emission analysis under full load. In the experimental studies, engine torque, fuel and cooling water flow rates, and exhaust and engine surface temperature have been measured. Engine energy distribution, irreversible processes in the cooling system and the exhaust, and the exergy distribution have been calculated using the experimental data and the formulas for the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Experiments and theoretical calculations showed that ethanol added fuels show reduction in carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO_2) and nitrogen oxide (NO_X) emissions without significant loss of power compared to gasoline. But it was measured that the reduction of the temperature inside the cylinder increases the hydrocarbon (HC) emission.

  15. Measuring compliance during aircraft (Component) redeliveries at KLM engineering & maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burhani, Shahir; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft and aircraft components are redelivered to the next operator or owner during the phase-out process. During this process the operator is required by law and contract requirements to show compliance with maintenance procedures. At KLM E&M the phase-out documentation process is under

  16. Effects of ethanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Kakaras, E.C.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes-Benz engine, installed at the authors' laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines of the Athens Urban Transport Organization sub-fleet with a view to using bio-ethanol produced from Greek feedstock. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at two speeds and three loads. Fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the two ethanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of the ethanol against those for the diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  17. Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Cenk [Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, influence of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder diesel engine has been experimentally investigated when using ethanol blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The engine load was selected as 15 and 30 Nm. The tests were conducted at five different injection timings (21 , 24 , 27 , 30 and 33 CA BTDC) by changing the thickness of advance shim. The experimental test results showed that BSFC and emissions of NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} increased as BTE and emissions of CO and HC decreased with increasing amount of ethanol in the fuel mixture. When compared to the results of original injection timing (27 CA BTDC), NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions increased, and unburned HC and CO emissions decreased for the retarded injection timings (21 and 24 CA BTDC) at the all test conditions. On the other side, with the advanced injection timings (30 and 33 CA BTDC), decreasing HC and CO emissions diminished, and NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions boosted. In terms of BSFC and BTE, retarded and advanced injection timings compared to the original injection timing in the all fuel blends gave negative results for all engine speeds and loads. (author)

  18. Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Cenk; Canakci, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    In this study, influence of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder diesel engine has been experimentally investigated when using ethanol blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The engine load was selected as 15 and 30 Nm. The tests were conducted at five different injection timings (21 deg., 24 deg., 27 deg., 30 deg. and 33 deg. CA BTDC) by changing the thickness of advance shim. The experimental test results showed that BSFC and emissions of NO x and CO 2 increased as BTE and emissions of CO and HC decreased with increasing amount of ethanol in the fuel mixture. When compared to the results of original injection timing (27 deg. CA BTDC), NO x and CO 2 emissions increased, and unburned HC and CO emissions decreased for the retarded injection timings (21 deg. and 24 deg. CA BTDC) at the all test conditions. On the other side, with the advanced injection timings (30 deg. and 33 deg. CA BTDC), decreasing HC and CO emissions diminished, and NO x and CO 2 emissions boosted. In terms of BSFC and BTE, retarded and advanced injection timings compared to the original injection timing in the all fuel blends gave negative results for all engine speeds and loads

  19. Fuel characterisation, engine performance, combustion and exhaust emissions with a new renewable Licella biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Islam, Muhammad Aminul; Hossain, Farhad M.; Brooks, Peter; Rowlands, William N.; Tulloch, John; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new biofuel produced by hydrothermal liquefaction is investigated. • Licella biofuel blends showed no significant changes in engine performance. • Licella blends showed higher THC and NO emissions. • PM and PN emissions were observed to be lower for all Licella blends. • Hydrothermal liquefaction Licella biofuel is suitable for use in diesel engine. - Abstract: The current study investigates the opportunity of using Licella biofuel as a partly renewable fuel provided by Licella P/L. Hereafter this fuel will be referred to as Licella biofuel. The renewable component of the Licella biofuel was made from the hydrothermal conversion of Australian pinus radiata wood flour using Licella’s proprietary Cat-HTR™ technology. The diesel-soluble component of the hydrothermal product was extracted into road diesel to give a blended fuel containing approximately 30% renewable material with the balance from diesel. This was further blended with a regular diesel fuel (designated R0) to give fuels for testing containing 5%, 10% and 20% renewable fuel (designated R5, R10 and R20). Some of the key fuel properties were measured for R30 and compared with those of regular diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted on a four-cylinder turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engine. All experiments were performed with a constant speed and five different engine loads. Exhaust emissions including particulate matter (PM) mass and numbers, nitric oxide (NO), total unburnt hydrocarbon (THC), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and performance parameters including brake power (BP), indicated power (IP), brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), mechanical efficiency (ME), brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) were investigated for all four blends (R0, R5, R10 and R20). Among other engine parameters, in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR) and pressure (P) versus volume (V) diagrams

  20. Impact of an Exhaust Throat on Semi-Idealized Rotating Detonation Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of a rotating detonation engine (RDE) is used to examine the impact of an exhaust throat (i.e., a constriction) on performance. The model simulates an RDE which is premixed, adiabatic, inviscid, and which contains an inlet valve that prevents backflow from the high pressure region directly behind the rotating detonation. Performance is assessed in terms of ideal net specific impulse which is computed on the assumption of lossless expansion of the working fluid to the ambient pressure through a notional diverging nozzle section downstream of the throat. Such a semi-idealized analysis, while not real-world, allows the effect of the throat to be examined in isolation from, rather than coupled to (as it actually is) various loss mechanisms. For the single Mach 1.4 flight condition considered, it is found that the addition of a throat can yield a 9.4 percent increase in specific impulse. However, it is also found that when the exit throat restriction gets too small, an unstable type of operation ensues which eventually leads to the detonation failing. This behavior is found to be somewhat mitigated by the addition of an RDE inlet restriction across which there is an aerodynamic loss. Remarkably, this loss is overcome by the benefits of the further exhaust restrictions allowed. The end result is a configuration with a 10.3 percent improvement in ideal net specific thrust.

  1. Passive Sampling and Analysis of Naphthalene in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust with Retracted SPME Device and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiba Baimatova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are the main source of urban air pollution. Quantification of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the exhaust gases is needed for emissions monitoring, enforcement, development, and testing of control technologies. The objective was to develop quantification of gaseous naphthalene in diesel engine exhaust based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME fiber coating and analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Extraction of naphthalene with retracted fibers followed Fick’s law of diffusion. Extracted mass of naphthalene was proportional to Cg, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limit (p = 0.95 was 11.5 ppb (0.06 mg·m−3 at t = 9 h, Z = 10 mm and T = 40 °C, respectively. It was found that the % mass extracted of naphthalene by SPME needle assembly depended on the type of fiber. Storage time at different temperatures did not affect analyte losses extracted by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 100 µm fiber. The developed method was tested on exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and tractor, and compared side-by-side with a direct injection of sampled exhaust gas method. Time-weighted average (TWA concentrations of naphthalene in exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and a tractor ranged from 0.08 to 0.3 mg·m−3 (15.3–53.7 ppb.

  2. CAD system of design and engineering provision of die forming of compressor blades for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaimovich, I. N.

    2017-10-01

    The articles provides the calculation algorithms for blank design and die forming fitting to produce the compressor blades for aircraft engines. The design system proposed in the article allows generating drafts of trimming and reducing dies automatically, leading to significant reduction of work preparation time. The detailed analysis of the blade structural elements features was carried out, the taken limitations and technological solutions allowed forming generalized algorithms of forming parting stamp face over the entire circuit of the engraving for different configurations of die forgings. The author worked out the algorithms and programs to calculate three dimensional point locations describing the configuration of die cavity. As a result the author obtained the generic mathematical model of final die block in the form of three-dimensional array of base points. This model is the base for creation of engineering documentation of technological equipment and means of its control.

  3. Engineering studies of tritium recovery from CTR blankets and plasma exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Engineering studies on tritium handling problems in fusion reactors have included conceptual and experimental studies of techniques for recovery of tritium bred in the reactor blanket and conceptual designs for recovery and processing of tritium from plasma exhausts. The process requirements and promising techniques for the blanket system depend upon the materials used for the blanket, coolant, and structure and on the operating temperatures. Process requirements are likely to be set in some systems by allowable loss rates to the steam system or by inventory considerations. Conceptual studies have also been made for tritium handling equipment for fueling, recovery, and processing in plasma recycle systems of fusion reactors, and a specific design has been prepared for ''near-term'' Tokamak experiments. (auth)

  4. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  5. Cycle-by-cycle exhaust temperature monitoring for detection of misfiring and combustion instability in reciprocating natural gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, D.P. [Nexum Research Corp., Kingston, ON (Canada); Bardon, M.F. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of a cycle-by-cycle exhaust temperature monitoring system on engines operating at or near their fully rate load capacity was examined. Tests were conducted on stationary industrial natural gas engines. The study evaluated the monitoring system's ability to detect isolated single misfires, as well as combustion instability during misfire-free operations when the air/fuel ratio of the engine was adjusted to progressively lower settings. The combustion instability level of the engines was quantified by determining the relative variability of the groups of consecutive cycles. The coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure (COV of IMEP) was used to examine cyclic variability. A combustion instability index was used to quantify cyclic variability with cycle-by-cycle exhaust temperature monitoring. Two engines were tested, notably a Cummins QSK 19G turbocharged natural gas engine; and a Waukesha VHP L5790G industrial natural gas engine. The tests demonstrated that cycle-by-cycle exhaust temperature monitoring system was capable of detecting misfiring and combustion instabilities in natural gas engines. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Effect of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of studies on the potential effects of broadened-specification fuels on future aircraft engines and fuel systems are summarized. The compositions and characteristics of aircraft fuels that may be derived from current and future crude-oil sources are described, and the most critical properties that may affect aircraft engines and fuel systems are identified and discussed. The problems that are most likely to be encountered because of changes in selected fuel properties are described; and the related effects on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance are discussed. The ability of current technology to accept possible future fuel-specification changes is discussed, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the potential problems are illustrated.

  7. Experimental study on engine gas-path component fault monitoring using exhaust gas electrostatic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jianzhong; Zuo, Hongfu; Liu, Pengpeng; Wen, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the recent development in engine gas-path components health monitoring using electrostatic sensors in combination with signal-processing techniques. Two ground-based engine electrostatic monitoring experiments are reported and the exhaust gas electrostatic monitoring signal-based fault-detection method is proposed. It is found that the water washing, oil leakage and combustor linear cracking result in an increase in the activity level of the electrostatic monitoring signal, which can be detected by the electrostatic monitoring system. For on-line health monitoring of the gas-path components, a baseline model-based fault-detection method is proposed and the multivariate state estimation technique is used to establish the baseline model for the electrostatic monitoring signal. The method is applied to a data set from a turbo-shaft engine electrostatic monitoring experiment. The results of the case study show that the system with the developed method is capable of detecting the gas-path component fault in an on-line fashion. (paper)

  8. Influence of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel CI engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Cenk [Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Uslu, Kadir [Department of Automotive Education, Fatih Vocational High School, 54100 Sakarya (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. As an alternative, biodegradable, and renewable fuel, ethanol is receiving increasing attention. Therefore, in this study, influence of injection timing on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, naturally aspirated diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using ethanol blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The engine has an original injection timing 27 CA BTDC. The tests were performed at five different injection timings (21 , 24 , 27 , 30 , and 33 CA BTDC) by changing the thickness of advance shim. The experimental test results showed that NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions increased as CO and HC emissions decreased with increasing amount of ethanol in the fuel mixture. When compared to the results of original injection timing, at the retarded injection timings (21 and 24 CA BTDC), NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions increased, and unburned HC and CO emissions decreased for all test conditions. On the other hand, with the advanced injection timings (30 and 33 CA BTDC), HC and CO emissions diminished, and NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions boosted for all test conditions. (author)

  9. The impact of the fuel chemical composition on volatile organic compounds emitted by an in-service aircraft gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, A.; Kuo, Y. Y.; Brem, B.; Durdina, L.; Gerecke, A. C.; Heeb, N. V.; Haag, R.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aircraft emissions received increased attention recently because of the steady growth of aviation transport in the last decades. Aircraft engines substantially contribute to emissions of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the upper and lower troposphere. Among all the pollutants emitted by aircrafts, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are particularly important because they are mainly emitted at ground level, posing a serious health risk for people living or working near airports. A series of measurements was performed at the aircraft engine testing facility of SR Technics (Zürich airport, Switzerland). Exhausts from an in-service turbofan engine were sampled at the engine exit plane by a multi-point sampling probe. A wide range of instruments was connected to the common sampling line to determine physico-chemical characteristics of non-volatile particulate matter and gaseous pollutants. Conventional Jet A-1 fuel was used as the base fuel, and measurements were performed with the base fuel doped with two different mixtures of aromatic compounds (Solvesso 150 and naphthalene-depleted Solvesso 150) and an alternative fuel (hydro-processed esters and fatty acids [HEFA] jet fuel). During this presentation, we will show results obtained for VOCs. These compounds were sampled with 3 different adsorbing cartridges, and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS, for Tenax TA and Carboxen 569) and by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS, for DNPH). The total VOC concentration was also measured with a flame ionization detector (FID). In addition, fuel samples were also analyzed by GC/MS, and their chemical compositions were compared to the VOCs emitted via engine exhaust. Total VOCs concentrations were highest at ground idle (>200 ppm C at 4-7% thrust), and substantially lower at high thrust (engine were mainly constituted of alkanes, oxygenated compounds, and aromatics. More than 50 % of the

  10. Marine diesel engines exhaust noise. Pt. VII: Calculation of the acoustical performance of diesel engine exhaust systems / Uitlaatgeluid van scheepsdieselmotoren. Dl. VII: Berekening van de akoestische eigenschappen van uitlaatsystemen van dieselmotoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiten, J.; Gerretsen, E.; Vellekoop, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    A method is given lor the calculation of the transfer damping of diesel engine exhaust systems. Also the complete computer program in FORTRAN IV, based on this calculation method is given. The method includes such system elements as chamber resonators, 1,5-pipes, absorbing siìencers and shunts to

  11. Advanced liquid-cooled, turbocharged and intercooled stratified charge rotary engines for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Robert E.; Bartel, John; Hady, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Developments concerning stratified-charge rotary (SCR) engines over the past 10 years are reviewed. Aircraft engines being developed using SCR technology are shown and described, and the ability of such technology to meet general aviation engine needs is considered. Production timing and availability of SCR technology for the development of aviation rotary engines are discussed, and continuing efforts toward improving this technology, including NASA efforts, are described.

  12. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  13. Modeling and optimization of integrated exhaust gas recirculation and multi-stage waste heat recovery in marine engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Fotis; Sørensen, Kim; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    Waste heat recovery combined with exhaust gas recirculation is a promising technology that can address both the issue of NOx (nitrogen oxides) reduction and fuel savings by including a pressurized boiler. In the present study, a theoretical optimization of the performance of two different...... configurations of steam Rankine cycles, with integrated exhaust gas recirculation for a marine diesel engine, is presented. The first configuration employs two pressure levels and the second is configured with three-pressure levels. The models are developed in MATLAB based on the typical data of a large two......-stroke marine diesel engine. A turbocharger model together with a blower, a pre-scrubber and a cooler for the exhaust gas recirculation line, are included. The steam turbine, depending on the configuration, is modeled as either a dual or triple pressure level turbine. The condensation and pre-heating process...

  14. An analytical study on the performance of the organic Rankine cycle for turbofan engine exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadon, S.; Abu Talib, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    Due to energy shortage and global warming, issues of energy saving have become more important. To increase the energy efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption, waste heat recovery is a significant method for energy saving. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has great potential to recover the waste heat from the core jet exhaust of a turbofan engine and use it to produce power. Preliminary study of the design concept and thermodynamic performance of this ORC system would assist researchers to predict the benefits of using the ORC system to extract the exhaust heat engine. In addition, a mathematical model of the heat transfer of this ORC system is studied and developed. The results show that with the increment of exhaust heat temperature, the mass flow rate of the working fluid, net power output and the system thermal efficiency will also increase. Consequently, total consumption of jet fuel could be significantly saved as well.

  15. Study of a LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine. Previously announced in STAR as N83-34942

  16. Study of LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  17. Analysis of a topping-cycle, aircraft, gas-turbine-engine system which uses cryogenic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    A topping-cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel was investigated. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine that is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop, which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping-cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping-cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping-cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping-cycle engine is comparable with that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  18. Catalytic reduction of NOx in gasoline engine exhaust over copper- and nickel-exchanged X-zeolite catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Das, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Catalytic removal of NO x in engine exhaust gases can be accomplished by non-selective reduction, selective reduction and decomposition. Noble metals are extensively used for non-selective reduction of NO x and up to 90% of engine NO x emissions can be reduced in a stoichiometric exhaust. This requirement of having the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio acts against efficiency improvement of engines. Selective NO x reduction in the presence of different reductants such as, NH 3 , urea or hydrocarbons, requires close control of the amount of reductant being injected which otherwise may be emitted as a pollutant. Catalytic decomposition is the best option for NO x removal. Nevertheless, catalysts which are durable, economic and active for NO x reduction at normal engine exhaust temperature ranges are still being investigated. Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging the Na+ ion with copper, nickel and copper-nickel metal ions and applied to the exhaust of a stationary gasoline engine to explore their potential for catalytic reduction of NO x under a wide range of engine and exhaust conditions. Some encouraging results have been obtained. The catalyst Cu-X exhibits much better NO x reduction performance at any temperature in comparison to Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X; while Cu-Ni-X catalyst exhibits slightly better performance than Ni-X catalyst. Maximum NO x efficiency achieved with Cu-X catalyst is 59.2% at a space velocity (sv) of 31 000 h -1 ; while for Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X catalysts the equivalent numbers are 60.4% and 56% respectively at a sv of 22 000 h -1 . Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts exhibit significant NO x reduction capability for a wide range of air/fuel ratio and with a slower rate of decline as well with increase in air/fuel ratio. (author)

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Acoustic Modelling of Engine Exhaust Systems with Applications to a Vacuum Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara, Basavapatna Sitaramaiah

    In an internal combustion engine, the engine is the noise source and the exhaust pipe is the main transmitter of noise. Mufflers are often used to reduce engine noise level in the exhaust pipe. To optimize a muffler design, a series of experiments could be conducted using various mufflers installed in the exhaust pipe. For each configuration, the radiated sound pressure could be measured. However, this is not a very efficient method. A second approach would be to develop a scheme involving only a few measurements which can predict the radiated sound pressure at a specified distance from the open end of the exhaust pipe. In this work, the engine exhaust system was modelled as a lumped source-muffler-termination system. An expression for the predicted sound pressure level was derived in terms of the source and termination impedances, and the muffler geometry. The pressure source and monopole radiation models were used for the source and the open end of the exhaust pipe. The four pole parameters were used to relate the acoustic properties at two different cross sections of the muffler and the pipe. The developed formulation was verified through a series of experiments. Two loudspeakers and a reciprocating type vacuum pump were used as sound sources during the tests. The source impedance was measured using the direct, two-load and four-load methods. A simple expansion chamber and a side-branch resonator were used as mufflers. Sound pressure level measurements for the prediction scheme were made for several source-muffler and source-straight pipe combinations. The predicted and measured sound pressure levels were compared for all cases considered. In all cases, correlation of the experimental results and those predicted by the developed expressions was good. Predicted and measured values of the insertion loss of the mufflers were compared. The agreement between the two was good. Also, an error analysis of the four-load method was done.

  20. Engine performances and exhaust gas characteristics of methanol-fueled two-cycle engines. Kogata ni cycle ter dot methanol kikan no seino ni oyobosu shoinshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, N.; Kajitani, S. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineerineering); Hayashi, S.; Kubota, Y. (Muroran Inst. of Technology, Muroran (Japan))

    1990-10-25

    Regarding crank case compressed two cycle engine, feasibility of methanol-fueled engine was investigated by studying effective factors on properties of power, combustion, and exhaust gas. For the experiment, air-cooling single cylinder engine was used of which specification was shown by table. As for the experiment, quantities of in-taken air, fuel consumption, torque, and composition of exhaust gas were measured under various conditions. As the consideration of experimental results, those were obtained that less exhaust gas with high performance operation of tow-cycle engie was achieved, too, by using diluted mixture gas of methanol, and that problems were found to be studied for the realization of high compression ratio. 12 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  2. Emission Characteristics for a Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Split Injection Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the serious issues caused by air pollution and global warming, emission regulations are becoming stricter. New technologies that reduce NOx and PM emissions are needed. To cope with these social exhaust gas regulation demands, many advanced countries are striving to develop eco-friendly vehicles in order to respond to stricter emissions regulations. The homogeneous charged compression ignition engine (HCCI incorporates a multi-stage combustion engine with multiple combustion modes, catalyst, direct fuel injection and partial mixing combustion. In this study, the HCCI combustion was applied to analyze and review the results of engines applying HCCI combustion without altering the conventional engine specifications. The optimization of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio changes provides an optimal fuel economy. In this study, potential for optimum economy within the range of IMEP 0.8 MPa has been evaluated.

  3. Investigation of Deposit Formation Mechanisms for Engine In-cylinder Combustion and Exhaust Systems Using Quantitative Analysis and Sustainability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Meng, Q.; Mohamadian, H. P.; Wang, J. T.; Chen, L.; Zhu, L.

    2007-06-01

    The formation of SI engine combustion deposits is a complex phenomenon which depends on various factors of fuel, oil, additives, and engine. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of operating conditions, gasoline, lubricating oil, and additives on deposit formation. Both an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis are conducted on a single cylinder engine. As a result, the impact of deposits on engine performance and exhaust emissions (HC, NO x ) has been indicated. Using samples from a cylinder head and exhaust pipe as well as switching gases via the dual-gas method (N2, O2), the deposit formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated via the thermogravity analysis approach, where the roles of organic, inorganic, and volatile components of fuel, additives, and oil on deposit formation are identified from thermogravity curves. Sustainable feedback control design is then proposed for potential emission control and performance optimization

  4. Comparison of aldehyde emissions simulation with FTIR measurements in the exhaust of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarante, Paola Helena Barros; Sodré, José Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation model for aldehyde formation and exhaust emissions from ethanol-fueled spark ignition engines. The aldehyde simulation model was developed using FORTRAN software, with the input data obtained from the dedicated engine cycle simulation software AVL BOOST. The model calculates formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations from post-flame partial oxidation of methane, ethane and unburned ethanol. The calculated values were compared with experimental data obtained from a mid-size sedan powered by a 1.4-l spark ignition engine, tested on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust aldehyde concentrations were determined using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy analyzer. In general, the results demonstrate that the concentrations of aldehydes and the source elements increased with engine speed and exhaust gas temperature. The measured acetaldehyde concentrations showed values from 3 to 6 times higher than formaldehyde in the range studied. The model could predict reasonably well the qualitative experimental trends, with the quantitative results showing a maximum discrepancy of 39% for acetaldehyde concentration and 21 ppm for exhaust formaldehyde.

  5. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  6. 75 FR 22439 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... piston-engine aircraft as well as certain high performance engines such as race cars. \\33\\ See http://www... for all remaining uses, including use as fuel in aircraft, racing cars, and nonroad engines such as.... These include the voluntary partnership between EPA and the National Association for Stock Car Auto...

  7. The Effect of Modified Control Limits on the Performance of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Gou, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of modifying the control limits of an aircraft engine to obtain additional performance. In an emergency situation, the ability to operate an engine above its normal operating limits and thereby gain additional performance may aid in the recovery of a distressed aircraft. However, the modification of an engine s limits is complex due to the risk of an engine failure. This paper focuses on the tradeoff between enhanced performance and risk of either incurring a mechanical engine failure or compromising engine operability. The ultimate goal is to increase the engine performance, without a large increase in risk of an engine failure, in order to increase the probability of recovering the distressed aircraft. The control limit modifications proposed are to extend the rotor speeds, temperatures, and pressures to allow more thrust to be produced by the engine, or to increase the rotor accelerations and allow the engine to follow a fast transient. These modifications do result in increased performance; however this study indicates that these modifications also lead to an increased risk of engine failure.

  8. Identification of black-box linear models : the case of thermal periodic contact of exhaust valves in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaeefard, M.H.; Fazelpour, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Automotive Engineering; Goudarzi, K. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In internal combustion engines, hot exhaust gases that pass through the exhaust valve lead to high temperatures in the exhaust valve and the valve seat. Heat must be transferred from the exhaust valve to valve seat as they come in contact with each other during the opening and closing cycle in order to avoid damaging the exhaust valve. The heat transfer rate from the valve to valve seat is a function of many factors, including the thermal contact conductance (TCC) between the valve and valve seat. The objective of this study was to experimentally calculate the TCC for six different frequencies in the quasi-steady-state condition and also to obtain a transfer function to estimate the exhaust valve temperature by using black-box models of system identification. Periodic contact was taken into consideration in the study. The paper presented the experimental setup including the loading system, heat and cooling system, temperature measurement system, specimens properties, and data acquisition system. The paper also described the test procedure and experimental results. System identification was also described. It was concluded that the TCC decreased as the frequency of contact increased. The temperature transfer function was calculated by using the system identification method and having the temperatures at both sides of the contact surface. By knowing the temperature of one rod, the temperature of the other rod was estimated with high accuracy. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. EFFECT OF OXYGENATED HYDROCARBON ADDITIVES ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sundar Raj

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of oxygenated fuels seems to be a promising solution for reducing particulate emissions in existing and future diesel motor vehicles. In this work, the influence of the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons to diesel fuels on performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine is experimentally studied. 3-Pentanone (C5H10O and Methyl anon (C7H12O were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced the production of soot precursors with respect to the availability of oxygen content in the fuel. On the other hand, a serious increase of NOx emissions is observed. For this reason the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR to control NOx emissions is examined. From the analysis of it is examined experimental findings, it is seen that the use of EGR causes a sharp reduction in NOx and smoke simultaneously. On the other hand, EGR results in a slight reduction of engine efficiency and maximum combustion pressure which in any case does not alter the benefits obtained from the oxygenated fuel.

  10. Control of PCDDs/PCDFs, PCBs and PAHs emissions in exhaust of landfill gas fed engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idczak, F.; Dengis, P.; Duchateau, P.; Petitjean, S. [ISSeP, Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Wallonia in Belgium, like many countries around the world, planned to reduce amounts of waste generated by human activity and stored in landfills. Since they experienced a couple of crisis situations in the past, both with former and presently used landfill sites, authorities launched a demanding landfill monitoring program which covers now 9 out of the 10 major sites. Biogas produced in these landfills are collected and eliminated in two different ways. Either simply burned in a flare, or, when the methane grade and flow are high enough, the biogas can be burned in electricity producing engines. This later use represents an energy recovery from the waste. In the context of difficulty for landfill sites to be accepted by the public (the well-known NIMBY phenomenon), the question has been raised whether combustion of the biogas did not entail production of dioxins and other polyaromatic compounds. For the exhaust gases of engines operated with biogas, a check on the presence of dioxins and associated organic pollutants, composed of three different runs or days of sampling for each of 5 landfill sites was performed upon demand of responsible authorities.

  11. Biodiesel from lemon and lemon grass oil and its effect on engine performance and exhaust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivagar, R.; Sundararaj, S.; Vignesh, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    In the present scenario many developing countries are depending on oil producing nations for their fuel resources. Due to demand and scarcity of the fuel, there has been a huge increase in fuel prices. The vehicular population is also continuously increasing and becoming a great menace to peoples. This paper aims to provide an alternate solution for petroleum based fuels. It suggests that biodiesel produced from lemon and lemon grass oil can be used as an alternative fuel. This work investigates the thermal performance of four stroke diesel engine using blends of biodiesel and diesel as a fuel. Performance parameters like brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were measured at different loads for diesel and various combination of biofuel (L10, L20, and L30). The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained is about 26.12%for L20 which is slightly higher than that of diesel (24.91%). Engine experimental results showed that exhaust emissions including CO2 and HC were reduced by 6% and 5% for L20 mixture of biodiesel whereas CO emission was as same as diesel. However, there was increase in NOxby 26% to the diesel fuel.

  12. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  13. Performance analysis of exhaust heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle in a passenger car with a compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilvacs, M.; Prisecaru, T.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Prisecaru, M.; Pop, E.; Popescu, Gh; Ciobanu, C.; Mohanad, A.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    Compression ignition engines transform approximately 40% of the fuel energy into power available at the crankshaft, while the rest part of the fuel energy is lost as coolant, exhaust gases and other waste heat. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be used to recover this waste heat. In this paper, the characteristics of a system combining a compression ignition engine with an ORC which recover the waste heat from the exhaust gases are analyzed. The performance map of the diesel engine is measured on an engine test bench and the heat quantities wasted by the exhaust gases are calculated over the engine's entire operating region. Based on this data, the working parameters of ORC are defined, and the performance of a combined engine-ORC system is evaluated across this entire region. The results show that the net power of ORC is 6.304kW at rated power point and a maximum of 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption can be achieved.

  14. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgard, Kirby; Triana, Antonio; Johnson, John; Yang, Song; Premchand, Kiran

    2006-01-30

    packing density inside the porous wall were 1 to 5 kg/m{sup 3}; and percolation factors were 0.81 to 0.97. Average particulate layer permeability was 1.95 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}. Solid particulate layer packing density values were between 11 and 128 kg/m{sup 3}. These values were in good agreement with the Peclet number correlation theory reported in the literature. NO{sub 2}-assisted oxidation of PM in the DPF showed experimentally that a significant reduction of the pressure drop can be achieved (<8 kPa) when sufficient NO{sub 2} (>120 ppm) is available and high exhaust gas temperatures ({approx}360-460 C) can be maintained, even at high PM loadings (low NO{sub 2}/solid PM ratios). The CRT{trademark} (DOC-DPF system) showed limited advantages when used with high PM rates (low NOx/PM ratios) in combination with a low pressure loop EGR strategy for a continuous operation of an engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. The 8.1-liter engine was not designed for low-pressure loop EGR and when the EGR was added the NOx emissions were reduced but the PM emissions increased. This corresponds to the well known NOx to PM relationship in which if the NOx is reduced the PM emissions increase. In order for this technology to be successful on this engine family, the engine out PM emissions must be reduced. These results led to Task II. Task II objective was to meet the interim Tier 4 standards using the CCRT{trademark} technology applied to an advanced 6.8 liter John Deere engine. The advanced engine incorporated a 4 valve head, required additional EGR, an advanced high pressure common rail fuel system and a better matched turbocharger. The EGR system was optimized and the goal of less than 2 g/kWh NOx and less than 0.02 g/kWh PM were achieved over the 8 mode test. Again, experimental data was provided to Michigan Tech to study the passive regeneration of the CCRT{trademark} technology. Two computer models, i.e., the MTU 1-D DOC model and the MTU 1-D 2-layer CPF model were developed as

  15. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  16. Numerical study of influence of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen; Wang, Zhan-xue

    2015-01-01

    The atomization and combustion flowfield of the combustion chamber with swirl-nozzle were simulated using different biofuels; the thermodynamic cycle of the aircraft engine system were also analyzed, influences of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system were explored. Results show that viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting the atomization and combustion characteristics of biofuels, and then dominate the distribution of the temperature and NO concentration. Due to the characteristic of low viscosity and low caloric value for biofuels adopted, the biofuels accumulate near the head of combustion chamber, and the corresponding NO emission is lower than that it has for conventional kerosene. When biofuels with low caloric value are used under the operation condition which is same as the condition for the conventional kerosene, lower turbine inlet temperature, lower thrust and higher specific fuel consumption would be achieved for the aircraft engine. - Highlights: • Influences of biofuels properties on combustion characteristic are explored. • Effects of biofuels on cycle parameters of aircraft engine are discussed. • Viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting combustion of biofuels. • NO emission becomes lower when biofuels with low caloric value is adopted. • The performance of aircraft engine becomes worse for biofuels with low caloric value.

  17. Teaching Risk Analysis in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Design Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    support the required performance specifications (Brandt, 2004) ( Raymer , 1989). There is no specific step to treat a selected design performance...a Design Perspective, 2nd ed.: AIAA Education Series, 2004. Raymer , Daniel P. 1989. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach.: AIAA Educational...Mattingly, Jack D., Heiser, William H., Pratt, David T. 2002. Aircraft Engine Design, 2nd ed.: AIAA Education Series, 2002. Drews, Robert W. 2006. The

  18. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Jenni; Simonen, Pauli; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kangasniemi, Oskari; Saukko, Erkka; Hillamo, Risto; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-07-01

    Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6-268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential was measured to be 9-20 mg kgfuel-1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize - more than half an hour - which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission source and system temperatures. Sulfate was

  19. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  20. The effect of rapeseed oil methyl ester on direct injection Diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, naturally aspirated Diesel engine when operating on neat RME and its 5%, 10%, 20% and 35% blends with Diesel fuel. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of RME inclusion in Diesel fuel on the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a high speed Diesel engine, its brake thermal efficiency, emission composition changes and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The brake specific fuel consumption at maximum torque (273.5 g/kW h) and rated power (281 g/kW h) for RME is higher by 18.7% and 23.2% relative to Diesel fuel. It is difficult to determine the RME concentration in Diesel fuel that could be recognised as equally good for all loads and speeds. The maximum brake thermal efficiency varies from 0.356 to 0.398 for RME and from 0.373 to 0.383 for Diesel fuel. The highest fuel energy content based economy (9.36-9.61 MJ/kW h) is achieved during operation on blend B10, whereas the lowest ones belong to B35 and neat RME. The maximum NO x emissions increase proportionally with the mass percent of oxygen in the biofuel and engine speed, reaching the highest values at the speed of 2000 min -1 , the highest being 2132 ppm value for the B35 blend and 2107 ppm for RME. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions and visible smoke emerging from the biodiesel over all load and speed ranges are lower by up to 51.6% and 13.5% to 60.3%, respectively. The carbon dioxide, CO 2 , emissions along with the fuel consumption and gas temperature, are slightly higher for the B20 and B35 blends and neat RME. The emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, HC, for all biofuels are low, ranging at 5-21 ppm levels

  1. Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1966, pp. 356–363. [14] Burns, R. A., Development of scalar and velocity imaging diagnostics...in an Aero- Engine Model Combustor at Elevated Pressure Using URANS and Finite- Rate Chemistry ,” 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference...FINAL REPORT Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines SERDP Project WP-2151

  2. The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on the Emission of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limyaa Mahdi Asaad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A single cylinder variable compression ratio spark ignition engine type PRODIT was used in this study. The  experiments  were  conducted  with  gasoline  fuel  (80  octane  No.at  equivalence  ratio  (Ø  =1.  This study examined the effects of exhaust gas recirculation on emission. It was conducted at engine speeds (1500, 1900, 2300 and 2700 r.p.m..The  exhaust  gases  were  added  in  volumetric  ratios  of  10%,  20%  and  30%  of  the  entering  air/fuel charge. The results showed that the EGR addition decreases the CO2 concentrations, in the same time CO and HC concentrations increase remarkably.  NOx concentration decreased highly with the increase of EGR percentage at variable engine speeds and constant torque. Also, it decreased when the engine run  at  constant  speed  and  variable  engine  torque.  The  exhaust  gas  temperature  decreased  with increasing EGR ratio.

  3. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Ohnuma, H.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Structural damage induced by an aircraft crashing into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the deformable engines, and global damage caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage to the target may consist of spalling of concrete from its front face together with missile penetration into it, scabbing of concrete from its rear face, and perforation of missile through it. Until now, local damage to concrete structures has been mainly evaluated by rigid missile impact tests. Past research work regarding local damage caused by impact of deformable missiles has been limited. This paper presents the results of a series of impact tests of small-, intermediate-, and full-scale engine models into reinforced concrete panels. The purpose of the tests was to determine the local damage to a reinforced concrete structure caused by the impact of a deformable aircraft engine. (orig.)

  4. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using waste cooking biodiesel fuel with an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobadian, B.; Rahimi, H.; Nikbakht, A.M.; Najafi, G. [Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran); Yusaf, T.F. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 QLD (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This study deals with artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of a diesel engine using waste cooking biodiesel fuel to predict the brake power, torque, specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of the engine. To acquire data for training and testing the proposed ANN, a two cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with waste vegetable cooking biodiesel and diesel fuel blends and operated at different engine speeds. The properties of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil was measured based on ASTM standards. The experimental results revealed that blends of waste vegetable oil methyl ester with diesel fuel provide better engine performance and improved emission characteristics. Using some of the experimental data for training, an ANN model was developed based on standard Back-Propagation algorithm for the engine. Multi layer perception network (MLP) was used for non-linear mapping between the input and output parameters. Different activation functions and several rules were used to assess the percentage error between the desired and the predicted values. It was observed that the ANN model can predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions quite well with correlation coefficient (R) 0.9487, 0.999, 0.929 and 0.999 for the engine torque, SFC, CO and HC emissions, respectively. The prediction MSE (Mean Square Error) error was between the desired outputs as measured values and the simulated values were obtained as 0.0004 by the model. (author)

  5. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  6. Inflammation-Related Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles: Studies on Lung Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, P. E.; Totlandsdal, A. I.; Låg, M.; Refsnes, M.; Holme, J. A.; Øvrevik, J.

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust and its particles (DEP) have been under scrutiny for health effects in humans. In the development of these effects inflammation is regarded as a key process. Overall, in vitro studies report similar DEP-induced changes in markers of inflammation, including cytokines and chemokines, as studies in vivo. In vitro studies suggest that soluble extracts of DEP have the greatest impact on the expression and release of proinflammatory markers. Main DEP mediators of effects have still not been identified and are difficult to find, as fuel and engine technology developments lead to continuously altered characteristics of emissions. Involved mechanisms remain somewhat unclear. DEP extracts appear to comprise components that are able to activate various membrane and cytosolic receptors. Through interactions with receptors, ion channels, and phosphorylation enzymes, molecules in the particle extract will trigger various cell signaling pathways that may lead to the release of inflammatory markers directly or indirectly by causing cell death. In vitro studies represent a fast and convenient system which may have implications for technology development. Furthermore, knowledge regarding how particles elicit their effects may contribute to understanding of DEP-induced health effects in vivo, with possible implications for identifying susceptible groups of people and effect biomarkers. PMID:23509760

  7. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-01-01

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components

  8. FY 1995 annual report on research and development of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. Pt. 2. Research and development of methane-fueled engines for aircraft; 1995 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Described herein are the R and D results of FY 1995 for the total system as part of R and D of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. For R and D of the intake, researches on aerodynamic flow passages at a combined intake design point of Mach 5 are conducted, in which the effects of the boundary layer are taken into consideration, and the wind tunnel tests are conducted for the combined intake. For R and D of the nozzle, experiments are conducted to establish the techniques for designing exhaust nozzle variable schedules in the turbo region, aerodynamic force in the turbo and ram regions, cooling systems, and composite liners. For R and D of the turbojet engines, the second phase engine tests are conducted with the engine of improved designs and two-dimensional variable exhaust nozzle. The tests produce good results in terms of engine endurance and mechanical soundness of the low-pressure systems. For R and D of the combined cycle engine incorporating the turbojet and ramjet engines, the model tests are conducted to understand aerodynamic characteristics when these engines are switched to each other. (NEDO)

  9. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  10. Comparison of Airway Responses Induced in a Mouse Model by the Gas and Particulate Fractions of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Ramos, Manuel; Shah, Mittal; Wallace, James S; Pollitt, Krystal J Godri

    2018-03-01

    Diesel exhaust has been associated with asthma, but its response to other engine emissions is not clear. The increasing prevalence of vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines motivated this study, and the objective was to evaluate pulmonary responses induced by acute exposure to GDI engine exhaust in an allergic asthma murine model. Mice were sensitized with an allergen to induce airway hyperresponsiveness or treated with saline (non-allergic group). Animals were challenged for 2-h to exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to a highway cruise. Exhaust was filtered to assess responses induced by the particulate and gas fractions. Short-term exposure to particulate matter from GDI engine exhaust induced upregulation of genes related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism ( Cyp1b1 ) and inflammation ( TNFα ) in the lungs of non-allergic mice. High molecular weight PAHs dominated the particulate fraction of the exhaust, and this response was therefore likely attributable to the presence of these PAHs. The particle fraction of GDI engine exhaust further contributed to enhanced methacholine responsiveness in the central and peripheral tissues in animals with airway hyperresponsiveness. As GDI engines gain prevalence in the vehicle fleet, understanding the health impacts of their emissions becomes increasingly important.

  11. Comparison of Airway Responses Induced in a Mouse Model by the Gas and Particulate Fractions of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin L. Maikawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust has been associated with asthma, but its response to other engine emissions is not clear. The increasing prevalence of vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI engines motivated this study, and the objective was to evaluate pulmonary responses induced by acute exposure to GDI engine exhaust in an allergic asthma murine model. Mice were sensitized with an allergen to induce airway hyperresponsiveness or treated with saline (non-allergic group. Animals were challenged for 2-h to exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to a highway cruise. Exhaust was filtered to assess responses induced by the particulate and gas fractions. Short-term exposure to particulate matter from GDI engine exhaust induced upregulation of genes related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH metabolism (Cyp1b1 and inflammation (TNFα in the lungs of non-allergic mice. High molecular weight PAHs dominated the particulate fraction of the exhaust, and this response was therefore likely attributable to the presence of these PAHs. The particle fraction of GDI engine exhaust further contributed to enhanced methacholine responsiveness in the central and peripheral tissues in animals with airway hyperresponsiveness. As GDI engines gain prevalence in the vehicle fleet, understanding the health impacts of their emissions becomes increasingly important.

  12. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  13. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... application. These definitions are consistent with CAEP/8 usage, and the common understanding of these terms.... Instead, it was printed in regular size text, implying a very different mathematical calculation. Since... each pollutant based on a statistical assessment of measured emissions from multiple tests.\\1\\ \\1\\ This...

  14. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, H; Ebel, A; Franzkowiak, V; Hendricks, J; Lippert, E; Moellhoff, M [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1998-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  15. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, H.; Ebel, A.; Franzkowiak, V.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Moellhoff, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1997-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  16. The new generation of exhaust aftertreatment systems for lean fuel gasoline engines; Die neue Generation von Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen fuer magerlaufende Benzinmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhoff, Stephan; Hoyer, Ruediger; Adam, Frank; Lammarck, Christian; Mueller, Wilfried [Umicore AG und Co. KG, Hanau-Wolfgang (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Stratified gasoline direct injection engines show a great potential for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and therefore improved fuel economy. The next generation of stratified gasoline engines with turbo charger and more efficient combustion are expected to have even lower exhaust temperatures compared with current series vehicle with stratified combustion. For this reason exhaust gas aftertreatment systems are required which have low light off temperatures for HC and CO during lean combustion and a high NOx-storage efficiency at low temperatures. This study shows the great improvements made over the last years for the development of new TWC and NOx-storage catalysts for the aftertreatment for lean GDI. A precious metal related cost reduction of about 40% was achieved for the new generation of aftertreatment systems. (orig.)

  17. EVALUATION OF EMISSION OF CO, NO AND NOX IN EXHAUST OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH FUEL ADDITIVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Rodrigo de Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has emerged as major global problems. In the last decade, the development of new engines, the use of different forms of treatment of exhaust gases and the increase in fuel quality were used to reduce pollutants (regulated or not. Among the various developments to reduce emissions, the use of oxygenated additives to diesel and paraffin is a quick and effective measure to reduce pollutants. In this work we studied the influence of oxygenated compounds (diethyl ether (DEE, 1-dodecanol (DOD, 2-methoxy-acetate (MEA and terc-butanol (TERC and paraffin (heptane (HEPT and n- hexadecane (CET added to diesel in order to improve the quality of CO, NO and NOx in the exhaust of diesel engine, single cylinder. The fuels used in the studies are formulations of diesel reference, here named S10, which contains low sulfur (

  18. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  19. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  20. Aircraft dual-shaft jet engine with indirect action fuel flow controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with an aircraft single-jet engine's control system, based on a fuel flow controller. Considering the engine as controlled object and its thrust the most important operation effect, from the multitude of engine's parameters only its rotational speed n is measurable and proportional to its thrust, so engine's speed has become the most important controlled parameter. Engine's control system is based on fuel injection Qi dosage, while the output is engine's speed n. Based on embedded system's main parts' mathematical models, the author has described the system by its block diagram with transfer functions; furthermore, some Simulink-Matlab simulations are performed, concerning embedded system quality (its output parameters time behavior) and, meanwhile, some conclusions concerning engine's parameters mutual influences are revealed. Quantitative determinations are based on author's previous research results and contributions, as well as on existing models (taken from technical literature). The method can be extended for any multi-spool engine, single- or twin-jet.

  1. THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa K Godiganur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel

  2. Experimental aerodynamic and acoustic model testing of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) testbed coannular exhaust nozzle system: Comprehensive data report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.; Morris, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    The component detail design drawings of the one sixth scale model of the variable cycle engine testbed demonstrator exhaust syatem tested are presented. Also provided are the basic acoustic and aerodynamic data acquired during the experimental model tests. The model drawings, an index to the acoustic data, an index to the aerodynamic data, tabulated and graphical acoustic data, and the tabulated aerodynamic data and graphs are discussed.

  3. Biological effects of chronic inhalation of coal mine dust and/or diesel engine exhaust in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagianes, M.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.; Zwicker, G.M.; Teats, D.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were killed at 4, 8, 16, and 20 mo after the start of exposures to inhaled high-CWP bituminous coal mine dust separately and combined with unscrubbed exhaust fumes from a diesel engine operated under load-rpm cycling. General health and hematologic parameters were normal. Lung lesions and accumulations of particulate matter increased with length and type of exposure; however, no animals have developed lung tumors or precancerous tissue changes up to 16 mo postexposure

  4. Engine-propeller power plant aircraft community noise reduction key methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkov P., A.; Samokhin V., F.; Yakovlev A., A.

    2018-04-01

    Basic methods of aircraft-type flying vehicle engine-propeller power plant noise reduction were considered including single different-structure-and-arrangement propellers and piston engines. On the basis of a semiempirical model the expressions for blade diameter and number effect evaluation upon propeller noise tone components under thrust constancy condition were proposed. Acoustic tests performed at Moscow Aviation institute airfield on the whole qualitatively proved the obtained ratios. As an example of noise and detectability reduction provision a design-and-experimental estimation of propeller diameter effect upon unmanned aircraft audibility boundaries was performed. Future investigation ways were stated to solve a low-noise power plant design problem for light aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles.

  5. Planning and forecasting demand for aircraft engines airline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Кучер

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available  The questions of air-engines supply system processes analysis on the basis of order planning and air-engine demand forecasting of airline’s air fleet with the use of imitating simulation methods are considered.

  6. The Effect of Faster Engine Response on the Lateral Directional Control of a Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The integration of flight control and propulsion control has been a much discussed topic, especially for emergencies where the engines may be able to help stabilize and safely land a damaged aircraft. Previous research has shown that for the engines to be effective as flight control actuators, the response time to throttle commands must be improved. Other work has developed control modes that accept a higher risk of engine failure in exchange for improved engine response during an emergency. In this effort, a nonlinear engine model (the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k) has been integrated with a nonlinear airframe model (the Generic Transport Model) in order to evaluate the use of enhanced-response engines as alternative yaw rate control effectors. Tests of disturbance rejection and command tracking were used to determine the impact of the engines on the aircraft's dynamical behavior. Three engine control enhancements that improve the response time of the engine were implemented and tested in the integrated simulation. The enhancements were shown to increase the engine s effectiveness as a yaw rate control effector when used in an automatic feedback loop. The improvement is highly dependent upon flight condition; the airframe behavior is markedly improved at low altitude, low speed conditions, and relatively unchanged at high altitude, high speed.

  7. Charging process analysis of an opposed-piston two-stroke aircraft Diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results on a 1D model of an opposed-piston two-stroke aircraft Diesel engine. The research aimed at creating a model of the engine in question to investigate how engine performance is affected by the compressor gear ratio. The power was constant at all the operating points. The research results are presented as graphs of power consumed by the compressor, compressor efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption. The optimal range of compressor gear ratio in terms of engine efficiency was defined from the research results.

  8. Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of Model TFE731-2 engine tests were conducted with the Concept 2 variable geometry airblast fuel injector combustion system installed. The engine was tested to: (1) establish the emission levels over the selected points which comprise the Environmental Protection Agency Landing-Takeoff Cycle; (2) determine engine performance with the combustion system; and (3) evaulate the engine acceleration/deceleration characteristics. The hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke goals were met. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were above the goal for the same configuration that met the other pollutant goals. The engine and combustor performance, as well as acceleration/deceleration characteristics, were acceptable. The Concept 3 staged combustor system was refined from earlier phase development and subjected to further rig refinement testing. The concept met all of the emissions goals.

  9. Buildup of aerosol precursor gases and sulfur-induced activation of soot in nascent jet aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B.; Hirschberg, M.M.; Fabian, P. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Gerz, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Research issues concerning the chemical transformation of exhaust trace gases are summarized. The photochemical evolution of NO{sub x} early in the plume is strongly coupled to plume mixing. Substantial amounts of HNO{sub 3} are generated in nascent plumes even if no NO{sub 2} is emitted. The production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes very efficient if part of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. Each emitted soot particle can acquire 1-10% by mass fully oxidized sulfur molecules prior to binary homogeneous nucleation, if a few percent of the exhaust SO{sub x} are emitted as SO{sub 3}, indicating an important activation pathway for soot, and leading to a marked enhancement of new aerosol formation and growth rates. (author) 11 refs.

  10. Buildup of aerosol precursor gases and sulfur-induced activation of soot in nascent jet aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B; Hirschberg, M M; Fabian, P [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Gerz, T [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    Research issues concerning the chemical transformation of exhaust trace gases are summarized. The photochemical evolution of NO{sub x} early in the plume is strongly coupled to plume mixing. Substantial amounts of HNO{sub 3} are generated in nascent plumes even if no NO{sub 2} is emitted. The production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes very efficient if part of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. Each emitted soot particle can acquire 1-10% by mass fully oxidized sulfur molecules prior to binary homogeneous nucleation, if a few percent of the exhaust SO{sub x} are emitted as SO{sub 3}, indicating an important activation pathway for soot, and leading to a marked enhancement of new aerosol formation and growth rates. (author) 11 refs.

  11. Starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.М. Іщенко

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  In the article the questions of the starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter is considered. In the same way in the article are determined the main requirements to steady-state converter for feeding electric starter.

  12. Assessment of engine noise shielding by the wings of current turbofan aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves Vieira, A.E.; Snellen, M.; Simons, D.G.; Gibbs, B.

    2017-01-01

    The shielding of engine noise by the aircraft wings and fuselage can lead to a significant reduction on perceived noise on ground. Most research on noise shielding is focused on BlendedWing Body (BWB) configurations because of the large dimension of the fuselage. However, noise shielding is also

  13. Report to NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems Relative to Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The following report highlights some of the work accomplished by the Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Division of the Flight Safety Foundations since the last report to the NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems on 22 May 1963. The information presented is in summary form. Additional details may be provided upon request of the reports themselves may be obtained from AvSER.

  14. Supercharging system behavior for high altitude operation of an aircraft 2-stroke Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Antonio Paolo; Ficarella, Antonio; Laforgia, Domenico; Renna, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different supercharging architectures have been compared for an aircraft 2T engine. • The supercharging architectures are compared to minimize the fuel consumption. • The architecture with the highest conversion efficiency was determined. - Abstract: Different studies on both 2- and 4-stroke engines have shown how the choice of different supercharging architectures can influence engine performance. Among them, architectures coupling one turbocharger with a mechanical compressor or two turbochargers are found to be the most performing in terms of engine output power and efficiency. However, defining the best supercharging architecture for aircraft 2-stroke engines is a quite complex task because the supercharging system as well as the ambient conditions influence the engine performance/efficiency. This is due to the close interaction between supercharging, trapping, scavenging and combustion processes. The aim of the present work is the comparison between different architectures (single turbocharger, double turbocharger, single turbocharger combined with a mechanical compressor, single turbocharger with an electrically-assisted turbocharger, with intercooler or aftercooler) designed to supercharge an aircraft 2-stroke Diesel engine for general aviation and unmanned aerial vehicles characterized by a very high altitude operation and long fuel distance. A 1D model of the engine purposely designed has been used to compare the performance of the different supercharging systems in terms of power, fuel consumption, and their effect on trapping and scavenging efficiency at different altitudes. The analysis shows that the engine target power is reached by a 2 turbochargers architecture; in this way, in fact, the cylinder filling, and consequently the engine performance, are maximized. Moreover, it is shown that the performance of a 2 turbochargers architecture performance can be further improved connecting electrically and not mechanically the low

  15. Demonstration of high temperature thermoelectric waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of a combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Weidenkaff, Anke; Populoh, Sascha; Brunko, Oliver; Veziridis, Angelika; Bach, Christian; Cabalzar, Urs [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    The energy efficiency of passenger cars becomes increasingly important due to a growing awareness in terms of climate change and shortages of resources associated with rising fuel prices. In addition to the efforts towards the optimization of the engine's internal efficiency, waste heat recovery is the main objective. In this respect, thermoelectric (TE) devices seem to be suited as heat recuperation systems. Thermoelectric generators allow for direct transformation of thermal into electrical energy. In order to thoroughly investigate this type of recovery system a TE demonstrator was mounted on the muffler of a VW Touran and tested. The waste heat of the exhaust gas was converted into electricity with a conversion rate of {proportional_to}. 3.5%. The limiting factor was the low thermal stability of the commercial modules used in this pre-study to elaborate reference values. Thermoelectric modules based on sustainable and temperature-stable materials are being developed to improve the measured values. A thermoelectric test generator with perovskite-type oxide modules was constructed confirm the function and stability at elevated temperatures. Despite all the advantages of this material class, the TE performance is still to be improved. A quantitative measure of a material's TE performance is the temperature-independent Figure of Merit ZT. ZT increases with decreasing thermal and increasing electrical conductivity. An approach to thermal conductivity reduction is nanostructuring of the material. The Ultrasonic Spray Combustion (USC) technique allows to produce powders with a grain size on the nanoscale and was tested in this study. (orig.)

  16. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  17. Variable-cycle engines for supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E.

    1976-01-01

    Progress and the current status of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) study are reviewed with emphasis placed on the impact of technology advancements and design specifications. A large variety of VCE concepts are also examined.

  18. Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  19. Improvement of the thermal and mechanical flow characteristics in the exhaust system of piston engine through the use of ejection effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, L. V.; Zhilkin, B. P.; Brodov, Yu M.

    2017-11-01

    The results of experimental research of gas dynamics and heat transfer in the exhaust process in piston internal combustion engines are presented. Studies were conducted on full-scale models of piston engine in the conditions of unsteady gas-dynamic (pulsating flows). Dependences of the instantaneous flow speed and the local heat transfer coefficient from the crankshaft rotation angle in the exhaust pipe are presented in the article. Also, the flow characteristics of the exhaust gases through the exhaust systems of various configurations are analyzed. It is shown that installation of the ejector in the exhaust system lead to a stabilization of the flow and allows to improve cleaning of the cylinder from exhaust gases and to optimize the thermal state of the exhaust pipes. Experimental studies were complemented by numerical simulation of the working process of the DM-21 diesel engine (production of “Ural diesel-motor plant”). The object of modeling was the eight-cylinder diesel with turbocharger. The simulation was performed taking into account the processes nonstationarity in the intake and exhaust pipes for the various configurations of exhaust systems (with and without ejector). Numerical simulation of the working process of diesel was performed in ACTUS software (ABB Turbo Systems). The simulation results confirmed the stabilization of the flow due to the use of the ejection effect in the exhaust system of a diesel engine. The use of ejection in the exhaust system of the DM-21 diesel leads to improvement of cleaning cylinders up to 10 %, reduces the specific fuel consumption on average by 1 %.

  20. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  1. Internal combustion engine exhaust pipe flow simulation. Part I: theoretical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Mantilla; Camilo Andrés Falla; Jorge Arturo Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Unsteady gas flow theory can be used for simulating a spark ignition internal combustion engine’s exhaust system, using pressure waves. The method explained here is based on the discretization of interpolated spaces (called meshes) which are located throughout the whole length of the exhaust pipe, irrespective of its form or size. The most important aspects of this theory are theoretically explored, such as pressure wave movement and shock and their application to cases found in re...

  2. Internal combustion engine exhaust pipe flow simulation. Part I: theoretical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Mantilla; Camilo Andrés Falla; Jorge Arturo Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady gas flow theory can be used for simulating a spark ignition internal combustion engine’s exhaust system, using pressure waves. The method explained here is based on the discretization of interpolated spaces (called meshes) which are located throughout the whole length of the exhaust pipe, irrespective of its form or size. The most important aspects of this theory are theoretically explored, such as pressure wave movement and shock and their application to cases found in real engines’...

  3. An investigation of the treatment of particulate matter from gasoline engine exhaust using non-thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Dan; Gao Dengshan; Yu Gang; Shen Xianglin; Gu Fan

    2005-01-01

    A plasma reactor with catalysts was used to treat exhaust gas from a gasoline engine in order to decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. The effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) of the dielectric discharges on the removal of PM from the exhaust gas was investigated experimentally. The removal efficiency of PM was based on the concentration difference in PM for particle diameters ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 μm as measured by a particle counter. Several factors affecting PM conversion, including the density of plasma energy, reaction temperature, flow rate of exhaust gas, were investigated in the experiment. The results indicate that PM removal efficiency ranged approximately from 25 to 57% and increased with increasing energy input in the reactor, reaction temperature and residence time of the exhaust gas in the reactor. Enhanced removal of the PM was achieved by filling the discharge gap of the reactor with Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst pellets. In addition, the removal of unburned hydrocarbons was studied. Finally, available approaches for PM conversion were analyzed involving the interactions between discharge and catalytic reactions

  4. Validated analytical modeling of diesel engine regulated exhaust CO emission rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed F Faris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Albeit vehicle analytical models are often favorable for explainable mathematical trends, no analytical model has been developed of the regulated diesel exhaust CO emission rate for trucks yet. This research unprecedentedly develops and validates for trucks a model of the steady speed regulated diesel exhaust CO emission rate analytically. It has been found that the steady speed–based CO exhaust emission rate is based on (1 CO2 dissociation, (2 the water–gas shift reaction, and (3 the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon. It has been found as well that the steady speed–based CO exhaust emission rate based on CO2 dissociation is considerably less than the rate that is based on the water–gas shift reaction. It has also been found that the steady speed–based CO exhaust emission rate based on the water–gas shift reaction is the dominant source of CO exhaust emission. The study shows that the average percentage of deviation of the steady speed–based simulated results from the corresponding field data is 1.7% for all freeway cycles with 99% coefficient of determination at the confidence level of 95%. This deviation of the simulated results from field data outperforms its counterpart of widely recognized models such as the comprehensive modal emissions model and VT-Micro for all freeway cycles.

  5. Engineering task plan for rotary mode core sampling exhausters CAM high radiation interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system is primarily made up of the Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) and the RMCS Exhausters. During RMCS operations an Exhauster is connected to a tank riser and withdraws gases from the tank dome vapor space at approximately 200 Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). The gases are passed through two High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters before passing out the exhaust stack to the atmosphere. A Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) monitors the exhaust gases in the exhaust stack for beta particle and gamma radiation. The CAM has a high radiation alarm output and a detector fail alarm output. The CAM alarms are currently connected to the data logger only. The CAM alarms require operator response per procedure LMHC 1998 but no automatic functions are initiated by the CAM alarms. Currently, there are three events that can cause an automatic shut down of the Exhauster. These are, Low Tank Pressure, Highnow Stack Flow and High HEPA Filter Differential Pressure (DP)

  6. UV Absorption Measurements of Nitric Oxide Compared to Probe Sampling Data for Measurements in a Turbine Engine Exhaust at Simulated Altitude Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, R

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide measurements were conducted in the exhaust of a turbofan engine at simulated altitude conditions in a ground-level test cell using both optical nonintrusive and conventional gas sampling techniques...

  7. Specific emissions analysis for a combustion engine in dynamometer operation in relation to the thermal state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment systems in a modified NRSC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkisz Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have been present in motor vehicles for decades and have contributed to reducing their impact on the environment and people. Most of them for oxidation or reduction of harmful emissions of particulates and fumes require a certain temperature to be reached that changes with the exhaust temperature, i.e. the points of engine operation. The article describes the effect of oxidation reactor and particulate filter temperatures on specific emissions of gaseous compounds and particulate matter during the modified NRSC engine test. Before the first measurement cycle, the engine was idling, before the second measurement cycle, the exhaust system was heated with exhaust gases at full engine load until passive regeneration of the particle filter occurred (noticeable decrease in instantaneous particle concentration.

  8. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Waste Plastic Oil / Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punitharani K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission is one of the major sources for health issues, acid rain and global warming. Diesel engine vehicles are the major sources for NOx emissions. Hence there is a need to reduce the emissions from the engines by identifying suitable techniques or by means of alternate fuels. The present investigation deals with the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on 4S, single cylinder, DI diesel engine using plastic oil/Diesel blends P10 (10% plastic oil & 90% diesel in volume, P20 and P30 at various EGR rates. Plastic oil blends were able to operate in diesel engines without any modifications and the results showed that P20 blend had the least NOx emission quantity.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust duct excludes the length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall be minimized... exhaust manifold, immediately after exhaust aftertreatment systems, or after a length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or (iv) Partial dilution of the exhaust gas prior to entering the...

  10. Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman-Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    An emerging approach in the field of aircraft engine controls and system health management is the inclusion of real-time, onboard models for the inflight estimation of engine performance variations. This technology, typically based on Kalman-filter concepts, enables the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters that can be directly utilized by controls, prognostics, and health-management applications. A challenge that complicates this practice is the fact that an aircraft engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. Through Kalman-filter-based estimation techniques, the level of engine performance degradation can be estimated, given that there are at least as many sensors as health parameters to be estimated. However, in an aircraft engine, the number of sensors available is typically less than the number of health parameters, presenting an under-determined estimation problem. A common approach to address this shortcoming is to estimate a subset of the health parameters, referred to as model tuning parameters. The problem/objective is to optimally select the model tuning parameters to minimize Kalman-filterbased estimation error. A tuner selection technique has been developed that specifically addresses the under-determined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine that seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error of the Kalman filter. This approach can significantly reduce the error in onboard aircraft engine parameter estimation

  11. Analysis of the Impact of Early Exhaust Valve Opening and Cylinder Deactivation on Aftertreatment Thermal Management and Efficiency for Compression Ignition Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Leighton Edward

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet strict emissions regulations, engine manufacturers have implemented aftertreatment technologies which reduce the tailpipe emissions from diesel engines. The effectiveness of most of these systems is limited when exhaust temperatures are low (usually below 200°C to 250°C). This is a problem for extended low load operation, such as idling and during cold start. Use of variable valve actuation, including early exhaust valve opening (EEVO) and cylinder deactivation (CDA), has bee...

  12. Accurate Measurements of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a CAPS PMssa Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, Timothy; Thompson, Kevin; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Smallwood, Greg; Make-Lye, Richard; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present results of aircraft engine soot emissions measurements during the VARIAnT2 campaign using CAPS PMssa monitors. VARIAnT2, an aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions field campaign, was focused on understanding the variability in nvPM mass measurements using different measurement techniques and accounting for possible nvPM sampling system losses. The CAPS PMssa monitor accurately measures both the optical extinction and scattering (and thus single scattering albedo and absorption) of an extracted sample using the same sample volume for both measurements with a time resolution of 1 second and sensitivity of better than 1 Mm-1. Absorption is obtained by subtracting the scattering signal from the total extinction. Given that the single scattering albedo of the particulates emitted from the aircraft engine measured at both 630 and 660 nm was on the order of 0.1, any inaccuracy in the scattering measurement has little impact on the accuracy of the ddetermined absorption coefficient. The absorption is converted into nvPM mass using a documented Mass Absorption Coefficient (MAC). Results of soot emission indices (mass soot emitted per mass of fuel consumed) for a turbojet engine as a function of engine power will be presented and compared to results obtained using an EC/OC monitor.

  13. Aircraft Wing for Over-The-Wing Mounting of Engine Nacelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew S. (Inventor); Kinney, David J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An aircraft wing has an inboard section and an outboard section. The inboard section is attached (i) on one side thereof to the aircraft's fuselage, and (ii) on an opposing side thereof to an inboard side of a turbofan engine nacelle in an over-the-wing mounting position. The outboard section's leading edge has a sweep of at least 20 degrees. The inboard section's leading edge has a sweep between -15 and +15 degrees, and extends from the fuselage to an attachment position on the nacelle that is forward of an index position defined as an imaginary intersection between the sweep of the outboard section's leading edge and the inboard side of the nacelle. In an alternate embodiment, the turbofan engine nacelle is replaced with an open rotor engine nacelle.

  14. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  15. Correlation between electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Juliusz B.; Głogowski, Marek J.; Paszkowski, Maciej; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogusława

    2011-06-01

    In this paper the results are presented of measurements of electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils. Oils were used in a four-stroke aircraft engine and their samples were taken after the 50-hour work of the engine. The resistivity, permittivity and viscosity of oils were measured as a function of temperature. Additionally, some measurements of the absorbance spectra and size of particles contained in the oils were carried out. The significant reduction in the resistivity of the used Total oil was observed. The relative permittivity of both used oils was slightly increased. The oil's relative viscosity depends on temperature of oil and given time that elapsed from the very first moment when the shear force was applied in a rheometer. The results obtained allowed one to identify more precisely the chemical and physico-chemical interactions occurring in the tested samples, as compared with a typical infrared spectroscopy.

  16. The influence of engine/transmission/governor on tilting proprotor aircraft dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for the dynamics of a tilting proprotor aircraft engine and drive train, including a rotor speed governor and interconnect shaft. The dynamic stability of a proprotor and cantilever wing is calculated, including the engine-transmission-governor model. It is concluded that the rotor behaves much as if windmilling as far as its dynamic behavior is concerned, with some influence of the turboshaft engine inertia and damping. The interconnect shaft has a significant influence on the antisymmetric dynamics of proprotor aircraft. The proprotor aerodynamics model is extended to include reverse flow, and a refinement on the method used to calculate the kinematic pitch-bending coupling of the blade is developed.

  17. Leakage Account for Radial Face Contact Seal in Aircraft Engine Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, A. S.; Sergeeva, T. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the development of a methodology for the radial face contact seal design taking into consideration the supporting elements deformations in different aircraft engine operating modes. Radial face contact seals are popular in the aircraft engines bearing support. However, there are no published leakage calculation methodologies of these seals. Radial face contact seal leakage is determined by the gap clearance in the carbon seal ring split. In turn, the size gap clearance depends on the deformation of the seal assembly parts and from the engine operation. The article shows the leakage detection sequence in the intershaft radial face contact seal of the compressor support for take-off and cruising modes. Evaluated calculated leakage values (2.4 g/s at takeoff and 0.75 g/s at cruising) go with experience in designing seals.

  18. Correlation between electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, Juliusz B; Glogowski, Marek J; Paszkowski, Maciej; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Boguslawa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of measurements of electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils. Oils were used in a four-stroke aircraft engine and their samples were taken after the 50-hour work of the engine. The resistivity, permittivity and viscosity of oils were measured as a function of temperature. Additionally, some measurements of the absorbance spectra and size of particles contained in the oils were carried out. The significant reduction in the resistivity of the used Total oil was observed. The relative permittivity of both used oils was slightly increased. The oil's relative viscosity depends on temperature of oil and given time that elapsed from the very first moment when the shear force was applied in a rheometer. The results obtained allowed one to identify more precisely the chemical and physico-chemical interactions occurring in the tested samples, as compared with a typical infrared spectroscopy.

  19. Effects of valve timing, valve lift and exhaust backpressure on performance and gas exchanging of a two-stroke GDI engine with overhead valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Nora, Macklini; Lanzanova, Thompson Diórdinis Metzka; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stroke operation was achieved in a four-valve direct injection gasoline engine. • Shorter valve opening durations improved torque at lower engine speeds. • The longer the valve opening duration, the lower was the air trapping efficiency. • Higher exhaust backpressure and lower valve lift reduced the compressor work. - Abstract: The current demand for fuel efficient and lightweight powertrains, particularly for application in downsized and hybrid electric vehicles, has renewed the interest in two-stroke engines. In this framework, an overhead four-valve spark-ignition gasoline engine was modified to run in the two-stroke cycle. The scavenging process took place during a long valve overlap period around bottom dead centre at each crankshaft revolution. Boosted intake air was externally supplied at a constant pressure and gasoline was directly injected into the cylinder after valve closure. Intake and exhaust valve timings and lifts were independently varied through an electrohydraulic valve train, so their effects on engine performance and gas exchanging were investigated at 800 rpm and 2000 rpm. Different exhaust backpressures were also evaluated by means of exhaust throttling. Air trapping efficiency, charging efficiency and scavenge ratio were calculated based on air and fuel flow rates, and exhaust oxygen concentration at fuel rich conditions. The results indicated that longer intake and exhaust valve opening durations increased the charge purity and hence torque at higher engine speeds. At lower speeds, although, shorter valve opening durations increased air trapping efficiency and reduced the estimated supercharger power consumption due to lower air short-circuiting. A strong correlation was found between torque and charging efficiency, while air trapping efficiency was more associated to exhaust valve opening duration. The application of exhaust backpressure, as well as lower intake/exhaust valve lifts, made it possible to increase

  20. Self Diagnostic Accelerometer Ground Testing on a C-17 Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokars, Roger P.; Lekki, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center was tested for the first time in an aircraft engine environment as part of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research (VIPR) program. The VIPR program includes testing multiple critical flight sensor technologies. One such sensor, the accelerometer, measures vibrations to detect faults in the engine. In order to rely upon the accelerometer, the health of the accelerometer must be ensured. Sensor system malfunction is a significant contributor to propulsion in flight shutdowns (IFSD) which can lead to aircraft accidents when the issue is compounded with an inappropriate crew response. The development of the SDA is important for both reducing the IFSD rate, and hence reducing the rate at which this component failure type can put an aircraft in jeopardy, and also as a critical enabling technology for future automated malfunction diagnostic systems. The SDA is a sensor system designed to actively determine the accelerometer structural health and attachment condition, in addition to making vibration measurements. The SDA uses a signal conditioning unit that sends an electrical chirp to the accelerometer and recognizes changes in the response due to changes in the accelerometer health and attachment condition. In an effort toward demonstrating the SDAs flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C-17 aircraft engine. The engine test conditions varied from engine off, to idle, to maximum power. The two SDA attachment conditions used were fully tight and loose. The newly developed SDA health algorithm described herein uses cross correlation pattern recognition to discriminate a healthy from a faulty SDA. The VIPR test results demonstrate for the first time the robustness of the SDA in an engine environment characterized by high vibration levels.

  1. Constructing an Efficient Self-Tuning Aircraft Engine Model for Control and Health Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Self-tuning aircraft engine models can be applied for control and health management applications. The self-tuning feature of these models minimizes the mismatch between any given engine and the underlying engineering model describing an engine family. This paper provides details of the construction of a self-tuning engine model centered on a piecewise linear Kalman filter design. Starting from a nonlinear transient aerothermal model, a piecewise linear representation is first extracted. The linearization procedure creates a database of trim vectors and state-space matrices that are subsequently scheduled for interpolation based on engine operating point. A series of steady-state Kalman gains can next be constructed from a reduced-order form of the piecewise linear model. Reduction of the piecewise linear model to an observable dimension with respect to available sensed engine measurements can be achieved using either a subset or an optimal linear combination of "health" parameters, which describe engine performance. The resulting piecewise linear Kalman filter is then implemented for faster-than-real-time processing of sensed engine measurements, generating outputs appropriate for trending engine performance, estimating both measured and unmeasured parameters for control purposes, and performing on-board gas-path fault diagnostics. Computational efficiency is achieved by designing multidimensional interpolation algorithms that exploit the shared scheduling of multiple trim vectors and system matrices. An example application illustrates the accuracy of a self-tuning piecewise linear Kalman filter model when applied to a nonlinear turbofan engine simulation. Additional discussions focus on the issue of transient response accuracy and the advantages of a piecewise linear Kalman filter in the context of validation and verification. The techniques described provide a framework for constructing efficient self-tuning aircraft engine models from complex nonlinear

  2. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on the Performance Characteristics of a Direct Injection Multi Cylinders Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ibrahim Abaas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing  to  the  energy  crisis  and  pollution  problems  of  today  investigations  have  concentrated  on decreasing  fuel  consumption  and  on  lowering  the  concentration  of  toxic  components  in  combustion products by using exhaust gas after treatments methods like PM filters and EGR for NOx reduction. In this study, the combustion characteristics of diesel fuel were compared with that pr oduced from adding EGR at several percentages to air manifold. The tests were performed in a four-cylinder direct injection (DI diesel engine at constant engine speed (1500 rpm and variable loads (from no load to 86 kN/m2, the tests were repeated with constant load (77 kN/m2 and variable engine speeds (from 1250 to 3000 rpm.The experimental results showed that adding EGR to diesel engine provided significant reductions in brake power (bp, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperatures, while high increments in brake specific  fuel  consumption  (bsfc.  High  EGR  percentage  (as  30%  in  this  article  caused  an  11.7% reduction  in  brake  thermal  efficiency,  26.38%  reduction  in  exhaust  gas  temperatures  and  12.28%  in volumetric efficiency at full load conditions.

  3. Diesel engine exhaust accelerates plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Maja; Albrecht, Catrin; van Berlo, Damiën; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Wahle, Tina; Boots, Agnes W; Krutmann, Jean; Cassee, Flemming R; Bayer, Thomas A; Schins, Roel P F

    2017-08-30

    Increasing evidence from toxicological and epidemiological studies indicates that the central nervous system is an important target for ambient air pollutants. We have investigated whether long-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a dominant contributor to particulate air pollution in urban environments, can aggravate Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-like effects in female 5X Familial AD (5XFAD) mice and their wild-type female littermates. Following 3 and 13 weeks exposures to diluted DEE (0.95 mg/m 3 , 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or clean air (controls) behaviour tests were performed and amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque formation, pulmonary histopathology and systemic inflammation were evaluated. In a string suspension task, assessing for grip strength and motor coordination, 13 weeks exposed 5XFAD mice performed significantly less than the 5XFAD controls. Spatial working memory deficits, assessed by Y-maze and X-maze tasks, were not observed in association with the DEE exposures. Brains of the 3 weeks DEE-exposed 5XFAD mice showed significantly higher cortical Aβ plaque load and higher whole brain homogenate Aβ42 levels than the clean air-exposed 5XFAD littermate controls. After the 13 weeks exposures, with increasing age and progression of the AD-phenotype of the 5XFAD mice, DEE-related differences in amyloid pathology were no longer present. Immunohistochemical evaluation of lungs of the mice revealed no obvious genetic background-related differences in tissue structure, and the DEE exposure did not cause histopathological changes in the mice of both backgrounds. Luminex analysis of plasma cytokines demonstrated absence of sustained systemic inflammation upon DEE exposure. Inhalation exposure to DEE causes accelerated plaque formation and motor function impairment in 5XFAD transgenic mice. Our study provides further support that the brain is a relevant target for the effects of inhaled DEE and suggests that long-term exposure to this ubiquitous air

  4. Experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with Ceiba pentandra biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silitonga, A.S.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Chong, W.T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ceiba pentandra biodiesel was prepared by two-step transesterification. • The main FAC of C. pentandra is 18.54% of malvalic acid. • Engine performance and emission are conducted for CPME and its blends. • The CPB10 gives the best engine performance at 1900 rpm. • The CO, HC and smoke opacity were lower for all biodiesel blends. - Abstract: Nowadays, production of biodiesel from non-edible feedstock is gaining more attention than edible oil to replace diesel fuel. Thus, Ceiba pentandra is chosen as a potential biodiesel feedstock for the present investigations based on the availability in Indonesia and Malaysia. C. pentandra methyl ester was prepared by two-step acid esterification (H 2 SO 4 ) and base transesterification (NaOH) process. The purpose of this study is to examine the engine performance and emission characteristic of C. pentandra biodiesel diesel blends in internal combustion. Besides, the detailed properties of C. pentandra biodiesel, biodiesel diesel blends and diesel were measured and evaluated. After that, the biodiesel diesel blends (10%, 20%, 30% and 50%) were used to conduct engine performance and exhaust emission characteristic at different engine speeds. The experimental results showed that CPB10 blend give the best results on engine performance such as engine torque and power at 1900 rpm with full throttle condition. Besides, the brake specific fuel consumption at maximum torque (161 g/kW h) for CPB10 is higher about 22.98% relative to diesel fuel (198 g/kW h). This is shown that the lower biodiesel diesel blends ratio will increase the performance and reduce the fuel consumption. Moreover, the exhaust emissions showed that CO, HC and smoke opacity were reduced for all biodiesel diesel blends. However, NO x and CO 2 were increased compared to petrol diesel. Overall, the results proved that C. pentandra biodiesel is a suitable alternative and substitute fuel to diesel

  5. Engine-integrated solid oxide fuel cells for efficient electrical power generation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Daniel F.; Cadou, Christopher P.

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the use of engine-integrated catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) reactors and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce fuel burn in vehicles with large electrical loads like sensor-laden unmanned air vehicles. Thermodynamic models of SOFCs, CPOx reactors, and three gas turbine (GT) engine types (turbojet, combined exhaust turbofan, separate exhaust turbofan) are developed and checked against relevant data and source material. Fuel efficiency is increased by 4% and 8% in the 50 kW and 90 kW separate exhaust turbofan systems respectively at only modest cost in specific power (8% and 13% reductions respectively). Similar results are achieved in other engine types. An additional benefit of hybridization is the ability to provide more electric power (factors of 3 or more in some cases) than generator-based systems before encountering turbine inlet temperature limits. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most important parameters affecting the system's performance are operating voltage, percent fuel oxidation, and SOFC assembly air flows. Taken together, this study shows that it is possible to create a GT-SOFC hybrid where the GT mitigates balance of plant losses and the SOFC raises overall system efficiency. The result is a synergistic system with better overall performance than stand-alone components.

  6. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines -- International Activities Survey (EngToxIn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other combustion -- and industrial processes contain different gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not regarded by the respective legislations; some new substances may appear, due to the progressing technical developments and new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. The toxical effects of exhaust gases as whole aerosols (i.e. all gaseous components together with particle matter and nanoparticles) can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. On several places researchers showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used up to date. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It bears potentials of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives short information about the activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about research of information sources. It can be stated that there are worldwide a lot of activities concerning health effects. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and rarely the results can be directly compared to each other. Nevertheless there also are some common lines and with appropriate efforts there are possible ways to establish the harmonised biological test procedures.

  7. Comparisons of system benefits and thermo-economics for exhaust energy recovery applied on a heavy-duty diesel engine and a light-duty vehicle gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Yajun; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Zhijun; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons of exhaust energy recovery are launched between two types of engine. • System performances are analyzed in terms of benefits and thermo-economics. • Diesel engine system presents superior to gasoline type in economic applicability. • Only diesel engine system using water under full load meets the economic demand. - Abstract: Exhaust energy recovery system (EERS) based on Rankine cycle (RC) in internal combustion engines have been studied mainly on heavy-duty diesel engines (D) and light-duty vehicle gasoline engines (G), however, little information available on systematical comparisons and evaluations between the two applications, which is a particularly necessary summary for clarifying the differences. In this paper, the two particular systems are compared quantitatively using water, R141b, R123 and R245fa as working fluids. The influences of evaporating pressure, engine type and load on the system performances are analyzed with multi-objectives, including the thermal efficiency improvement, the reduced CO 2 emission, the total heat transfer area per net power output (APP), the electricity production cost (EPC) and the payback period (PBP). The results reveal that higher pressure and engine load would be attractive for better performances. R141b shows the best performances in system benefits for the D-EERS, while water exhibits the largest contributions in the G-EERS. Besides, water performs the best thermo-economics, and R245fa serves as the most uneconomical fluid. The D-EERS presents superior to the G-EERS in the economic applicability as well as much more CO 2 emission reductions, although with slightly lower thermal efficiency improvement, and only the D-EERS with water under the full load meets the economic demand. Therefore the EERS based on RC serve more applicable on the heavy-duty diesel engine, while it might be feasible for the light-duty vehicle gasoline engine as the state-of-the art technologies are developed in the

  8. Large eddy simulation of air pollution produced by aircraft engine emissions inside the airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synylo, Kateryna [National Aviation University (Ukraine)], email: synylo@nau.edu.ua

    2011-07-01

    With the increase of air traffic movement, air pollution from airport emissions has become an important concern. In the past, various research has been undertaken on the impact of aircraft engines on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, however the impact that emissions have on airports themselves is not taken into account by the most frequently used monitoring software programs. The aim of this paper is to present the use of a CFD simulation to determine the dynamic and fluid mechanics characteristics of aircraft emissions near the ground. The CFD simulation was carried out using Fluent 6.3 software and the effects of counter-rotating vortices and wind conditions on fulfilled gases jet. It was found that numerical simulation is able to resolve difficult equations and provide realistic results. This study demonstrated that the use of CFD computation could be used to improve local air quality modeling and assessment of the impact of aircraft emissions at airports.

  9. Extractive sampling and optical remote sensing of F100 aircraft engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Kenneth; Goodwin, Bradley; Joseph, Darrell; Tefend, Matthew; Satola, Jan; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram; Spicer, Chester; Holdren, Michael; Mayfield, Howard

    2009-05-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) has initiated several programs to develop and evaluate techniques to characterize emissions from military aircraft to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. This paper describes the results of a recent field study using extractive and optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques to measure emissions from six F-15 fighter aircraft. Testing was performed between November 14 and 16, 2006 on the trim-pad facility at Tyndall Air Force Base in Panama City, FL. Measurements were made on eight different F100 engines, and the engines were tested on-wing of in-use aircraft. A total of 39 test runs were performed at engine power levels that ranged from idle to military power. The approach adopted for these tests involved extractive sampling with collocated ORS measurements at a distance of approximately 20-25 nozzle diameters downstream of the engine exit plane. The emission indices calculated for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and several volatile organic compounds showed very good agreement when comparing the extractive and ORS sampling methods.

  10. Multi-Objective Climb Path Optimization for Aircraft/Engine Integration Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristeidis Antonakis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new multi-objective approach to the aircraft climb path optimization problem, based on the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, is introduced to be used for aircraft–engine integration studies. This considers a combination of a simulation with a traditional Energy approach, which incorporates, among others, the use of a proposed path-tracking scheme for guidance in the Altitude–Mach plane. The adoption of population-based solver serves to simplify case setup, allowing for direct interfaces between the optimizer and aircraft/engine performance codes. A two-level optimization scheme is employed and is shown to improve search performance compared to the basic PSO algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated in a hypothetic engine upgrade scenario for the F-4 aircraft considering the replacement of the aircraft’s J79 engine with the EJ200; a clear advantage of the EJ200-equipped configuration is unveiled, resulting, on average, in 15% faster climbs with 20% less fuel.

  11. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  12. Investigation of nanoparticle additives to biodiesel for improvement of the performance of the exhaust emissions in a compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur, Tayfun; Ozcanli, Mustafa; Aydin, Kadir [Cukurova University Engineering Architecture Faculty Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: tozgur@cu.edu.tr, email: ozcanli@cu.edu.tr, email: kdraydin@cu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Reformulated diesel fuels have been studied recently to achieve substantial reductions in harmful emissions by varying the physicochemical properties and combustion characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel. This article investigates the effects of the addition of oxygen containing nanoparticle additives to biodiesel on fuel properties, engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics. Due to the addition of magnesium oxide (MgO) and silicon oxide (SiO2) nanoparticles at different dosing levels (25 and 50 ppm), it was observed that the density of biodiesel fuel does not show significant variation but the viscosity of biodiesel fuel was found to decrease. As a result of this study, optimum additive and addition dosage was determined as 25 ppm MgO and 25 ppm SiO2, engine emission values namely nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) were decreased and engine performance values slightly increased with the addition of nanoparticle additives at low extra cost of the biodiesel.

  13. Equipment to reduce the emission of noxious components in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsutomi, Y; Inoue, H

    1976-10-21

    The invention concerns an arrangement for the reduction of emission of noxious components in exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine with automatic drive. According to the invention, there is a further switch in parallel with the usual kickdown switch, which is actuated by a temperature sensor and/or choke. If the operating temperature of the engine is below a certain value, or if the choke is pulled out, then the switch is closed. This has the effect that the downstream valve is brought into the same position as that in which the closed kickdown switch would place it. The automatic drive therefore takes up that position, independently of the position of the accelerator pedal, which it would normally occupy only with the accelerator pedal fully pressed down. This guarantees that the engine is always kept at high speed during the hot running phase, which reduces the portion of the noxious gas components emitted.

  14. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine using liquefied petroleum gas-Diesel blended fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Bian, Y.ZH.; Ma, ZH.Y.; Zhang, CH.H.; Liu, SH.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection (DI) Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using LPG in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high auto-ignition temperature of LPG is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under LPG-Diesel blended fuel conditions, using LPG-Diesel blended fuels with various blended rates (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%). Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and blended fuels, revealing the effect of blended fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  15. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  16. Study on waste heat recovery from exhaust gas spark ignition (S.I. engine using steam turbine mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Kamarulhelmy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of global warming has pushed the effort of researchers not only to find alternative renewable energy, but also to improve the machine’s energy efficiency. This includes the utilization of waste energy into ‘useful energy’. For a vehicle using internal combustion engine (ICE, the waste energy produce by exhaust gas can be utilize to ‘useful energy’ up to 34%. The energy from the automotive exhaust can be harness by implementing heat pipe heat exchanger in the automotive system. In order to maximize the amount of waste energy that can be turned to ‘useful energy’, the used of appropriate fluid in the heat exchanger is important. In this study, the fluid used is water, thus converting the fluid into steam and thus drive the turbine that coupling with generator. The paper will explore the performance of a naturally aspirated spark ignition (S.I. engine equipped with waste heat recovery mechanism (WHRM that used water as the heat absorption medium. The experimental and simulation test suggest that the concept is thermodynamically feasible and could significantly enhance the system performance depending on the load applied to the engine.

  17. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust: Effects of Engine Technology, Cold Start, and Emission Certification Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Lambe, Andrew T; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Robinson, Allen L

    2018-02-06

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from dilute exhaust from 16 gasoline vehicles was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor during chassis dynamometer testing using the cold-start unified cycle (UC). Ten vehicles were equipped with gasoline direct injection engines (GDI vehicles) and six with port fuel injection engines (PFI vehicles) certified to a wide range of emissions standards. We measured similar SOA production from GDI and PFI vehicles certified to the same emissions standard; less SOA production from vehicles certified to stricter emissions standards; and, after accounting for differences in gas-particle partitioning, similar effective SOA yields across different engine technologies and certification standards. Therefore the ongoing, dramatic shift from PFI to GDI vehicles in the United States should not alter the contribution of gasoline vehicles to ambient SOA and the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones certified to stricter emissions standards should reduce atmospheric SOA levels. Compared to hot operations, cold-start exhaust had lower effective SOA yields, but still contributed more SOA overall because of substantially higher organic gas emissions. We demonstrate that the PAM reactor can be used as a screening tool for vehicle SOA production by carefully accounting for the effects of the large variations in emission rates.

  18. A study of diesel-hydrogen fuel exhaust emissions in a compression ignition engine/generator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karri, V.; Hafez, H.A.; Kirkegaard, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    A compression engine and duel-fuel supply system was studied in order to determine the influence of hydrogen gas on a diesel engine's exhaust system. Commercially available solenoid valves and pulse actuators were used in a customized mechatronic control unit (MICU) to inject the hydrogen gas into the cylinders during the experiments. The MICU was designed as a generic external attachment. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the hydrogen gas-air mixture after compression. Various different electrical loads were then applied using an alternator in order to stimulate the engine governor and control diesel flow. Results of the study showed that measured carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) loads of exhaust emissions increased, while emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) decreased. Results also showed that higher temperatures and levels of NO x occurred when hydrogen was mixed with the induced air. It was concluded that higher levels of hydrogen may be needed to reduce emissions. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  19. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... avoid moisture condensation. A filter pair loading of 1 mg is typically proportional to a 0.1 g/bhp-hr..., the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This may be achieved by... sampling zone in the primary dilution tunnel and as required to prevent condensation at any point in the...

  20. On-line Analysis of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Dabill, D.; Cocker, J.; Rajan, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2004), s. 2830-2838 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : diesel exhaust analysis * NOx compounds * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2004

  1. Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System for Aircraft Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a packaged silicon carbide (SiC) based MEMS pressure sensor system designed specifically for a conventional turbofan engine. The electronic circuit is based on a Clapp-type oscillator that incorporates a 6H-SiC MESFET, a SiCN MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, titanate MIM capacitors, wirewound inductors, and thick film resistors. The pressure sensor serves as the capacitor in the LC tank circuit, thereby linking pressure to the resonant frequency of the oscillator. The oscillator and DC bias circuitry were fabricated on an alumina substrate and secured inside a metal housing. The packaged sensing system reliably operates at 0 to 350 psi and 25 to 540C. The system has a pressure sensitivity of 6.8 x 10E-2 MHzpsi. The packaged system shows negligible difference in frequency response between 25 and 400C. The fully packaged sensor passed standard benchtop acceptance tests and was evaluated on a flight-worthy engine.

  2. Performance and control study of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine for a drone aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.; Geyser, L. C.; Gold, H.; Walker, D.; Burgner, G.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analog and digital computer studies of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine system for use in a drone vehicle are presented. The turbojet engine consists of a four-stage axial compressor, single-stage turbine, and a fixed area exhaust nozzle. Three simplified fuel schedules and a generalized parameter fuel control for the engine system are presented and evaluated. The evaluation is based on the performance of each schedule or control during engine acceleration from a windmill start at Mach 0.8 and 6100 meters to 100 percent corrected speed. It was found that, because of the higher acceleration margin permitted by the control, the generalized parameter control exhibited the best dynamic performance.

  3. Problems of Formation of Diagnostic Features in the Diagnosis of Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronyakin V.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the evaluation of current technical condition of aircraft engines. Deals with the choice of the detection method of diagnostic features required for degradation assessment, emergency protection and detection of incipient defects on the example of cyclic machines and mechanisms. For the formation of diagnostic features in the diagnosis of aircraft engines use different physical effects (vibration, shock, heat radiation, electrodynamic and thermal processes, wear debris in oil, etc.. Classification of defects and requirements for the development of diagnostics systems is formed based on them. The article describes the requirements for diagnostic signs. The article provides a promising phase method that allows obtaining stable diagnostic characters in exploitation. The result of applying the method is shown. Diagnostic signs are formed. In mathematical modeling it was used the traditional theory of the description of rotary mechanisms. The data obtained are compared with experimental data.

  4. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  5. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  6. Development of coaxial speaker-like non-contact electrostatic sensor for aviation engine exhaust electrostatic character research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Zhaoheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic sensor is the most important equipment in aero-engine exhaust electrostatic character research. By comparing a variety of sensor test programs, the coaxial speaker-like noncontact electrostatic sensor program is proposed. Numerical simulation analysis indicates the electric field distribution of electrostatic sensor, the influence principle of gap width, outer diameter, center diameter, angle and other factors on the sensor capacitance values which identify the key indicators of electrostatic sensor. The experiment test shows that the simulation analysis is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Numerical investigation of exhaust gas emissions for a dual fuel engine configuration using diesel and pongamia oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ibrahim, N H; Udayakumar, M

    2016-12-01

    The investigation presented in this paper focuses on determination of gaseous exhaust emissions by computational simulation during combustion in compression ignition engine with pongamia oil substitution. Combustion is modeled using Equilibrium Constants Method (ECM) with MATLAB program to calculate the mole fraction of 10 combustion products when pongamia oil is burnt along with diesel at variable equivalence ratio and blend ratio. It had been observed that pongamia oil substitution causes decrease in the CO emission and increase in the NO x emission as the blend ratio as well as equivalence ratio increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The High Level Mathematical Models in Calculating Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Ezrokhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes high-level mathematical models developed to solve special problems arising at later stages of design with regard to calculation of the aircraft gas turbine engine (GTE under real operating conditions. The use of blade row mathematics models, as well as mathematical models of a higher level, including 2D and 3D description of the working process in the engine units and components, makes it possible to determine parameters and characteristics of the aircraft engine under conditions significantly different from the calculated ones.The paper considers application of mathematical modelling methods (MMM for solving a wide range of practical problems, such as forcing the engine by injection of water into the flowing part, estimate of the thermal instability effect on the GTE characteristics, simulation of engine start-up and windmill starting condition, etc. It shows that the MMM use, when optimizing the laws of the compressor stator control, as well as supplying cooling air to the hot turbine components in the motor system, can significantly improve the integral traction and economic characteristics of the engine in terms of its gas-dynamic stability, reliability and resource.It ought to bear in mind that blade row mathematical models of the engine are designed to solve purely "motor" problems and do not replace the existing models of various complexity levels used in calculation and design of compressors and turbines, because in “quality” a description of the working processes in these units is inevitably inferior to such specialized models.It is shown that the choice of the mathematical modelling level of an aircraft engine for solving a particular problem arising in its designing and computational study is to a large extent a compromise problem. Despite the significantly higher "resolution" and information ability the motor mathematical models containing 2D and 3D approaches to the calculation of flow in blade machine

  9. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... from your engines may not exceed the numerical emission standards in paragraph (a) of this section. See... specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate...

  10. Aircraft Maintenance Engineering: Factors Impacting Airlines E-Maintenance Technologies, Authoring and Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayianes, Frank

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate factors influencing acceptance and use of technologies in the field of aircraft maintenance authoring, graphics, and documentation. Maintenance engineering authors convert complex engineering used in aircraft production and transform that data using technology (tools) into usable technical publications data. While the current literature includes a large volume of research in technology acceptance in various domains of industry and business, the problem is that no such studies exist with respect to the aircraft maintenance engineering authoring, allowing any number of tools to be used and acceptance to be unsure. The study was based on theoretical approaches of the Technology Acceptance Model and the associated hypothesis related to eight research questions. A survey questionnaire was developed for data collection from a selected population of aircraft maintenance engineering authors. Data collected from 148 responses were exposed to a range of statistical methods and analyses. Analysis of data were performed within the structural equation model using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and a range of regression methods. The analyses generally provided results consistent with prior literature. Two survey questions yielded unexpected results contrary to similar studies. The relationship between prior experience and job level did not show a significant relationship with perceived usefulness or perceived ease of use. Other results included the significant relationship between Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use with Technology acceptance. Recommendations include understanding how Technology Acceptance can be improved for the industry and the need for further research not covered to refine recommendations for technology acceptance related to the aviation industry.

  11. Engine performance and exhaust emission analysis of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with water-diesel emulsion fuel blended with manganese metal additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin Ithnin, Ahmad; Jazair Yahya, Wira; Baun Fletcher, Jasmine; Kadir, Hasannuddin Abd

    2017-10-01

    Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) is one of the alternative fuels that capable to reduce the exhaust emission of diesel engine significantly especially the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, the usage of W/D emulsion fuels contributed to higher CO emissions. Supplementing metal additive into the fuel is the alternate way to reduce the CO emissions and improve performance. The present paper investigates the effect of using W/D blended with organic based manganese metal additives on the diesel engine performance and exhaust emission. The test were carried out by preparing and analysing the results observed from five different tested fuel which were D2, emulsion fuel (E10: 89% D2, 10% - water, 1% - surfactant), E10Mn100, E10Mn150, E10Mn200. Organic based Manganese (100ppm, 150ppm, 200ppm) used as the additive in the three samples of the experiments. E10Mn200 achieved the maximum reduction of BSFC up to 13.66% and has the highest exhaust gas temperature. Whereas, E10Mn150 achieved the highest reduction of CO by 14.67%, and slightly increased of NOx emissions as compared to other emulsion fuels. Organic based manganese which act as catalyst promotes improvement of the emulsion fuel performance and reduced the harmful emissions discharged.

  12. Thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization of an organic Rankine cycle for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Zhang, Hongguang; Song, Songsong; Bei, Chen; Wang, Hongjin; Wang, Enhua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the ORC (Organic Rankine cycle) technology is adopted to recover the exhaust waste heat of diesel engine. The thermodynamic, economic and optimization models of the ORC system are established, respectively. Firstly, the effects of four key parameters, including evaporation pressure, superheat degree, condensation temperature and exhaust temperature at the outlet of the evaporator on the thermodynamic performances and economic indicators of the ORC system are investigated. Subsequently, based on the established optimization model, GA (genetic algorithm) is employed to solve the Pareto solution of the thermodynamic performances and economic indicators for maximizing net power output and minimizing total investment cost under diesel engine various operating conditions using R600, R600a, R601a, R245fa, R1234yf and R1234ze as working fluids. The most suitable working fluid used in the ORC system for diesel engine waste heat recovery is screened out, and then the corresponding optimal parameter regions are analyzed. The results show that thermodynamic performance of the ORC system is improved at the expense of economic performance. Among these working fluids, R245fa is considered as the most suitable working fluid for the ORC waste heat application of the diesel engine with comprehensive consideration of thermoeconomic performances, environmental impacts and safety levels. Under the various operating conditions of the diesel engine, the optimal evaporation pressure is in the range of 1.1 MPa–2.1 MPa. In addition, the optimal superheat degree and the exhaust temperature at the outlet of the evaporator are mainly influenced by the operating conditions of the diesel engine. The optimal condensation temperature keeps a nearly constant value of 298.15 K. - Highlights: • Thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization of an ORC (Organic Rankine cycle) system is conducted. • Sensitivity analysis of the decision variables is performed. • Genetic algorithm

  13. MODELING OF THE FUNCTIONING UNITS OF FUEL SYSTEM OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AIRCRAFT IN VIEW OF AVIATION FUEL QUALITY CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Zavyalik; V. S. Oleshko; V. M. Samoylenko; E. V. Fetisov

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the developed modeling system in MATLAB Simulink which allows to simulate, explore and pre- dict the technical condition of the units of the aircraft gas turbine engine fuel system depending on aviation fuel quality changes.

  14. Performance and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Tavakoli, T.; Faizollahnejad, M. [Tarbiat Modares University, Jalale-E-Aleahmad Highway, Tehran, P.O. Box: 14115-111 (Iran); Buttsworth, D.R.; Yusaf, T.F. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 4350 QLD (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the performance and the pollutant emissions of a four-stroke SI engine operating on ethanol-gasoline blends of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with the aid of artificial neural network (ANN). The properties of bioethanol were measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The experimental results revealed that using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine marginally. For ethanol blends it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased while the brake thermal efficiency ({eta}{sub b.th.}) and the volumetric efficiency ({eta}{sub v}) were increased. The concentration of CO and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when ethanol blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol. In contrast, the concentration of CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} was found to be increased when ethanol is introduced. An ANN model was developed to predict a correlation between brake power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and emission components using different gasoline-ethanol blends and speeds as inputs data. About 70% of the total experimental data were used for training purposes, while the 30% were used for testing. A standard Back-Propagation algorithm for the engine was used in this model. A multi layer perception network (MLP) was used for nonlinear mapping between the input and the output parameters. It was observed that the ANN model can predict engine performance and exhaust emissions with correlation coefficient (R) in the range of 0.97-1. Mean relative errors (MRE) values were in the range of 0.46-5.57%, while root mean square errors (RMSE) were found to be very low. This study demonstrates that ANN approach can be used to accurately predict the SI engine performance and emissions. (author)

  15. Sliding Mode Fault Tolerant Control with Adaptive Diagnosis for Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingfei; Du, Yanbin; Hu, Jixiang; Jiang, Bin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel sliding mode fault tolerant control method is presented for aircraft engine systems with uncertainties and disturbances on the basis of adaptive diagnostic observer. By taking both sensors faults and actuators faults into account, the general model of aircraft engine control systems which is subjected to uncertainties and disturbances, is considered. Then, the corresponding augmented dynamic model is established in order to facilitate the fault diagnosis and fault tolerant controller design. Next, a suitable detection observer is designed to detect the faults effectively. Through creating an adaptive diagnostic observer and based on sliding mode strategy, the sliding mode fault tolerant controller is constructed. Robust stabilization is discussed and the closed-loop system can be stabilized robustly. It is also proven that the adaptive diagnostic observer output errors and the estimations of faults converge to a set exponentially, and the converge rate greater than some value which can be adjusted by choosing designable parameters properly. The simulation on a twin-shaft aircraft engine verifies the applicability of the proposed fault tolerant control method.

  16. Pratt & Whitney aircraft nuclear J-8 turbojet engine performance variation with radiator diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, John W.

    1960-01-01

    The variation of engine performance with liquid metal radiator diameter and flight altitude has been estimated for both the 1600F NaK and 1800F NaK radiators at Mach 0.6 and hot day atmospheric conditions. The net thrust, air flow and reactor power is presented in 3 figures for the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft J-58 engine with the 1600F NaK radiator. The net thrust, air flow and reactor power for the 1800F NaK radiator are also presented in figures.

  17. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Itoh, C.; Shirai, K.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Three sets of impact tests, small-, intermediate-, and full-scale tests, have been executed to determine local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by the impact of aircraft engine missiles. The results of the test program showed that (1) the use of the similarity law is appropriate, (2) suitable empirical formulas exist for predicting the local damage caused by rigid missiles, (3) reduction factors may be used for evaluating the reduction in local damage due to the deformability of the engines, (4) the reinforcement ratio has no effect on local damage, and (5) the test results could be adequately predicted using nonlinear response analysis. (orig.)

  18. Efficiency improvement of a spark-ignition engine at full load conditions using exhaust gas recirculation and variable geometry turbocharger – Numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjerić, Momir; Taritaš, Ivan; Tomić, Rudolf; Blažić, Mislav; Kozarac, Darko; Lulić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A cylinder model was calibrated according to experimental results. • A full cycle simulation model of turbocharged spark-ignition engine was made. • Engine performance with high pressure exhaust gas recirculation was studied. • Cooled exhaust gas recirculation lowers exhaust temperature and knock occurrence. • Leaner mixtures enable fuel consumption improvement of up to 11.2%. - Abstract: The numerical analysis of performance of a four cylinder highly boosted spark-ignition engine at full load is described in this paper, with the research focused on introducing high pressure exhaust gas recirculation for control of engine limiting factors such as knock, turbine inlet temperature and cyclic variability. For this analysis the cycle-simulation model which includes modeling of the entire engine flow path, early flame kernel growth, mixture stratification, turbulent combustion, in-cylinder turbulence, knock and cyclic variability was applied. The cylinder sub-models such as ignition, turbulence and combustion were validated by using the experimental results of a naturally aspirated multi cylinder spark-ignition engine. The high load operation, which served as a benchmark value, was obtained by a standard procedure used in calibration of engines, i.e. operation with fuel enrichment and without exhaust gas recirculation. By introducing exhaust gas recirculation and by optimizing other engine operating parameters, the influence of exhaust gas recirculation on engine performance is obtained. The optimum operating parameters, such as spark advance, intake pressure, air to fuel ratio, were found to meet the imposed requirements in terms of fuel consumption, knock occurrence, exhaust gas temperature and variation of indicated mean effective pressure. By comparing the results of the base point with the results that used exhaust gas recirculation the improvement in fuel consumption of 8.7%, 11.2% and 1.5% at engine speeds of 2000 rpm, 3500 rpm and 5000

  19. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Özer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High quality biodiesel fuels can be produced by using different waste cooking oils. • Biodiesel fuel blends (in 5 and 10% vol) can be used without any negative effects. • Effects of biodiesel addition on the combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated. - Abstract: In this study, a mixture of biodiesel fuels produced from two different kinds of waste cooking oils was blended in 5% and 10% with No. 2 diesel fuel. The biodiesel/No. 2 diesel fuel blends were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, four-stroke, natural aspirated diesel engine under four different engine loads (BMEP 0.48–0.36–0.24–0.12 MPa) and 2200 rpm engine speed. Despite of the earlier start of injection, the detailed combustion and engine performance results showed that the ignition delay with the biodiesel addition was decreased for the all engine loads with the earlier combustion timings due to higher cetane number of biodiesel fuel. Meanwhile the maximum heat release rate and the in-cylinder pressure rise rate were slightly decreased and the combustion duration was generally increased with the biodiesel addition. However, significant changings were not observed on the maximum in-cylinder pressures. In addition, it was observed that the indicated mean effective pressure values were slightly varied depending on the start of combustion timing and the center of heat release location. It was found that 5% and 10% biodiesel fuel addition resulted in slightly increment on break specific fuel consumption (up to 4%) and reduction on break thermal efficiency (up to 2.8%). The biodiesel additions also increased NO x emissions up to 8.7% and decreased smoke and total hydrocarbon emissions for the all engine loads. Although there were no significant changes on CO emissions at the low and medium engine loads, some reductions were observed at the full engine load. Also, CO 2 emissions were slightly increased for the all engine loads

  20. Influence of biofuels on exhaust gas and noise emissions of small industrial diesel engines; Einfluss von Biokraftstoffen auf die Abgas- und Geraeuschemission kleiner Industriedieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spessert, B.M. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Kraft- und Arbeitsmaschinen; Schleicher, A. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Umweltmesstechnik

    2007-03-15

    At small industrial diesel engines, as they were brought in oftentimes on building sites, in the farming and forest industry and on boats, biofuels are increasingly used. In a research project of the University of Applied Sciences Jena, Germany, thus the changes of the exhaust gas pollutant and noise emissions of these diesel engines were investigated. Test fuels were diesel fuel, and also biofuels as biodiesel (RME), rape seed oil and sun flower oil. Depending on the operating point these biofuels increased or reduced the emissions of exhaust gas and noise of the investigated engines clearly. (orig.)

  1. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. The test engine delivered 78kW indicated power from 1007cc displacement, operating at 3500 RPM on Schnuerle loop scavenged two-stroke cycle. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude, in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications; including injection system requirement, turbocharging, heat rejection, breathing, scavenging, and structural requirements. The multicylinder engine concept is configured to operate with an augmented turbocharger, but with no primary scavenge blower. The test program is oriented to provide a balanced turbocharger compressor to turbine power balance without an auxiliary scavenging system. Engine cylinder heat rejection to the ambient air has been significantly reduced and the minimum overall turbocharger efficiency required is within the range of commercially available turbochargers. Analytical studies and finite element modeling is made of insulated configurations of the engines - including both ceramic and metallic versions. A second generation test engine is designed based on current test results.

  2. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83–99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments. PMID:25709535

  3. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM 2.5 , Σ 15 PAHs, Σ 11 NPAHs, Σ 5 Hopanes and Σ 6 Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM 2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM 2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

  4. A summary of computational experience at GE Aircraft Engines for complex turbulent flows in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, Ronald D.; Prakash, Chander

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation summarizes some CFD experience at GE Aircraft Engines for flows in the primary gaspath of a gas turbine engine and in turbine blade cooling passages. It is concluded that application of the standard k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions is not adequate for accurate CFD simulation of aerodynamic performance and heat transfer in the primary gas path of a gas turbine engine. New models are required in the near-wall region which include more physics than wall functions. The two-layer modeling approach appears attractive because of its computational complexity. In addition, improved CFD simulation of film cooling and turbine blade internal cooling passages will require anisotropic turbulence models. New turbulence models must be practical in order to have a significant impact on the engine design process. A coordinated turbulence modeling effort between NASA centers would be beneficial to the gas turbine industry.

  5. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H; Shook, Michael A; Ziemba, Luke D; DiGangi, Joshua P; Winstead, Edward L; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L; Crosbie, Ewan C; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J; Anderson, Bruce E

    2017-12-19

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO 2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 10 16 -10 17 kg -1 and 10 14 -10 16 kg -1 , respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg -1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg -1 ). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  6. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H.; Shook, Michael A.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Digangi, Joshua P.; Winstead, Edward L.; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Crosbie, Ewan C.; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2017-12-01

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 1016-1017 kg-1 and 1014-1016 kg-1, respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg-1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg-1). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  7. Experimental study on Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency intended for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper pressents an experimental study of Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency. Water was chosen as the working fluid in the system. The experimental test was conducted on a test bench equipped with a burner charged by compressed fresh air. Generated exhaust gases parameters were previously determined over the diesel engine operating range (28 engine operating points were studied. For each test point the working fluid parameters (flow rate and evaporating pressure were varied. Thus, the enthalpy flow through the heat exchanger was determined. Heat exchanger was designed as 23 helical tubes are inserted. On the basis of the results, it was found out that efficiency varies from 25 % to 51,9 %. The optimal working fluid pressure is 20 bar at most of the operating points while the optimum fluid mass flow rate varies from 2 g/s to 10 g/s.

  8. Review of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engines and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on HCCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akma Tuan Kamaruddin, Tengku Nordayana; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Sies, Mohsin Mohd

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development in ICE which leads to the new advanced combustion mode named Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). It explains regarding the theory and working principle of HCCI plus the difference of the process in gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Many of pioneer and recent research works are discussed to get the current state of art about HCCI. It gives a better indication on the potential of this method in improving the fuel efficiency and emission produced by the vehicles' engine. Apart from the advantages, the challenges and future trend of this technology are also included. HCCI is applying few types of control strategy in producing the optimum performance. This paper looks into Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) as one of the control strategies.

  9. An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco seeds are a by product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, unlike tobacco leaves, tobacco seeds are not collected from fields and are not commercial products. However, tobacco seeds contain significant amounts of oil. Although tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil, it can be utilized for biodiesel production as a new renewable alternative diesel engine fuel. In this study, an experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester was performed at full and partial loads. The results showed that the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester to the diesel fuel reduced CO and SO 2 emissions while causing slightly higher NO x emissions. Meanwhile, it was found that the power and the efficiency increased slightly with the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester. (Author)

  10. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  11. Experimental aerodynamic and acoustic model testing of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) testbed coannular exhaust nozzle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.; Morris, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance and jet noise characteristics of a one sixth scale model of the variable cycle engine testbed exhaust system were obtained in a series of static tests over a range of simulated engine operating conditions. Model acoustic data were acquired. Data were compared to predictions of coannular model nozzle performance. The model, tested with an without a hardwall ejector, had a total flow area equivalent to a 0.127 meter (5 inch) diameter conical nozzle with a 0.65 fan to primary nozzle area ratio and a 0.82 fan nozzle radius ratio. Fan stream temperatures and velocities were varied from 422 K to 1089 K (760 R to 1960 R) and 434 to 755 meters per second (1423 to 2477 feet per second). Primary stream properties were varied from 589 to 1089 K (1060 R to 1960 R) and 353 to 600 meters per second (1158 to 1968 feet per second). Exhaust plume velocity surveys were conducted at one operating condition with and without the ejector installed. Thirty aerodynamic performance data points were obtained with an unheated air supply. Fan nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.8 to 3.2 at a constant primary pressure ratio of 1.6; primary pressure ratio was varied from 1.4 to 2.4 while holding fan pressure ratio constant at 2.4. Operation with the ejector increased nozzle thrust coefficient 0.2 to 0.4 percent.

  12. Effect of fin attachment on thermal stress reduction of exhaust manifold of an off road diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Akbar; Partoaa; Morteza; Abdolzadeh; Masoud; Rezaeizadeh

    2017-01-01

    The effect of fin attachment on the thermal stress reduction of exhaust manifold of an off road diesel engine(Komatsu HD325-6) was investigated.For doing this,coupled thermo-fluid-solid analysis of exhaust manifold of the off road diesel engine was carried out.The thermal analysis,including thermal flow,thermal stress,and the thermal deformation of the manifold was investigated.The flow inside the manifold was simulated and then its properties including velocity,pressure,and temperature were obtained.The flow properties were transferred to the solid model and then the thermal stresses and the thermal deformations of the manifold under different operating conditions were calculated.Finally,based on the predicted thermal stresses and thermal deformations of the manifold body shell,two fin types as well as body shell thickness increase were applied in the critical induced thermal stress area of the manifold to reduce the thermal stress and thermal deformation.The results of the above modifications show that the combined modifications,i.e.the thickness increase and the fin attachment,decrease the thermal stresses by up to 28% and the contribution of the fin attachment in this reduction is much higher compared to the shell thickness increase.

  13. Effects of premixed diethyl ether (DEE) on combustion and exhaust emissions in a HCCI-DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, Can; Can, Ozer; Sahin, Fatih; Yucesu, H. Serdar

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of premixed ratio of diethyl ether (DEE) on the combustion and exhaust emissions of a single-cylinder, HCCI-DI engine were investigated. The experiments were performed at the engine speed of 2200 rpm and 19 N m operating conditions. The amount of the premixed DEE was controlled by a programmable electronic control unit (ECU) and the DEE injection was conducted into the intake air charge using low pressure injector. The premixed fuel ratio (PFR) of DEE was changed from 0% to 40% and results were compared to neat diesel operation. The percentages of premixed fuel were calculated from the energy ratio of premixed DEE fuel to total energy rate of the fuels. The experimental results show that single stage ignition was found with the addition of premixed DEE fuel. Increasing and phasing in-cylinder pressure and heat release were observed in the premixed stage of the combustion. Lower diffusion combustion was also occurred. Cycle-to cycle variations were very small with diesel fuel and 10% DEE premixed fuel ratio. Audible knocking occurred with 40% DEE premixed fuel ratio. NO x -soot trade-off characteristics were changed and improvements were found simultaneously. NO x and soot emissions decreased up to 19.4% and 76.1%, respectively, while exhaust gas temperature decreased by 23.8%. On the other hand, CO and HC emissions increased.

  14. Effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using diesel-methanol blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Cenk; Gumus, Metin [Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Ilhan, Murat [Raytheon Training International GmbH, GM Academy, 34843 Istanbul (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)]|[Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Environmental concerns and limited resource of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. For diesel engines, alcohols are receiving increasing attention because they are oxygenated and renewable fuels. Therefore, in this study, the effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated by using methanol-blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The tests were conducted for three different injection timings (15 , 20 and 25 CA BTDC) at four different engine loads (5 Nm, 10 Nm, 15 Nm, 20 Nm) at 2200 rpm. The experimental test results showed that Bsfc, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions increased as BTE, smoke opacity, CO and UHC emissions decreased with increasing amount of methanol in the fuel mixture. When compared the results to those of original injection timing, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, smoke opacity, UHC and CO emissions increased for the retarded injection timing (15 CA BTDC). On the other hand, with the advanced injection timing (25 CA BTDC), decreasing smoke opacity, UHC and CO emissions diminished, and NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions boosted at all test conditions. In terms of Bsfc and BTE, retarded and advanced injection timings gave negative results for all fuel blends in all engine loads. (author)

  15. ERBS fuel addendum: Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    A Model TFE731-2 engine with a low emission, variable geometry combustion system was tested to compare the effects of operating the engine on Commercial Jet-A aviation turbine fuel and experimental referee broad specification (ERBS) fuels. Low power emission levels were essentially identical while the high power NOx emission indexes were approximately 15% lower with the EBRS fuel. The exhaust smoke number was approximately 50% higher with ERBS at the takeoff thrust setting; however, both values were still below the EPA limit of 40 for the Model TFE731 engine. Primary zone liner wall temperature ran an average of 25 K higher with ERBS fuel than with Jet-A. The possible adoption of broadened proprties fuels for gas turbine applications is suggested.

  16. Individual aircraft life monitoring: An engineering approach for fatigue damage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui JIAO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual aircraft life monitoring is required to ensure safety and economy of aircraft structure, and fatigue damage evaluation based on collected operational data of aircraft is an integral part of it. To improve the accuracy and facilitate the application, this paper proposes an engineering approach to evaluate fatigue damage and predict fatigue life for critical structures in fatigue monitoring. In this approach, traditional nominal stress method is applied to back calculate the S-N curve parameters of the realistic structure details based on full-scale fatigue test data. Then the S-N curve and Miner’s rule are adopted in damage estimation and fatigue life analysis for critical locations under individual load spectra. The relationship between relative small crack length and fatigue life can also be predicted with this approach. Specimens of 7B04-T74 aluminum alloy and TA15M titanium alloy are fatigue tested under two types of load spectra, and there is a good agreement between the experimental results and analysis results. Furthermore, the issue concerning scatter factor in individual aircraft damage estimation is also discussed. Keywords: Fatigue damage, Fatigue monitoring, Fatigue test, Scatter factor, S-N curve

  17. Model-Based Control of an Aircraft Engine using an Optimal Tuner Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Chicatelli, Amy; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) method- ology applied to an aircraft turbofan engine. Here, a linear model extracted from the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) at a cruise operating point serves as the engine and the on-board model. The on-board model is up- dated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. MBEC provides the ability for a tighter control bound of thrust over the entire life cycle of the engine that is not achievable using traditional control feedback, which uses engine pressure ratio or fan speed. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC tighter thrust control. In addition, investigations of using the MBEC to provide a surge limit for the controller limit logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in engine control architectures.

  18. Assessment of lung cell toxicity of various gasoline engine exhausts using a versatile in vitro exposure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisig, Christoph; Comte, Pierre; Güdel, Martin; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas; Müller, Loretta; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Adverse effect studies of gasoline exhaust are scarce, even though gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles can emit a high number of particles. The aim of this study was to conduct an in vitro hazard assessment of different GDI exhausts using two different cell culture models mimicking the human airway. In addition to gasoline particle filters (GPF), the effects of two lubrication oils with low and high ash content were assessed, since it is known that oils are important contributors to exhaust emissions. Complete exhausts from two gasoline driven cars (GDI1 and GDI2) were applied for 6 h (acute exposure) to a multi-cellular human lung model (16HBE14o-cell line, macrophages, and dendritic cells) and a primary human airway model (MucilAir™). GDI1 vehicle was driven unfiltered and filtered with an uncoated and a coated GPF. GDI2 vehicle was driven under four settings with different fuels: normal unleaded gasoline, 2% high and low ash oil in gasoline, and 2% high ash oil in gasoline with a GPF. GDI1 unfiltered was also used for a repeated exposure (3 times 6 h) to assess possible adverse effects. After 6 h exposure, no genes or proteins for oxidative stress or pro-inflammation were upregulated compared to the filtered air control in both cell systems, neither in GDI1 with GPFs nor in GDI2 with the different fuels. However, the repeated exposure led to a significant increase in HMOX1 and TNFa gene expression in the multi-cellular model, showing the responsiveness of the system towards gasoline engine exhaust upon prolonged exposure. The reduction of particles by GPFs is significant and no adverse effects were observed in vitro during a short-term exposure. On the other hand, more data comparing different lubrication oils and their possible adverse effects are needed. Future experiments also should, as shown here, focus on repeated exposures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of sealing performance of metal cask subjected to vertical impact load due to aircraft engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Kosuke; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2010-01-01

    To confirm the sealing performance of a metal cask subjected to impact force due to commercial aircraft crash against a spent fuel storage facility, a vertical impact test was carried out. In this test, a simplified deformable missile was used by considering the rigidity of the actual aircraft engine and accelerated to the specified impact velocity (60 m/s) to hit the full-scale lid structure with the primary and secondary lids. Then, the leak rate, the inner pressure between the lids, and the displacement of the lids were measured. The leak rate of the secondary lid exceeded 1.0x10 -3 Pa·m 3 /s upon impact. However, because no residual lid opening displacement occurred after loading, the leak rate recovered to less than 1.0x10 -6 Pa·m 3 /s after 3 h from the impact test. In addition, to clarify the impact behaviour of the lid structure, the impact analysis using the LS-DYNA code was executed. It was found that the lid bolts maintained the good tightening force after impact loading, and the sealing performance of the full-scale metal cask would not be affected immediately by the vertical impact of the aircraft engine with a speed of 60 m/s. (author)

  20. Thrust Performance Evaluation of a Turbofan Engine Based on Exergetic Approach and Thrust Management in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Enver

    2017-05-01

    The environmental parameters such as temperature and air pressure which are changing depending on altitudes are effective on thrust and fuel consumption of aircraft engines. In flights with long routes, thrust management function in airplane information system has a structure that ensures altitude and performance management. This study focused on thrust changes throughout all flight were examined by taking into consideration their energy and exergy performances for fuel consumption of an aircraft engine used in flight with long route were taken as reference. The energetic and exergetic performance evaluations were made under the various altitude conditions. The thrust changes for different altitude conditions were obtained to be at 86.53 % in descending direction and at 142.58 % in ascending direction while the energy and exergy efficiency changes for the referenced engine were found to be at 80.77 % and 84.45 %, respectively. The results revealed here can be helpful to manage thrust and reduce fuel consumption, but engine performance will be in accordance with operation requirements.

  1. Local behavior of reinforced concrete slabs to aircraft engine projectile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hyeon Kyeong; Choi, Hyun; Chung, Chul Hun; Lee, Jung Whee; Kim, Sang Yun

    2011-01-01

    Structural safety evaluation of nuclear power plant considers two distinct types of structural failure, local failure and global failure. In the local failure evaluation, considered projectiles can be divided as internal and external projectile according to the impact location, and they also can be divided as rigid and soft projectile according to the deformation level after impact. Frequently considered projectiles are aircraft engine, tornado, and turbine projectile. When the speed and weight of the projectiles are considered, the most influential projectile is aircraft engine, which is one of the soft projectiles. Sugano et al. performed impact test using an engine model projectile, which is derived from GE-J79 engine and concentrated mass-spring model idealization. Kojima and Sugano et al. demonstrated from their experiments that steel liner on the rear side of the concrete wall reduces impact induced damage and suppresses debris scattering. Chung et al. performed comparison study of various formulae suggested for local damage evaluation using previously performed numerous local impact test results. Also, they validated a methodology of numerical analysis for impact simulation using LS-DYNA. Previously suggested formulae and research results do not consider the effect of liner plate or curved shape of the containment building walls on the local damage. In this research, flat wall and curved wall are individually modeled using the same curvature of nuclear power plants, and the effects of curvature and liner plates on the local damage are analytically investigated

  2. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Werner; Noeldgen, Markus; Strassburger, Elmar; Thoma, Klaus; Fehling, Ekkehard

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. → Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. → Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  3. Engineering assessment of in situ sulfate production onboard aircraft at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.; Dykema, J. A.; Keith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Stratospheric injection of scattering aerosols has been proposed as a way to reduce global temperature increases by decreasing net atmospheric radiative forcing. Several methods have been suggested as a means of implementing solar geoengineering, and high altitude aircraft have been identified as an accessible means delivering sulfate aerosols to the lower and mid-stratosphere. This research initiative analyzes the design features of an onboard open cycle chemical plant capable of in situ sulfur to sulfate conversion, and compares the required mass to that of transporting pre-fabricated gaseous or liquid sulfate aerosol precursors. Scaling from aero-derivative gas turbine engines, commercial catalytic converters, and existing aerospace materials indicate that aircraft equipped with such a system could provide a substantial mass benefit compared to direct transport of compound sulfate products.

  4. 78 FR 1733 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... (FADEC) software version 2.91. This new AD requires removing all software mapping versions prior to 292... Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park... proposed to require removing all software mapping versions prior to 292, 301, or 302, applicable to the TAE...

  5. Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NO x emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min -1 speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min -1 mode, the carbon dioxide, CO 2 , emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O 2 , 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts

  6. Design and CFD analysis of intake port and exhaust port for a 4 valve cylinder head engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latheesh, V. M.; Parthasarathy, P.; Baskaran, V.; Karthikeyan, S.

    2018-02-01

    In cylinder air motion in a compression ignition engine effects mixing of air-fuel, quality of combustion and emission produced. The primary objective is to design and analyze intake and the exhaust port for a four valve cylinder head to meet higher emission norms for a given diesel engine with two valves. In this work, an existing cylinder head designed for two valves was redesigned with 4 valves. The modern trend also confirms this approach. This is being followed in the design and development of new generation engines to meet the stringent environment norms, competition in market and demand for more fuel-efficient engines. The swirl ratio and flow coefficient were measured for different valve lifts using STAR CCM+. CFD results were validated with the two-valve cylinder experimental results. After validation, a comparison between two-valve and four-valve cylinder head was done. The conversion of two valve cylinder head to 4 valves may not support modern high swirl generating port layout and requires a trade-off between many design parameters.

  7. Modeling and Detection of Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The accretion of ice particles in the core of commercial aircraft engines has been an ongoing aviation safety challenge. While no accidents have resulted from this phenomenon to date, numerous engine power loss events ranging from uneventful recoveries to forced landings have been recorded. As a first step to enabling mitigation strategies during ice accretion, a detection scheme must be developed that is capable of being implemented on board modern engines. In this paper, a simple detection scheme is developed and tested using a realistic engine simulation with approximate ice accretion models based on data from a compressor design tool. These accretion models are implemented as modified Low Pressure Compressor maps and have the capability to shift engine performance based on a specified level of ice blockage. Based on results from this model, it is possible to detect the accretion of ice in the engine core by observing shifts in the typical sensed engine outputs. Results are presented in which, for a 0.1 percent false positive rate, a true positive detection rate of 98 percent is achieved.

  8. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  9. Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems for transportation engineering: Current practice and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil N. Barmpounakis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring and processing video streams from static cameras has been proposed as one of the most efficient tools for visualizing and gathering traffic information. With the latest advances in technology and visual media, combined with the increased needs in dealing with congestion more effectively and directly, the use of Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems (UAS has emerged in the field of traffic engineering. In this paper, we review studies and applications that incorporate UAS in transportation research and practice with the aim to set the grounds from the proper understanding and implementation of UAS related surveillance systems in transportation and traffic engineering. The studies reviewed are categorized in different transportation engineering areas. Additional significant applications from other research fields are also referenced to identify other promising applications. Finally, issues and emerging challenges in both a conceptual and methodological level are revealed and discussed.

  10. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  11. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  12. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION... the fuel type on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based on the following types of hydrocarbon...

  13. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, John S.; Dong, Yuanji; Williams, D. Craig; Logan, Russell

    2010-06-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine for PM mass and number concentration, particle size distribution, and total volatile matter using both time-integrated and continuous sampling techniques. The experimental results showed a PM mass emission index (EI) ranging from 10 to 550 mg kg -1 fuel depending on engine type and test parameters as well as a characteristic U-shaped curve of the mass EI with increasing fuel flow for the turbofan engines tested. Also, the Teflon filter sampling indicated that ˜40-80% of the total PM mass on a test-average basis was comprised of volatile matter (sulfur and organics) for most engines sampled. The number EIs, on the other hand, varied from ˜10 15 to 10 17 particles kg -1 fuel with the turbofan engines exhibiting a logarithmic decay with increasing fuel flow. Finally, the particle size distributions of the emissions exhibited a single primary mode that were lognormally distributed with a minor accumulation mode also observed at higher powers for all engines tested. The geometric (number) mean particle diameter ranged from 9.4 to 37 nm and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 depending on engine type, fuel flow, and test conditions.

  14. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  15. Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    A linear point design methodology for minimizing the error in on-line Kalman filter-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications is presented. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine which seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error. This paper derives theoretical Kalman filter estimation error bias and variance values at steady-state operating conditions, and presents the tuner selection routine applied to minimize these values. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and compared to the conventional approach of tuner selection. Experimental simulation results are found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions. The new methodology is shown to yield a significant improvement in on-line engine performance estimation accuracy

  16. Effects of transient conditions on exhaust emissions from two non-road diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, M.; Hansson, P.-A.

    2004-01-01

    Growing interest in quantifying and reducing the amount of engine emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides loading the environment has led to increasingly tighter environmental regulations. However, current non-road emission standards are performed according to a steady-state test cycle, which does not include transient effects and thus underestimates the amount of emissions produced in real use of the engine. This study quantifies the effects of transients in engine speed and torque on the fuel consumption and emissions from two diesel engines intended for non-road mobile machinery. Fuel consumption and emissions from the engines were measured in an engine dynamometer during various transient load conditions. The results showed that during fast transients, the measured fuel consumption was up to twice as high as the corresponding steady-state load conditions. The effects of transients on emissions of nitrogen oxides were even greater, as were the effects of transient load increase with increasing transient conditions i. e. rate of change. The results showed that the effect of transients on fuel consumption and emissions were also dependent on the type of diesel injection pump and the engine equipment used. Furthermore, the results indicated that the air/fuel ratio was an important contributor to the emission formation process during transient loads. (Author)

  17. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of

  18. Detecting cracks in aircraft engine fan blades using vibrothermography nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Chunwang; Meeker, William Q.; Mayton, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Inspection is an important part of many maintenance processes, especially for safety-critical system components. This work was motivated by the need to develop more effective methods to detect cracks in rotating components of aircraft engines. This paper describes the analysis of data from vibrothermography inspections on aircraft engine turbine blades. Separate but similar analysis were done for two different purposes. In both analyses, we fit statistical models with random effects to describe the crack-to-crack variability and the effect that the experimental variables have on the responses. In the first analysis, the purpose of the study was to find vibrothermography equipment settings that will provide good crack detection capability over the population of similar cracks in the particular kind of aircraft engine turbine blades that were inspected. Then, the fitted model was used to determine the test conditions where the probability of detection (POD) is expected to be high and probability of alarm is expected to be low. In our second analysis, crack size information was added and a similar model was fit. This model provides an estimate of POD as a function of crack size for specified test conditions. This function is needed as an input to models for planning in-service inspection intervals. - Highlights: • Developed experimental design methods to optimize the inspection parameters for a vibrothermography inspection system. • Used mixed effects modeling to describe crack-to-crack variability. • Fit an extended model to provide estimates of the probability of detection as a function of crack length. • Investigated the coverage probability of confidence intervals for probability of detection

  19. A Novel Modeling Method for Aircraft Engine Using Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX) Models Based on Wavelet Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Shu, Wenjun; Cao, Can

    2018-05-01

    A novel modeling method for aircraft engine using nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) models based on wavelet neural networks is proposed. The identification principle and process based on wavelet neural networks are studied, and the modeling scheme based on NARX is proposed. Then, the time series data sets from three types of aircraft engines are utilized to build the corresponding NARX models, and these NARX models are validated by the simulation. The results show that all the best NARX models can capture the original aircraft engine's dynamic characteristic well with the high accuracy. For every type of engine, the relative identification errors of its best NARX model and the component level model are no more than 3.5 % and most of them are within 1 %.

  20. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Nicolas

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.