WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft col demler

  1. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  2. MUSCLE: MUltiscale Spherical-ColLapse Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.

    2016-05-01

    MUSCLE (MUltiscale Spherical ColLapse Evolution) produces low-redshift approximate N-body realizations accurate to few-Megaparsec scales. It applies a spherical-collapse prescription on multiple Gaussian-smoothed scales. It achieves higher accuracy than perturbative schemes (Zel'dovich and second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory - 2LPT), and by including the void-in-cloud process (voids in large-scale collapsing regions), solves problems with a single-scale spherical-collapse scheme.

  3. Detection of COL III in Parchment by Amino Acid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Larsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage parchments made from the reticular dermis of animals have been subject to studies of deterioration and conservation by amino acid analysis. The reticular dermis contains a varying mixture of collagen I and III (COL I and III). When dealing with the results of the amino acid...... analyses, till now the COL III content has not been taken into account. Based on the available amino acid sequences we present a method for determining the amount of COL III in the reticular dermis of new and historical parchments calculated from the ratio of Ile/Val. We find COL III contents between 7 and...... 32 % in new parchments and between 0.2 and 40 % in the historical parchments. This is consistent with results in the literature. The varying content of COL III has a significant influence on the uncertainty of the amino acid analysis. Although we have not found a simple correlation between the COL...

  4. Stickler syndrome and the vitreous phenotype: Mutations in COL2A1 and COL11A1

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Allan; McNinch, Annie; Martin, Howard; Oakhill, Kim; Rai, Harjeet; WALLER, SARAH; Treacy, Becky; Whittaker, Joanne; Meredith, Sarah; Poulson, Arabella; Snead, Martin P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Stickler syndrome is a dominantly inherited disorder affecting the fibrillar type II/XI collagen molecules expressed in vitreous and cartilage. Mutations have been found in COL2A1, COL11A1 and COL11A2. It has a highly variable phenotype that can include midline clefting, hearing loss, premature osteoarthritis, congenital high myopia and blindness through retinal detachment. Although the systemic phenotype is highly variable, the vitreous phenotype has been used successfull...

  5. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and...

  6. Plasmid ColVBtrp maintenance in Erwinia carotovora.

    OpenAIRE

    Schukin, N N

    1981-01-01

    Plasmid ColVBtrp maintenance in Erwinia carotovora cells was followed by measuring kinetics of elimination of plasmid genetic markers and loss of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid. An E. carotovora mutant stably carrying plasmid ColVBtrp was isolated. Besides stable plasmid maintenance, the mutant showed altered sensitivity to male-specific phage MS2, sensitivity to drugs, and colony morphology.

  7. col, pepino, lechuga, zanahoria y remolacha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Valdés Roque

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conformar los complejos tecnológicos para cultivos varios (hortalizas menores: cebolla, ajo, col, pepino, lechuga, zanahoria y remolacha. Para la conformación de los mismos se realizó una revisión bibliográfica relacionada con las temáticas de mecanización, donde se obtuvieron los criterios y orientaciones fundamentales para la selección de los equipos componentes de los complejos tecnológicos, así como las características técnicas que deben tener con el propósito de cumplir las exigencias agrotécnicas de los cultivos. Estos objetivos fueron cumplidos como puede apreciarse en los resultados y las conclusiones.

  8. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  9. Aircraft Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  10. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  11. Structures of three polycystic kidney disease-like domains from Clostridium histolyticum collagenases ColG and ColH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ryan; Janowska, Katarzyna; Taylor, Kelly; Jordan, Brad; Gann, Steve; Janowski, Tomasz; Latimer, Ethan C; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium histolyticum collagenases ColG and ColH are segmental enzymes that are thought to be activated by Ca(2+)-triggered domain reorientation to cause extensive tissue destruction. The collagenases consist of a collagenase module (s1), a variable number of polycystic kidney disease-like (PKD-like) domains (s2a and s2b in ColH and s2 in ColG) and a variable number of collagen-binding domains (s3 in ColH and s3a and s3b in ColG). The X-ray crystal structures of Ca(2+)-bound holo s2b (1.4 Å resolution, R = 15.0%, Rfree = 19.1%) and holo s2a (1.9 Å resolution, R = 16.3%, Rfree = 20.7%), as well as of Ca(2+)-free apo s2a (1.8 Å resolution, R = 20.7%, Rfree = 27.2%) and two new forms of N-terminally truncated apo s2 (1.4 Å resolution, R = 16.9%, Rfree = 21.2%; 1.6 Å resolution, R = 16.2%, Rfree = 19.2%), are reported. The structurally similar PKD-like domains resemble the V-set Ig fold. In addition to a conserved β-bulge, the PKD-like domains feature a second bulge that also changes the allegiance of the subsequent β-strand. This β-bulge and the genesis of a Ca(2+) pocket in the archaeal PKD-like domain suggest a close kinship between bacterial and archaeal PKD-like domains. Different surface properties and indications of different dynamics suggest unique roles for the PKD-like domains in ColG and in ColH. Surface aromatic residues found on ColH s2a-s2b, but not on ColG s2, may provide the weak interaction in the biphasic collagen-binding mode previously found in s2b-s3. B-factor analyses suggest that in the presence of Ca(2+) the midsection of s2 becomes more flexible but the midsections of s2a and s2b stay rigid. The different surface properties and dynamics of the domains suggest that the PKD-like domains of M9B bacterial collagenase can be grouped into either a ColG subset or a ColH subset. The conserved properties of PKD-like domains in ColG and in ColH include Ca(2+) binding. Conserved residues not only interact with Ca(2+), but also

  12. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  13. Coronary-Heart-Disease-Associated Genetic Variant at the COL4A1/COL4A2 Locus Affects COL4A1/COL4A2 Expression, Vascular Cell Survival, Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Risk of Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Ng, Fu Liang; Chan, Kenneth; Pu, Xiangyuan; Poston, Robin N; Ren, Meixia; An, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruoxin; Wu, Jingchun; Yan, Shunying; Situ, Haiteng; He, Xinjie; Chen, Yequn; Tan, Xuerui; Xiao, Qingzhong; Tucker, Arthur T; Caulfield, Mark J; Ye, Shu

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and genetic variation on chromosome 13q34, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs4773144 residing in the COL4A2 gene in this genomic region. We investigated the functional effects of this genetic variant. Analyses of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) from different individuals showed a difference between rs4773144 genotypes in COL4A2 and COL4A1 expression levels, being lowest in the G/G genotype, intermediate in A/G and highest in A/A. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by allelic imbalance assays of primary cultures of SMCs and ECs that were of the A/G genotype revealed that the G allele had lower transcriptional activity than the A allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that a short DNA sequence encompassing the rs4773144 site interacted with a nuclear protein, with lower efficiency for the G allele, and that the G allele sequence had lower activity in driving reporter gene expression. Analyses of cultured SMCs from different individuals demonstrated that cells of the G/G genotype had higher apoptosis rates. Immunohistochemical and histological examinations of ex vivo atherosclerotic coronary arteries from different individuals disclosed that atherosclerotic plaques with the G/G genotype had lower collagen IV abundance and thinner fibrous cap, a hallmark of unstable, rupture-prone plaques. A study of a cohort of patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease showed that patients of the G/G genotype had higher rates of myocardial infarction, a phenotype often caused by plaque rupture. These results indicate that the CHD-related genetic variant at the COL4A2 locus affects COL4A2/COL4A1 expression, SMC survival, and atherosclerotic plaque stability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between the genetic variant and CHD

  14. EuroCirCol: A key to New Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Johannes Gutleber

    2015-01-01

    Monday 1 June saw the start of EuroCirCol, the EC-funded part of the FCC study that will develop the conceptual design for an energy-frontier hadron collider.   Attendees at the EuroCirCol meeting at CERN. The EuroCirCol kick-off event at CERN on 2 to 4 June brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on 1 June and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 MEUR includes a 2.99 MEUR contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme dedicated to the development of new world-class research infrastructures. EuroCirCol will deliver a design for a hadron collider as part of the broader Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. It will provide input to an...

  15. The Chandra Observation of the IP TX Col

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Salinas, Anandi

    2003-01-01

    We present a preliminary look at the serendipitous observation of the intermediate polar TX Col by Chandra. The 52 ksec observation is uninterrupted, providing an opportunity to disentangle the light curve and power spectra components. We illustrate the energy-dependence of the power spectrum.

  16. APPLICATION FOR AIRCRAFT TRACKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroumov, Ivan; Kuz’menko, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In the article the important problems of software development for aircraft tracking have beendiscussed. Position reports of ACARS have been used for aircraft tracking around the world.An algorithm of aircraft coordinates decoding and visualization of aircraft position on the map has beenrepresented.Keywords: ACARS, aircraft, internet, position, software, tracking.

  17. No association between polymorphisms and haplotypes of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes and osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-wei HU; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU; Zhen-Iin ZHANG; Jin-wei HE; Hao ZHANG; Chun WANG; Jie-mei GU; Hua YUE; Yao-hua KE; Yun-qiu HU; Wen-zhen FU

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study whether genetic polymorphisms of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes affected the onset of fracture in postmenopausal Chinese women.Methods: SNPs in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes were identified via direct sequencing in 32 unrelated postmenopausal Chinese women.Ten SNPs were genotyped in 1252 postmenopausal Chinese women. The associations were examined using both single-SNP and hapIotype tests using logistic regression.Results: Twenty four (4 novel) and 28 (7 novel) SNPs were identified in COL1A1 and COL1A2 gene, respectively. The distribution frequencies of 2 SNPs in COL1A1 (rs2075554 and rs2586494) and 3 SNPs in COL1A2 (rs42517, rs1801182, and rs42524) were significantly different from those documented for the European Caucasian population. No significant difference was observed between fracture and control groups with respect to allele frequency or genotype distribution in 9 selected SNPs and haplotype. No significant association was found between fragility fracture and each SNP or haplotype. The results remained the same after additional corrections for other risk factors such as weight, height, and bone mineral density.Conclusion: Our results show no association between common genetic variations of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes and fracture, suggesting the complex genetic background of osteoporotic fractures.

  18. Ectopic Expression of Col2.3 and Col3.6 Promoters in the Brain and Association with Leptin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Scheller, Erica L.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Hankenson, Kurt D.; Myers, Martin G.; Paul H Krebsbach

    2011-01-01

    The collagen 2.3 and 3.6 promoters have been used to drive Cre expression for generation of conditional transgenic mutant mice. Within the bone, Col3.6 is expressed by mesenchymal precursor cells and their downstream progeny, while Col2.3 is more osteoblast specific. Our generation of transgenic mice with Col2.3-Cre- and Col3.6-Cre-driven deletion of the long-form leptin receptor (ObRb) necessitated a thorough analysis of the nonspecific expression of these promoters in the central nervous sy...

  19. Photoperiod-regulated expression of the PpCOL1 gene encoding a homolog of CO/COL proteins in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CONSTANS (CO) protein is a critical regulator of the photoperiodic control of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. We isolated a cDNA PpCOL1 encoding a homolog of the CO/CO-LIKE (COL) family proteins from a cryptogam Physcomitrella patens. The predicted PpCOL1 protein has N-terminal zinc finger and C-terminal CCT domains, which are conserved in the angiosperm CO/COL proteins. Structurally, PpCOL1 is the most closely related to the Group Ia or Ic proteins, which include AtCO and AtCOL1/2, among diverged members of the family. A transient expression assay using GFP showed that the CCT domain of PpCOL1 contains a nuclear-localizing signal. Northern blotting analyses revealed that the PpCOL1 expression is controlled by the circadian clock, and moreover, it is photoperiodically regulated at a gametophore stage when the rate of sporophyte formation is affected by day length. These observations indicate a possible involvement of PpCOL1 as a nuclear factor in the photoperiodic regulation of reproduction of Physcomitrella

  20. Comparative analysis of the replicon regions of eleven ColE2-related plasmids.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraga, S; Sugiyama, T; Itoh, T.

    1994-01-01

    The incA gene product of ColE2-P9 and ColE3-CA38 plasmids is an antisense RNA that regulates the production of the plasmid-coded Rep protein essential for replication. The Rep protein specifically binds to the origin and synthesizes a unique primer RNA at the origin. The IncB incompatibility is due to competition for the Rep protein among the origins of the same binding specificity. We localized the regions sufficient for autonomous replication of 15 ColE plasmids related to ColE2-P9 and ColE...

  1. Mutations in COL1A1 Gene Change Dentin Nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhenxia; Gan, Yunna; Xia, Dan; Li, Qiang; Li, Yanling; Yang, Jiaji; Gao, Shan; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-04-01

    Although many studies have attempted to associate specific gene mutations with dentin phenotypic severity, it remains unknown how the mutations in COL1A1 gene influence the mechanical behavior of dentin collagen and matrix. Here, we reported one osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) pedigree caused by two new inserting mutations in exon 5 of COL1A1 (NM_000088.3:c.440_441insT;c.441_442insA), which resulted in the unstable expression of COL1A1 mRNA and half quantity of procollagen production. We investigated the morphological and mechanical features of proband's dentin using atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. Increased D-periodic spacing, variably enlarged collagen fibrils coating with fewer minerals were found in the mutated collagen. AFM analysis demonstrated rougher dentin surface and sparsely decreased Young's modulus in proband's dentin. We believe that our findings provide new insights into the genetic-/nano- mechanisms of dentin diseases, and may well explain OI dentin features with reduced mechanical strength and a lower crosslinked density. Anat Rec, 299:511-519, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26694865

  2. The transcription factor Lc-Maf participates in Col27a1 regulation during chondrocyte maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transcription factor Lc-Maf, which is a splice variant of c-Maf, is expressed in cartilage undergoing endochondral ossification and participates in the regulation of type II collagen through a cartilage-specific Col2a1 enhancer element. Type XXVII and type XI collagens are also expressed in cartilage during endochondral ossification, and so enhancer/reporter assays were used to determine whether Lc-Maf could regulate cartilage-specific enhancers from the Col27a1 and Col11a2 genes. The Col27a1 enhancer was upregulated over 4-fold by Lc-Maf, while the Col11a2 enhancer was downregulated slightly. To confirm the results of these reporter assays, rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells were transiently transfected with an Lc-Maf expression plasmid, and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to measure the expression of endogenous Col27a1 and Col11a2 genes. Endogenous Col27a1 was upregulated 6-fold by Lc-Maf overexpression, while endogenous Col11a2 was unchanged. Finally, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed in the radius and ulna of embryonic day 17 mouse forelimbs undergoing endochondral ossification. Results demonstrated that Lc-Maf and Col27a1 mRNAs are coexpressed in proliferating and prehypertrophic regions, as would be predicted if Lc-Maf regulates Col27a1 expression. Type XXVII collagen protein was also most abundant in prehypertrophic and proliferating chondrocytes. Others have shown that mice that are null for Lc-Maf and c-Maf have expanded hypertrophic regions with reduced ossification and delayed vascularization. Separate studies have indicated that Col27a1 may serve as a scaffold for ossification and vascularization. The work presented here suggests that Lc-Maf may affect the process of endochondral ossification by participating in the regulation of Col27a1 expression.

  3. Colágeno na cartilagem osteoartrótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula P. Velosa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A cartilagem articular é um tecido altamente especializado, composto por células, os condrócitos, e um conjunto de macromoléculas, como o colágeno e os proteoglicanos. O colágeno é uma proteína fibrilar que garante resistência ao tecido, enquanto os proteoglicanos têm a função de mola biológica, sendo responsáveis pela compressibilidade da cartilagem. A complexa interação entre estas duas proteínas garante a elasticidade. Estas características específicas da cartilagem são essenciais para amortecer as grandes forças de impacto a que as articulações diartrodiais estão submetidas, sem muito gasto de energia, visto tratar-se de um tecido avascular. Em processos artrósicos ocorre um desequilíbrio entre a produção de componentes da matriz extracelular e destruição pelas metaloproteases, levando à degradação e perda do tecido cartilaginoso. A fase inicial da osteoartrose é marcada por perda de fragmentos de proteoglicanos para o líquido sinovial, aumento dos colágenos tipo II e tipo VI, aparecimento dos colágenos I e III, não típicos da cartilagem, e diminuição do colágeno tipo IX, que é importante para manter a integridade da matriz extracelular, além do entumescimento da cartilagem. Como conseqüência, a cartilagem perde suas características específicas, levando a alterações na função articular. A evolução da doença promove diminuição significativa das proteínas, até mesmo do colágeno tipo XI, que tem localização mais interna na estrutura da fibrila heterotípica, e, portanto levando até a exposição do osso. Até o momento, o tratamento da osteoartrose está baseado principalmente no controle da dor e/ou inflamação, não diminuindo ou impedindo a degradação da cartilagem articular. Neste aspecto a perspectiva de tratamento futuro da osteoartrose estaria na utilização de inibidores das metaloproteases associadas a condroprotetores interferindo no "turnover" da cartilagem e

  4. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  5. Upper bound on the non-colorability threshold of the 2+p-COL problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2p-COL problem introduced by Walsh, smoothly interpolates between P and NP by mixing together the polynornial 2-coloring problem and the NP complete 3-coloring problem. A natural upper bound on the non colorability of the 2+p-COL problem in min {r-bar2/(1 - p)r-bar3}, where r-bar2 and r-bar3 are the upper bounds on 2-COL and 3-COL thresholds respectively. In this paper we improve this upper-bound for each 0.73 ≤ p 1. This means that for p ≥ 0.73 the 2+p-COL problem does not behave like the 2-COL problem. We use the method developed by Kaporis et al., which combines the concept of legal rigid colorings introduced by Achlioptas and Molloy with the occupancy problem for random allocations of balls into bins. (author)

  6. Association of COL2A1 Gene Polymorphism with Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Dae Woo; Kim, Ki Tack; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jung Youn; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) progresses with aging after 50-60 years, and the genetic association of DLS remains largely unclear. In this study, the genetic association between collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) gene and DLS was investigated. Methods COL2A1 gene polymorphism was investigated in DLS subjects compared to healthy controls to investigate the possibility of its association with COL2A1 gene. Based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database, SNP (rs2276454) ...

  7. Identification of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory element of the zebrafish col2a1a gene

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Rodney M.; Topczewski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent model organism for the study of vertebrate development including skeletogenesis. Studies of mammalian cartilage formation were greatly advanced through the use of a cartilage specific regulatory element of the Collagen type II alpha 1 (Col2a1) gene. In an effort to isolate such an element in zebrafish, we compared the expression of two col2a1 homologues and found that expression of col2a1b, a previously uncharacterized zebrafish homologue, only partiall...

  8. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  9. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 Gene Polymorphism Associated with Running Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; Bueno, Salomão; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Monica; Saldiva, Paulo H.

    2014-01-01

    The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 ...

  10. Cisto gigante de colédoco Giant choledochal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A doença cística das vias biliares é anomalia congênita que pode acometer as vias biliares intra e/ou extra-hepáticas. A extra-hepática inclui os cistos de colédoco e a intra-hepática é conhecida por Doença de Caroli. Os cistos de colédoco de tamanho gigante são muito raros. OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de um cisto de colédoco de tamanho gigante em uma paciente feminina. RELATO DE CASO: Mulher de 19 anos foi admitida com história de icterícia e acolia fecal há sete dias. Referia dor epigástrica associada com ingestão de dieta rica em gordura. Nos antecedentes pessoais relatou dois episódios de icterícia, aos 8 e 14 anos, que progrediram espontaneamente. No exame físico apresentava icterícia (+3/+4 e uma massa palpável indolor em mesogástrio foram os únicos achados. A ultrassonografia demonstrou grande formação cística de paredes finas adjacente ao hepatocolédoco, pâncreas e rim direito que media 18,5 x 10,2 cm. A colangioressonância confirmou o grande cisto de colédoco e hepatojejunoanastomose em "Y" de Roux após excisão do cisto e colecistectomia foi realizada. A formação cística media 20 x 15,5 x 12,5 cm e com um volume médio de 1000 mL. A paciente encontra-se em acompanhamento ambulatorial sem alterações hepatobiliares após o sétimo mês da operação. CONCLUSÃO: O cisto de colédoco deve fazer parte do diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes adultos jovens com icterícia e massa palpável; no entanto, a diferenciação entre ele e neoplasia maligna deve ser pesquisada.BACKGROUND: Choledochal cyst represents a rare congenital anomaly, eventually associated with intra and extrahepatic biliary tract disorders. Extrahepatic diseases include choledochal cysts and congenital dilation of the lower intrahepatic bile duct is known as Caroli's disease. Giant choledochal cyst constitutes a very rare abnormality. AIM:To report a giant choledochal cyst in a female patient. CASE REPORT: A 19-year

  11. EuroCirCol kick-off event

    CERN Multimedia

    Hardre, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The EuroCirCol (http://cern.ch/eurocircol) kick-off event at CERN on June 2-4 brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on June 1 and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 million Euros includes a 2.99 million Euro contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme on developing new world-class research infrastructures (http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/194962_en.html).

  12. Localization of the Naturally Occurring Plasmid ColE1 at the Cell Pole▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Shiyin; Helinski, Donald R.; Toukdarian, Aresa

    2006-01-01

    The naturally occurring plasmid ColE1 was found to localize as a cluster in one or both of the cell poles of Escherichia coli. In addition to the polar localization of ColE1 in most cells, movement of the plasmid to the midcell position was observed in time-lapse studies. ColE1 could be displaced from its polar location by the p15A replicon, pBAD33, but not by plasmid RK2. The displacement of ColE1 by pBAD33 resulted in an almost random positioning of ColE1 foci in the cell and also in a loss...

  13. Designing A Conventional Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Sonei, Arash

    2014-01-01

    This paper is explaining the important design phases of dimensioning an unmanned conventional aircraft from scratch and will also design one according to a few chosen requirements. The design phases discussed will be all from wing dimensioning to stability and spin recovery, aircraft performance requirements and how to select a motor which overcomes these. As well as the optimal rate of climb for improved efficiency is discussed. In the end an aircraft which manages the set requirements and i...

  14. Lightning effects on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  15. Novel COL4A1 mutations cause cerebral small vessel disease by haploinsufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Robin; Maugeri, Alessandra; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Goris, An; Tousseyn, Thomas; Demaerel, Philippe; Corveleyn, Anniek; Robberecht, Wim; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Thijs, Vincent N.; Zwijnenburg, Petra J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in COL4A1 have been identified in families with hereditary small vessel disease of the brain presumably due to a dominant-negative mechanism. Here, we report on two novel mutations in COL4A1 in two families with porencephaly, intracerebral hemorrhage and severe white matter disease caused by haploinsufficiency. Two families with various clinical presentations of cerebral microangiopathy and autosomal dominant inheritance were examined. Clinical, neuroradiological and genetic investigations were performed. Electron microscopy of the skin was also performed. In one of the families, sequence analysis revealed a one base deletion, c.2085del, leading to a frameshift and a premature stopcodon, p.(Gly696fs). In the other family, a splice site mutation was identified, c.2194-1G>A, which most likely leads to skipping of an exon with a frameshift and premature termination as a result. In fibroblasts of affected individuals from both the families, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the mutant COL4A1 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and a clear reduction of COL4A1 protein expression were demonstrated, indicating haploinsufficiency of COL4A1. Moreover, thickening of the capillary basement membrane in the skin was documented, similar to reports in patients with COL4A1 missense mutations. These findings suggest haploinsufficiency, a different mechanism from the commonly assumed dominant-negative effect, for COL4A1 mutations as a cause of (antenatal) intracerebral hemorrhage and white matter disease. PMID:23065703

  16. A mutation in COL4A2 causes autosomal dominant porencephaly with cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thuong T; Sadleir, Lynette G; Mandelstam, Simone A; Paterson, Sarah J; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Gecz, Jozef; Corbett, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in COL4A1 are well described and result in brain abnormalities manifesting with severe neurological deficits including cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and focal epilepsy. Families with mutations in COL4A2 are now emerging with a similar phenotype. We describe a family with an autosomal dominant disorder comprising porencephaly, focal epilepsy, and lens opacities, which was negative for mutations in COL4A1. Using whole exome sequencing of three affected individuals from three generations, we identified a rare variant in COL4A2. This COL4A2 (c.2399G>A, p.G800E, CCDS41907.1) variant was predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools and affects an invariable glycine residue that is essential for the formation of collagen IV heterotrimers. The cataracts identified in this family expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in COL4A2 and highlight the increasing overlap with phenotypes associated with COL4A1 mutations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26708157

  17. Downregulation of Col1a1 induces differentiation in mouse spermatogonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun-Hong Chen; Ding Li; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    Col1a1 (one of the subunit of collagen type Ⅰ) is a collagen,which belongs to a family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that play an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation.However,the role of Col1a1 in spermatogenesis,especially in the control of proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs),remains unknown.In this study,we explored effects of downregulation of Col1a1 on differentiation and proliferation of mouse spermatogonia.Loss-of-function study revealed that Oct4 and Plzf,markers of SSC self-renewal,were significantly decreased,whereas the expression of c-kit and haprin,hallmarks of SSC differentiation,was enhanced after Col1a1 knockdown.Cell cycle analyses indicated that two-thirds of spermatogonia were arrested in S phase after Col1a1 knockdown.In vivo experiments,DNA injection and electroporation of the testes showed that spermatogonia self-renewal ability was impaired remarkably with the loss-of-function of Col1a1.Our data suggest that silencing of Col1a1 can suppress spermatogonia self-renewal and promote spermatogonia differentiation.

  18. Persistent Notochord in a Fetus with COL2A1 Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Codsi; Brost, Brian C.; Arij Faksh; Volk, Amber K.; Borowski, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple anomalies including micromelia, poor mineralization of the vertebrae, and a persistent notochord were identified on second trimester ultrasound in a fetus with a COL2A1 mutation. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of a persistent notochord associated with a COL2A1 mutation in humans. In this case report, we describe ultrasound and postmortem findings and review the pathogenesis associated with a persistent notochord.

  19. Expression of Two Novel Alternatively Spliced COL2A1 Isoforms During Chondrocyte Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    McAlinden, Audrey; Johnstone, Brian; Kollar, John; Kazmi, Najam; Hering, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing of the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) is developmentally-regulated during chondrogenesis. Type IIA procollagen (+ exon 2) is synthesized by chondroprogenitor cells while type IIB procollagen (- exon 2) is synthesized by differentiated chondrocytes. Here, we report expression of two additional alternatively spliced COL2A1 isoforms during chondrocyte differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). One isoform, named IIC, contains only the first 34 n...

  20. Exclusion of the COL2A1 gene as the mutation site in diastrophic dysplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Elima, K; Kaitila, I; Mikonoja, L; Elonsalo, U; Peltonen, L.; Vuorio, E

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of the cartilage specific type II collagen gene (COL2A1) was studied in nine patients with diastrophic dysplasia in the Finnish population, where the prevalence of this chondrodystrophy clearly exceeds that reported for other populations. COL2A1 was chosen as the candidate gene based on previous morphological and chemical studies which suggested abnormal structure of type II collagen in diastrophic dysplasia. Southern analysis of the patients' DNA showed no disease related dif...

  1. Differential allelic expression of the type II collagen gene (COL2A1) in osteoarthritic cartilage.

    OpenAIRE

    Loughlin, J.; Irven, C; Athanasou, N; Carr, A; Sykes, B

    1995-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease resulting from the degeneration of articular cartilage. The major protein of cartilage is type II collagen, which is encoded by the COL2A1 gene. Mutations at this locus have been discovered in several individuals with inherited disorders of cartilage. We have identified 27 primary OA patients who are heterozygous for sequence dimorphisms located in the coding region of COL2A1. These dimorphisms were used to distinguish the mRNA output from ...

  2. Modulation of ColE1-like Plasmid Replication for Recombinant Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Camps, Manel

    2010-01-01

    ColE1-like plasmids constitute the most popular vectors for recombinant protein expression. ColE1 plasmid replication is tightly controlled by an antisense RNA mechanism that is highly dynamic, tuning plasmid metabolic burden to the physiological state of the host. Plasmid homeostasis is upset upon induction of recombinant protein expression because of non-physiological levels of expression and because of the frequently biased amino acid composition of recombinant proteins. Disregulation of p...

  3. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism associated with running economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Bertuzzi

    Full Text Available The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150 physically active young men performed the following tests: a a maximal incremental treadmill test, b two constant-speed running tests (10 km · h(-1 and 12 km · h(-1 to determine the running economy, and c a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km · h(-1 (p = 0.232 and 12 km · h(-1 (p = 0.259. Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337. These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running.

  4. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism associated with running economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Pasqua, Leonardo A; Bueno, Salomão; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Monica; Saldiva, Paulo H

    2014-01-01

    The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150) physically active young men performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test, b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km · h(-1)) and 12 km · h(-1)) to determine the running economy, and c) a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km · h(-1) (p = 0.232) and 12 km · h(-1) (p = 0.259). Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337). These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running. PMID:25188268

  5. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 Gene Polymorphism Associated with Running Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; Bueno, Salomão; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Monica; Saldiva, Paulo H.

    2014-01-01

    The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150) physically active young men performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test, b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km•h−1 and 12 km•h−1) to determine the running economy, and c) a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km•h−1 (p = 0.232) and 12 km•h−1 (p = 0.259). Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337). These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running. PMID:25188268

  6. Association of COL4A1 gene polymorphisms with cerebral palsy in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, D; Wang, H; Shang, Q; Xu, Y; Wang, F; Chen, M; Ma, C; Sun, Y; Zhao, X; Gao, C; Wang, L; Zhu, C; Xing, Q

    2016-08-01

    The basement membrane (BM) is an extracellular matrix associated with overlying cells and is important for proper tissue development, stability, and physiology. COL4A1 is the most abundant component of type IV collagen in the BM, and COL4A1 variants can present with variable phenotypes that might be related to cerebral palsy (CP). We postulated, therefore, that variations in the COL4A1 gene might play an important role in the etiology of CP. In this study, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COL4A1 gene were genotyped among 351 CP patients and 220 healthy controls from the Chinese Han population. Significant association was found for an association between CP and rs1961495 (allele: p = 0.008, odds ratio (OR) = 1.387, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.088-1.767) and rs1411040 (allele: p = 0.009, OR = 1.746, 95% CI = 1.148-2.656) SNPs of the COL4A1 gene. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis suggested that these SNPs had interactive effects on the risk of CP. This study is the first attempt to investigate the contribution of polymorphisms in the COL4A1 gene to the susceptibility of CP in a Chinese Han population. This study shows an association of the COL4A1 gene with CP and suggests a potential role of COL4A1 in the pathogenesis of CP. PMID:26748532

  7. TreeCol: a novel approach to estimating column densities in astrophysical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2011-01-01

    We present TreeCol, a new and efficient tree-based scheme to calculate column densities in numerical simulations. Knowing the column density in any direction at any location in space is a prerequisite for modelling the propagation of radiation through the computational domain. TreeCol therefore forms the basis for a fast, approximate method for modelling the attenuation of radiation within large numerical simulations. It constructs a HEALPix sphere at any desired location and accumulates the ...

  8. A Novel COL4A5 Mutation Identified in a Chinese Han Family Using Exome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alport syndrome (AS is a monogenic disease of the basement membrane (BM, resulting in progressive renal failure due to glomerulonephropathy, variable sensorineural hearing loss, and ocular anomalies. It is caused by mutations in the collagen type IV alpha-3 gene (COL4A3, the collagen type IV alpha-4 gene (COL4A4, and the collagen type IV alpha-5 gene (COL4A5, which encodes type IV collagen α3, α4, and α5 chains, respectively. To explore the disease-related gene in a four-generation Chinese Han pedigree of AS, exome sequencing was conducted on the proband, and a novel deletion mutation c.499delC (p.Pro167Glnfs*36 in the COL4A5 gene was identified. This mutation, absent in 1,000 genomes project, HapMap, dbSNP132, YH1 databases, and 100 normal controls, cosegregated with patients in the family. Neither sensorineural hearing loss nor typical COL4A5-related ocular abnormalities (dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, and the rare posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy were present in patients of this family. The phenotypes of patients in this AS family were characterized by early onset-age and rapidly developing into end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Our discovery broadens the mutation spectrum in the COL4A5 gene associated with AS, which may also shed new light on genetic counseling for AS.

  9. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  10. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  11. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  12. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  13. Solar thermal aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  14. Scoliosis in osteogenesis imperfecta caused by COL1A1/COL1A2 mutations - genotype-phenotype correlations and effect of bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsuko; Ouellet, Jean; Muneta, Takeshi; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a bone fragility disorder that is most often caused by mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2. However, it is unclear whether this treatment decreases the risk of developing scoliosis. We retrospectively evaluated spine radiographs and charts of 437 patients (227 female) with OI caused by mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2 and compared the relationship between scoliosis, genotype and bisphosphonate treatment history. At the last follow-up (mean age 11.9 [SD: 5.9] years), 242 (55%) patients had scoliosis. The prevalence of scoliosis was highest in OI type III (89%), followed by OI type IV (61%) and OI type I (36%). Moderate to severe scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥25°) was rare in individuals with COL1A1 haploinsufficiency mutations but was present in about two fifth of patients with triple helical glycine substitutions or C-propeptide mutations. During the first 2 to 4years of bisphosphonate therapy, patients with OI type III had lower Cobb angle progression rates than before bisphosphonate treatment, whereas in OI types I and IV bisphosphonate treatment was not associated with a change in Cobb angle progression rates. At skeletal maturity, the prevalence of scoliosis (Cobb angle >10°) was similar in patients who had started bisphosphonate treatment early in life (before 5.0years of age) and in patients who had started therapy later (after the age of 10.0years) or had never received bisphosphonate therapy. Bisphosphonate treatment decreased progression rate of scoliosis in OI type III but there was no evidence of a positive effect on scoliosis in OI types I and IV. The prevalence of scoliosis at maturity was not influenced by the bisphosphonate treatment history in any OI type. PMID:26927310

  15. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications of this division in aviation, data optimization and comparison has been quite an important task. The interest in using data acquisition boards is being driven by the technology and design standards in the new generation of aircraft and the ongoing efforts of reducing weight and, in some cases addressing the safety risks. This paper presents a sum of technical report data from post processing and diversification of data acquisition from Arinc 429 interface on a research aircraft platform. Arinc 429 is by far the most common data bus in use on civil transport aircraft, regional jets and executive business jets today. Since its introduction on the Boeing 757/767 and Airbus aircraft in the early 1980s hardly any aircraft has been produced without the use of this data bus. It was used widely by the air transport indu

  16. Nkx3.2 promotes primary chondrogenic differentiation by upregulating Col2a1 transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Kawato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Nkx3.2 transcription factor promotes chondrogenesis by forming a positive regulatory loop with a crucial chondrogenic transcription factor, Sox9. Previous studies have indicated that factors other than Sox9 may promote chondrogenesis directly, but these factors have not been identified. Here, we test the hypothesis that Nkx3.2 promotes chondrogenesis directly by Sox9-independent mechanisms and indirectly by previously characterized Sox9-dependent mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C3H10T1/2 pluripotent mesenchymal cells were cultured with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 to induce endochondral ossification. Overexpression of wild-type Nkx3.2 (WT-Nkx3.2 upregulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG production and expression of type II collagen α1 (Col2a1 mRNA, and these effects were evident before WT-Nkx3.2-mediated upregulation of Sox9. RNAi-mediated inhibition of Nkx3.2 abolished GAG production and expression of Col2a1 mRNA. Dual luciferase reporter assays revealed that WT-Nkx3.2 upregulated Col2a1 enhancer activity in a dose-dependent manner in C3H10T1/2 cells and also in N1511 chondrocytes. In addition, WT-Nkx3.2 partially restored downregulation of GAG production, Col2 protein expression, and Col2a1 mRNA expression induced by Sox9 RNAi. ChIP assays revealed that Nkx3.2 bound to the Col2a1 enhancer element. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nkx3.2 promoted primary chondrogenesis by two mechanisms: Direct and Sox9-independent upregulation of Col2a1 transcription and upregulation of Sox9 mRNA expression under positive feedback system.

  17. Evidence against the structural gene encoding type II collagen (COL2A1) as the mutant locus in achondroplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, D.; Wordsworth, P; Thompson, E.; Sykes, B

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the locus encoding the major cartilage collagen gene (COL2A1) was studied in a total of 19 cases of achondroplasia. No gross rearrangements were seen. The segregation of COL2A1 was examined in three affected kindreds using restriction site and length variants as genetic markers. In two kindreds discordant segregation between the achondroplasia and COL2A1 loci was demonstrated. Paternity/maternity was confirmed using a 'minisatellite' core sequence probe which reveals cross hy...

  18. COL Application Content Guide for HTGRs: Revision to RG 1.206, Part 1 - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2012-08-01

    A combined license (COL) application is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for all proposed nuclear plants. The information requirements for a COL application are set forth in 10 CFR 52.79, “Contents of Applications; Technical Information in Final Safety Analysis Report.” An applicant for a modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) must develop and submit for NRC review and approval a COL application which conforms to these requirements. The technical information necessary to allow NRC staff to evaluate a COL application and resolve all safety issues related to a proposed nuclear plant is detailed and comprehensive. To this, Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, “Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants” (LWR Edition), was developed to assist light water reactor (LWR) applicants in incorporating and effectively formatting required information for COL application review (Ref. 1). However, the guidance prescribed in RG 1.206 presumes a LWR design proposal consistent with the systems and functions associated with large LWR power plants currently operating under NRC license.

  19. Novel action of FOXL2 as mediator of Col1a2 gene autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Mara; Deiana, Manila; Marcia, Loredana; Sbardellati, Andrea; Asunis, Isadora; Meloni, Alessandra; Angius, Andrea; Cusano, Roberto; Loi, Angela; Crobu, Francesca; Fotia, Giorgio; Cucca, Francesco; Schlessinger, David; Crisponi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    FOXL2 belongs to the evolutionarily conserved forkhead box (FOX) superfamily and is a master transcription factor in a spectrum of developmental pathways, including ovarian and eyelid development and bone, cartilage and uterine maturation. To analyse its action, we searched for proteins that interact with FOXL2. We found that FOXL2 interacts with specific C-terminal propeptides of several fibrillary collagens. Because these propeptides can participate in feedback regulation of collagen biosynthesis, we inferred that FOXL2 could thereby affect the transcription of the cognate collagen genes. Focusing on COL1A2, we found that FOXL2 indeed affects collagen synthesis, by binding to a DNA response element located about 65Kb upstream of this gene. According to our hypothesis we found that in Foxl2(-/-) mouse ovaries, Col1a2 was elevated from birth to adulthood. The extracellular matrix (ECM) compartmentalizes the ovary during folliculogenesis, (with type I, type III and type IV collagens as primary components), and ECM composition changes during the reproductive lifespan. In Foxl2(-/-) mouse ovaries, in addition to up-regulation of Col1a2, Col3a1, Col4a1 and fibronectin were also upregulated, while laminin expression was reduced. Thus, by regulating levels of extracellular matrix components, FOXL2 may contribute to both ovarian histogenesis and the fibrosis attendant on depletion of the follicle reserve during reproductive aging and menopause. PMID:27212026

  20. Immunological characterization of recombinantWuchereria bancrofti cuticular collagen (COL-4) as putative vaccine candidate for human lymphatic filariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakkaravarthy Arunkumar; Pandurangan Pandiaraja; P. R. Prince; Perumal Kaliraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate immunoprophylactic potential of recombinantWuchereria bancrofti(W. bancrofti) cuticular collagen(COL-4) inBALB/c mice and filarial clinical samples.Methods:col-4 gene wasPCR amplified fromW. bancroftiL3 cDNA library and cloned in pRSETB vector. RecombinantCOL-4 was over expressed in salt inducible system and was purified by nickel affinity chromatography.Humoral and cellular responses were measured byELISA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) of various filarial clinical samples respectively using purified recombinantCOL-4 antigen.Then the protective immune responses ofCOL-4 immunizedBALB/c mice were characterized.Results:Sequence analysis ofCOL-4 with human host proteins reveals lack of homology.The recombinantCOL-4 was found to be at15 kDa fusion protein.The affinity purifiedCOL-4 showed significant reactivity with putatively immune sera and in a similar fashion it demonstrated marked proliferation inPBMC samples.Immunization studies in experimental filarial host(mice) elicited significant titers with protective antibody isotype profile(IgM and IgG).Cellular immune responses were also significant in terms of splenocytes proliferation assay on mice samples.Conclusions:Our immunological findings in experimental host suggestTh2 mediated immune response.Hence, we propose thatW. bancroftiCOL-4 could be an efficacious vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis.

  1. Abortive phage-infection and UV-protection markers on ColI plasmids from epidemic strains of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultures of Escherichia coli carrying ColI plasmids received in conjugation from strains of Salmonella typhimurium and S. agona were examined for abortive infection (Abi) of phage BF23 and for enhanced resistance to the lethal action of UV-irradiation (Uvr). The Abi character of stored cultures of E. coli was also compared with the reaction of the same stock culture tested 5 years before. Seven of the eight potential types differentiated by three characters were represented among 160 ColI plasmids: ColIa Abi+ Uvr+ (3 plasmids), ColIa Abi- Uvr+ (1), ColIa Abi- Uvr-> (2), ColIb Abi+ Uvr+ (85), ColIb Abi+ Uvr- (5), ColIb Abi- Uvr+ (4), ColIb Abi-? Uvr- (60). Recognition that different plasmid types could be carried by strains of a clone proved useful in the interpretation of the epidemic spread of strains of S. typhimurium of phage type/biotype 141/9f in Scotland and in tracing the ancestry of a recently emerged rhamnose non-fermenting mutant strain of S. agona. (author)

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  4. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  5. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  6. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  7. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  8. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  9. Mutation-based growth charts for SEDC and other COL2A1 related dysplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terhal, Paulien A; van Dommelen, Paula; Le Merrer, Martine;

    2012-01-01

    From data collected via a large international collaborative study, we have constructed a growth chart for patients with molecularly confirmed congenital spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia (SEDC) and other COL2A1 related dysplasias. The growth chart is based on longitudinal height measurements of 79...... patients with glycine substitutions in the triple-helical domain of COL2A1. In addition, measurements of 27 patients with other molecular defects, such as arginine to cysteine substitutions, splice mutations, and mutations in the C-terminal propeptide have been plotted on the chart. Height of the patients...

  10. Colágeno asimilable. Fuente de prevención de enfermedades osteoarticuladas

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Parra, Yolanda; Quesada Martínez, María Inmaculada; Pérez Collado, Elisa María

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El colágeno es la proteína más abundante de nuestro cuerpo humano y uno de sus componentes esencial de articulaciones, cartílago, ligamento, tendones, huesos, piel. Su especial estructura lo hacen único, presenta una estructura fibrosa, que aporta gran resistencia y flexibilidad a los tejidos de los que forma parte. Cuando este colágeno se degrada, origina diversas e importantes alteraciones en el organismo: artrosis, osteoporosis y la aparición de flacidez y arrugas dérmicas....

  11. Receptores do factor estimulante de colónias de macrófagos do robalo

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Márcio Adriano Guiomar de

    2010-01-01

    O receptor do factor estimulante de colónias de macrófagos, também conhecido como receptor do factor estimulante de colónias-1 (CSF1R), é um receptor de um factor de crescimento hematopoiético que é especificamente expresso em células do sistema fagocítico-mononuclear e desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento e regulação destas células. O CSF1R já foi descrito em vários mamíferos e a sua biologia tem sido exaustivamente caracterizada nestes vertebrados mas o conheci...

  12. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  13. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  14. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, M.; Bertsch, E.L.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    A joint initiative of NLR, DLR, and TU Delft has been initiated to streamline the process of generating audible impressions of novel aircraft configurations. The integrated approach adds to the value of the individual tools and allows predicting the sound of future aircraft before they actually fly. Hence, an existing process for the aircraft design and system noise prediction at DLR has been upgraded to generate the required input data for an aircraft auralization framework developed by NLR ...

  15. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  16. A Missense Mutation in the Mouse Col2a1 Gene Causes Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Congenita, Hearing Loss, and Retinoschisis

    OpenAIRE

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Chang, Bo; Mohan, Subburaman; MIYAKOSHI, NAO; Wergedal, Jon E.; Baylink, David J.; Hawes, Norman L.; Rosen, Clifford J.; WARD-BAILEY, PATRICIA; Zheng, Qing Y.; Roderick T Bronson; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Davisson, Muriel T.

    2003-01-01

    A missense mutation in the mouse Col2a1 gene has been discovered, resulting in a mouse phenotype with similarities to human spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) congenita. In addition, SED patients have been identified with a similar molecular mutation in human COL2A1. This mouse model offers a useful tool for molecular and biological studies of bone development and pathology.

  17. NOVEL SPLICING MUTATION OF COL1A1 GENE CAUSING OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA TYPE I IN CHINESE PEDIGREE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-lin; GU Ming-min; CUI Bing; LI Xi-hua; LU Zhen-yu; WANG Zhu-gang; YUAN Wen-tao; SONG Huai-dong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To detect the peculiar mutation in a Chinese family with osteogenesis imperfecta,COL1A1 and COL1A2 being analysed. Methods A genome screen was undertaken covering COL1A1 at 17q21-22 and COL1A2 at 7q22.1. The Linkage ( Version 5.1 ) was used for 2-point analysis. DNA sequencing was used to screen and identify the mutation. Results A linkage to the markers on chromosome 17q21-22 was observed. Sequence analysis of COL1A1 revealed a splicing mutation ( IVS8-2A > G) that converted the 3' end of intron 8 from AG to GG. Conclusion This mutation ( IVS 8-2A > G) is novel, and has not yet been registered in the Human Type Ⅰ and Type Ⅲ Collagen Mutations Database.

  18. Why deep drilling in the Colônia Basin (Brazil)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Reimold, W. U.; Ariztegui, D.; Bard, E.; Crósta, A. P.; Riccomini, C.; Sawakuchi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Colônia Deep Drilling Project held its first International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop in September 2014 at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). Twenty-seven experts from six countries discussed the feasibility and the expectations of a deep drilling in the structure of Colônia located at the southwestern margin of the city of São Paulo. After presenting the studies performed at the site during the last decades, participants focused on the objectives, priorities and detailed planning for a full deep-drilling proposal. An excursion to the site and new auger coring showed the importance of the Colônia site for studying the evolution of a tropical rainforest and to evaluate the interplay between the South American summer monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the southern Westerlies belt during the last 5 million years. In addition, deep drilling will eventually solve the still unresolved issue of the origin of the structure of Colônia as a result of meteorite impact or endogenous processes.

  19. Evidence for large superhumps in TX Col and V4742 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Retter, A; Liu, A; Bos, Marc; Liu, Alexander; Retter, Alon

    2004-01-01

    Since the discovery of the largest positive superhump period in TV Col, we have started a program to search for superhumps in CVs with large orbital periods. Here, we summarize preliminary results of TX Col and V4742 Sgr. TX Col is an intermediate polar with a 5.7-h orbital period. V4742 Sgr is a recent nova with no known periods. CCD unfiltered continuous photometry of these 2 objects was carried out during 56 nights in 2002-3. In TX Col, in addition to the orbital period of 5.7 h, we found peaks at 7.1 h and 5.0 h. These are interpreted as positive and negative superhumps correspondingly, although the effects of the quasi-periodic oscillations at about 2 h were not taken into consideration. In the light curve of V4742 Sgr 2 long periods are detected -- 6.1 and 5.4 h as well as a short-term period at 1.6 h. This result suggests that V4742 Sgr is an intermediate polar candidate and a permanent superhump system with a large orbital period (5.4 h) and a superhump period excess of 13 percent. If these results ar...

  20. Effects of clinorotation on COL1A1- EGFP gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Zhongquan; LI; Yinghui; DING; Bai; ZHANG; Yuguo; LIU

    2004-01-01

    Bone-formation related gene plays a critical role in bone loss induced by space microgravity, however the exact mechanism is unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of microgravity on the activity of α 1(I) collagen (COL1A1) gene promoter and the expression of osteoblast-related genes. COL1A1 promoter was digested by restriction enzymes resulting in three DNA fragments. The fragments were ligated with the enhanced green fluorescent protein report gene, and subcloned into expression vectors. ROS17/2.8 cells transfected by these vectors were screened by G418, and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) positive colonies were isolated and cultured under clinostat condition. EGFP and Collagen type I expression level were detected by fluorescence intensity analysis and immunocytochemistry methods respectively. The results showed that the expression of EGFP and collagen type I was increased 24 h, 48 h after the cells were cultured under stimulated microgravity, illustrating that the activity of COL1A1 promoter might be increased. In conclusion, osteoblasts can compensatively increase the expression of type I collagen by enhancing the activity of COL1A1 promoter under short-term simulated microgravity conditions.

  1. Lista de las colecciones colombianas de rubiaceae depositadas en el herbario nacional colombiano (col)

    OpenAIRE

    JIMÉNEZ-B., LUIS CARLOS

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta la lista anotada de 785 especies, 11 subespecies y 17 variedades deRubiaceae de Colombia pertenecientes a 107 géneros depositados en el HerbarioNacional Colombiano (COL), con sus sinónimos, rango altitudinal y distribuciónpor departamentos.

  2. Las cuentas del cuarto viaje de Cristóbal Colón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil, Juan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The payroll of the fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus is here published for the fisrt time, signed by Admiral himself. A commentary is also furnished.

    Se publican por primera vez, con comentario, las cuentas del cuarto viaje de Cristóbal Colón, firmadas por el propio almirante.

  3. Familial Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with lethal arterial events caused by a mutation in COL5A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Glen R; Harakalova, Magdalena; van der Crabben, Saskia N; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle; Bertoli-Avella, Aida M; Moll, Frans L; Oranen, Björn I; Dooijes, Dennis; Vink, Aryan; Knoers, Nine V; Maugeri, Alessandra; Pals, Gerard; Nijman, Isaac J; van Haaften, Gijs; Baas, Annette F

    2015-06-01

    Different forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) exist, with specific phenotypes and associated genes. Vascular EDS, caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene, is characterized by fragile vasculature with a high risk of catastrophic vascular events at a young age. Classic EDS, caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL5A1 or COL5A2 genes, is characterized by fragile, hyperextensible skin and joint laxity. To date, vessel rupture in four unrelated classic EDS patients with a confirmed COL5A1 mutation has been reported. We describe familial occurrence of a phenotype resembling vascular EDS in a mother and her two sons, who all died at an early age from arterial ruptures. Diagnostic Sanger sequencing in the proband failed to detect aberrations in COL3A1, COL1A1, COL1A2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD3, and ACTA2. Next, the proband's DNA was analyzed using a next-generation sequencing approach targeting 554 genes linked to vascular disease (VASCULOME project). A novel heterozygous mutation in COL5A1 was detected, resulting in an essential glycine substitution at the C-terminal end of the triple helix domain (NM_000093.4:c.4610G>T; p.Gly1537Val). This mutation was also present in DNA isolated from autopsy material of the index's brother. No material was available from the mother, but the mutation was excluded in her parents, siblings and in the father of her sons, suggesting that the COL5A1 mutation occurred in the mother's genome de novo. In conclusion, we report familial occurrence of lethal arterial events caused by a COL5A1 mutation. PMID:25845371

  4. Evidence for large superhumps in TX Col and V4742 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retter, Alon; Liu, Alexander; Bos, Marc

    Since the discovery of the largest positive superhump period in TV Col (6.4 h), we have started a program to search for superhumps in cataclysmic variables (CVs) with large orbital periods. In this work, we summarize preliminary results of our observations of TX Col and V4742 Sgr. TX Col is an intermediate polar with a 5.7-h orbital period. V4742 Sgr is a recent (2002) nova with no known periods. CCD unfiltered continuous photometry of these two objects was carried out during 56 nights (350 hours) in 2002-2003. The time series analysis reveals the presence of several periods in both power spectra. In TX Col, in addition to the orbital period of 5.7 h, we found peaks at 7.1 h and 5.0 h. These are interpreted as positive and negative superhumps correspondingly, although the effects of the quasi-periodic oscillations at ~2 h (which may cause spurious signals) were not taken into consideration. In the light curve of V4742 Sgr two long periods are detected - 6.1 and 5.4 h as well as a short-term period at 1.6 h. This result suggests that V4742 Sgr is an intermediate polar candidate and a permanent superhump system with a large orbital period (5.4 h) and a superhump period excess of 13%. If these results are confirmed, TX Col and V4742 Sgr join TV Col to form a group of intermediate polars with extremely large superhump periods. There seems to be now growing evidence that superhumps can occur in intermediate polars with long orbital periods, which is very likely inconsistent with the theoretical prediction that superhumps can only occur in systems with mass ratios below 0.33. Alternatively, if the mass ratio in these systems is nevertheless below the theoretical limit, they should harbour undermassive secondaries and very massive white dwarfs, near the Chandrasekhar limit, which would make them excellent candidates for progenitors of supernovae type Ia.

  5. L'impacte científic de la col·laboració universitat-empresa

    OpenAIRE

    Banal Estañol, Albert; Macho Stadler, Inés; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2013-01-01

    Un estudi del Departament d'Economia i Història Econòmica de la UAB ha analitzat l'èxit dels projectes científics en què col·laboren universitat i empresa en base a l'impacte en les revistes científiques. Aquest treball conclou que cal tenir en compte, quan s'avaluen els projectes, la qualitat de les publicacions dels col·laboradors en l'empresa, que, si és alta, repercutirà positivament en l'impacte del projecte científic de col·laboració amb la universitat.

  6. Bone mineral properties in growing Col1a2(+/G610C) mice, an animal model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Marco; Wang, Min; Imbert, Laurianne; Barnes, Aileen M; Spevak, Lyudmila; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Huang, Yihe; Ma, Yan; Marini, Joan C; Jacobsen, Christina M; Warman, Matthew L; Boskey, Adele L

    2016-06-01

    The Col1a2(+/G610C) knock-in mouse, models osteogenesis imperfecta in a large old order Amish family (OOA) with type IV OI, caused by a G-to-T transversion at nucleotide 2098, which alters the gly-610 codon in the triple-helical domain of the α2(I) chain of type I collagen. Mineral and matrix properties of the long bones and vertebrae of male Col1a2(+/G610C) and their wild-type controls (Col1a2(+/+)), were characterized to gain insight into the role of α2-chain collagen mutations in mineralization. Additionally, we examined the rescuability of the composition by sclerostin inhibition initiated by crossing Col1a2(+/G610C) with an LRP(+/A214V) high bone mass allele. At age 10-days, vertebrae and tibia showed few alterations by micro-CT or Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). At 2-months-of-age, Col1a2(+/G610C) tibias had 13% fewer secondary trabeculae than Col1a2(+/+), these were thinner (11%) and more widely spaced (20%) than those of Col1a2(+/+) mice. Vertebrae of Col1a2(+/G610C) mice at 2-months also had lower bone volume fraction (38%), trabecular number (13%), thickness (13%) and connectivity density (32%) compared to Col1(a2+/+). The cortical bone of Col1a2(+/G610C) tibias at 2-months had 3% higher tissue mineral density compared to Col1a2(+/+); Col1a2(+/G610C) vertebrae had lower cortical thickness (29%), bone area (37%) and polar moment of inertia (38%) relative to Col1a2(+/+). FTIRI analysis, which provides information on bone chemical composition at ~7μm-spatial resolution, showed tibias at 10-days did not differ between genotypes. Comparing identical bone types in Col1a2(+/G610C) to Col1a2(+/+) at 2-months-of-age, tibias showed higher mineral-to-matrix ratio in trabeculae (17%) and cortices (31%). and in vertebral cortices (28%). Collagen maturity was 42% higher at 10-days-of-age in Col1a2(+/G610C) vertebral trabeculae and in 2-month tibial cortices (12%), vertebral trabeculae (42%) and vertebral cortices (12%). Higher acid-phosphate substitution

  7. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  8. COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing results in cohort of patients undergoing evaluation for potential child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Yuri A; Clingenpeel, Rachel; Sellars, Elizabeth A; Tang, Xinyu; Kaylor, Julie A; Bosanko, Katherine; Linam, Leann E; Byers, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    Child abuse is a major public health concern that can explain a proportion of fractures in children. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common inherited syndrome that predisposes to skeletal fractures. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from clinical, laboratory, and radiographic information from children evaluated for child abuse in which molecular testing for COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes was conducted. A total of 43 patients underwent molecular testing for OI. Pathogenic variants predicted to result in a mild form of OI were found in two patients (5%), both clinically suspected to have this diagnosis. None of the cases in whom OI molecular testing was ordered when maltreatment concerns were thought to be more likely (0/35) were identified to have pathogenic variants. After reviewing each individual case, the final diagnosis was child abuse for 34 cases (77%), and additional radiographic and laboratory studies did not identify any with inherited metabolic predisposition to fracture or rickets. We conclude that routine testing for OI in the setting of child abuse when no other suggestive clinical findings are present has a low yield. A careful review of the medical history and a detailed clinical evaluation help identify those at risk for genetic alterations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27090748

  9. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  10. Explorant el treball a la blogosfera: la paradoxa de l’aprenentatge col·laboratiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lizandra Mora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amb l’objectiu de solucionar diversos problemes que sorgiren en la posada en pràctica d’una experiència d’innovació basada en la creació d’una blogosfera, es portà a terme una investigació educativa i qualitativa a partir de la col·laboració docent i de les opinions de l’alumnat. A més dels aspectes positius, es detectaren dificultats amb la gestió del treball en equipo i de familiarització amb la ferramenta a les que els propis estudiants proposaren diverses solucions. Abordar aquesta circumstància de forma col·laborativa i donant veu a l’alumnat ha permès que l’experiència concloguera exitosament, resultant ser una bona pràctica educativa.

  11. Stimulation of Escherichia coli F-18Col- Type-1 fimbriae synthesis by leuX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Joseph V.; Burghoff, Robert L.; Pallesen, Lars;

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli F-18, a normal human fecal isolate, is an excellent colonizer of the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine. E. coli F-18Col-, a derivative of E. coli F-18 which no longer makes the E. coli F-18 colicin, colonizes the large intestine as well as E. coli F-18 when fed to mice...... alone but is eliminated when fed together with E. coli F-18. Recently we randomly cloned E. coli F-18 DNA into E. coli F-18Col- and let the mouse intestine select the best colonizer. In this way, we isolated a 6.5-kb E. coli F-18 DNA sequence that simultaneously stimulated synthesis of type 1 fimbriae...

  12. COL1A1-shRNA表达质粒构建及抑制COL1A1表达的有效序列的筛选%Construction of COL1A1-shRNA expression plasmid and screening of effective sequences to inhibit COL1A1 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦军; 赵金满; 孟艳; 余永红

    2008-01-01

    目的: 构建和筛选对大鼠肝星状细胞前Ⅰ型胶原α1链(COL1A1)mRNA有抑制作用的COL1A1短发夹RNA (shRNA)的表达质粒.方法:从NCBI网站获得大鼠的COL1A1 cDNA序列, 根据Whitehead研究所的siRNA设计软件设计3条理论上最佳的siRNA序列, 相应的双链DNA被插入pGPU6/GFP/Neo质粒中, 即pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-A、pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-B和pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-C. 为得到高效沉默COL1A1-siRNA, 以脂质体LipofectAMINE2000, 将1、2、3、4 μg DNA质粒转染至HSC-T6细胞中, 并观察转染效果. 将最佳沉默siRNA导入HSC-T6细胞, RT-PCR分析各组的COL1A1 mRNA表达水平.结果: 靶向COL1A1 mRNA的3个shRNA重组质粒载体pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-A、pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-B和pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-C经测序分析, shRNA编码序列与设计的片段完全一致, 经酶切凝胶电泳证实载体构建成功. 1、2、3、4 μg组转染效率分别为16.7%、20.3%、23.5%和22.3%, 以2 μg siRNA为最佳剂量, pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-A、pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-B和pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-C对COL1A1 mRNA的抑制率分别为16.6%, 63.3%和80.3%. 结论:筛选出的pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA-C表达质粒能高效地抑制转染细胞COL1A1 mRNA的表达, 从而为肝纤维治疗提供新的方法和材料.

  13. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita: genetic linkage to type II collagen (COL2AI).

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, I J; Goldberg, R.B.; Marion, R W; Upholt, W B; Tsipouras, P

    1990-01-01

    Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature (short trunk), abnormal epiphyses, and flattened vertebral bodies. Manifestations are present at birth. We ascertained a 4-generation family exhibiting the clinical manifestations of the disorder. Previous evidence suggesting defects of type II collagen associated with the SEDC phenotype led us to genotype the family for various COL2A1 gene-associ...

  14. Generation of Col2a1-EGFP iPS Cells for Monitoring Chondrogenic Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Taku; Yano, Fumiko; Mori, Daisuke; Ohba, Shinsuke; Hojo, Hironori; Otsu, Makoto; Eto, Koji; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Tanaka, Sakae; Chung, Ung-il; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are a promising cell source for cartilage regenerative medicine; however, the methods for chondrocyte induction from iPSC are currently developing and not yet sufficient for clinical application. Here, we report the establishment of a fluorescent indicator system for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation from iPSC to simplify screening for effective factors that induce chondrocytes from iPSC. We generated iPSC from embryonic fibroblasts of Col2a1-EGFP t...

  15. A computer-vision based sensory substitution device for the visually impaired (See ColOr)

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Valencia, Juan Diego

    2014-01-01

    Audio-based Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs) perform adequately when sensing and mapping low-level visual features into sound. Yet, their limitations become apparent when it comes to represent high-level or conceptual information involved in vision. We introduce See ColOr as an SSD that senses color and depth to convert them into musical instrument sounds. In addition and unlike any other approach, our SSD extends beyond a sensing prototype, by integrating computer vision methods to produc...

  16. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  17. Structural integrity in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardrath, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the current design philosophies for achieving long, efficient, and reliable service in aircraft structures. The strengths and weaknesses of these design philosophies and their demonstrated records of success are discussed. The state of the art has not been developed to the point where designing can be done without major test inspection and maintenance programs. A broad program of research is proposed through which a viable computerized design scheme will be provided during the next decade. The program will organize and correlate existing knowledge on fatigue and fracture behavior, identify gaps in this knowledge, and guide specific research to upgrade design capabilities.

  18. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  19. Bébé Colódio e Ictioses Congénitas

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, G.; Carvalhosa, G; Valido, A. Marques

    2014-01-01

    Os autores fazem uma revisão teórica sobre bébé colódio e ictioses congénitas.O bébé colódio é uni estado cutâneo patológico, com uma incidência de 1:10 000 RN. Sendo a pele o órgão atingido, é feita uma descrição sumária da sua constituição, funções e importância como orgão de revestimento, protecção e ligação com o meio exterior. É abordada sumariamente a embriologia da pele, para uma melhor compreensão desta patologia.O bébé colódio é um fenótipo que pode corresponder a vários genótipos. D...

  20. Stickler syndrome caused by COL2A1 mutations: genotype-phenotype correlation in a series of 100 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoornaert, Kristien P; Vereecke, Inge; Dewinter, Chantal;

    2010-01-01

    COL2A1. In 188 probands with the clinical diagnosis of Stickler syndrome, the COL2A1 gene was analyzed by either a mutation scanning technique or bidirectional fluorescent DNA sequencing. The effect of splice site alterations was investigated by analyzing mRNA. Multiplex ligation......-dependent amplification analysis was used for the detection of intragenic deletions. We identified 77 different COL2A1 mutations in 100 affected individuals. Analysis of the splice site mutations showed unusual RNA isoforms, most of which contained a premature stop codon. Vitreous anomalies and retinal detachments were...... found more frequently in patients with a COL2A1 mutation compared with the mutation-negative group (P90% of the mutations were predicted to result in nonsense-mediated decay. On the basis of binary regression analysis, we developed a scoring system that may be useful when evaluating patients with...

  1. Stickler syndrome caused by COL2A1 mutations: genotype-phenotype correlation in a series of 100 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mortier, Geert; Hoornaert, Kristien P; Vereecke, Inge; Dewinter, Chantal; Rosenberg, Thomas; Beemer, Frits A; Leroy, Jules G; Bendix, Laila; Björck, Erik; Bonduelle, Dr.; Boute, Odile; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; De Die-Smulders, Christine E.M.; Dieux-Coeslier, Anne; Dollfus, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Stickler syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in different collagen genes. The aim of our study was to define more precisely the phenotype and genotype of Stickler syndrome type 1 by investigating a large series of patients with a heterozygous mutation in COL2A1. In 188 probands with the clinical diagnosis of Stickler syndrome, the COL2A1 gene was analyzed by either a mutation scanning technique or bidirectional fluorescent DNA sequencing. The effec...

  2. Human COL7A1-corrected induced pluripotent stem cells for the treatment of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiano, Vittorio; Zhen, Hanson Hui; Haddad, Bahareh; Bashkirova, Elizaveta; Melo, Sandra P; Wang, Pei; Leung, Thomas L.; Siprashvili, Zurab; Tichy, Andrea; Li, Jiang; Ameen, Mohammed; Hawkins, John; Lee, Susie; Li, Lingjie; Schwertschkow, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) lack functional type VII collagen owing to mutations in the gene COL7A1 and suffer severe blistering and chronic wounds that ultimately lead to infection and development of lethal squamous cell carcinoma. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the ability to edit the genome bring the possibility to provide definitive genetic therapy through corrected autologous tissues. We generated patient-derived COL7A1-cor...

  3. Transcription of ColE1Ap mbeC induced by conjugative plasmids from twelve different incompatibility groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaratnam, S; Gealt, M A

    1993-01-01

    Although nonconjugative mobilizable plasmids require helping functions of conjugative plasmids in order to be mobilized into recipients, at least some genes from the nonconjugative plasmids may be induced to assist in the DNA transfer process. Conjugative plasmids from 12 different incompatibility groups mobilized the nonconjugative plasmid ColE1Ap between Escherichia coli strains. Introduction of any of the conjugative plasmids into the ColE1Ap-containing strain resulted in an induction of m...

  4. Osteogenesis imperfecta IIC caused by a novel heterozygous mutation in the C-propeptide region of COL1A1

    OpenAIRE

    Takagi, Masaki; Matsushita, Mitsuru; Nishimura, Gen; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta IIC (OI IIC), which is a rare variant of lethal OI that has been considered to be an autosomal recessive trait, is characterized by twisted, slender long bones with dense metaphyseal margins. Here, we report a typical case of OI IIC caused by a novel heterozygous mutation in the C-propeptide region of COL1A1. OI IIC seems to be caused by a dominant mutation of COL1A1.

  5. Altus aircraft on runway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  6. Radial cylinder aircraft engines

    OpenAIRE

    Šimíček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Práce je zaměřena na konstrukční řešení letadlových hvězdicových motorů. Úvod je pojednáním o historii letadlových hvězdicových motorů a jejich vývoji v historickém kontextu. Druhá část je zaměřena na konstrukci letadlových hvězdicových motorů, následně jsou uvedena některá zajímavá konstrukční řešení a porovnání s motorem jiného druhu konstrukce. The bachelor's thesis is focused on design of aircraft radial engines. Home is a treatise on the history of aircraft radial engines and their de...

  7. Volume da gota dos colírios lubrificantes: estudo farmacoeconômico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Xavier da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o volume médio das gotas produzidas pelos colírios lubrificantes em diferentes ângulos de inclinação e determinar o custo médio do tratamento. Métodos: Determinação do volume da gota de 3 frascos originais dos colírios lubrificantes Artelac®, Hylo Comod®, Lacrima® Plus, Systane® UL, Lacrifilm®, Hyabak®, Lacribell®, Ecofilm®, Mirugell®, Plenigell®, Fresh Tears®, Optive® e Endura® à inclinação de 90º e 45º. Determinou-se o número médio de gotas em cada frasco e foi feita avaliação farmacoeconômica dos colírios. Resultados: O volume das gotas variou de 32,2 a 64,0 µL a 45o e de 29,1 a 65,1 µL a 90o. A diferença entre as gotas em cada inclinação foi de 2 a 24% e o custo anual dos colírios de acordo com a inclinação variou de R$2,73 a R$130,73. A Duração Máxima de Tratamento (DMT foi de 29,3 a 51,4 dias na inclinação de 45o, e de 28,8 a 48,4 dias a 90º, sendo que a diferença na DMT foi de 0,5 até 8 dias a mais ou a menos, de acordo com a marca. Conclusão: Nenhum dos colírios estudados apresentou gotas ideais para o olho humano, levando a um desperdício do produto e maior custo para o fabricante e para o consumidor. Percebemos que existe uma variação significativa no volume da gota de acordo com a inclinação do frasco, e que uma variação maior do que 10% traria impactos financeiros para o paciente.

  8. Aviation industry-research in aircraft finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenthal, Joachim C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft values are key to aircraft financing decisions: Aircraft values act as a source of security for providers of debt capital and lessors failing to re-place aircraft, and as a source of upside potential to equity investors. Yet, aircraft values cannot be precisely and continuously monitored. This is because neither actual primary nor secondary aircraft transaction prices are disclosed. Various types of third party valuation estimates exist, but relying solely on third party appraisa...

  9. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  10. Premature termination codons in the Type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) underlie severe, mutilating recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiano, A.M.; Uitto, J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Anhalt, G. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Gibbons, S.; Bauer, E.A. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of heritable mechano-bullous skin diseases classified into three major categories on the basis of the level of tissue separation within the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. The most severe, dystrophic (scarring) forms of EB demonstrate blister formation below the cutaneous basement membrane at the level of the anchoring fibrils. Ultrastructural observations of altered anchoring fibrils and genetic linkage to the gene encoding type VII collagen (COL7A1), the major component of anchoring fibrils, have implicated COL7A1 as the candidate gene in the dystrophic forms of EB. The authors have recently cloned the entire cDNA and gene for human COL7A1, which has been mapped to 3p21. In this study, they describe mutations in four COL7A1 alleles in three patients with severe, mutilating recessive dystrophic EB (Hallopeau-Siemens type, HS-RDEB). Each of these mutations resulted in a premature termination codon (PTC) in the amino-terminal portion of COL7A1. One of the patients was a compound heterozygote for two different mutations. The heterozygous carriers showed an [approximately] 50% reduction in anchoring fibrils, yet were clinically unaffected. Premature termination codons in both alleles of COL7A1 may thus be a major underlying cause of the severe, recessive dystrophic forms of EB. 40 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  12. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  13. Over-expression of DSCAM and COL6A2 cooperatively generates congenital heart defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar R Grossman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant current challenge in human genetics is the identification of interacting genetic loci mediating complex polygenic disorders. One of the best characterized polygenic diseases is Down syndrome (DS, which results from an extra copy of part or all of chromosome 21. A short interval near the distal tip of chromosome 21 contributes to congenital heart defects (CHD, and a variety of indirect genetic evidence suggests that multiple candidate genes in this region may contribute to this phenotype. We devised a tiered genetic approach to identify interacting CHD candidate genes. We first used the well vetted Drosophila heart as an assay to identify interacting CHD candidate genes by expressing them alone and in all possible pairwise combinations and testing for effects on rhythmicity or heart failure following stress. This comprehensive analysis identified DSCAM and COL6A2 as the most strongly interacting pair of genes. We then over-expressed these two genes alone or in combination in the mouse heart. While over-expression of either gene alone did not affect viability and had little or no effect on heart physiology or morphology, co-expression of the two genes resulted in ≈50% mortality and severe physiological and morphological defects, including atrial septal defects and cardiac hypertrophy. Cooperative interactions between DSCAM and COL6A2 were also observed in the H9C2 cardiac cell line and transcriptional analysis of this interaction points to genes involved in adhesion and cardiac hypertrophy. Our success in defining a cooperative interaction between DSCAM and COL6A2 suggests that the multi-tiered genetic approach we have taken involving human mapping data, comprehensive combinatorial screening in Drosophila, and validation in vivo in mice and in mammalian cells lines should be applicable to identifying specific loci mediating a broad variety of other polygenic disorders.

  14. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  15. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  16. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  17. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  18. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard....

  19. Identification and characterization of the human type II collagen gene (COL2A1).

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Kathryn; Stoker, N G; Griffin, J.R.; Grosveld, Frank; Solomon, E

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe gene contained in the human cosmid clone CosHcol1, previously designated an alpha 1(I) collagen-like gene, has now been identified. CosHcol1 hybridizes strongly to a single 5.9-kilobase mRNA species present only in tissue in which type II collagen is expressed. DNA sequence analysis shows that this clone is highly homologous to the chicken alpha 1(II) collagen gene. These data together suggest that CosHcol1 contains the human alpha 1(II) collagen gene COL2A1. The clone appears...

  20. Exclusion of COL2A1 and VDR as Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Rubini, Michele; Cavallaro, Alessandra; Calzolari, Elisa; Bighetti, Giulia; Sollazzo, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a spectrum of disorders affecting the proximal femur and/or acetabulum leading to an abnormal formation of the hip. Genetic factors are involved in the etiology of DDH. Early recognition of DDH affords the best results from treatment and a better knowledge of the genetics of DDH could enhance early diagnosis. Variants in the Type II collagen (COL2A1) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes have been associated with patients with osteoarthritis of the hip...

  1. Historiadores e cronistas e a paisagem da colônia Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Shellard Corrêa

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo discute a paisagem da colônia Brasil no primeiro século da colonização. Analisamos as descrições da paisagem elaboradas por Capistrano de Abreu e aprimoradas por Caio Prado Júnior, as quais ainda são reproduzidas pela historiografia nacional. Comparamos esses quadros com as narrativas feitas por cronistas do século XVI e início do XVII. Objetivamos mostrar através do levantamento de dados sobre as formas indígenas de ocupação e utilização da terra e de seus recursos - os quais con...

  2. Complejos tecnológicos para cebolla, ajo, col, pepino, lechuga, zanahoria y remolacha

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Valdés Roque; Jesús Cárdenas Rubio

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conformar los complejos tecnológicos para cultivos varios (hortalizas menores: cebolla, ajo, col, pepino, lechuga, zanahoria y remolacha). Para la conformación de los mismos se realizó una revisión bibliográfica relacionada con las temáticas de mecanización, donde se obtuvieron los criterios y orientaciones fundamentales para la selección de los equipos componentes de los complejos tecnológicos, así como las características técnicas que deben tene...

  3. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  4. Electromagnetic Interference In New Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews plans to develop tests and standards to ensure that digital avionics systems in new civil aircraft immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Updated standards reflect more severe environment and vulnerabilities of modern avionics.

  5. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  6. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  7. Changes in type II procollagen isoform expression during chondrogenesis by disruption of an alternative 5’ splice site within Col2a1 exon 2

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Thomas M.; Wirthlin, Louisa; Ravindran, Soumya; McAlinden, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a new mechanism controlling the production of alternatively-spliced isoforms of type II procollagen (Col2a1) in vivo. During chondrogenesis, precursor chondrocytes predominantly produce isoforms containing alternatively-spliced exon 2 (type IIA and IID) while Col2a1 mRNA devoid of exon 2 (type IIB) is the major isoform produced by differentiated chondrocytes. We previously identified an additional Col2a1 isoform containing a truncated exon 2 and premature termination codo...

  8. Challenges in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone A

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the problem of aircraft noise prediction using theoretical methods. The problem is set in context with the needs at several levels to produce noise characterisation from commercial aircraft powered by gas turbine engines. We describe very briefly the computational model (whilst referring the reader to the appropriate literature), and provide examples of noise predictions and comparisons with measured data, where possible. We focus on the issue of stochastic analysi...

  9. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  10. Mutations in collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 (COL17A1) cause epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophy (ERED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Frida; Byström, Berit; Davidson, Alice E; Backman, Ludvig J; Kellgren, Therese G; Tuft, Stephen J; Koskela, Timo; Rydén, Patrik; Sandgren, Ola; Danielson, Patrik; Hardcastle, Alison J; Golovleva, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Corneal dystrophies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that bilaterally affect corneal transparency. They are defined according to the corneal layer affected and by their genetic cause. In this study, we identified a dominantly inherited epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophy (ERED)-like disease that is common in northern Sweden. Whole-exome sequencing resulted in the identification of a novel mutation, c.2816C>T, p.T939I, in the COL17A1 gene, which encodes collagen type XVII alpha 1. The variant segregated with disease in a genealogically expanded pedigree dating back 200 years. We also investigated a unique COL17A1 synonymous variant, c.3156C>T, identified in a previously reported unrelated dominant ERED-like family linked to a locus on chromosome 10q23-q24 encompassing COL17A1. We show that this variant introduces a cryptic donor site resulting in aberrant pre-mRNA splicing and is highly likely to be pathogenic. Bi-allelic COL17A1 mutations have previously been associated with a recessive skin disorder, junctional epidermolysis bullosa, with recurrent corneal erosions being reported in some cases. Our findings implicate presumed gain-of-function COL17A1 mutations causing dominantly inherited ERED and improve understanding of the underlying pathology. PMID:25676728

  11. Loss of Col3a1, the gene for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, results in neocortical dyslamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jin Jeong

    Full Text Available It has recently been discovered that Collagen III, the encoded protein of the type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS gene, is one of the major constituents of the pial basement membrane (BM and serves as the ligand for GPR56. Mutations in GPR56 cause a severe human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, in which neurons transmigrate through the BM causing severe mental retardation and frequent seizures. To further characterize the brain phenotype of Col3a1 knockout mice, we performed a detailed histological analysis. We observed a cobblestone-like cortical malformation, with BM breakdown and marginal zone heterotopias in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mouse brains. Surprisingly, the pial BM appeared intact at early stages of development but starting as early as embryonic day (E 11.5, prominent BM defects were observed and accompanied by neuronal overmigration. Although collagen III is expressed in meningeal fibroblasts (MFs, Col3a1⁻/⁻ MFs present no obvious defects. Furthermore, the expression and posttranslational modification of α-dystroglycan was undisturbed in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mice. Based on the previous finding that mutations in COL3A1 cause type IV EDS, our study indicates a possible common pathological pathway linking connective tissue diseases and brain malformations.

  12. A Gene Gun-mediated Nonviral RNA trans-splicing Strategy for Col7a1 Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peking, Patricia; Koller, Ulrich; Hainzl, Stefan; Kitzmueller, Sophie; Kocher, Thomas; Mayr, Elisabeth; Nyström, Alexander; Lener, Thomas; Reichelt, Julia; Bauer, Johann W; Murauer, Eva M

    2016-01-01

    RNA trans-splicing represents an auspicious option for the correction of genetic mutations at RNA level. Mutations within COL7A1 causing strong reduction or absence of type VII collagen are associated with the severe skin blistering disease dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. The human COL7A1 mRNA constitutes a suitable target for this RNA therapy approach, as only a portion of the almost 9 kb transcript has to be delivered into the target cells. Here, we have proven the feasibility of 5' trans-splicing into the Col7a1 mRNA in vitro and in vivo. We designed a 5' RNA trans-splicing molecule, capable of replacing Col7a1 exons 1-15 and verified it in a fluorescence-based trans-splicing model system. Specific and efficient Col7a1 trans-splicing was confirmed in murine keratinocytes. To analyze trans-splicing in vivo, we used gene gun delivery of a minicircle expressing a FLAG-tagged 5' RNA trans-splicing molecule into the skin of wild-type mice. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis of bombarded skin sections revealed vector delivery and expression within dermis and epidermis. Furthermore, we have detected trans-spliced type VII collagen protein using FLAG-tag antibodies. In conclusion, we describe a novel in vivo nonviral RNA therapy approach to restore type VII collagen expression for causative treatment of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. PMID:26928235

  13. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  14. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  15. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  16. Different cis-Regulatory DNA Elements Mediate Developmental Stage- and Tissue-specific Expression of the Human COL2A1 Gene in Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Keith K.H.; Ng, Ling Jim; Ho, Ken K.Y.; Tam, Patrick P L; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.

    1998-01-01

    Expression of the type II collagen gene (human COL2A1, mouse Col2a1) heralds the differentiation of chondrocytes. It is also expressed in progenitor cells of some nonchondrogenic tissues during embryogenesis. DNA sequences in the 5' flanking region and intron 1 are known to control tissue- specific expression in vitro, but the regulation of COL2A1 expression in vivo is not clearly understood. We have tested the regulatory activity of DNA sequences from COL2A1 on the expression of a lacZ repor...

  17. COL1A1 transgene expression in stably transfected osteoblastic cells. Relative contributions of first intron, 3'-flanking sequences, and sequences derived from the body of the human COL1A1 minigene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, D. T.; Lichtler, A. C.; Rowe, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    Collagen reporter gene constructs have be used to identify cell-specific sequences needed for transcriptional activation. The elements required for endogenous levels of COL1A1 expression, however, have not been elucidated. The human COL1A1 minigene is expressed at high levels and likely harbors sequence elements required for endogenous levels of activity. Using stably transfected osteoblastic Py1a cells, we studied a series of constructs (pOBColCAT) designed to characterize further the elements required for high level of expression. pOBColCAT, which contains the COL1A1 first intron, was expressed at 50-100-fold higher levels than ColCAT 3.6, which lacks the first intron. This difference is best explained by improved mRNA processing rather than a transcriptional effect. Furthermore, variation in activity observed with the intron deletion constructs is best explained by altered mRNA splicing. Two major regions of the human COL1A1 minigene, the 3'-flanking sequences and the minigene body, were introduced into pOBColCAT to assess both transcriptional enhancing activity and the effect on mRNA stability. Analysis of the minigene body, which includes the first five exons and introns fused with the terminal six introns and exons, revealed an orientation-independent 5-fold increase in CAT activity. In contrast the 3'-flanking sequences gave rise to a modest 61% increase in CAT activity. Neither region increased the mRNA half-life of the parent construct, suggesting that CAT-specific mRNA instability elements may serve as dominant negative regulators of stability. This study suggests that other sites within the body of the COL1A1 minigene are important for high expression, e.g. during periods of rapid extracellular matrix production.

  18. Artificial Autopolyploidization Modifies the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and GABA Shunt in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Fredd; Kikuchi, Jun; Breuer, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Autopolyploidy is a process whereby the chromosome set is multiplied and it is a common phenomenon in angiosperms. Autopolyploidy is thought to be an important evolutionary force that has led to the formation of new plant species. Despite its relevance, the consequences of autopolyploidy in plant metabolism are poorly understood. This study compares the metabolic profiles of natural diploids and artificial autotetraploids of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0. Different physiological parameters are compared between diploids and autotetraploids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis (carbon:nitrogen balance) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The main difference between diploid and autotetraploid A. thaliana Col-0 is observed in the concentration of metabolites related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) shunt, as shown by multivariate statistical analysis of NMR spectra. qRT-PCR shows that genes related to the TCA and GABA shunt are also differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids following similar trends as their corresponding metabolites. Solid evidence is presented to demonstrate that autopolyploidy influences core plant metabolic processes.

  19. Artificial Autopolyploidization Modifies the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and GABA Shunt in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Fredd; Kikuchi, Jun; Breuer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Autopolyploidy is a process whereby the chromosome set is multiplied and it is a common phenomenon in angiosperms. Autopolyploidy is thought to be an important evolutionary force that has led to the formation of new plant species. Despite its relevance, the consequences of autopolyploidy in plant metabolism are poorly understood. This study compares the metabolic profiles of natural diploids and artificial autotetraploids of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0. Different physiological parameters are compared between diploids and autotetraploids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis (carbon:nitrogen balance) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The main difference between diploid and autotetraploid A. thaliana Col-0 is observed in the concentration of metabolites related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) shunt, as shown by multivariate statistical analysis of NMR spectra. qRT-PCR shows that genes related to the TCA and GABA shunt are also differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids following similar trends as their corresponding metabolites. Solid evidence is presented to demonstrate that autopolyploidy influences core plant metabolic processes. PMID:27212081

  20. First Results of Noy Measurements Made In Mozaic Aboard Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz-Thomas, A.; Paetz, H.-W.; Houben, N.; Petrick, W.; Heil, T.; Smit, H. G. J.; Kley, D.; Marenco, A.; Nedelec, P.

    The European MOZAIC Program comprises measurements of ozone and water va- por aboard five Airbus A340 aircraft operated by four European airlines. Since the beginning of the project in 1994, more than 130.000 hours of in flight data were col- lected. In the second phase of MOZAIC, a small, light-weight and fully automatic NOy instrument was developed at FZ-Jülich and certified by Lufthansa Technik. The NOy instrument, which is calibrated in-situ with zero air, NO and NO2, was installed aboard an aircraft of Lufthansa in Jan 2001 and is producing data since April 2001 (more than 200 successful flights so far). The instrument is exchanged and serviced at monthly intervals. The detection limit is 50 ppt at an integration time of 4s (principal time resolution 0.1 s). The NOy data obtained from flights between Europe, North America, Asia and Africa are discussed in terms of the correlation with the other trace gases (O3, H2O, and CO) which allow to identify the influence of stratospheric air and pollution plumes from the continental boundary layer. Recent aircraft emissions are detected as short spikes in the high resolution data.

  1. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  2. Structural and segregation analysis of the type II collagen gene (COL2A1) in some heritable chondrodysplasias.

    OpenAIRE

    Wordsworth, P; Ogilvie, D.; Priestley, L; Smith, R.; Wynne-Davies, R; Sykes, B

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-seven persons with a variety of heritable chondrodysplasias were screened for gross rearrangements of the structural gene encoding the major cartilage collagen, collagen II. None was found. Segregation of the locus (COL2A1) was studied in 19 pedigrees using three restriction site dimorphisms (shown by PvuII, HindIII, and BamHI) and a length polymorphism as linkage markers. Discordant segregation between COL2A1 and the mutant locus was seen in pedigrees with multiple epiphyseal dysplas...

  3. Col2a1 lineage tracing reveals that the meniscus of the knee joint has a complex cellular origin

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Gareth; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.; Wallis, Gillian A

    2008-01-01

    The knee joint consists of multiple interacting tissues that are prone to injury- and disease-related degeneration. Although much is known about the structure and function of the knee’s constituent tissues, relatively little is known about their cellular origin and the mechanisms governing their segregation. To investigate the origin and segregation of knee tissues in vivo we performed lineage tracing using a Col2a1-Cre/R26R mouse model system and compared the data obtained with actual Col2a1...

  4. ESE-1 Is a Potent Repressor of Type II Collagen Gene (COL2A1) Transcription In Human Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Haibing; TAN, LUJIAN; Osaki, Makoto; Zhan, Yumei; Ijiri, Kosei; Tsuchimochi, Kaneyuki; Otero, Miguel; Wang, Hong; CHOY, BOB K.; GRALL, FRANCK T.; Gu, Xuesong; Libermann, Towia A; Oettgen, Peter; Goldring, Mary B.

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium-specific ETS (ESE)-1 transcription factor is induced in chondrocytes by interleukin-1β (IL-1β). We reported previously that early activation of EGR-1 by IL-1β results in suppression of the proximal COL2A1 promoter activity by displacement of Sp1 from GC boxes. Here we report that ESE-1 is a potent transcriptional suppressor of COL2A1 promoter activity in chondrocytes and accounts for the sustained, NF-κB-dependent inhibition by IL-1β. Of the ETS factors tested, this response wa...

  5. Structural organization of the human type VII collagen gene (COL7A1), composed of more exons than any previously characterized gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiano, A.M.; Chung-Honet, L.C.; Greenspan, D.S.; Hoffman, G.G.; Lee, S.; Cheng, W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)); Uitto, J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    The human type VII collagen (COL7A1) gene is the locus for mutations in at least some cases of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Here the authors describe the entire intron/exon organization of COL7A1, which is shown to have 118 exons, more than any previously described gene. Despite this complexity, COL7A1 is compact. Consisting of 31,132 bp from transcription start site to polyadenylation site, it is only about three times the size of type VII collagen mRNA. Thus, COL7A1 introns are small. A 71-nucleotide COL7A1 intron is the smallest intron yet reported in a collagen gene, and only one COL7A1 intron is greater than 1 kb in length. All exons in the COL7A1 triple helix coding region that do not begin with sequences corresponding to imperfections of the triple helix begin with intact codons for Gly residues of Gly-X-Y repeats. This is reminiscent of the structure of fibrillar rather than other nonfibrillar collagen genes. In addition, the COL7A1 triple helix coding region contains many exons of recurring sizes (e.g., 25 exons are 36 bp, 12 exons are 45 bp, 8 exons are 63 bp), suggesting an evolutionary origin distinct from those of other nonfibrillar collagen genes. Sequences from the 5[prime] portion of COL7A1 are presented along with the 3766-bp intergenic sequence, which separated COL7A1 from the upstream gene encoding the core I protein of the cytochrome bc[sub 1] complex. The COL7A1 promoter region is found to lack extensive homologies with promoter regions of other genes expressed primarily in skin. 60 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Analysis of aircraft maintenance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed several organizational models of aircraft maintenance. All models presented so far have been in use in Air Forces, so that the advantages and disadvantages of different models are known. First it shows the current model of aircraft maintenance as well as its basic characteristics. Then the paper discusses two organizational models of aircraft maintenance with their advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages of different models are analyzed based on the criteria of operational capabilities of military units. In addition to operational capabilities, the paper presents some other criteria which should be taken into account in the evaluation and selection of an optimal model of aircraft maintenance. Performing a qualitative analysis of some models may not be sufficient for evaluating the optimum choice for models of maintenance referring to the selected set of criteria from the scope of operational capabilities. In order to choose the optimum model, it is necessary to conduct a detailed economic and technical analysis of individual tactical model maintenance. A high-quality aircraft maintenance organization requires the highest state and army authorities to be involved. It is necessary to set clear objectives for all the elements of modern air force technical support programs based on the given evaluation criteria.

  7. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2140 Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as carbopolycyclicol...

  8. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Абрамова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation

  9. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje;

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures. The...... cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft/models to be...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the...

  10. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m3 LH2. This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  11. Condições de trabalho para enfermeiras de cartagena, colômbia

    OpenAIRE

    Cogollo Milanés, Zuleima Cogollo Milanés; Gómez Bustamante, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: identificar as condições de trabalho do profissional de enfermagem em instituições de saúde em Cartagena, Colômbia. Método: desenhou-se um estudo descritivo incluindo pessoal de enfermagem de instituições públicas e particulares. O questionário abrangia características demográficas, características do cargo desempenhado, relações de trabalho, tipo de contratação, condição de segurança de trabalho e a escala de satisfação no trabalho SL-SPC que estuda elementos materiais ou de inf...

  12. TWO MEDICALLY IMPORTANT BEETLES OF FARS PROVINCE (IRAN: PAEDERUS SPP. (COL: STAPHYLINIDAE & ITS LINEAR DERMATITLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR. Nikbakhtzadeh

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed during spring, summer and fall of 1997 in the central and western parts of Fars province, Iran, led to identification of Paederus ilsae bernhauer and Paederus iliensis coiffait (Col: staphylinidae. This is the first original report of the latter species from Iran. The adults have 5 months activity in average, begin lately in April and then continue until early September; soon afterwards they endure the inclement climate. This over wintering period takes 6-8 month long according to the region. P.ilsae has two annual generations in most regions; the population arising from the first one is more significant. According to clinical records and reports, it has been noticed that the yearly epidemics of linear dermatitis coincide when Paederus population reach its peaks. Paederus ilsae is dominant species and also principal agent of linear dermatitis.

  13. Des Savoyards à Paris : les cols rouges de l’Hôtel Drouot

    OpenAIRE

    Arpin, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Les « cols rouges », à travers leur monopole de métier au sein de l’hôtel des ventes Drouot, sont un objet ethnologique et sociologique privilégié pour comprendre comment les provinciaux de Paris ont pu accéder à une intégration économique et culturelle via la constitution de communautés de travail à partir du xixe siècle. « Gens de bras », selon l’expression en usage alors pour désigner ces journaliers qui vendaient leur force de travail, les cent dix commissionnaires de l’Hôtel Drouot, appe...

  14. Aprenentatge col·laboratiu per millorar la redacció acadèmica

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Fernández, J. Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Investiguen l'efecte de nous mètodes perquè els estudiants universitaris incorporin de forma més efectiva la seva veu i la veu de l'autor, en els seus escrits acadèmics. Aquest estudi aprofundeix en com l'aprenentatge col·laboratiu, la revisió mútua entre estudiants i professors i el feed-back entre iguals serveixen per a millorar l'escriptura acadèmica, en el cas dels estudiants de doctorat. A la vegada, els estudiants, que han quedat molt satisfets amb l'experiència, han après a revisar els...

  15. Projecte constructiu dels col·lectors en alta d'Ultramort (Baix Empordà)

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre Bech, Laura

    2010-01-01

    El present Projecte té per objecte la definició de les obres de construcció del col·lector en alta d’aigües residuals al nucli urbà d’Ultramort (Baix Empordà). El nucli urbà d’Ultramort, a la comarca del Baix Empordà, actualment disposa d’una xarxa de sanejament que recull les aigües residuals generades i les condueix fins a dues fosses sèptiques amb un funcionament deficient i les aigües tractades són conduïdes fins al rec de Traient. Amb la finalitat d’obtenir un tractament adequat de les a...

  16. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  17. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  18. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  19. Nondestructive testing of aging aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft fleet in the US military is getting old, averaging over 40 years. These old planes are planned to be used for additional 20-30 years. Some commercial fleets are getting older as well, though not on the same level. Many NDT methods are in practice and new ones being developed. Corrosion and fatigue are the two main sources of damage to aircraft structures and require cost-effective NDT methods to detect and characterize the damage. Current approaches to this difficult task reviewed.

  20. Novel X-linked glomerulopathy associated with a COL4A5 missense mutation in a noncollagenous interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Zender, Gloria; Houston, Ronald; Baker, Peter; McBride, Kim L.; Luo, Wentian; Hains, David; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Schwaderer, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel COL4A5 mutation causing rapid progression to end stage renal disease in males despite the absence of clinical and biopsy findings associated with Alport syndrome. Affected males had proteinuria, variable hematuria, early progression to end stage renal disease; and renal biopsy findings which included global and segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity and basement membrane immune complex deposition. Exon sequencing of the COL4A5 locus identified a thymine to guanine transversion at nucleotide 665, resulting in a phenylalanine to cysteine missense mutation at codon 222. This mutation was confirmed in 4 affected males and 4 female obligate carriers, but was absent in 6 asymptomatic male family members and 198 unrelated individuals. α5(IV) collagen staining in renal biopsies from affected males was normal. The phenylalanine at position 222 is 100% conserved among vertebrates. This is the first description of a mutation in a non-collagenous interruption associated with severe renal disease, providing evidence for the importance of this structural motif. The range of phenotypes associated with COL4A5 mutations is more diverse than previously realized. COL4A5 mutation analysis should be considered when glomerulonephritis presents in an X-linked inheritance pattern, even with a distinct presentation from Alport syndrome. PMID:20881942

  1. A sequence that affects the copy number and stability of pSW200 and ColE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Chung; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2010-07-01

    Pantoea stewartii SW2 contains 13 plasmids. One of these plasmids, pSW200, has a replicon that resembles that of ColE1. This study demonstrates that pSW200 contains a 9-bp UP element, 5'-AAGATCTTC, which is located immediately upstream of the -35 box in the RNAII promoter. A transcriptional fusion study reveals that substituting this 9-bp sequence reduces the activity of the RNAII promoter by 78%. The same mutation also reduced the number of plasmid copies from 13 to 5, as well as the plasmid stability. When a similar sequence in a ColE1 derivative, pYCW301, is mutated, the copy number of the plasmid also declines from 34 to 16 per cell. Additionally, inserting this 9-bp sequence stabilizes an unstable pSW100 derivative, pSW142K, which also contains a replicon resembling that of ColE1, indicating the importance of this sequence in maintaining the stability of the plasmid. In conclusion, the 9-bp sequence upstream of the -35 box in the RNAII promoter is required for the efficient synthesis of RNAII and maintenance of the stability of the plasmids in the ColE1 family. PMID:20494993

  2. SSCP and segregation analysis of the human type X collagen gene (COL10A1) in heritable forms of chondrodysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweetman, W.A.; Rash, B.; Thomas, J.T.; Boot-Handford, R.; Grant, M.E.; Wallis, G.A. (Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)); Sykes, B. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)); Beighton, P. (Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)); Hecht, J.T. (Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)); Zabell, B. (Johannes Gutenburg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    Type X collagen is a homotrimeric, short chain, nonfibrillar collagen that is expressed exclusively by hypertrophic chondrocytes at the sites of endochondral ossification. The distribution and pattern of expression of the type X collagen gene (COL10A1) suggests that mutations altering the structure and synthesis of the protein may be responsible for causing heritable forms of chondrodysplasia. The authors investigated whether mutations within the human COL10A1 gene were responsible for causing the disorders achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, pseudoachondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia, by analyzing the coding regions of the gene by using PCR and the single-stranded conformational polymorphism technique. By this approach, seven sequence changes were identified within and flanking the coding regions of the gene of the affected persons. The authors demonstrated that six of these sequence changes were not responsible for causing these forms of chondrodysplasia but were polymorphic in nature. The sequence changes were used to demonstrate discordant segregation between the COL10A1 locus and achondroplasia and pseudoachondroplasia, in nuclear families. This lack of segregation suggests that mutations within or near the COL101A1 locus are not responsible for these disorders. The seventh sequence change resulted in a valine-to-methionine substitution in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the molecule and was identified in only two hypochondroplasic individuals from a single family. Segregation analysis in this family was inconclusive, and the significance of this substitution remains uncertain. 47 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome in two families is caused by mutations in the COL9A1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Nikopoulos (Konstantinos); I. Schrauwen (Isabelle); M.E.H. Simon (Marleen); R.W.J. Collin (Rob); M.A.H. Veckeneer (Marc); K. Keymolen (Kathelijn); G. van Camp (Guy); F.P.M. Cremers (Frans); L. Ingeborgh van den Born

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. To investigate COL9A1 in two families suggestive of autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome and to delineate the associated phenotype. Methods. The probands of two consanguineous autosomal recessive Stickler families were evaluated for homozygosity using SNP microarray in one and

  4. Autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome in two families is caused by mutations in the COL9A1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikopoulos, K.; Schrauwen, I.; Simon, M.; Collin, R.W.J.; Veckeneer, M.; Keymolen, K.; Camp, G. van; Cremers, F.P.M.; Born, L.I. van den

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate COL9A1 in two families suggestive of autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome and to delineate the associated phenotype. METHODS: The probands of two consanguineous autosomal recessive Stickler families were evaluated for homozygosity using SNP microarray in one and haplotype an

  5. Linkage analysis in a family with Stickler syndrome leads to the exclusion of the COL2A1 locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottes, M.; Zolezzi, F.; Pignatti, P.F. [Univ. of Verona (Italy)

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary arthro-ophtalmopathy (AO) or Stickler Syndrome (MIM No. 10830) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by vitro-retinal degeneration and other connective tissue disturbances. Mutations in the COL2A1 gene, coding for type II collagen chains, have been described in a few patients. The wide spectrum of clinical manifestations is presumably due to genetic heterogeneity, since only about 50% of the Stickler families so far studied show cosegregation of the disease with the COL2A1 locus. We have investigated a large pedigree (19 individuals of whom 9 are affected) in which severe myopia with vitro-retinal degeneration consegregated with joint laxity, recurrent inguinal hernias, and degenerative changes of the hip and the knee. The 3{prime} end COL2A1 VNTR polymorphism was utilized for linkage analysis. In order to get the maximum informativity, we have analyzed the allelic microheterogeneity of this VNTR, due to the repeat sequence variation, by means of a single strand polymorphism. Mendelian inheritance of the different single strands was observed as expected. Discordance of segregation between the disease and the COL2A1 locus was thus established inequivocally in this family.

  6. Cambios en el colículo inferior de la rata tras ablación cortical auditiva unilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Lamas Álvarez, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    [ES]El presente trabajo trata sobre los cambios en el colículo inferior de la rata tras ablación cortical auditiva unilateral. [En]This paper deals with changes in the inferior colliculus of the rat after unilateral auditory cortex ablation. Trabajo de Fin de Máster del Máster en Neurociencias, curso 2008-2009.

  7. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  8. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  9. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  10. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  11. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  12. Control del colapso del colágeno: desproteinización Control of the collagen network collapse: collagen remoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Osario Ruiz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La penetración de la resina y su reacción con los componentes de los tejidos dentales desmineralizados es el mecanismo micromecánico con el cual los materiales restauradores de resina se unen al diente. Los monómeros penetran en la dentina acondicionada y se concentran en la región superficial contribuyendo a la unión. El refuerzo de esta zona con resina se conoce como hibridación, e implica la impregnación de la red de colágeno y el encapsulamiento de los cristales de hidroxiapatita. Han surgido dudas en cuanto a la contribución de la red de colágeno en el ensamblaje de la unión y en la fuerza interfacial, ya que el aumento del grosor de la red de colágeno no aumenta dicha fuerza y la remoción del colágeno con hipoclorito sódico al 5% en solución acuosa da valores similares de fuerza a los que se obtienen cuando la red de colágeno está presenteResin penetration into and its reaction with the components of conditioned, mineralised dental tissues is known to be the fundamental micromechanical mechanism by which restorative materials can be successfully bonded to teeth. Monomers penetrated into conditioned dentin and concentrated in a superficial region of resin-reinforced dentin contributing significantly to the bond. The reinforcement, known as hybridization, involved impregnation, co-mingling and envelopment of collagen bundles and encapsulation of hydroxyapatite crystallites. A doubt raised concerning the quantitative contribution which the collagen network made to interfacial bond strength. lncreasing the thickness of the collagen network did not influence the assembly strength, and removal of the collagen with 5% sodium hypochlorite provided similar values to those recorded when the network was present.

  13. Novel PAX9 and COL1A2 missense mutations causing tooth agenesis and OI/DGI without skeletal abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Inherited dentin defects are classified into three types of dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI and two types of dentin dysplasia (DD. The genetic etiology of DD-I is unknown. Defects in dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP cause DD type II and DGI types II and III. DGI type I is the oral manifestation of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, a systemic disease typically caused by defects in COL1A1 or COL1A2. Mutations in MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA and WNT10A can cause non-syndromic familial tooth agenesis. In this study a simplex pattern of clinical dentinogenesis imperfecta juxtaposed with a dominant pattern of hypodontia (mild tooth agenesis was evaluated, and available family members were recruited. Mutational analyses of the candidate genes for DGI and hypodontia were performed and the results validated. A spontaneous novel mutation in COL1A2 (c.1171G>A; p.Gly391Ser causing only dentin defects and a novel mutation in PAX9 (c.43T>A; p.Phe15Ile causing hypodontia were identified and correlated with the phenotypic presentations in the family. Bone radiographs of the proband's dominant leg and foot were within normal limits. We conclude that when no DSPP mutation is identified in clinically determined isolated DGI cases, COL1A1 and COL1A2 should be considered as candidate genes. PAX9 mutation p.Phe15Ile within the N-terminal β-hairpin structure of the PAX9 paired domain causes tooth agenesis.

  14. Identification and molecular characterization of two novel mutations in COL1A2 in two Chinese families with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenping Xu; Yulei Li; Xiangyang Zhang; Fanming Zeng; Mingxiong Yuan; Mugen Liu; Qing Kenneth Wang; Jing Yu Liu

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, also known as brittle bone disease) is caused mostly by mutations in two type Ⅰ collagen genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2 encoding the pro-α1 (Ⅰ) and pro-α2 (Ⅰ) chains of type Ⅰ collagen, respectively. Two Chinese families with autosomal dominant OI were identified and characterized. Linkage analysis revealed linkage of both families to COL1A2 on chromosome 7q21.3-q22.1. Mutational analysis was carried out using direct DNA sequence analysis. Two novel missense mutations, c.3350A>G and c.3305G>C, were identified in exon 49 of COL1A2 in the two families, respectively. The c.3305G>C mutation resulted in substitution of a glycine residue (G) by an alanine residue (A) at codon 1102 (p.G1102A), which was found to be mutated into serine (S), argine (R), aspartic acid (D), or valine (V) in other families. The c.3350A>G variant may be a de novo mutation resulting in p.Y1117C. Both mutations co-segregated with OI in respective families, and were not found in 100 normal controls. The G1102 and Y1117 residues were evolutionarily highly conserved from zebrafish to humans. Mutational analysis did not identify any mutation in the COX-2 gene (a modifier gene of OI). This study identifies two novel mutations p.G1102A and p.Y1117C that cause OI, significantly expands the spectrum of COL1A2 mutations causing OI, and has a significant implication in prenatal diagnosis of OI.

  15. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  16. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  17. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  18. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  19. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  20. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  1. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  3. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  5. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  6. HUMAN FACTOR IMPACT IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    MARINKOVIC SRBOLJUB J.; DRENOVAC ALEKSANDAR Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance, as a specific field of military materiel maintenance, is characterized by high reliability standards, based on regulations and technical standards. A system approach to maintenance represents the key element of maintenance quality, while aircraft maintenance staff has a crucial influence on the final outcome of aircraft maintenance.

  7. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  8. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  9. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  10. Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

  11. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  12. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  13. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  14. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  15. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  16. Linkage mapping of the gene for Type III collagen (COL3A1) to human chromosome 2q using a VNTR polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A.; Summar, M.L. (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1994-03-15

    The gene for the [alpha]1(III) chain of type III collagen, COL3A1, has been previously mapped to human chromosome 2q24.3-q31 by in situ hybridization. Physical mapping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has demonstrated that COL3A1 lies within 35 kb of COL5A2. The authors genotyped the CEPH families at the COL3A2 locus using a pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism within intron 25. They demonstrated significant linkage to 18 anonymous markers as well as the gene for carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPSI), which had been previously mapped to this region. No recombination was seen between COL3A1 and COL5A2 (Z = 9.93 at [theta] = 0) or D2S24 (Z = 10.55 at [theta] = 0). The locus order is (D2S32-D2S138-D2S148)-(D2S24-COL5A2-COL3A1)-(D2S118-D2S161), with odds of 1:2300 for the next most likely order. These relationships are consistent with the physical mapping of COL3A1 to the distal portion of 2q and place it proximal to CPSI by means of multipoint analysis. These linkage relationships should prove useful in further studies of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and carbamyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency and provide an additional framework for localizing other genes in this region. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Efeito do ultrasom terapêutico nas anastomoses colônicas. Estudo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greca Fernando Hintz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer a influência do ultra-som na cicatrização colônica em ratos e avaliar os fios de aço e náilon na vigência desta terapia. Utilizou-se 64 ratos machos Wistar divididos em protocolos. Protocolo 1 com 32 ratos submetidos a anastomose colônica com fio de náilon divididos em 2 grupos C (controle, e T (terapêutico. O grupo T realizou a terapia com ultra-som de alta freqüência, na região dorsal. O subgrupo sacrificado no 3o dia, recebeu ultra-som no 1o e 2o dias pós-operatório. E o no 7o, terapia no 4o, 5o e 6o P.O. No Protocolo 2 anastomoses com aço, subdivididos da mesma forma. E no Protocolo 3 comparou-se os grupos T do náilon e aço. Avaliou-se pressão de ruptura à insuflação (PRI e estudo histológico. Resultados: Protocolo 1 no 3o dia a PRI foi maior no grupo T (p=0,001 e no 7o dia não houve diferença (p=0,0950. No Protocolo 2 no 3o dia não houve diferença na PRI (p=0,3060 e no 7o dia a PRI foi maior no C (p=0,0010. No Protocolo 3 no 3o dia a PRI foi maior no NáilonT (p=0,0010 e no 7o dia não houve diferença (p=0,3100. Concluiu-se que o ultra-som não influencia a cicatrização de anastomoses feitas com náilon e não compromete a viabilidade das feitas com aço.

  18. ColE1-plasmid production in Escherichia coli: Mathematical Simulation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga eFreudenau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids have become very important as pharmaceutical gene vectors in the fields of gene therapy and genetic vaccination in the last years. In this study, we present a dynamic model to simulate the ColE1-like plasmid replication control, once for a DH5α-strain carrying a low copy plasmid (DH5α-pSUP 201-3 and once for a DH5α-strain carrying a high copy plasmid (DH5α-pCMV-lacZ by using ordinary differential equations (ODE and the MATLAB software. The model includes the plasmid replication control by two regulatory RNA molecules (RNAI and RNAII as well as the replication control by uncharged tRNA molecules. To validate the model, experimental data like RNAI- and RNAII concentration, plasmid copy number (PCN, and growth rate for three different time points in the exponential phase were determined. Depending on the sampled time point, the measured RNAI and RNAII concentrations for DH5α-pSUP 201-3 reside between 6 ±0.7 to 34 ±7 RNAI molecules per cell and 0.44 ±0.1 to 3 ±0.9 RNAII molecules per cell. The determined plasmid copy numbers (PCN averaged between 46 ±26 to 48 ±30 plasmids per cell. The experimentally determined data for DH5α-pCMV-lacZ reside between 345 ±203 to 1086 ±298 RNAI molecules per cell and 22 ±2 to 75 ±10 RNAII molecules per cell with an averaged PCN of 1514 ±1301 to 5806 ±4828 depending on the measured time point. As the model was shown to be consistent with the experimentally determined data, measured at three different time points within the growth of the same strain, we performed predictive simulations concerning the effect of uncharged tRNA molecules on the ColE1-like plasmid replication control. The hypothesis is that these tRNA molecules would have an enhancing effect on the plasmid production. The in silico analysis predicts that uncharged tRNA molecules would indeed increase the pDNA production.

  19. Disruption of the developmentally-regulated Col2a1 pre-mRNA alternative splicing switch in a transgenic knock-in mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Renate; Ravindran, Soumya; Wirthlin, Louisa; Traeger, Geoffrey; Fernandes, Russell J.; McAlinden, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the generation of a knock-in mouse model to address the role of type II procollagen (Col2a1) alternative splicing in skeletal development and maintenance. Alternative splicing of Col2a1 precursor mRNA is a developmentally-regulated event that only occurs in chondrogenic tissue. Normally, chondroprogenitor cells synthesize predominantly exon 2-containing mRNA isoforms (type IIA and IID) while Col2a1 mRNA devoid of exon 2 (type IIB) is the major isoform produced by d...

  20. Analysis of ColE1 MbeC unveils an extended ribbon-helix-helix family of nicking accessory proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Varsaki, Athanasia; Moncalián, Gabriel; Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; Drainas, Constantin; Cruz, Fernando de la

    2009-01-01

    MbeC is a 13-kDa ColEl-encoded protein required for efficient mobilization of ColE1, a plasmid widely used in cloning vector technology. MbeC protein was purified and used for in vitro DNA binding, which showed that it binds specifically double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) containing the ColEl oriT. Amino acid sequence comparison and secondary structure prediction imply that MbeC is related to the ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) protein family. Alignment with RHH members pointed to a conserved arginine (R13...

  1. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  2. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  3. Aircraft emissions at Turkish airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with estimating aircraft landing and take-off (LTO) emissions (HC, CO, NOx, SO2) at 40 Turkish airports including the biggest airports, i.e. Ataturk International Airport (AIA) in Istanbul, Antalya Airport in Antalya and Esenboga Airport in Ankara in 2001. The calculation model is based on flight data recorded by the State Airports Authority. The flight data include the type and number of aircraft, number of passengers, amount of cargo etc., which depend on day-time and date. For the emission calculations the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)-Engine emission data bank, which includes minimum and maximum values for both fuel flow rates and emissions factors, is used. By using first the minimum and then the maximum values from the data bank, two estimations of aircraft LTO emissions at Turkish airports are calculated: i.e. minimum and maximum estimations. Total LTO emissions from aircraft at Turkish airports are estimated to be between 7614.34 and 8338.79 t/year. These results are comparable with those from USA airports. Approximately half of these amounts are produced at AIA. To predict future emissions, it is estimated that an increase of 25% in LTO cycles might cause a rise of between 31 and 33% in emissions. The estimations show that a decrease of 2 min in taxiing time results in a decrease of 6% in LTO emissions. The estimation model used in this study can be used for expansions and planning of airports from an environmental point of view. (author)

  4. Challenges of aircraft design integration

    OpenAIRE

    Kafyeke, F.; Abdo, M.; Pepin, F; Piperni, P.; Laurendeau, E.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a modern airplane brings together many disciplines: structures, aerodynamics, controls, systems, propulsion with complex interdependencies and many variables. Recent aircraft programs, such as Bombardier's Continental Jet program use participants located around the world and selected for their cost, quality and delivery capability. These participants share the risk on the program and must therefore be fully implicated in the design. A big challenge is to provide information on c...

  5. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  6. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  7. A repeat sequence causes competition of ColE1-type plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Hui; Fu, Jen-Fen; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid pSW200 from Pantoea stewartii contains 41 copies of 15-bp repeats and has a replicon that is homologous to that of ColE1. Although deleting the repeats (pSW207) does not change the copy number and stability of the plasmid. The plasmid becomes unstable and is rapidly lost from the host when a homoplasmid with the repeats (pSW201) is present. Deleting the repeats is found to reduce the transcriptional activity of RNAIp and RNAIIp by about 30%, indicating that the repeats promote the transcription of RNAI and RNAII, and how the RNAI that is synthesized by pSW201 inhibits the replication of pSW207. The immunoblot analysis herein demonstrates that RNA polymerase β subunit and σ(70) in the lysate from Escherichia coli MG1655 bind to a biotin-labeled DNA probe that contains the entire sequence of the repeat region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay also reveals that purified RNA polymerase shifts a DNA probe that contains four copies of the repeats. These results thus obtained reveal that RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds to the repeats. The repeats also exchange RNA polymerase with RNAIp and RNAIIp in vitro, revealing the mechanism by which the transcription is promoted. This investigation elucidates a mechanism by which a plasmid prevents the invasion of an incompatible plasmid and maintains its stability in the host cell during evolution. PMID:23613898

  8. A repeat sequence causes competition of ColE1-type plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hui Lin

    Full Text Available Plasmid pSW200 from Pantoea stewartii contains 41 copies of 15-bp repeats and has a replicon that is homologous to that of ColE1. Although deleting the repeats (pSW207 does not change the copy number and stability of the plasmid. The plasmid becomes unstable and is rapidly lost from the host when a homoplasmid with the repeats (pSW201 is present. Deleting the repeats is found to reduce the transcriptional activity of RNAIp and RNAIIp by about 30%, indicating that the repeats promote the transcription of RNAI and RNAII, and how the RNAI that is synthesized by pSW201 inhibits the replication of pSW207. The immunoblot analysis herein demonstrates that RNA polymerase β subunit and σ(70 in the lysate from Escherichia coli MG1655 bind to a biotin-labeled DNA probe that contains the entire sequence of the repeat region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay also reveals that purified RNA polymerase shifts a DNA probe that contains four copies of the repeats. These results thus obtained reveal that RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds to the repeats. The repeats also exchange RNA polymerase with RNAIp and RNAIIp in vitro, revealing the mechanism by which the transcription is promoted. This investigation elucidates a mechanism by which a plasmid prevents the invasion of an incompatible plasmid and maintains its stability in the host cell during evolution.

  9. Historiadores e cronistas e a paisagem da colônia Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Shellard Corrêa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a paisagem da colônia Brasil no primeiro século da colonização. Analisamos as descrições da paisagem elaboradas por Capistrano de Abreu e aprimoradas por Caio Prado Júnior, as quais ainda são reproduzidas pela historiografia nacional. Comparamos esses quadros com as narrativas feitas por cronistas do século XVI e início do XVII. Objetivamos mostrar através do levantamento de dados sobre as formas indígenas de ocupação e utilização da terra e de seus recursos - os quais conformavam o cenário visualizado e relatado pelos cronistas - que estamos diante de uma zona de fronteira.This article focuses the Brazilian colonial landscape. We analyze the pattern constructed by Capistrano de Abreu and improved by Caio Prado Júnior that is still a reference to the national historiography, and compare it with the descriptions made by the 16th century chroniclers. Our purpose is to raise facts about the indigenous forms of occupation and use of the land and its resources that outline the scenery visualized by the chroniclers at the first century of the Portuguese colonization. We want to show that the Brazilian coast, at that time, was a frontier zone.

  10. Rainfall and deforestation in the municipality of Colíder, southern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bonini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation may have effects on the hydrological cycle, directly reflecting in the rainfall rates. Therefore, studies pointing out evidence of climate changes caused by deforestation are extremely important, because they help understanding the way how these changes are related to forms of using and occupying the territory, as well as to the way how information obtained can to be useful for mitigating their effects. In this context, this paper aimed to analyze rainfall variations occurring in the municipality of Colíder, Mato Grosso, southern Amazon,Brazil, within a temporal scale of 28 years (daily data, correlating them to the regional and local deforestation patterns by determining Spearman's ρ coefficient. Annual rainfall presented a large variation, with a minimum of 1,296 mm in 1987 and a maximum of 2,492.8 mm in 1990. The rainy season was concentrated between October and April, and the driest period was within June and August. Spearman's coefficient pointed out negative correlations between regional and local deforestation and local rainfall, showing that the larger the deforested area, the lower the rainfall rate observed.

  11. Lentiviral Engineered Fibroblasts Expressing Codon-Optimized COL7A1 Restore Anchoring Fibrils in RDEB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Christos; Syed, Farhatullah; Petrova, Anastasia; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; Lwin, Su M.; Farzaneh, Farzin; Chan, Lucas; Ghani, Sumera; Fleck, Roland A.; Glover, Leanne; McMillan, James R.; Chen, Mei; Thrasher, Adrian J.; McGrath, John A.; Di, Wei-Li; Qasim, Waseem

    2016-01-01

    Cells therapies, engineered to secrete replacement proteins, are being developed to ameliorate otherwise debilitating diseases. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by defects of type VII collagen, a protein essential for anchoring fibril formation at the dermal-epidermal junction. Whereas allogeneic fibroblasts injected directly into the dermis can mediate transient disease modulation, autologous gene-modified fibroblasts should evade immunological rejection and support sustained delivery of type VII collagen at the dermal-epidermal junction. We demonstrate the feasibility of such an approach using a therapeutic grade, self-inactivating-lentiviral vector, encoding codon-optimized COL7A1, to transduce RDEB fibroblasts under conditions suitable for clinical application. Expression and secretion of type VII collagen was confirmed with transduced cells exhibiting supranormal levels of protein expression, and ex vivo migration of fibroblasts was restored in functional assays. Gene-modified RDEB fibroblasts also deposited type VII collagen at the dermal-epidermal junction of human RDEB skin xenografts placed on NOD-scid IL2Rgammanull recipients, with reconstruction of human epidermal structure and regeneration of anchoring fibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction. Fibroblast-mediated restoration of protein and structural defects in this RDEB model strongly supports proposed therapeutic applications in man. PMID:26763448

  12. Xarxa interclase: un projecte col·laboratiu mitjançant tecnologies digitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Olmo Cazevieille

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focalitzem aquest treball en l'aportació de les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació (TIC a la pràctica i el desenvolupament d'una llengua estrangera i en els avantatges que ofereixen per a la creació d'activitats basades en la col·laboració i la interacció. Sense aquestes, tant els treballs en equip amb nadius com la cerca d'informació sobre temes especialitzats en la llengua estudiada serien complexos de dur a terme. En aquest article presentem el procediment seguit en un projecte didàctic, Xarxa interclasse, entre dues assignatures basades en l'aprenentatge de llengües estrangeres per a fins específics en un mateix campus universitari.?Es pretén, d'una banda, acostar l'educació superior a les exigències de la societat actual i, d'altra banda, aconseguir una docència motivadora i una participació activa dels discents on la tecnologia s'integra com a element pedagògic.

  13. Osteoporosis and Related Genes: VDR, ESR And COL1A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabriye Kocaturk Sel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is now considered as one of the major and growing health care problems around the world. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease among developed countries and it is defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility. Bone is a highly metabolically active tissue in which the processes of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption are continuous throughout life. Coupling of osteoblast and osteoclast action ensures that a normal bone structure is maintained. A loss of bone homeostasis may result in a decrease in bone mass leading to osteoporosis or in a defect in the mineralization of bone. Numerous genetic, hormonal, nutritional and life-style factors contribute to the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass. Among them, genetic variations explain as much as 50-80% of the variance for bone mineral density (BMD in the population. Many genes that could be related to osteoporosis have been studied and of them all Vitamin D receptor (VDR, estrogen receptor alpha (ESRα and collagen 1 alpha 1 chain (COL1A1 genes have been the most focused on. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 246-269

  14. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2015-02-27

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  15. Distribuciones simuladas de valores de d13c de colágeno humano: implicancias para los estudios paleodietarios

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos, Gustavo; Tessone, Augusto; Barrientos, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los primeros resultados derivados de la aplicación de un programa de simulación de distribuciones de valores de δ13C de colágeno humano (DeltaCarb130.0), desarrollado por los autores. DeltaCarb130.0 es un programa simple que simula la composición isotópica (δ13C) del colágeno de huesos humanos obtenida a través de una dieta de composición variable, constituida por tres ingestas diarias, durante un período de 1825 días (5 años). La composición de la die...

  16. Tipos de colágeno na fibrose hepática esquistossomótica de Symmers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Raso; Nivaldo Hartung Toppa; Dionne M. Oliveira; Francira P. Lemos

    1983-01-01

    Os AA. estudaram o tipo de colágeno em cortes histológicos de fragmentos de fígado de 12 indivíduos portadores da forma hepatesplênica da esquistossomose mansoni, pela técnica de coloração pelo Sirius Supra Red F3BA. Como controle usaram cortes histológicos de 12 fragmentos de fígado de indivíduos sem doenças fibrosantes. As preparações coradas pelo Sirius Supra Red F3BA e examinadas em microscópio de polarização (Leitz) revelaram que a fibrose periportal é constituída por colágeno de tipos I...

  17. Tipos de colágeno na fibrose hepática esquistossomótica de Symmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Raso

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Os AA. estudaram o tipo de colágeno em cortes histológicos de fragmentos de fígado de 12 indivíduos portadores da forma hepatesplênica da esquistossomose mansoni, pela técnica de coloração pelo Sirius Supra Red F3BA. Como controle usaram cortes histológicos de 12 fragmentos de fígado de indivíduos sem doenças fibrosantes. As preparações coradas pelo Sirius Supra Red F3BA e examinadas em microscópio de polarização (Leitz revelaram que a fibrose periportal é constituída por colágeno de tipos I e III, com predominância do primeiro.

  18. Identification of a Novel Mutation in the COL2A1 Gene in a Chinese Family with Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Congenita

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiangjun; Deng, Xiong; Xu, Hongbo; Wu, Song; Yuan, Lamei; Yang, Zhijian; Yang, Yan; DENG, HAO

    2015-01-01

    Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominant chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short-trunk dwarfism, skeletal and vertebral deformities. Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were performed in a Chinese Han family with typical SEDC, and a novel mutation, c.620G>A (p.Gly207Glu), in the collagen type II alpha-1 gene (COL2A1) was identified. The mutation may impair protein stability, and lead to dysfunction of type II collagen. Family-based study sugge...

  19. Overrepresentation of the COL3A1 AA genotype in Polish skiers with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Although various intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture have been identified, the exact aetiology of the injury is not yet fully understood. Type III collagen is an important factor in the repair of connective tissue, and certain gene polymorphisms may impair the tensile strength. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the COL3A1 rs1800255 polymorphism with ACL rupture in Polish male recreational skiers. A total of 321 male Polish re...

  20. Projecting Politics: The Grapes of Wrath Les Raisins de la colère à l’écran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Whitfield

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Publié en 1939 et adapté à l’écran l’année suivante, Les Raisins de la colère, roman de John Steinbeck, eut un impact immédiat et extraordinaire pour le portrait sans concession qu’il dressait d’un capitalisme américain qui semblait avoir abandonné sa progéniture la plus loyale, la plus assidue et la plus courageuse, celle qui labourait la terre en plein coeur de la république. Écrit à la toute fin de la « Décennie rouge », mais juste avant que les États-Unis entrent dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Les Raisins de la colère exprimaient, d’une certaine manière, la colère accumulée contre un système économique qui avait trahi le prolétariat rural. Le roman, tout comme le film de John Ford (1940, furent compris par le grand public de l’époque, et bien des années plus tard, comme une protestation clairement gauchiste, voire radicale, contre une telle injustice. Mais cet essai montre combien les idées politiques de ces œuvres jumelées sont en réalité difficiles à saisir et combien il est hasardeux de définir, quel que soit l’effort rétrospectif, la critique que Steinbeck et Ford ont proposée dans leur version des Raisins de la colère, une œuvre inoubliable, déchirante mais ambiguë sur le plan politique.

  1. The concept of ticai-c-col in Tamil grammatical literature and the regional diversity of Tamil classical literature

    OpenAIRE

    Chevillard, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    This article will explore the various conceptions underlying the use of the expression ticai-c-col (approximately “regional words”). After describing the role assigned to these by Tamil grammarians and Tamil grammatical commentators, we shall present a sketch of traditional Tamil linguistic geography, with its central and peripheral regions, and the way it has been reinterpreted in the course of history. We will also try to examine the actual linguistic data, the differences of opinion about ...

  2. Novel mutations confirm that COL11A2 is responsible for autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss DFNB53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakchouk, Imen; Grati, M'hamed; Bademci, Guney; Bensaid, Mariem; Ma, Qi; Chakroun, Amine; Foster, Joseph; Yan, Denise; Duman, Duygu; Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Mittal, Rahul; Farooq, Amjad; Tekin, Mustafa; Masmoudi, Saber; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is a major public health issue. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous.The identification of the causal mutation is important for early diagnosis, clinical follow-up, and genetic counseling. HL due to mutations in COL11A2, encoding collagen type XI alpha-2, can be non-syndromic autosomal-dominant or autosomal-recessive, and also syndromic as in Otospondylomegaepiphyseal Dysplasia, Stickler syndrome type III, and Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome. However, thus far only one mutation co-segregating with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in a single family has been reported. In this study, whole exome sequencing of two consanguineous families with ARNSHL from Tunisia and Turkey revealed two novel causative COL11A2 mutations, c.109G > T (p.Ala37Ser) and c.2662C > A (p.Pro888Thr). The variants identified co-segregated with deafness in both families. All homozygous individuals in those families had early onset profound hearing loss across all frequencies without syndromic findings. The variants are predicted to be damaging the protein function. The p.Pro888Thr mutation affects a -Gly-X-Y- triplet repeat motif. The novel p.Ala37Ser is the first missense mutation located in the NC4 domain of the COL11A2 protein. Structural model suggests that this mutation will likely obliterate, or at least partially compromise, the ability of NC4 domain to interact with its cognate ligands. In conclusion, we confirm that COL11A2 mutations cause ARNSHL and broaden the mutation spectrum that may shed new light on genotype-phenotype correlation for the associated phenotypes and clinical follow-up. PMID:25633957

  3. Vliv typu mutace v genu COL1A1 na fenotyp osob s diagnózou osteogenesis imperfecta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šormová, L.; Mazurová, F.; Mazura, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, 3-4 (2008), s. 332-338. ISSN 1212-4575. [Diagnostic, Comprehensive Treatment and Biomechanics of Locomotor Effects. Prague-Sydney-Lublin Symposium /10./. Prague, 24.09.2008-25.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : osteogenesis imperfecta * COL1A1 * kolagen * kolagenopatie * mutace Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  5. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  6. Gene Editing for the Efficient Correction of a Recurrent COL7A1 Mutation in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Cristina; Mencía, Angeles; Almarza, David; Duarte, Blanca; Büning, Hildegard; Sallach, Jessica; Hausser, Ingrid; Del Río, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando; Murillas, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Clonal gene therapy protocols based on the precise manipulation of epidermal stem cells require highly efficient gene-editing molecular tools. We have combined adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated delivery of donor template DNA with transcription activator-like nucleases (TALE) expressed by adenoviral vectors to address the correction of the c.6527insC mutation in the COL7A1 gene, causing recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in a high percentage of Spanish patients. After transduction with these viral vectors, high frequencies of homology-directed repair were found in clones of keratinocytes derived from a recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) patient homozygous for the c.6527insC mutation. Gene-edited clones recovered the expression of the COL7A1 transcript and collagen VII protein at physiological levels. In addition, treatment of patient keratinocytes with TALE nucleases in the absence of a donor template DNA resulted in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated indel generation in the vicinity of the c.6527insC mutation site in a large proportion of keratinocyte clones. A subset of these indels restored the reading frame of COL7A1 and resulted in abundant, supraphysiological expression levels of mutant or truncated collagen VII protein. Keratinocyte clones corrected both by homology-directed repair (HDR) or NHEJ were used to regenerate skin displaying collagen VII in the dermo-epidermal junction. PMID:27045209

  7. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  8. The impact of ColRS two-component system and TtgABC efflux pump on phenol tolerance of Pseudomonas putida becomes evident only in growing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kivisaar Maia; Lilje Liisa; Ilves Heili; Putrinš Marta; Hõrak Rita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently found that Pseudomonas putida deficient in ColRS two-component system is sensitive to phenol and displays a serious defect on solid glucose medium where subpopulation of bacteria lyses. The latter phenotype is significantly enhanced by the presence of phenol in growth medium. Here, we focused on identification of factors affecting phenol tolerance of the colR-deficient P. putida. Results By using transposon mutagenesis approach we identified a set of pheno...

  9. Identification of a novel COL2A1 mutation (c.1744G>A) in a Japanese family: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kishiya, Masaki; Nakamura, Yoshihide; Ohishi, Hirotaka; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mutations in the gene encoding the type II collagen gene (COL2A1) have been found to affect the entire skeletal system. Recently, inheritable skeletal dysplasia caused by novel COL2A1 mutations has been linked to an inherited disease of the hip joint that neither involves the entire skeletal system nor is characterized by the presence of concomitant disorders, such as spinal or ocular abnormalities. Case presentation A 27-year-old Japanese woman previously diagnosed with avasucul...

  10. Report of five novel and one recurrent COL2A1 mutations with analysis of genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with a lethal type II collagen disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mortier, Geert; Weis, Mary Ann; Nuytinck, Lieve; King, Lily M; Wilkin, Douglas J.; De Paepe, Anne; Lachman, Ralph S.; Rimoin, David L; Eyre, David R.; Cohn, Daniel H.

    2000-01-01

    Achondrogenesis II-hypochondrogenesis and severe spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) are lethal forms of dwarfism caused by dominant mutations in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). To identify the underlying defect in seven cases with this group of conditions, we used the combined strategy of cartilage protein analysis and COL2A1 mutation analysis. Overmodified type II collagen and the presence of type I collagen was found in the cartilage matrix of all seven cases. Five patients w...

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Unfolding Protein Response-Apoptosis Cascade Causes Chondrodysplasia in a col2a1 p.Gly1170Ser Mutated Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Guoyan; Lian, Chengjie; Huang, Di; Gao, Wenjie; Liang, Anjing; Peng, Yan; Ye, Wei; Wu, Zizhao; Su, Peiqiang; Huang, Dongsheng

    2014-01-01

    The collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) mutation causes severe skeletal malformations, but the pathogenic mechanisms of how this occurs are unclear. To understand how this may happen, a col2a1 p.Gly1170Ser mutated mouse model was constructed and in homozygotes, the chondrodysplasia phenotype was observed. Misfolded procollagen was largely synthesized and retained in dilated endoplasmic reticulum and the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-unfolded protein response (UPR)-apoptosis cascade was act...

  12. A Site-Specific Integrated Col2.3GFP Reporter Identifies Osteoblasts Within Mineralized Tissue Formed In Vivo by Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Xiaonan; Jiang, Xi; Wang, Liping; Stover, Mary Louise; Zhan, Shuning; Huang, Jianping; Goldberg, A. Jon; Liu, Yongxing; Kuhn, Liisa; Reichenberger, Ernst J.; Rowe, David W.; Lichtler, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of reagents and methodologies was developed that enables the rapid, definitive assessment of human bone formation in a mouse bone defect repair model, and a method was developed for inserting the Col2.3GFP reporter construct into a specific location in the human genome. Results indicate that this inserted Col2.3GFP construct provides a marker for differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, which will allow objective evaluation of preimplantation differentiation protocols for ...

  13. Two Likely Pathogenic Variants of COL2A1 in Unrelated Korean Patients With Ocular-Only Variants of Stickler Syndrome: The First Molecular Diagnosis in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Je Moon; Jang, Mi-Ae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Sang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Stickler syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder that affects the ocular, auditory, and musculoskeletal systems. Ocular-only variant of Stickler syndrome type 1 (OSTL1) is characterized by high risk of retinal detachment without systemic involvement and is caused by alternatively spliced exon 2 mutation of COL2A1. We report the cases of two Korean families with OSTL1 carrying likely pathogenic variants of COL2A1. All patients presented with membranous vitreous anomaly, peripheral ret...

  14. Identification of the collagen type 1 alpha 1 gene (COL1A1) as a candidate survival-related factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related death especially among Asian and African populations. It is urgent that we identify carcinogenesis-related genes to establish an innovative treatment strategy for this disease. Triple-combination array analysis was performed using one pair each of HCC and noncancerous liver samples from a 68-year-old woman. This analysis consists of expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism array and methylation array. The gene encoding collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) was identified and verified using HCC cell lines and 48 tissues from patients with primary HCC. Expression array revealed that COL1A1 gene expression was markedly decreased in tumor tissues (log2 ratio –1.1). The single nucleotide polymorphism array showed no chromosomal deletion in the locus of COL1A1. Importantly, the methylation value in the tumor tissue was higher (0.557) than that of the adjacent liver tissue (0.008). We verified that expression of this gene was suppressed by promoter methylation. Reactivation of COL1A1 expression by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment was seen in HCC cell lines, and sequence analysis identified methylated CpG sites in the COL1A1 promoter region. Among 48 pairs of surgical specimens, 13 (27.1%) showed decreased COL1A1 mRNA expression in tumor sites. Among these 13 cases, 10 had promoter methylation at the tumor site. The log-rank test indicated that mRNA down-regulated tumors were significantly correlated with a poor overall survival rate (P = 0.013). Triple-combination array analysis successfully identified COL1A1 as a candidate survival-related gene in HCCs. Epigenetic down-regulation of COL1A1 mRNA expression might have a role as a prognostic biomarker of HCC

  15. Choice of Aircraft Size - Explanations and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Givoni, Moshe; Rietveld, Piet

    2006-01-01

    To keep load factors high while offering high frequency service, airlines tend to reduce the size of the aircraft they use. At many of the world’s largest airports there are fewer than 100 passengers per air transport movement, although congestion and delays are growing. Furthermore, demand for air transport is predicted to continue growing but aircraft size is not. This paper aims to investigate and explain this phenomenon, the choice of relatively small aircraft. It seems that this choice i...

  16. Neural Networks Based Aircraft Fault Tolerant Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lunlong; Mora-Camino, Félix

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to deal with the case in which an aerodynamic actuator failure occurs to an aircraft while it has to perform guidance maneuvers. The problem considered deals with the reallocation of redundant actuators to perform the required maneuvers and maintain the structural integrity of the aircraft. A Nonlinear Inverse Control technique is used to generate online nominal moment along the three axis of the aircraft. Then, taking into account all material and structu...

  17. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  18. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  19. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  20. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  1. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the distribution of the frames in the population is dependent on structural variables related to the individual. To reveal subjects’ frames of aircraft noise a latent class model is estimated based on ...

  3. NDT applications in the aircraft industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) in the aircraft industry is used primarily to detect process defects in the manufacturing stage and failure defects in the in-service stage. Inspection techniques such as X- or gamma ray radiography are used for examination. Eddy current and ultrasonic are applied for examination, fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particles are applied for examination of aircraft and engine. With the wide scope of application, this paper discussed one type of NDT that is much used in aircraft being the latest technique in aircraft manufacturing. 1 fig

  4. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  5. Challenges for the aircraft structural integrity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six years ago the United States Air Force established the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) because flight safety had been degraded by fatigue failures of operational aircraft. This initial program evolved, but has been stable since the issuance of MIL-STD-1530A in 1975. Today, the program faces new challenges because of a need to maintain aircraft longer in an environment of reduced funding levels. Also, there is increased pressure to reduce cost of the acquisition of new aircraft. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the challenges for the ASIP and identify the changes in the program that will meet these challenges in the future.

  6. Progression of Alport Kidney Disease in Col4a3 Knock Out Mice Is Independent of Sex or Macrophage Depletion by Clodronate Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munkyung Kim

    Full Text Available Alport syndrome is a genetic disease of collagen IV (α3, 4, 5 resulting in renal failure. This study was designed to investigate sex-phenotype correlations and evaluate the contribution of macrophage infiltration to disease progression using Col4a3 knock out (Col4a3KO mice, an established genetic model of autosomal recessive Alport syndrome. No sex differences in the evolution of body mass loss, renal pathology, biomarkers of tubular damage KIM-1 and NGAL, or deterioration of kidney function were observed during the life span of Col4a3KO mice. These findings confirm that, similar to human autosomal recessive Alport syndrome, female and male Col4a3KO mice develop renal failure at the same age and with similar severity. The specific contribution of macrophage infiltration to Alport disease, one of the prominent features of the disease in human and Col4a3KO mice, remains unknown. This study shows that depletion of kidney macrophages in Col4a3KO male mice by administration of clodronate liposomes, prior to clinical onset of disease and throughout the study period, does not protect the mice from renal failure and interstitial fibrosis, nor delay disease progression. These results suggest that therapy targeting macrophage recruitment to kidney is unlikely to be effective as treatment of Alport syndrome.

  7. 75 FR 51953 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... applicability of these regulations to unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The proposed definition stated... unmanned aircraft system that takes place between the time that the system is activated with the purpose of... notification and reporting of aircraft accidents or incidents by adding a definition of ``unmanned......

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  9. Altus I aircraft on lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft climbs away after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the

  10. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  11. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  12. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes

  13. The impact of ColRS two-component system and TtgABC efflux pump on phenol tolerance of Pseudomonas putida becomes evident only in growing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivisaar Maia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found that Pseudomonas putida deficient in ColRS two-component system is sensitive to phenol and displays a serious defect on solid glucose medium where subpopulation of bacteria lyses. The latter phenotype is significantly enhanced by the presence of phenol in growth medium. Here, we focused on identification of factors affecting phenol tolerance of the colR-deficient P. putida. Results By using transposon mutagenesis approach we identified a set of phenol-tolerant derivatives of colR-deficient strain. Surprisingly, half of independent phenol tolerant clones possessed miniTn5 insertion in the ttgABC operon. However, though inactivation of TtgABC efflux pump significantly enhanced phenol tolerance, it did not affect phenol-enhanced autolysis of the colR mutant on glucose medium indicating that phenol- and glucose-caused stresses experienced by the colR-deficient P. putida are not coupled. Inactivation of TtgABC pump significantly increased the phenol tolerance of the wild-type P. putida as well. Comparison of phenol tolerance of growing versus starving bacteria revealed that both ColRS and TtgABC systems affect phenol tolerance only under growth conditions and not under starvation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that phenol strongly inhibited cell division and to some extent also caused cell membrane permeabilization to propidium iodide. Single cell analysis of populations of the ttgC- and colRttgC-deficient strains revealed that their membrane permeabilization by phenol resembles that of the wild-type and the colR mutant, respectively. However, cell division of P. putida with inactivated TtgABC pump seemed to be less sensitive to phenol than that of the parental strain. At the same time, cell division appeared to be more inhibited in the colR-mutant strain than in the wild-type P. putida. Conclusions ColRS signal system and TtgABC efflux pump are involved in the phenol tolerance of P. putida. However, as

  14. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  15. Expression of COL9A1 correlated with MGMT in glioblastoma%胶质母细胞瘤中COL9A1与MGMT的表达相关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪; 王彦刚; 章翔; 李娟; 熊伟

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析胶质母细胞瘤中O6-甲基鸟嘌呤-DNA甲基转移酶(MGMT)的相关基因.方法 从NCBI基因芯片数据库GDS1962中选取78例胶质母细胞瘤样本的基因表达数据,通过Pearson积差相关分析法统计与MGMT表达高度相关的基因,然后通过实时定量逆转录多聚酶链反应(qRT-PCR)在18例胶质母细胞瘤临床样本中检验这些基因与MGMT的表达相关性.结果 基因芯片分析表明,COL9A1(IX型胶原α1链)等基因与MGMT表达显著负相关(r=-0.589,P=0.000),对18例临床样本中检测到的COL9A1和MGMT的相对表达数据的统计分析进一步证实了这些相关性.结论 COL9A1可以作为胶质母细胞瘤MGMT分子治疗的重要候选靶点,增强患者对化疗的敏感性.

  16. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98.

  17. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  19. Laminar flow control for transport aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of laminar flow control into transport aircraft is discussed. Design concepts for the wing surface panel of laminar flow control transport aircraft are described. The development of small amounts of laminar flow on small commercial transports with natural or hybrid flow control is examined. Techniques for eliminating the insect contamination problem in the leading-edge region are proposed.

  20. Noise control mechanisms of inside aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, A. Ya.

    2016-07-01

    World trends in the development of methods and approaches to noise reduction in aircraft cabins are reviewed. The paper discusses the mechanisms of passive and active noise and vibration control, application of "smart" and innovative materials, new approaches to creating all fuselage-design elements, and other promising directions of noise control inside aircraft.

  1. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources to...

  2. Wireless Network Simulation in Aircraft Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, John H.; Youssef, Mennatoallah; Vahala, Linda

    2004-01-01

    An electromagnetic propagation prediction tool was used to predict electromagnetic field strength inside airplane cabins. A commercial software package, Wireless Insite, was used to predict power levels inside aircraft cabins and the data was compared with previously collected experimental data. It was concluded that the software could qualitatively predict electromagnetic propagation inside the aircraft cabin environment.

  3. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  4. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  5. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  6. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  7. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  8. Infrared thermographic diagnostic aid to aircraft maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delo, Michael; Delo, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Thermographic data can be used as a supplement to aircraft maintenance operations in both back shop and flight line situations. Aircraft systems such as electrical, propulsion, environmental, pitot static and hydraulic/pneumatic fluid, can be inspected using a thermal infrared (IR) imager. Aircraft systems utilize electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical, and electro-pneumatic mechanisms, which, if accessible, can be diagnosed for faults using infrared technology. Since thermographs are images of heat, rather than light, the measurement principle is based on the fact that any physical object (radiating energy at infrared wavelengths within the IR portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum), can be imaged with infrared imaging equipment. All aircraft systems being tested with infrared are required to be energized for troubleshooting, so that valuable baseline data from fully operational aircraft can be collected, archived and referenced for future comparisons.

  9. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  10. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is...

  11. ER stress and basement membrane defects combine to cause glomerular and tubular renal disease resulting from Col4a1 mutations in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frances E.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Murray, Lydia S.; Lu, Yinhui; McNeilly, Sarah; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Lennon, Rachel; Sado, Yoshikazu; Brownstein, David G.; Mullins, John J.; Kadler, Karl E.; Van Agtmael, Tom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Collagen IV is a major component of basement membranes, and mutations in COL4A1, which encodes collagen IV alpha chain 1, cause a multisystemic disease encompassing cerebrovascular, eye and kidney defects. However, COL4A1 renal disease remains poorly characterized and its pathomolecular mechanisms are unknown. We show that Col4a1 mutations in mice cause hypotension and renal disease, including proteinuria and defects in Bowman's capsule and the glomerular basement membrane, indicating a role for Col4a1 in glomerular filtration. Impaired sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle and distal nephron despite elevated aldosterone levels indicates that tubular defects contribute to the hypotension, highlighting a novel role for the basement membrane in vascular homeostasis by modulation of the tubular response to aldosterone. Col4a1 mutations also cause diabetes insipidus, whereby the tubular defects lead to polyuria associated with medullary atrophy and a subsequent reduction in the ability to upregulate aquaporin 2 and concentrate urine. Moreover, haematuria, haemorrhage and vascular basement membrane defects confirm an important vascular component. Interestingly, although structural and compositional basement membrane defects occurred in the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, no tubular basement membrane defects were detected. By contrast, medullary atrophy was associated with chronic ER stress, providing evidence for cell-type-dependent molecular mechanisms of Col4a1 mutations. These data show that both basement membrane defects and ER stress contribute to Col4a1 renal disease, which has important implications for the development of treatment strategies for collagenopathies. PMID:26839400

  12. A mobilidade humana na tríplice fronteira: Peru, Brasil e Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria de Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OS MOVIMENTOS migratórios nas fronteiras amazônicas ainda são pouco abordados, tanto pela academia quanto pelas instituições que lidam com a temática da mi-gração. Há elementos novos que configuram características peculiares à mobilidade humana na tríplice fronteira Peru-Colômbia-Brasil que merecem uma abordagem mais profunda do ponto de vista dos estudos migratórios. Atualmente, há fluxos conside-ráveis de migração internacional nessa região adentrando na fronteira brasileira, desafiando o Estado brasileiro a implementar uma política migratória que consiga lidar com fenômenos, tais como a presença de peruanos em situação irregular em território brasileiro, a mobilidade dos povos indígenas nas regiões de fronteira e ainda, mais recentemente, a entrada crescente de colombianos desplazados pela guerrilha interna que pedem refúgio ao Estado brasileiro.THE MIGRATORY mobility in the Amazonian borders is less than enough investigated, neither by the academy nor by the institutions that deal with the migration question. There are new elements that depict peculiar characteristics to the human mobility in the triple border of Peru, Colombia and Brazil, that deserve a deeper investigation from the view point of the migratory studies. At the moment, it has conside-rable flows of international migration in this region moving in the Brazilian border, challenging the Brazilian State to implement a migratory policy that is able to deal with the phenomena such as the presence of Peruvians in an irregular situation in Brazilian territory, the mobility of the indigenous peoples in the border regions and still, more recently, the increasing entrance of the Colombians desplazados through the internal guerrilla who ask for shelter to the Brazilian State.

  13. Evolution of a highly vulnerable ice-cored moraine: Col des Gentianes, Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanel, L.; Lambiel, C.; Oppikofer, T.; Mazotti, B.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rock mass movements are dominant in the morphodynamics of high mountain rock slopes and are at the origin of significant risks for people who attend these areas and for infrastructures that are built on (mountain huts, cable cars, etc.). These risks are becoming greater because of permafrost degradation and glacier retreat, two consequences of the global warming. These two commonly associated factors may affect slope stability by changing mechanical properties of the interstitial ice and modifying the mechanical constraints in these rock slopes. Between 1977 and 1979, significant works were carried out on the Little Ice Age moraine of the Tortin glacier at the Col des Gentianes (2894 m), in the Mont Fort area (Verbier, Switzerland), for the construction of a cable car station and a restaurant. Since the early 1980s, the glacier drastically retreated and the moraine became unstable: its inner slope has retreated for several meters. Various observations and geoelectric measurements indicate that significant volume of massive ice mass is still present within the moraine (ice-cored moraine). Its melting could therefore increase the instability of the moraine. Since 2007, the moraine is surveyed by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in order to characterize its evolution: 8 campaigns were conducted between July 2007 and October 2011. The comparison of the high resolution 3D models so obtained allowed the detection and quantification of mass movements that have affected the moraine over this period, essentially by calculating difference maps (shortest oblique distances between two models). Between July 2007 and October 2011, 7 landslides were measured, involving volumes between 87 and 1138 m3. The most important of these occurred during the summers 2009 and 2011. TLS data also allowed identifying: (i) two main areas affected by slower but sometimes substantial movements (displacements of blocks on more than 2 m during a summer period); (ii) significant deposits of

  14. Cytotoxic effects of tetracycline analogues (doxycycline, minocycline and COL-3 in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Song

    Full Text Available Tetracycline analogues (TCNAs have been shown to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases and to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell types. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of TCNAs doxycycline (DOXY, minocycline (MINO and chemically modified tetracycline-3 (COL-3 were investigated in the human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cell line. Cells were incubated with TCNAs in final concentrations of 0.5-100 µg/ml for 24 h. Viability of the leukemic cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner using resazurin assay. The estimated IC50s were 9.2 µg/ml for DOXY, 9.9 µg/ml for MINO and 1.3 µg/ml for COL-3. All three TCNAs induced potent cytotoxic effects and cell death. Apoptosis, which was assessed by morphological changes and annexin V positivity, was concentration- and time-dependent following incubation with any one of the drugs. TCNAs induced DNA double strand breaks soon after treatment commenced as detected by γH2AX and western blot. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, caspase activation and cleavage of PARP and Bcl-2 were observed; however, the sequence of events differed among the drugs. Pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK improved survival of TCNAs-treated cells and decreased TCNAs-induced apoptosis. In summary, we demonstrated that TCNAs had a cytotoxic effect on the HL-60 leukemic cell line. Apoptosis was induced via mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent pathways in HL-60 cells by all three TCNAs. COL-3 exerted the strongest anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in concentrations that have been achieved in human plasma in reported clinical trials. These results indicate that there is a therapeutic potential of TCNAs in leukemia.

  15. Col2CreERT2, A MOUSE MODEL FOR A CHONDROCYTE-SPECIFIC AND INDUCIBLE GENE DELETION

    OpenAIRE

    M. Chen; S. Li; Xie, W.; Wang, B; Chen, D.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008, we published two articles reporting a tamoxifen (TM)-inducible, chondrocyte-specific gene-targeting mouse model in which the expression of CreERT2 is driven by the type II collagen promoter (Col2CreERT2). The fusion protein is specifically expressed and translocated into the nucleus upon TM administration, which in turn triggers gene recombination. Since then, this animal model has become a powerful tool to study the molecular mechanism of skeletal development and degenerati...

  16. Control del colapso del colágeno: desproteinización Control of the collagen network collapse: collagen remoral

    OpenAIRE

    E Osario Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    La penetración de la resina y su reacción con los componentes de los tejidos dentales desmineralizados es el mecanismo micromecánico con el cual los materiales restauradores de resina se unen al diente. Los monómeros penetran en la dentina acondicionada y se concentran en la región superficial contribuyendo a la unión. El refuerzo de esta zona con resina se conoce como hibridación, e implica la impregnación de la red de colágeno y el encapsulamiento de los cristales de hidroxiapatita. Han sur...

  17. A Sequence That Affects the Copy Number and Stability of pSW200 and ColE1 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ying-Chung; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2010-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii SW2 contains 13 plasmids. One of these plasmids, pSW200, has a replicon that resembles that of ColE1. This study demonstrates that pSW200 contains a 9-bp UP element, 5′-AAGATCTTC, which is located immediately upstream of the −35 box in the RNAII promoter. A transcriptional fusion study reveals that substituting this 9-bp sequence reduces the activity of the RNAII promoter by 78%. The same mutation also reduced the number of plasmid copies from 13 to 5, as well as the plasmid...

  18. Col1a1-cre mediated activation of β-catenin leads to aberrant dento-alveolar complex formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tak-Heun; Bae, Cheol-Hyeon; Jang, Eun-Ha; Yoon, Chi-Young; Bae, Young; Ko, Seung-O; Taketo, Makoto M.; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a critical role in bone formation and regeneration. Dentin and cementum share many similarities with bone in their biochemical compositions and biomechanical properties. Whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in the dento-alveolar complex formation is unknown. To understand the roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the dento-alveolar complex formation, we generated conditional β-catenin activation mice through intercross of Catnb+/lox(ex3) mice with Col1a1-cre...

  19. Úlceras Colónicas por TB e Histoplasmosis en un paciente portador de VIH/Sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garzona-Schmidt

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un paciente masculino de 35 años, costarricense, con un cuadro de trastornos intestinales inespecíficos, de 3 años de evolución, intensificados en el último mes previo a su internamiento, siendo diagnosticado con VIH y mediante colonoscopía se le diagnosticó una enfermedad inflamatoria colónica por tuberculosis e histoplasmosis intestinal, la cual resolvió en su totalidad luego de nueve meses de tratamiento antifímico y antifungico.

  20. The role of genes AMPD1, CNB and COL1A1 in the propensity to employment rowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyrev A.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The question of the frequency distribution of polymorphic alleles of genes AMPD1, CNB and COL1A1. In the experiment, was attended by athletes, rowers qualifications at the age of 21 to 28 years, and people without experience of regular sport at the age of 20 to 22 years. Established that certain combinations of alleles can be recommended as a diagnostic complex genetic markers to assess the propensity to develop and display of strength, endurance and speed. It is shown that upon receipt of positive results may conduct a successful selection in rowing, the implementation of the individualization of the training process and improve its efficiency.

  1. Investigations on Repellent and Insecticidal Effects of Xanthium strumarium L. on Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotrasa decemlineata Say (Col: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİNSOY, Suzan; Tamer, Ali

    1998-01-01

    The repellent effects of the extracts of Xanthium strumariumfruits and leaves dilueted with 1/6, 1/8, 1/10 water (w/v) for fruits and 1/6, 1/8 (w/v) for leaves were investigated with randomised plot design and 25 replicates under laboratory conditions. Insecticidal effect was also studied in laboratory. It was found that insecticidal effect was low, where as repellent effect was quite high. On the other hand, the effect of 1/6 concentration of fruit extract against adult and larvae of Col...

  2. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  3. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  4. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  5. Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Richard H.; Criswell, Thomas L.; Ikegami, Roy; Nelson, James; Normand, Eugene; Rutherford, Paul S.; Shrader, John E.

    1995-07-01

    Monitoring aging aircraft for hidden corrosion is a significant problem for both military and civilian aircraft. Under a Wright Laboratory sponsored program, Boeing Defense & Space Group is investigating three novel methods for detecting and monitoring hidden corrosion: (1) atmospheric neutron radiography, (2) 14 MeV neutron activation analysis and (3) fiber optic corrosion sensors. Atmospheric neutron radiography utilizes the presence of neutrons in the upper atmosphere as a source for interrogation of the aircraft structure. Passive track-etch neutron detectors, which have been previously placed on the aircraft, are evaluated during maintenance checks to assess the presence of corrosion. Neutrons generated by an accelerator are used via activation analysis to assess the presence of distinctive elements in corrosion products, particularly oxygen. By using fast (14 MeV) neutrons for the activation, portable, high intensity sources can be employed for field testing of aircraft. The third novel method uses fiber optics as part of a smart structure technology for corrosion detection and monitoring. Fiber optic corrosion sensors are placed in the aircraft at locations known to be susceptible to corrosion. Periodic monitoring of the sensors is used to alert maintenance personnel to the presence and degree of corrosion at specific locations on the aircraft. During the atmospheric neutron experimentation, we identified a fourth method referred to as secondary emission radiography (SER). This paper discusses the development of these methods.

  6. Aircraft impact on a spherical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power plants located in the immediate vicinity of cities and airports safeguarding against an accidental aircraft strike is important. Because of the complexity of such an aircraft crash the building is ordinarily designed for loading by an idealized dynamical load F(t), which follows from measurements (aircraft striking a rigid wall). The extent to which the elastic displacements of a structure influence the impact load F(t) is investigatd in this paper. The aircraft is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination which can easily be treated in computations and which can suffer elastic as well as plastic deformations. This 'aircraft' normally strikes a spherical shell at the apex. The time-dependent reactions of the shell as a function of the unknown impact load F(t) are expanded in terms of the normal modes, which are Legendre functions. The continuity condition at the impact point leads to an integral equation for F(t) which may be solved by Laplace transformation. F(t) is computed for hemispheres with several ratios of thickness to radius, several edge conditions and several 'aircraft' parameters. In all cases F(t) differs very little from that function obtained for the case of the aircraft striking a rigid wall. (Auth.)

  7. A 3' UTR SNP in COL18A1 is associated with susceptibility to HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese: three independent case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulated evidences indicate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis related genes are associated with risk of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. COL18A1 encodes the precursor of endostatin, which is a broad-spectrum angiogenesis inhibitor, and we speculate that SNPs in COL18A1 may be associated with susceptibility to HCC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a 2-stage association study in 3 independent case-control groups in a total of 1067 chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients and 808 hepatitis B virus (HBV related HCC patients in Han Chinese. Four SNPs which can represent all potential functional SNPs with MAF>0.1 recorded in HapMap database were genotyped using TaqMan methods. Levels of total COL18A1 mRNA were also examined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We found that rs7499 located in 3'-UTR to be strongly associated with HBV related HCC (P(combined = 0.0000005, OR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.63-0.82. COL18A1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased as the disease progressed (P = 0.000026. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that COL18A1 rs7499 may contribute to the risk of HCC in Han Chinese.

  8. Processing infrared images of aircraft lapjoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Hazari; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for processing IR images of aging aircraft lapjoint data are discussed. Attention is given to a technique for detecting disbonds in aircraft lapjoints which clearly delineates the disbonded region from the bonded regions. The technique is weak on unpainted aircraft skin surfaces, but can be overridden by using a self-adhering contact sheet. Neural network analysis on raw temperature data has been shown to be an effective tool for visualization of images. Numerical simulation results show the above processing technique to be an effective tool in delineating the disbonds.

  9. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lerner, J.; Shie, R. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  10. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagam, Richard N.; Lerner, Jeremy M.; Shie, Rick

    1995-07-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser TM (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  11. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  12. Hydrogen fueled subsonic aircraft - A prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The performance characteristics of hydrogen-fueled subsonic transport aircraft are compared with those of aircraft using conventional aviation kerosene. Results of the Cryogenically Fueled Aircraft Technology Program sponsored by NASA indicate that liquid hydrogen may be particularly efficient for subsonic transport craft when ranges of 4000 km or more are involved; however, development of advanced cryogenic tanks for liquid hydrogen fuel is required. The NASA-sponsored program also found no major technical obstacles for international airports converting the liquid hydrogen fueling systems. Resource utilization efficiency and fuel production costs for hydrogen produced by coal gasification or for liquid methane or synthetic aviation kerosene are also assessed.

  13. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  14. Dual reporter transgene driven by 2.3Col1a1 promoter is active in differentiated osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijanovic, Inga; Jiang, Xi; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Stover, Mary Louise; Erceg, Ivana; Lichtler, Alexander C.; Rowe, David W.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: As quantitative and spatial analyses of promoter reporter constructs are not easily performed in intact bone, we designed a reporter gene specific to bone, which could be analyzed both visually and quantitatively by using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and a cyan version of green fluorescent protein (GFPcyan), driven by a 2.3-kb fragment of the rat collagen promoter (Col2.3). METHODS: The construct Col2.3CATiresGFPcyan was used for generating transgenic mice. Quantitative measurement of promoter activity was performed by CAT analysis of different tissues derived from transgenic animals; localization was performed by visualized GFP in frozen bone sections. To assess transgene expression during in vitro differentiation, marrow stromal cell and neonatal calvarial osteoblast cultures were analyzed for CAT and GFP activity. RESULTS: In mice, CAT activity was detected in the calvaria, long bone, teeth, and tendon, whereas histology showed that GFP expression was limited to osteoblasts and osteocytes. In cell culture, increased activity of CAT correlated with increased differentiation, and GFP activity was restricted to mineralized nodules. CONCLUSION: The concept of a dual reporter allows a simultaneous visual and quantitative analysis of transgene activity in bone.

  15. Mutations in the COL5A1 gene are causal in the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Paepe, A.; Nuytinck, L.; Naeyaert, J.M. [Universitaets-Hautklinik Heidelberg (Germany)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous connective-tissue disorder of which at least nine subtypes are recognized. Considerable clinical overlap exists between the EDS I and II subtypes, suggesting that both are allelic disorders. Recent evidence based on linkage and transgenic mice studies suggest that collagen V is causally involved in human EDS. Collagen V forms heterotypic fibrils with collagen I in many tissues and plays an important role in collagen I fibrillogenesis. We have identified a mutation in COL5A1, the gene encoding the pro{alpha}1(V) collagen chain, segregating with EDS I in a four-generation family. The mutation causes the substitution of the most 5{prime} cysteine residue by a serine within a highly conserved sequence of the pro{alpha}1(V) C-propeptide domain and causes reduction of collagen V by preventing incorporation of the mutant pro{alpha}1 (V) chains in the collagen V trimers. In addition, we have detected splicing defects in the COL5A1 gene in a patient with EDS I and in a family with EDS II. These findings confirm the causal role of collagen V in at least a subgroup of EDS I, prove that EDS I and II are allelic conditions, and represent a, so far, unique example of a human collagen disorder caused by substitution of a highly conserved cysteine residue in the C-propeptide domain of a fibrillar collagen. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Tipos de colágeno na fibrose hepática esquistossomótica de Symmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Raso

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Os AA. estudaram o tipo de colágeno em cortes histológicos de fragmentos de fígado de 12 indivíduos portadores da forma hepatesplênica da esquistossomose mansoni, pela técnica de coloração pelo Sirius Supra Red F3BA. Como controle usaram cortes histológicos de 12 fragmentos de fígado de indivíduos sem doenças fibrosantes. As preparações coradas pelo Sirius Supra Red F3BA e examinadas em microscópio de polarização (Leitz revelaram que a fibrose periportal é constituída por colágeno de tipos I e III, com predominância do primeiro.Histologic typing of collagen fibers from 12 livers of patients with hepatosplenic Manson's schistosomiasis was tnade jusing the Sirius Supra Red F3BA stain according to Junqueira's method. The Controls were 12 livers without fibrosis. The preparations were stained with Sirius Supra Red F3BA and were examined under polarized light (Leitz photomicroscope which revealed collagen fibers types I and III in the portal tracts.

  17. Caminhos da Colônia, Roteiro de Turismo Rural na Serra Gaúcha (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edegar Luis Tomazzoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O turismo rural é atividade recente no Brasil, e ainda que sua definição seja complexa, vários produtos, atrativos e serviços desse segmento têm-se organizado em sistema de roteirização. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o roteiro turístico Caminhos da Colônia, localizado nos municípios de Caxias do Sul e Flores da Cunha (Serra Gaúcha. Neste trabalho, de natureza exploratória, adotou-se o método qualitativo. A análise diagnóstica e prognóstica traz, de forma descritiva, toda a extensão do roteiro, de 35 quilômetros, fundamentada na observação direta e entrevistas realizadas junto aos gestores e funcionários de 21 estabelecimentos nele localizados. A iniciativa visionária do idealizador e o projeto original da proposta de roteirização, bem como as ações implementadas, foram adequados aos conceitos e aos critérios teórico-práticos e científicos do desenvolvimento do turismo local e regional. A falta de cooperação entre os atores locais foi um dos pontos fracos mais evidenciados na análise, e entre as sugestões de melhorias destacam-se o fortalecimento da gestão, tanto pela maior atuação do setor privado quanto pelo poder público, a inserção de novos atrativos e a continuidade das ações estratégias de marketing e de qualificação do roteiro. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso

  18. Toxicidade córneo-conjuntival do colírio de iodo-povidona: estudo experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Namir Clementino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a toxicidade ocular do colírio de iodo-povidona a 2,5% e a 0,5% sobre a superfície ocular, na regeneração do epitélio corneal e as alterações histopatológicas da córnea. MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se estudos experimentais consecutivos em coelhos albinos, nos quais se fez a ablação do epitélio de uma área circular central da córnea de 6,5 mm de diâmetro. Em cada experimento foram utilizados 20 animais (40 olhos, sendo que no olho direito foi instilado o colírio de iodo-povidona (caso e no olho esquerdo água destilada (controle, em intervalos de uma hora, durante três dias consecutivos. Durante o experimento, os animais foram submetidos a exames biomicroscópicos diários para avaliação da superfície córneo-conjuntival e realização de fotografias seriadas da área sem epitélio, corada com fluoresceína, para medida da área projetada da lesão com auxílio de analisador de imagem computadorizado. No final do experimento, os animais foram sacrificados para avaliação histopatológica das córneas. RESULTADOS: O colírio de iodo-povidona a 2,5% comprometeu a regeneração epitelial, causou conjuntivite em 100% dos olhos, com produção de secreção de aspecto mucoso em 80%, ceratite ponteada em 40% e edema estrômico leve em 10% dos casos. Os achados histopatológicos foram úlcera de córnea, degeneração hidrópica das células endoteliais e infiltrado inflamatório com predomínio de eosinófilos em 100% dos casos. Nos olhos em que se instilou iodo-povidona a 0,5%, assim como nos controles, observou-se completa regeneração da lesão epitelial (p<0,001 após 72 horas do início do experimento. Do ponto de vista histopatológico, epitelização normal em todos os casos e controles, em apenas um caso observou-se discreto infiltrado de leucócitos perilímbicos. CONCLUSÃO: A toxicidade ocular do colírio de iodo-povidona é dependente da concentração da solução, sendo que o colírio a 2,5% mostrou

  19. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.15 Detaining an...

  20. 42 CFR 71.44 - Disinsection of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disinsection of aircraft. 71.44 Section 71.44... Disinsection of aircraft. (a) The Director may require disinsection of an aircraft if it has left a foreign area that is infected with insect-borne communicable disease and the aircraft is suspected of...

  1. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used...

  2. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  3. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in §...

  4. 14 CFR 399.43 - Treatment of leased aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of leased aircraft. 399.43... Treatment of leased aircraft. In determining the appropriate treatment of leased aircraft for ratemaking... leased aircraft value (determined on a constructive depreciated basis) in relation to net book value...

  5. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  6. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  7. Smart structure application for the Challenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, L.; Blaha, Franz A.

    1994-09-01

    The Challenger aircraft fleet of the Canadian Forces will fly demanding missions, requiring the implementation of a fatigue management program based on the monitoring of in-flight aircraft load conditions. Conventional sensing techniques experience problems arising from severe electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper describes the development of an EMI- insensitive smart-structure sensing concept for loads monitoring. Fiber-optic strain sensors, incorporated at critical structural locations, are used to monitor the fatigue life of the aircraft wing, fuselage, and empennage. A fiber-optic accelerometer is also incorporated in the system. A long-term plan is presented for the development of an advanced smart-structure concept which can support the continuous monitoring of fatigue-prone components, and provide the aircraft with near real-time damage location and assessment.

  8. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  9. Directional monitoring terminal for aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genescà, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a concept of an aircraft noise monitoring terminal (NMT) that reduces background noise and the influence of ground reflection, in comparison with a single microphone. Also, it automatically identifies aircraft sound events based on the direction of arrival of the sound rather than on the sound pressure level (or radar data). And moreover, it provides an indicator of the quality of the sound pressure level measurement, i.e. if it is possibly disturbed by extraneous sources. The performance of this NMT is experimentally tested under real conditions in a measurement site close to Zurich airport. The results show that the NMT unambiguously identifies the noise events generated by the target aircraft, correctly detects those aircraft noise events that may be disturbed by the presence of other sources, and offers a substantial reduction in background and ground reflected sound.

  10. The drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program, which began in 1976, has mounted a development effort in four major transport aircraft technology fields: laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, flight controls, and composite structures. ACEE has explored two basic methods for achieving drag-reducing boundary layer laminarization: the use of suction through the wing structure (via slots or perforations) to remove boundary layer turbulence, and the encouragement of natural laminar flow maintenance through refined design practices. Wind tunnel tests have been conducted for wide bodied aircraft equipped with high aspect ratio supercritical wings and winglets. Maneuver load control and pitch-active stability augmentation control systems reduce fuel consumption by reducing the drag associated with high aircraft stability margins. Composite structures yield lighter airframes that in turn call for smaller wing and empennage areas, reducing induced drag for a given payload. In combination, all four areas of development are expected to yield a fuel consumption reduction of 40 percent.

  11. Engineering students win NASA aircraft design competition

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Centuria," a single-engine jet aircraft designed by undergraduate engineering students from Virginia Tech and their counterparts at Loughborough University in the U.K., has won the Best Overall Award in NASA's 2004 Revolutionary Vehicles and Concepts Competition.

  12. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  13. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  14. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  15. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  16. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft by illustrating the procedures for a long haul CTOL transport, a short haul VTOL transport, a long range SST, and a fighter aircraft. For the CTOL transport, it is shown that advances in noise technology and advanced turbine cooling technology will greatly reduce the airplane performance penalties associated with achieving low noise goals. A remote lift fan powered by a turbofan air generator is considered for the VTOL aircraft. In this case, the lift fan pressure ratio which maximizes payload also comes closest to meeting the noise goal. High turbine temperature in three different engines is considered for the SST. Without noise constraints it leads to an appreciable drop in DOC, but with noise constraints the reduction in DOC is very modest. For the fighter aircraft it is shown how specific excess power requirements play the same role in engine selection as noise constraints for commercial airplanes.

  17. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10-6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  18. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of...

  19. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered...

  20. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  1. Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Knowledge and support Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight Category: FAQ's Tags: Risks Archives Breast Cancer Survivors ... limb carefully) and apply pressure as needed. DURING FLIGHT Keep your seat belt loosely fastened so that ...

  2. Cooling system for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, P. L.; Pagel, L. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The system eliminates the necessity of shielding an aircraft airframe constructed of material such as aluminum. Cooling is accomplished by passing a coolant through the aircraft airframe, the coolant acting as a carrier to remove heat from the airframe. The coolant is circulated through a heat pump and a heat exchanger which together extract essentially all of the added heat from the coolant. The heat is transferred to the aircraft fuel system via the heat exchanger and the heat pump. The heat extracted from the coolant is utilized to power the heat pump. The heat pump has associated therewith power turbine mechanism which is also driven by the extracted heat. The power turbines are utilized to drive various aircraft subsystems, the compressor of the heat pump, and provide engine cooling.

  3. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of the mouse type VII collagen gene (Col7a1): Evidence for rapid evolutionary divergence of the gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kehua; Christiano, A.M.; Chu, Mon Li; Uitto, J. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States) Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J. (NCI-Federick Cancer Research and Development Center, Federick, MD (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Type VII collagen is the major component of anchoring fibrils, critical attachment structures at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. Genetic linkage analyses with recently cloned human type VII collagen cDNAs have indicated that the corresponding gene, COL7A1, is the candidate gene in the dystrophic forms of epidermolysis bullosa. To gain insight into the evolutionary conservation of COL7A1, in this study the authors have isolated mouse type VII collagen cDNAs by screening a mouse epidermal keratinocyte cDNA library with a human COL7A1 cDNA. Two overlapping mouse cDNAs were isolated, and Northern hybridization of mouse epidermal keratinocyte RNA with one of them revealed the presence of a mRNA transcript of [approximately]9.5 kb, the approximate size of the human COL7A1 mRNA. Nucleotide sequencing of the mouse cDNAs revealed a 2760-bp open reading frame that encodes the 5[prime] half of the collagenous domain and a segment of the NC-1, the noncollagenous amino-terminal domain of type VII collagen. Comparison of the mouse amino acid sequences with the corresponding human sequences deduced from cDNAs revealed 82.5% identity. The evolutionary divergence of the gene was relatively rapid in comparison to other collagen genes. Despite the high degree of sequence variation, several sequences, including the size and the position of noncollagenous imperfections and interruptions within the Gly-X-Y repeat sequence, were precisely conserved. Finally, the mouse Col7a1 gene was located by interspecific backcross mapping to mouse Chromosome 9, a region that corresponds to human chromosome 3p21, the position of human COL7Al. This assignment confirms and extends the relationship between the mouse and the human chromosomes in this region of the genome. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Incidence of Fungal attack on Aircraft Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of fungal attack on the fuselage of a few Vampire aircraft has been observed. The fungus isolated from the infected regions has been tentatively indentified as TorulaSp. Laboratory experiments have revealed that within four weeks this fungus causes about 44 percent loss in the tensile strength of the brich plywood used in the manufacture of the fuselage of the aircraft.

  5. Schlieren Imaging Of An Aircraft In Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Technique for making schlieren images of airplanes and missiles in supersonic flight devised to help understand physics of compressible aerodynamic flows about complicated aircraft shapes. Technique also used to study far-field sonic booms. Data obtained from schlieren images useful in optimizing designs of prototype aircraft. Technique incorporates elements of focusing schlieren photography, astronomical photography, and streak photography. Using sun or moon as source of light, apparatus forms image revealing gradients of density in air flow.

  6. Aircraft Noise: Annoyance, House Prices and Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2006-01-01

    “Nobody wants to buy your house. It’s the aircraft noise. You’ll have to reduce the price a lot.” Aircraft noise around airports causes annoyance, and tends to reduce the price of affected properties. Can annoyance be ‘costed’ by examining house price reductions? Are there other ways of valuing annoyance in monetary terms? This short paper summarises key research results and poses some questions.

  7. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė; Raimondas Grubliauskas

    2013-01-01

    Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.T...

  8. An Optimization Model for Aircraft Service Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus; Cheung; W; H; Ip; Angel; Lai; Eva; Cheung

    2002-01-01

    Scheduling is one of the most difficult issues in t he planning and operations of the aircraft services industry. In this paper, t he various scheduling problems in ground support operation of an aircraft mainte nance service company are addressed. The authors developed a set of vehicle rout ings to cover each schedule flights; the objectives pursued are the maximization of vehicle and manpower utilization and minimization of operation time. To obta in the goals, an integer-programming model with geneti...

  9. Anti-aircraft Missiles and Gun Control

    OpenAIRE

    BLOCK, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Gun control is a highly debatable topic both in the popular and scholarly media. But what about anti-aircraft missiles? Should they be banned? On the one hand, there are fewer of them around, so their challenge is more tractable. On the other hand, they can do far more damage than handguns. The present paper is an attempt to wrestle with this challenge.Keywords. Gun control, Second amendment, Libertarianism, Anti-aircraft missiles.JEL. K15.

  10. Aircraft Wake Vortex Evolution and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Holzäpfel, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices constitute both a kaleidoscope of instructive fluid dynamics phenomena and a challenge for the sustained development of safety and capacity of the air-transportation industry. The current manuscript gives an overview on the wake vortex issue which commences at its historical roots and concludes with the current status of knowledge regarding the nature and characteristics, and the modeling of aircraft wakes. The incentive of today's wake vortex research still re...

  11. Aging aircraft wiring: a proactive management methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Tambouratzis, Vasileios.

    2001-01-01

    During the last years, military budgets have been dramatically reduced and the services have been unable to acquire sufficient new systems. Military aviation is one of the areas that have been severely impacted. The result is that the current fleet faces significant aging aircraft problems. Aircraft wiring is one of the areas that have severely affected by the aging process. Recent accidents involving aging wiring problems and reduced operational readiness due to aging wiring have made clear ...

  12. Crashworthiness of composite seats for civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been conducted into the design of civil aircraft seats which are forward-facing and use the lap-belt method of restraint. Within these terms of reference, the response of the seat restraint occupant system (SROS) to impact loading has been analysed using physical (dynamic testing) and analytical (computer simulation) modelling techniques. With the increasing use of fibre-reinforced polymer composites in aircraft for weight efficiency, and the consequent appearance of composite se...

  13. Computer Aided Visual Inspection of Aircraft Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Rafia Mumtaz; Mustafa Mumtaz; Atif Bin Mansoor; Hassan Masood

    2012-01-01

    Non Destructive Inspections (NDI) plays a vital role in aircraft industry as it determines the structural integrity of aircraft surface and material characterization. The existing NDI methods are time consuming, we propose a new NDI approach using Digital Image Processing that has the potential to substantially decrease the inspection time. Automatic Marking of cracks have been achieved through application of Thresholding, Gabor Filter and Non Subsampled Contourlet transform. For a novel meth...

  14. Maintenance program developmentandImport /Export of Aircraft in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Takele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis thesis discuss how United Parcel Service (UPS) develop its aircraft maintenanceprogram after import of McDonnell Douglas MD-11aircraft and the process of exporting newMD-11 aircraft from manufacturer in USA to European operator as passenger aircraft. It alsodiscusses the process of importing the same types of aircraft as freight carrier. The aircraftundergo, through different modifications at Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA)conversion from passenger to freight carrier, a pr...

  15. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eikmann; Christin Peschel; Cara Kahl; Dirk Schreckenberg; Markus Meis

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft n...

  16. Predictive Health Monitoring for Aircraft Systems using Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Unscheduled aircraft maintenance causes a lot problems and costs for aircraft operators. This is due to the fact that aircraft cause significant costs if flights have to be delayed or canceled and because spares are not always available at any place and sometimes have to be shipped across the world. Reducing the number of unscheduled maintenance is thus a great costs factor for aircraft operators. This thesis describes three methods for aircraft health monitoring and prediction; one method fo...

  17. Insulin-like growth factor I gene promoter polymorphism, collagen type II alpha1 (COL2A1) gene, and the prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis: the Rotterdam Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Guangju; Duijn, Cock; Rivadeneira Ramirez, Fernando; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Bijkerk, Casper; Meurs, Joyce; Uitterlinden, André; Pols, Huib; Slagboom, Eline; Hofman, Albert

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To examine the role of an IGF-I gene promoter polymorphism in the prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA), and study its interaction with the COL2A1 gene. METHODS: Individuals genotyped for IGF-I (n = 1546) and COL2A1 gene polymorphisms (n = 808) were selected from a random sample (n = 1583) derived from the Rotterdam study. The presence of ROA was defined as a Kellgren score of 2 or more in at least one of four joints (knee, hip, hand, and spine). Genotype spec...

  18. Entre o herdado, o vivido e o projetado : estudo de caso sobre o sucesso educativo em dois colégios privados frequentados pelas classes dominantes

    OpenAIRE

    Quaresma, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Esta investigação pretende refletir sobre o sucesso educativo numa aceção lata e não restrita à dimensão académica, tendo por pano de fundo a realidade educativa de dois colégios privados frequentados pelas classes dominantes e sedeados em Lisboa. A publicação dos rankings escolares trouxe para a ribalta o ensino privado como alegada alternativa de qualidade ao ensino publico, convidando-nos a imergir no universo de colégios que ocupam o palco mediático mas que permanecem nos bastidores da in...

  19. Association and linkage analysis of COL1A1 and AHSG gene polymorphisms with femoral neck bone geometric parameters in both Caucasian and Chinese nuclear families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui JIANG; Shu-feng LEI; Su-mei XIAO; Yuan CHEN; Xiao SUN; Fang YANG; Li-ming LI; Shun WU; Hong-wen DENC

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To simultaneously investigate the contribution of the alpha 1 chain of col-lagen type 1 (COL1A1) and alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) genes to the varia-tion of bone geometric parameters in both Caucasians and Chinese. Methods: Six hundred and five Caucasian individuals from 157 nuclear families and 1228 Chi-nese subjects from 400 nuclear families were genotyped at the AHSG-Sacl, COL1A1-PCOL2 and Sp1 polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restric-tion fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). 5 FN bone geometric parameters were calculated based on bone mineral density and bone area of femoral neck (FN)measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Population stratification, total family association, within-family association, and linkage tests were performed by the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test program. Results: The t-test showed the significant differences of all bone geometric phenotypes (except ED)between Caucasians and Chinese in the offspring using both unadjusted and adjusted (by age, height, weight, and gender) data. In Caucasians, we found significant within-family association results between the COL1A1-Sp1 polymor-phism (rs1800012) and cross sectional area (CSA), cortical thickness (CT),endocortical diameter (ED), buckling ratio (BR) (P=0.018, 0.002, 0.023, and 0.001,respectively); the COL1A1-Sp1 polymorphism also detected significant linkage with BR (P=0.039). In the population of China, the within-family associations between the COL1A1-PCOL2 polymorphism (rs1107946) and CT, BR were signifi-cant (P=0.012 and 0.008, respectively). Furthermore, evidence of linkage were observed between the AHSG-SacI polymorphism (rs4918) and CT, BR (P--0.042 and 0.014, respectively) in Caucasians, but not in Chinese. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the COL1A1 gene may have significantly association with bone geometry in both Caucasians and Chinese, and the AHSG gene may be linked to bone geometry in Caucasians, but not in Chinese. This study

  20. Atmosferes ocupades : el moviment okupa a Madrid a principis del segle XXI i els nous tipus d'accions contestatàries col·lectives

    OpenAIRE

    Cañedo Rodríguez, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    A Madrid, entre la primavera de 2002 i la de 2003, els accents del pols col·lectiu es van representar com una vaga general o les massives protestes contra el desastre causat pel petrolier Prestige i l’anomenada guerra de l’Iraq. Tots aquests esdeveniments, en diferent grau i en variades formes, van ser durant un temps una part important del soundscape col·lectiu, i van generar performances urbanes(1) −protestes, concentracions i reunions en l’espai públic−, en qu...

  1. Efecto de la melatonina y el celecoxib sobre el estrés oxidativo en la carcinogénesis colónica experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Zaragoza Velasco, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) constituye un problema sanitario mundial. Celecoxib (CEL) inhibe la incidencia de adenocarcinomas colónicos, mientras que melatonina (MEL) modula el estrés oxidativo e inhibe la COX-2. EL objetivo del estudio fue investigar el efecto de la administración de ambos sobre el estrés oxidativo y la producción de lesiones en un modelo de carcinogénesis colónica experimental. CCR fue inducido con azoximetano (AOM) en ratas Wistar. MEL y/o CEL fue administra...

  2. Dise??o de una matriz de soporte compuesta de col??geno de piel de tibur??n-aloe para ingenier??a tisular

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmuganathan, S.; Shanmugasundaram, N.; Adhirajan, N.; Ramyaa Lakshmi, T.S.; Babu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Se ha demostrado que el col??geno es un nuevo biomaterial utilizado para la administraci??n de f??rmacos, la fabricaci??n de ap??sitos o como sustrato para ingenier??a tisular cuya biocompatibilidad y propiedades biodegradables son ??nicas. El col??geno bovino y porcino tipo I constituyen una fuente f??cilmente disponible de material de soporte para diversas aplicaciones biom??dicas. Sin embargo, estas fuentes conllevan cierto riesgo potencial de enfermedades infecciosas como la e...

  3. Colémbolos (Hexapoda) como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Uribe-Hernández; Carlos H. Juárez-Méndez; Montes de Oca, Marco A.; Palacios-Vargas, José G.; Leopoldo Cutz-Pool; Blanca E. Mejía-Recarmier

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron invertebrados del suelo, en particular los colémbolos, como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México. Se realizaron 2 muestreos en verano-otoño del 2004, en 4 parcelas de 2 hectáreas, denominadas zona 1, 2, 3 y control. De cada unidad se tomaron 8 muestras que fueron procesadas por medio del embudo de Berlese-Tullgren y 4 por el método de flotación. Para colémbolos se determinaron los siguientes índices ecológicos: abundancia, ...

  4. High altitude aircraft flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David

    1996-03-01

    In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.

  5. Intelligent control of agile aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohler, R.R.; Zakrzewski, R.R. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A brief overview of adaptive and computer-aided flight control is presented as background for the evolution of recent research on nonlinear intelligent control. Here, several nonlinear control algorithms are investigated but emphasis is given to nearly time-optimal, neural-net generated feedback control which is trained on ideal minimum-time, open-loop trajectories. The minimum-time policies are computed by a new version of the switching-line-variational method (gradient algorithm). Critical control constraints and a benchmark for performance as well as a basis for training are obtained for the system design. This further demonstrates the need for an integrated controls and aircraft system design for full utilization of nonlinear control capability. Complex nonlinear simulations show the effectiveness of the derived nonlinear feedback controller for the high-angle-of-attack research vehicle (HARV) with stabilator and thrust-vector control. For example, angle of attack is controlled from near zero to sixty degrees in about two seconds with appropriate trim conditions at both ends. Such control greatly enhances maneuverability and general flight envelope admissibility.

  6. Beamforming for aircraft noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Robert P.

    2003-10-01

    Phased array beamforming for aircraft noise source location has a long history, including early work on jet noise, wind tunnel measurements, and flyover testing. In the last 10 years, advancements in sparse 2-D and 3-D arrays, wind tunnel test techniques, and computer power have made phased array measurements almost common. Large aerospace companies and national research institutes have an advantage in access to major facilities and hundreds of measurement microphones, but universities and even consulting companies can perform tests with electret microphones and PC data acquisition systems. The type of testing remains a blend of science and art. A complex noise source is approximated by a mathematical model, and the microphones are deployed to evaluate the parameters of the model. For example, the simplest, but often the best, approach is to assume a distribution of mutually incoherent monopoles. This leads to an imaging process analogous to photography. Other models include coherent distributions of multipoles or duct modes. It is sometimes important to simulate the results that would have been obtained from single microphone measurements of part of the airplane in an ideal environment, had such measurements been feasible.

  7. Deflazacort e cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas. Estudo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Nascimento J.E. de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O deflazacort é um novo corticóide com os mesmos efeitos antiinflamatórios dos demais, porém com menos efeitos colaterais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do deflazacort na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 75 ratos Wistar foram randomizados em três grupos para receberem os seguintes tratamentos por gavagem: grupo controle (N=24= solução fisiológica; grupo deflazacort (N=25= 0,1 mg/Kg/dia dessa droga e, grupo dexametasona (N=26= 0,5 mg/Kg/dia substância. Após seis dias de tratamento, os animais foram submetidos à secção colônica, seguida de anastomose primária em um ponto situado a 2 cm acima da reflexão peritoneal. O tratamento com as soluções foi mantido até o sacrifício, que ocorreu no 3º ou no 6º dia de PO. Observou-se na necrópsia sinais de peritonite e deiscência de sutura. Realizou-se o teste de pressão de ruptura das anastomoses e dosou-se nessa região a concentração de hidroxiprolina e proteinas. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença em relação à ocorrência de deiscência e peritonite. A pressão de ruptura foi semelhante no 3º dia. No 6º dia, ela foi maior (p <0.05 no grupo controle (180 [150-230] mmHg que nos grupos deflazacort (150 [120-180] mmHg e dexametasona (140 [100-180] mmHg. Não ocorreu diferença entre os grupos na dosagem de hidroxiprolina. A dosagem de protéinas foi maior no grupo dexametasona que nos controles no 3º PO. CONCLUSÕES: O uso de corticóides determina queda na resistência da anastomose colônica. O deflazacort apresenta os mesmos efeitos deletérios da dexametasona na cicatrização de anastomoses intestinais.

  8. 41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts The Process for Budgeting to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.90 What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft transferred from another executive agency)? (a) The process for budgeting to acquire a...

  9. COL5A1: Fine genetic mapping, intron/exon organization, and exclusion as candidate gene in families with tuberous sclerosis complex 1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, D.S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Papenberg, K.A.; Marchuk, D.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Type V collagen is the only fibrillar collagen which has yet to be implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic diseases in humans or mice. To begin examining the possible role of type V collagen in genetic disease, we have previously mapped COL5A1, the gene for the {alpha}1 chain of type V collagen, to 9q23.2{r_arrow}q34.3 and described two restriction site polymorphisms which allowed us to exclude COL5A1 as candidate gene for nail-patella syndrome. We have now used these polymorphisms to exclude COL5A1 as candidate gene for tuberous sclerosis complex 1 and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II. In addition, we describe a CA repeat, with observed heterozygosity of about 0.5, in a COL5A1 intron, which has allowed us to exclude COL5A1 as a candidate gene in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and to place COL5A1 on the CEPH family genetic map between markers D9S66 and D9S67. We have also determined the entire intron/exon organization of COL5A1, which will facilitate characterization of mutations in genetic diseases with which COL5A1 may be linked in future studies.

  10. Common factors in the withdrawal of European aircraft manufacturers from the regional aircraft market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Hans; Bruijn, de Erik J.; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the in

  11. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  12. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document...

  13. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type: a novel missense mutation in the COL3A1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuno, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Naing, Banyar Than; Shimada, Takashi; Fujimoto, Wataru; Ninomiya, Shinsuke; Ueda, Yasunori; Kadota, Kazushige; Kotaka, Tatsuya; Kondo, Eisei; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Inoue, Mika; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Kuroki, Yoshikazu

    2012-12-01

    We report a 34-year-old Japanese female with the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. She had thin translucent skin, extensive bruising, toe joint hypermobility, left lower extremity varicose veins, and chronic wrist, knee and ankle joint pain. She also had dizziness caused by autonomic dysfunction. Magnetic resonance angiography showed tortuous vertebral and basilar arteries, mild left carotid canal bulging, and right anterior tibial artery hypoplasia. Electron microscopic examinations of a skin biopsy revealed extremely dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum in dermal fibroblasts and wide variability of individual collagen fibril diameters. A molecular analysis using a conventional total RNA method and a high-resolution melting curve analysis using genomic DNA revealed a novel missense mutation within exon 48 of the COL3A1 gene, c.3428G>A, leading to p.Gly1143Glu. PMID:23181496

  14. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. PMID:26529894

  15. Distribuciones simuladas de valores de d13c de colágeno humano: implicancias para los estudios paleodietarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los primeros resultados derivados de la aplicación de un programa de simulación de distribuciones de valores de δ13C de colágeno humano (DeltaCarb130.0, desarrollado por los autores. DeltaCarb130.0 es un programa simple que simula la composición isotópica (δ13C del colágeno de huesos humanos obtenida a través de una dieta de composición variable, constituida por tres ingestas diarias, durante un período de 1825 días (5 años. La composición de la dieta y los valores de δ13C de cada recurso dietario (vegetales C3 y C4, carne de herbívoros consumidores de C3 y C4, de mamíferos marinos, de peces y moluscos se obtienen, en cada etapa de la simulación, a través de un proceso aleatorio a partir de datos de abundancia relativa y rangos de valores de δ13C de cada tipo de recurso. Se analizarán estadísticamente las distribuciones de valores de δ13C obtenidas a partir de n corridas del programa para cada combinación dietaria, con la finalidad de obtener medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión asociadas a cada tipo de dieta y calcular la probabilidad de obtener valores "outliers", un rasgo frecuente en el estudio de casos arqueológicos.

  16. Acesso endoscópico transepto-interforniceal para cistos colóides: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIALOGO JOSUÉ GUIMARÃES GRANHA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A abordagem endoscópica de cistos colóides ainda é matéria controversa. As opções de tratamento são variadas: observação com exames seriados, tratamento da hidrocefalia, aspiração por estereotaxia, microcirurgia e endoscopia. O autor relata o caso de um paciente com cisto colóide do terceiro ventrículo, localizado em posição retroforaminal, no teto diencefálico, dissecando os dois fornices projetando-se supero-posteriormente em direção ao assoalho do ventrículo lateral, por dentro do cavum do septo pelúcido. A lesão foi alcançada com neuroendoscópio rígido, através de um orifício de trépano pré-coronal situado a 2,5 cm da linha média (ponto de Kocher. Seguindo por via transventricular, a lâmina direita do septo pelúcido foi aberta, posterior à veia septal. A lesão, muito endurecida, situada entre os dois fórnices, foi parcialmente ressecada através da via endoscópica transventricular transepto-interforniceal. Realizamos também septostomia e terceiro ventriculostomia endoscópicas neste paciente. Os diferentes tipos de procedimentos cirúrgicos das patologias situadas no terceiro ventrículo são discutidos com ênfase no papel da endoscopia.

  17. Novel X-linked glomerulopathy is associated with a COL4A5 missense mutation in a non-collagenous interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Zender, Gloria A; Houston, Ronald; Baker, Peter B; McBride, Kim L; Luo, Wentian; Hains, David S; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Schwaderer, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    A novel COL4A5 mutation causes rapid progression to end-stage renal disease in males, despite the absence of clinical and biopsy findings associated with Alport syndrome. Affected males have proteinuria, variable hematuria, and an early progression to end-stage renal disease. Renal biopsy findings include global and segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity and basement membrane immune complex deposition. Exon sequencing of the COL4A5 locus identified a thymine to guanine transversion at nucleotide 665, resulting in a phenylalanine to cysteine missense mutation at codon 222. The phenylalanine at position 222 is absolutely conserved among vertebrates. This mutation was confirmed in 4 affected males and 4 female obligate carriers, but was absent in 6 asymptomatic male family members and 198 unrelated individuals. Immunostaining for α5(IV) collagen in renal biopsies from affected males was normal. This mutation, in a non-collagenous interruption associated with severe renal disease, provides evidence for the importance of this structural motif and suggests the range of phenotypes associated with COL4A5 mutations is more diverse than previously realized. Hence, COL4A5 mutation analysis should be considered when glomerulonephritis presents in an X-linked inheritance pattern, even with a presentation distinct from Alport syndrome. PMID:20881942

  18. COL1A2 gene analysis in a Czech osteogenesis imperfecta patient: a candidate novel mutation in a patient affected by osteogenesis imperfecta type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrušková L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lucie Hrušková,1 Ivo Mařík,2,3 Stella Mazurová,1 Pavel Martásek,1 Ivan Mazura1 1Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Ambulant Centre for Defects of Locomotor Apparatus 1.1.c., Prague, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Medical Studies, West Bohemia University, Pilsen, Czech RepublicAbstract: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable bone fragility disease with a heterogenic genetic origin. Most cases result from mutations of either the COL1A1 gene or the COL1A2 gene. We identified a novel COL1A2 gene mutation in a Czech patient, born to unaffected parents, who was diagnosed according to clinical and anthropometric findings and radiographic features as having type 3 osteogenesis imperfecta, which is a severe form of this disease. The identified Gly814Trp mutation was predicted by a number of complementary bioinformatic programs to result in functional alteration of the protein. This case report provides both evidence of a novel COL1A2 mutation resulting in type 3 osteogenesis imperfecta and a genotype:phenotype correlation in this affected individual. Keywords: osteogenesis imperfecta type 3, collagen, alpha-2 (I chain, substitution, sequencing 

  19. Andamiajes tridimensionales tipo esponjas basados en bioconjugados colágeno-quitosano como potencial biomaterial para aplicaciones en ingeniería de tejidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikol Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro trabajo utiliza quitosano aislado de líneas de desecho de la producción de camarón nativas y colágeno aislado de desechos de la piel de tilapia de cultivo; con estos biopolímeros se sintetizaron materiales compuestos a partir de la mezcla de quitosano y colágeno (80:20 v/v. Los compositos de colágeno-quitosano fueron formulados como andamiajes en 3D similares a una esponja, aplicando tecnologías previamente desarrolladas en nuestro grupo de investigación basadas en evaporación de solvente mediante liofilización. Los andamiajes de colágeno-quitosano fueron caracterizados de acuerdo con sus propiedades térmicas (análisis termogravimétrico y morfología (microscopía de barrido electrónico. Finalmente, se estudió el efecto de la adición de un agente porógeno en las propiedades de absorción de agua y la morfología de los andamiajes tridimensionales.

  20. Somatic mosaicism for the COL7A1 mutation p.Gly2034Arg in the unaffected mother of a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, P. C.; Pasmooij, A. M. G.; Meijer, R.; Scheffer, H.; Jonkman, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a heritable blistering disorder caused by mutations in the type VII collagen gene, COL7A1. Although revertant mosaicism is well known in DEB, 'forward' somatic mosaicism, in which a pathogenic mutation arises on a wild-type (WT) background, extending beyond

  1. Studies on the dispersal of Sphenophorus levis vaurie, 1978 (Col. curculionidae) adults in sugar cane by the use of radioactive tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Precetti, A.A.C.M.; Teran, F.O. (Centro de Tecnologia Copersucar, Piracicaba (Brazil)); Wiendl, F.M.; Sgrillo, R.B. (Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil))

    1983-08-01

    Studies are carried out on the dispersal of Sphenophorus levis vaurie, 1978 (Col, Curculionidae) using phosphorus 32 as radioactive tracer. The natural population of insects and the medium dispersal are estimated. After the conclusions, some recommendations are given concerning manners to prevent the pest dissemination.

  2. Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Johnson

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%, Typhimurium (15.0% and Heidelberg (1.7%. We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.

  3. NACA Aircraft on Lakebed - D-558-2, X-1B, and X-1E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    was the first aircraft to fly with a reaction control system, a prototype of the system used on the X-15. The X-1C was cancelled before production. Three D-558-2 'Skyrockets' were built by Douglas Aircraft, Inc. for NACA and the Navy. The mission of the D-558-2 program was to investigate the flight characteristics of a swept-wing aircraft at high supersonic speeds. Particular attention was given to the problem of 'pitch-up,' a phenomenon often encountered with swept-wing configured aircraft. The D-558-2 was a single-place, 35-degree swept-wing aircraft measuring 42 feet in length. It was 12 feet, 8 inches in height and had a wingspan of 25 feet. Fully fueled it weighed from about 10,572 pounds to 15,787 pounds depending on configuration. The first of the three D-558-IIs had a Westinghouse J34-40 jet engine and took off under its own power. The second was equipped with a turbojet engine replaced in 1950 with a Reaction Motors Inc. LR8-RM-6 rocket engine. This aircraft was modified so it could be air-launched from a P2B-1S (Navy designation for the B-29) carrier aircraft. The third Skyrocket had the jet engine and the rocket engine but was also modified so it could be air-launched. The jet engine was for takeoff and climbing to altitude and the four-chambered rocket engine was for reaching supersonic speeds. The rocket engine was rated at 6,000 pounds of thrust. The D-558-2 was first flown on Feb. 4, 1948, by John Martin, a Douglas test pilot. A NACA pilot, Scott Crossfield, became the first person to fly faster than twice the speed of sound when he piloted the D-558-II to its maximum speed of 1,291 miles per hour on Nov. 20, 1953. Its peak altitude, 83,235 feet, a record in its day, was reached with USMC Lt. Col. Marion Carl behind the controls.

  4. Improving Aircraft Design Robustness with Scenario Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strohmayer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other industries, the aerospace sector is characterized by long product cycles in a very complex environment. The aircraft manufacturer has to base his product strategy on a long-term view of risks and opportunities in the transport industry but he cannot predict the development of relevant factors in this market environment with any certainty. In this situation, scenario methods offer a pragmatic way to limit the uncertainties and to work them up methodically, in order to derive recommendations for cost-intensive strategic decisions like for example the go-ahead for a new aircraft concept. By including scenario methods in the aircraft design cycle, the ‘design robustness’ can be improved, i.e. the design is not optimised for a prognosticated operating environment, but can cope with various possible future developments. The paper will explain the three fundamental aspects in applying scenario planning to the aircraft design process: requirement definition, design evaluation and technology identification. For each aspect, methods will be shown, which connect the rather qualitative results of a scenario process with aircraft design, which typically demands a qualitative input.

  5. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  6. Aircraft impact analysis for the HFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analysis performed to determine the annual frequency at which aircraft are expected to strike the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) complex, located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Since the HFBR is not hardened against light aircraft, this report considers the impact of military, commercial, twin engine and single engine aircraft operating in the vicinity of the HFBR. The large volume of light aircraft operating in this area contributes heavily to the estimated annual impact frequency of 3.54E-05 impacts per year. There are two chapters and seven appendices in this report. The first chapter describes the airspace in the vicinity of the HFBR. This includes five airports, two major airways, one standard arrival route, as well as a significant volume of radar vectored and air-taxi traffic. The second chapter of this report presents the calculations by which the expected impact frequency was derived, and an assessment of the uncertainty in those calculations. The calculations were performed using the method outlined in the NRC Standard Review Plan. A separate set of calculations is presented for each of three sources of aircraft: airway traffic, Brookhaven Airport, and Calverton Airport. The appendices contain discussions and side calculations ancillary to the presentation in the second section. This includes a discussion of the data used to estimate traffic counts, information on accident rates, and several other points which would have only been distracting if included in the main discussion

  7. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    With a growing demand for fast international freight service, the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use will soon find a substantial portion of their clients looking elsewhere. One candidate for filling this expected gap in the freight market is a span-loading aircraft (or 'flying wing') capable of long-range operation with extremely large payloads. This report summarizes the design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long-haul, high-capacity cargo mission. The spanloader seeks to gain advantage over conventional aircraft by eliminating the aircraft fuselage and thus reducing empty weight. The primary disadvantage of this configuration is that the cargo-containing wing tends to be thick, thus posing a challenge to the airfoil designer. It also suffers from stability and control problems not encountered by conventional aircraft. The result is an interesting, challenging exercise in unconventional design. The report that follows is a student written synopsis of an effort judged to be the best of eight designs developed during the year 1988-1989.

  8. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  9. A novel splice variant in the N-propeptide of COL5A1 causes an EDS phenotype with severe kyphoscoliosis and eye involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Symoens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS is a heritable connective tissue disorder characterized by hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility and soft tissue fragility. The classic subtype of EDS is caused by mutations in one of the type V collagen genes (COL5A1 and COL5A2. Most mutations affect the type V collagen helical domain and lead to a diminished or structurally abnormal type V collagen protein. Remarkably, only two mutations were reported to affect the extended, highly conserved N-propeptide domain, which plays an important role in the regulation of the heterotypic collagen fibril diameter. We identified a novel COL5A1 N-propeptide mutation, resulting in an unusual but severe classic EDS phenotype and a remarkable splicing outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a novel COL5A1 N-propeptide acceptor-splice site mutation (IVS6-2A>G, NM_000093.3_c.925-2A>G in a patient with cutaneous features of EDS, severe progressive scoliosis and eye involvement. Two mutant transcripts were identified, one with an exon 7 skip and one in which exon 7 and the upstream exon 6 are deleted. Both transcripts are expressed and secreted into the extracellular matrix, where they can participate in and perturb collagen fibrillogenesis, as illustrated by the presence of dermal collagen cauliflowers. Determination of the order of intron removal and computational analysis showed that simultaneous skipping of exons 6 and 7 is due to the combined effect of delayed splicing of intron 7, altered pre-mRNA secondary structure, low splice site strength and possibly disturbed binding of splicing factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report a novel COL5A1 N-propeptide acceptor-splice site mutation in intron 6, which not only affects splicing of the adjacent exon 7, but also causes a splicing error of the upstream exon 6. Our findings add further insights into the COL5A1 splicing order and show for the first time that a single COL5A1 acceptor-splice site

  10. Influência da peritonite sobre a síntese de colágeno em anastomoses do cólon distal: estudo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondo-Simões Maria de Lourdes Pessole

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a relação entre a concentração de colágeno e a capacidade de suportar pressão em anastomoses de cólon quando existe peritonite, utilizaram-se 40 ratos machos, Wistar-TECPAR, com idade média de 120 dias e peso médio de 302 g, os quais foram divididos em 2 lotes de 20 animais que compuseram os grupos controle e peritonite. Sob anestesia inalatória e submetidos à laparotomia os ratos do grupo peritonite tiveram infecção induzida pelo método de Wichterman e col. e os do grupo controle laparotomia com manipulação dos segmentos intestinais envolvidos no experimento. Após 24 horas eram relaparotomizados, sofriam colotomia transversa total esquerda à 2,0 cm da reflexão peritoneal e anastomose em plano único, extra-mucoso. As aferições foram realizadas nop tereciro e sétimo dias de pós-operatório. Ressecava-se 4,0 cm do cólon esquerdo contendo a anastomose e media-se a pressão de ruptura. Realizou-se estudo histopatológico, empregando-se a coloração do Sirius-red e análise da concentração de colágeno através de método computadorizado. Verificou-se que a capacidade de suportar pressão aumentou com o tempo de evolução de forma semelhante nos dois grupos. A concentração de colágeno foi menor no grupo com peritonite no terceiro dia (p = 0,000168 e no sétimo dia (p = 0,0020. Os percentuais de colágeno I e III foram semelhantes no terceiro dia. Já no sétimo dia, no grupo peritonite predominou o colágeno tipo III ( p = 0,000079. Os resultados analisados demonstram que existe diminuição da concentração e da maturação do colágeno nas anastomoses colo-cólicas realizadas quando existe peritonite porém esta alteração não interfere na capacidade da anastomose suportar pressão.

  11. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  12. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  13. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  14. SIRT1 deacetylates RFX5 and antagonizes repression of collagen type I (COL1A2) transcription in smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► SIRT1 interacts with and deacetylates RFX5. ► SIRT1 activation attenuates whereas SIRT1 inhibition enhances collagen repression by RFX5 in vascular smooth muscle cells. ► SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization and proteasomal degradation of RFX5 and cripples promoter recruitment of RFX5. ► IFN-γ represses SIRT1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. ► SIRT1 agonist alleviates collagen repression by IFN-γ in vascular smooth muscle cells. -- Abstract: Decreased expression of collagen by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) within the atherosclerotic plaque contributes to the thinning of the fibrous cap and poses a great threat to plaque rupture. Elucidation of the mechanism underlying repressed collagen type I (COL1A2) gene would potentially provide novel solutions that can prevent rupture-induced complications. We have previously shown that regulatory factor for X-box (RFX5) binds to the COL1A2 transcription start site and represses its transcription. Here we report that SIRT1, an NAD-dependent, class III deacetylase, forms a complex with RFX5. Over-expression of SIRT1 or NAMPT, which synthesizes NAD+ to activate SIRT1, or treatment with the SIRT1 agonist resveratrol decreases RFX5 acetylation and disrupts repression of the COL1A2 promoter activity by RFX5. On the contrary, knockdown of SIRT1 or treatment with SIRT1 inhibitors induces RFX5 acetylation and enhances the repression of collagen transcription. SIRT1 antagonizes RFX5 activity by promoting its nuclear expulsion and proteasomal degradation hence dampening its binding to the COL1A2 promoter. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ represses COL1A2 transcription by down-regulating SIRT1 expression in SMCs. Therefore, our data have identified as novel pathway whereby SIRT1 maintains collagen synthesis in SMCs by modulating RFX5 activity.

  15. Analysis of four families with the Stickler syndrome by linkage studies. Identification of a new premature stop codon in the COL2A1 gene in a family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaventure, J.; Lasselin, C. [Hopital Necker, Paris (France); Toutain, A. [CHU Bretonneau, Tours (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Stickler syndrome is an arthro-ophthalmopathy which associates progressive myopia with vitreal degeneration and retinal detachment. Cleft palate, cranio-facial abnormalities, deafness and osteoarthritis are often associated symptoms. Genetic heterogeneity of this autosomal dominant disease was consistent with its large clinical variability. Linkage studies have provided evidence for cosegregation of the disease with COL2A1, the gene coding for type II collagen, in about 50% of the families. Four additional families are reported here. Linkage analyses by using a VNTR located in the 3{prime} region of the gene were achieved. In three families, positive lod scores were obtained with a cumulative maximal value of 3.5 at a recombination fraction of 0. In one of these families, single strand conformation analysis of 25 exons disclosed a new mutation in exon 42. Codon for glutamic acid at position a1-803 was converted into a stop codon. The mutation was detected in DNA samples from all the affected members of the family but not in the unaffected. This result confirms that most of the Stickler syndromes linked to COL2A1 are due to premature stop codons. In a second family, an abnormal SSCP pattern of exon 34 was detected in all the affected individuals. The mutation is likely to correspond to a splicing defect in the acceptor site of intron 33. In one family the disease did not segregate with the COL2A1 locus. Further linkage studies with intragenic dimorphic sites in the COL10A1 gene and highly polymorphic markers close to the COL9A1 locus indicated that this disorder did not result from defects in these two genes.

  16. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  17. Requirements for the protection against aircraft noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, H; Ortscheid, J

    2004-01-01

    In preparation of the revised edition of the Air Traffic Noise Act the Federal Environmental Agency formulated targets for aircraft noise control. They were prepared oriented to the Federal Immission Control Act. The assessment periods were chosen analogously to the regulations on other traffic noise sources (rail traffic, road traffic). The control targets cover the following affected areas * aural, extra-aural health * night's sleep * annoyance * communication * recreation Considerable nuisance can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise(outside) to equivalent levels below 55 dB(A) by day and 45 dB(A) at night, and impairment of health can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise (outside) to equivalent levels below 60 dB(A) by day and 50 dB(A) at night. PMID:15703137

  18. Aircraft induced contrail cirrus over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Condensation trails (contrails) and aircraft induced cirrus are nowadays a common feature at the mid latitude skies. Previously the impact of aircraft induced cirrus changes has been roughly estimated from observed decadal trends in cirrus cover but the direct attribution of observed cirrus changes to changes in aviation activity remains uncertain. In this paper the amount of additional cirrus induced from spreading contrails in humid air is estimated from the direct correlation between observed cirrus cover derived with suitable methods from METEOSAT data and aviation flight density reported by EUROCONTROL at high spatial and temporal resolution from June 22 to July 27, 1998 and September 27 to October 21, 2000. The results indicate that the aircraft induced cirrus cover over Europe is about ten times larger than that of linear contrails in the same region. Radiative forcing from the additional cirrus may be more than 10 times higher than that of linear contrails and aviation induced CO{sub 2} increases. (orig.)

  19. Robotic aircraft scanner for neutron radiographic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robotic positioner and manipulator, a key component of a mobile neutron radiography system (MNRS) for aircraft inspection, is described. The MNRS is designed to inspect military aircraft for hidden corrosion in aluminum structures. The MNRS is comprised of an accelerator-based (Kaman A-711 sealed tube neutron generator using the deuterium-tritium reaction) thermal neutron source, electronic neutron imaging system, robotic positioner and manipulator for the source/imager, control trailer housing system control electronics and digital image processing system, mobile dark room for film processing, self-contained electrical power source, and radiation safety system. For in situ aircraft inspection, the robotic scanner is programmed (in a teach/learn mode) to scan a region of the components (e.g., wings, stabilizers, etc.) using a control pendant

  20. A research on the performance of SF/COL/PLCL electrospun three-dimensiona nanofiber scaffold%SF/COL/PLCL静电纺丝三维纳米纤维支架材料的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷丽华; 王红; 张忠芮; 黄嵩涛; 王家奎; 秦子顺; 孙琪; 余占海

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was tostructure a kind of three-dimensiona nanofiber scaffold composed of SF, collagenⅠand PLCL by using electrospinning technique and to evaluate its performance.We took 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP)as solvent to prepare different mass ratios of SF/collagenⅠ/PLCL scaffolds (0∶100,30∶70,50∶50,70∶30,100∶0)and the properties of these scaffolds were studied before and after they were crosslinked by 25% glutaraldehyde vapor for 48 hours.The results were described as follow:scan-ning electron microscopy(SEM)and the contact water angle meter analysis showed that the uniformity of com-posite nanofibers was improved and with the existence of PLCL,the hydrophilic property decreased.XRD anal-ysis indicates that the nanofibers scaffolds had higher crystallinity after crosslinked.The thermal stability of the scaffold material was also increased.With rising levels of PLCL,the properties of the scaffolds were increased significantly after crosslinking.When the human periodontal ligament stem cells(hPDLSCs)were seeded on SF/collagenⅠ/PLCL scaffolds,they grew well and showed better ability of adhesion and proliferation.Among the scaffolds,PLCL content of 70% did best with significant differences.Our study indicated that this kind of electrospun three-dimensiona nanofiber scaffold might be a potential candidate for restoration of periodontal de-fect and the periodontal tissue engineering.%采用静电纺丝法以六氟异丙醇(HFIP)为溶剂,将质量比为70∶30的 SF/COL (丝素/胶原)和PLLC(聚左旋乳酸己内酯)共混制备质量比为0∶100,30∶70,50∶50,70∶30,100∶0的8% SF/COL/PLCL的三维纳米纤维支架,25%戊二醛蒸汽交联48 h后检测各组比例支架材料的理化性能及生物性能。扫描电镜显示纳米纤维形貌良好,均为纳米级别;X射线衍射结果显示交联后材料结晶度增强,Silk Ⅰ构象由α-折叠形成稳定的β-折叠;材料交联后为疏水性, PLCL的加入

  1. ANASE: measuring aircraft noise annoyance very unreliably.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Does anyone who lives under a flight-path like aircraft noise? It is a political hot potato as well as a peace-destroyer. Tens of thousands of people will hear the noise from any third runway at Heathrow. So, when a study commissioned by the government claimed that people are becoming less tolerant of aircraft noise, it made highly unpleasant reading for supporters of a third runway. But the Department for Transport rejected the report as unreliable. Peter Brooker senses the vibrations.

  2. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  3. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  4. Aircraft concepts for service to small communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Small communities are served by trunk, local-service, and commuter carriers having a wide variety in route structure, type of service, and economic character, operating over stage lengths less than 400 statute miles. NASA studies have investigated various aircraft concepts for short-haul that have potential in this market area. Aircraft concepts for this market require a careful balancing of performance, technology, and design-to-cost considerations. This paper summarizes some results of recent NASA sponsored air transportation system studies applicable to small community arenas.

  5. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  6. Modelling Lightning Initiation and Attachment to Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present initial calculations of the formation of streamers on an aircraft. A two-dimensional model has been used to determine electric field strengths and charge densities around solids of various geometries and electrical conductivities. The calculations take into account the distortion of the background electric fields by the solid material and the production and motion of charged species. Detailed time-dependent visualizations of the streamer initiation and propagation are presented. The effects of size and aspect ratio of the gross features of the aircraft on the development of the streamers is discussed

  7. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  8. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  9. The contribution of aircraft emissions to the atmospheric sulfur budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Feichter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Sausen, R.; Hein, R. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model including the atmospheric sulfur cycle has been used to investigate the impact of aircraft sulfur emissions on the global sulfur budget of the atmosphere. The relative contribution from aircraft sulfur to the atmospheric sulfate burden is larger than the ratio between aircraft emissions and surface emissions due to the calculated long turn-over time of aircraft sulfate (about 12 days). However, in terms of the sulfate mass balance, aircraft emissions are small, contributing about 1% of the total sulfate mass north of 40 deg C where the aircraft emissions are largest. Despite this small contribution to sulfate mass, the aircraft emissions could potentially significantly enhance the background number concentration of aerosol particles. Based on the model calculations the increased stratospheric background aerosol mass observed during the last decades can not be explained by increased aircraft sulfur emissions 50 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We...

  11. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  12. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  13. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  14. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  15. CAD SIMULATION & FEM ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh W. Nirwan; Dilip G. Gangwani,

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft landing gear supports the entire weight of an aircraft during landing and ground operations. They are attached to primary structural members of the aircraft. The type of gear depends on the aircraft design and its intended use. Most landing gear has wheels to facilitate operation to and from hard surfaces, such as airport runways. Other gear feature skids for this purpose, such as those found on helicopters, balloon gondolas, and in the tail area of some tail dragger airc...

  16. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel

    2011-01-01

    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  17. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  18. Actuation technology for flight control system on civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses the author’s Group Design Project (GDP) and Individual Research Project (IRP). The IRP is discussed primarily herein, presenting the actuation technology for the Flight Control System (FCS) on civil aircraft. Actuation technology is one of the key technologies for next generation More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and All Electric Aircraft (AEA); it is also an important input for the preliminary design of the Flying Crane, the aircraft designed in the author’s G...

  19. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  20. A measurement method to discriminate aircraft fly-over noise

    OpenAIRE

    Genesca Francitorra, Meritxell; Romeu Garbí, Jordi; Pàmies Gómez, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Currently aircraft noise monitoring systems use a mesh of single microphones distributed around an airport to continuously sample the noise level. This fact requires a manual process of aircraft noise event detection and classification in order to distinguish aircraft events from the rest of noise events in the recording. In the present paper a 3-meter-long 12-microphone linear array is used to automatically obtain a background noise free aircraft noise recording. The beamforming process sepa...

  1. Light shaping diffusers{trademark} improve aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shie, R.; Lerner, J. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Physical Optical Corporation has introduced a Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) for the specialized illumination requirements of aircraft inspection. Attached to a handheld, battery-powered flashlight, this light-weight, holographic diffuser element provides bright, even illumination as aircraft inspectors perform the important task of visually examining aircraft for possible structural defects. Field trials conducted by the Aging Aircraft Program at Sandia National Laboratories confirm that the LSD-equipped flashlights are preferred by visual inspectors over stock flashlights.

  2. Corrosion Sensor Development for Condition-Based Maintenance of Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gino Rinaldi; Trisha Huber; Heather McIntosh; Les Lebrun; Heping Ding; John Weber

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft routinely operate in atmospheric environments that, over time, will impact their structural integrity. Material protection and selection schemes notwithstanding, recurrent exposure to chlorides, pollution, temperature gradients, and moisture provide the necessary electrochemical conditions for the development and profusion of corrosion in aircraft structures. For aircraft operators, this becomes an important safety matter as corrosion found in a given aircraft must be assumed to be p...

  3. COL5A1: Genetic mapping and exclusion as candidate gene in families with nail-patella syndrome, tuberous sclerosis 1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, D.S. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Northrup, H.; Au, K.S. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-10

    COL5A1, the gene for the {alpha}1 chain of type V collagen, has been considered a candidate gene for certain diseases based on chromosomal location and/or disease phenotype. We have employed 3{prime}-untranslated region RFLPs to exclude COL5A1 as a candidate gene in families with tuberous sclerosis 1, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type H, and nail-patella syndrome. In addition, we describe a polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) within a COL5A1 intron. This SSR is used to exclude COL5A1 as a candidate gene in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Rendu-Weber disease) and to add COL5A1 to the existing map of {open_quotes}index{close_quotes} markers of chromosome 9 by evaluation of the COL5A1 locus on the CEPH 40-family reference pedigree set. This genetic mapping places COL5A1 between markers D9S66 and D9S67. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... of provisions pertaining to integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY: Federal... be levied on the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site operators, but prior to the close of the...

  5. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... revision process. Background: Under the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule, 69 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004,...

  6. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft....

  7. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with Federal...

  8. 10 CFR 70.14 - Foreign military aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign military aircraft. 70.14 Section 70.14 Energy....14 Foreign military aircraft. The regulations in this part do not apply to persons who carry special nuclear material (other than plutonium) in aircraft of the armed forces of foreign nations subject to 49...

  9. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  10. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  11. Northwest to Accelerate Retirement of Dc10 Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Northwest Airlines announced that it will accelerate the retirement of its remaining 12DC10-30 aircraft in service. The airline said that during the next seven months,it will replace DC10 aircraft with new Airbus A330s and Boeing 747-400aircraft being returned to service.Currently, seven routes are served with the DC10.

  12. 77 FR 24251 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with...

  13. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards...

  14. 75 FR 9327 - Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 91 RIN 2120-AJ31 Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations... operating rules to require U.S. operators flying outside the United States to carry aircraft noise..., Subpart III, Section 44715, Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom. Under that section, the FAA...

  15. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract...

  17. Commercial Aircraft Emission Scenario for 2020: Database Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkus, Donald J., Jr.; Baughcum, Steven L.; DuBois, Douglas P.; Wey, Chowen C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel use and emissions (NO(x), CO, and hydrocarbons) for the commercial aircraft fleet projected to 2020. Global totals of emissions and fuel burn for 2020 are compared to global totals from previous aircraft emission scenario calculations.

  18. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft...

  19. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industrial Mecanico AMT-200......... 912 A2 Metalurgica tda.....

  20. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Engine model Aeromot-Industria Mecanico AMT-200 912 A2. Metalurgica ltda. Diamond Aircraft...

  1. Mission management for unmanned aircraft systems

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Arroyo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design and implement a mission manager for unmanned aircraft systems. The mission manager will work under the USAL architecture designed by the ICARUS UAV group at the EPSC. The student will be able to learn programming skills, working with a group, and research.

  2. Ultrawideband Electromagnetic Interference to Aircraft Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Shaver, Timothy W.

    2002-01-01

    A very recent FCC Final Rule now permits marketing and operation of new products that incorporate Ultrawideband (UWB) technology into handheld devices. Wireless product developers are working to rapidly bring this versatile, powerful and expectedly inexpensive technology into numerous consumer wireless devices. Past studies addressing the potential for passenger-carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to interfere with aircraft electronic systems suggest that UWB transmitters may pose a significant threat to aircraft communication and navigation radio receivers. NASA, United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated have performed preliminary testing that clearly shows the potential for handheld UWB transmitters to cause cockpit failure indications for the air traffic control radio beacon system (ATCRBS), blanking of aircraft on the traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) displays, and cause erratic motion and failure of instrument landing system (ILS) localizer and glideslope pointers on the pilot horizontal situation and attitude director displays. This paper provides details of the preliminary testing and recommends further assessment of aircraft systems for susceptibility to UWB electromagnetic interference.

  3. Tactical aircraft optical cable plant program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Murdock, John K.; Ide, James R.

    1995-05-01

    A program was created with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to tactical aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits, including increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability from redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits will only be realized if fiber optics meets the unique requirements of aircraft networks. The application of fiber optics to tactical aircraft presents challenges to physical components which can only be met by a methodical attention to what is required, what are the conditions of use, and how will the components be produced in the broad context of a fiber optics using economy. For this purpose, the FLASH program has outlined a plan, and developed a team to evaluate requirements, delineate environmental and use conditions, and design practical, low cost components for tactical aircraft fiber optic cable plants including cables, connectors, splices, backplanes, manufacturing and installation methods, and test and maintenance methods.

  4. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  5. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

  6. Aircraft noise: Changes of biochemical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, E.; Moese, J.R.; Gallasch, E.; Fueger, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of stress caused by aircraft noise was studied on 14 female and 11 male volunteers, who were of a age ranging from 21 to 42 years and of a mean age of 25 years. The volunteers were exposed to an aircraft simulator the simulated the lowlevel flight of an airforce plane and produced a maximum noise level of 105 dB(A) for 3 sec. in a short time. Before and immediately after the exposure, the concentration of ACTH was measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. The ACTH is a hormone, responsible for initiating a chain-reaction that is characteristic for a stress reaction. In 100% of the cases the concentration of this hormone increased. It reached a pathological level in 28% of the cases. The effect on the lipid metabolism was expressed by an increase of total cholesterol and a decrease of the triglycerides in the serum. A slight increase in blood sugar which, together with the free fatty acids, is relatively quickly reduced to energy, could determined. The aircraft noise did not influence the activity of the liver transaminases in any way. A short-term exposure to aircraft noise is able to stimulate a stress reaction, whereby, the determination of the ACTH offers valuable informations.

  7. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  8. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  9. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  10. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João;

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial...

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  12. Recognition of aircraft using HRR features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossen, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) based on high resolution radar (HRR) features can be used to increase the confidence in aircraft class. Standard radar systems are not designed for performing classification and uses additional identification systems. It is shown that with the use of features the a

  13. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...), and (d) published at 78 FR 14920 on March 8, 2013, are effective on November 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER...-161, published at 78 FR 14920, March 8, 2013. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1187. The Commission... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  14. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6... safety. (a) The provisions of this part will be revised if at any time the Administrator determines...

  15. Atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaust emissions from aircraft include oxides of nitrogen (NOx), water vapor (H2O), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particles (soot and sulfates). These emissions are small compared to industrial/urban surface emissions. However, because (1) atmospheric residence times of exhaust constituents are longer at altitude, particularly in the stratosphere, than they are in the boundary layer, (2) their background concentrations at altitude are lower than those near the surface, (3) the radiation balance is the more sensitive to atmospheric trace constituents the colder the temperature aloft and (4) inter-hemispheric mixing of aircraft effluents is inhibited, aircraft emissions near and above the tropopause and polewards of 40 degrees latitude can be environmentally critical. That's why atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions have again received scientific, economic and political scrutiny in the last few years, motivated by growth of subsonic traffic at about 5% per year over the past two decades and the advent of a technologically feasible operation of a supersonic high speed commercial transport (HSCT) fleet

  16. Incident response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Jacobs, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) was granted by ASHRAE (1306-RP) to conduct scientfic review and feasibility analysis of technologies and methods for measuring aircraft power system contaminants in the cabin air during unanticipated adverse incidents. In particular,

  17. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  18. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    OpenAIRE

    Наумов, А. В.

    1999-01-01

    Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  20. Computer Aided Visual Inspection of Aircraft Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Mumtaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Non Destructive Inspections (NDI plays a vital role in aircraft industry as it determines the structural integrity of aircraft surface and material characterization. The existing NDI methods are time consuming, we propose a new NDI approach using Digital Image Processing that has the potential to substantially decrease the inspection time. Automatic Marking of cracks have been achieved through application of Thresholding, Gabor Filter and Non Subsampled Contourlet transform. For a novel method of NDI, the aircraft imagery is analyzed by three methods i.e Neural Networks, Contourlet Transform (CT and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. With the help of Contourlet Transform the two dimensional (2-D spectrum is divided into fine slices, using iterated directional filterbanks. Next, directional energy components for each block of the decomposed subband outputs are computed. These energy values are used to distinguish between the crack and scratch images using the Dot Product classifier. In next approach, the aircraft imagery is decomposed into high and low frequency components using DCT and the first order moment is determined to form feature vectors.A correlation based approach is then used for distinction between crack and scratch surfaces. A comparative examination between the two techniques on a database of crack and scratch images revealed that texture analysis using the combined transform based approach gave the best results by giving an accuracy of 96.6% for the identification of crack surfaces and 98.3% for scratch surfaces.

  1. Aircraft engine performance and integration in a flying wing aircraft conceptual design

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Zhisong.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand of more economical and environmentally friendly aero engines leads to the proposal of a new concept – geared turbofan. In this thesis, the characteristics of this kind of engine and relevant considerations of integration on a flying wing aircraft were studied. The studies can be divided into four levels: GTF-11 engine modelling and performance simulation; aircraft performance calculation; nacelle design and aerodynamic performance evaluation; preliminar...

  2. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Procedures for Aircraft;'' Final Rule, 38 FR 19088, July 17, 1973. \\12\\ U.S. EPA, ``Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 62 FR 25356... Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 70 FR 2521, November 17, 2005. E....

  3. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  4. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  5. Úlceras Colónicas por TB e Histoplasmosis en un paciente portador de VIH/Sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garzona-Schmidt

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un paciente masculino de 35 años, costarricense, con un cuadro de trastornos intestinales inespecíficos, de 3 años de evolución, intensificados en el último mes previo a su internamiento, siendo diagnosticado con VIH y mediante colonoscopía se le diagnosticó una enfermedad inflamatoria colónica por tuberculosis e histoplasmosis intestinal, la cual resolvió en su totalidad luego de nueve meses de tratamiento antifímico y antifungico.A 35-year-old male with a 3 year history of of gastrointestinal symptoms, diagnosed as HIV with intestinal tuberculosis and histoplasmosis is described. Clinical, epidemiological and histological findings in this opportunistic infection are presented. The incidence of tubeculosis has increased since the mid 80´s, when the HIV infection started to reach pandemic proportions. Nowadays it is mandatory for clinicians to be aware of the wide spectrum of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is also important to bear in mind that histoplasmosis is the most common systemic fungal infection and it is acquiring greater proportions now that it is been related to HIV patients.

  6. Consumo alimentar de adolescentes matriculados em um colégio particular de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO Cecilia Maria Resende Gonçalves de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o consumo alimentar de adolescentes matriculados em um colégio particular de Teresina, realizou-se estudo transversal através de amostragem sistemática. A freqüência de consumo de alimentos expressa em dias por semana foi obtida mediante questionário administrado individualmente ao aluno. O estado nutricional foi avaliado pelo Índice de Massa Corporal, considerando com sobrepeso valores > ou = P85. Os resultados indicam prevalência elevada de risco para o sobrepeso (19,8% nos 334 adolescentes. Os meninos consumiram com maior freqüência alimentos energéticos (milho, manteiga, pizza, lasanha, sucos industrializados, refrigerantes e construtores (frango, ovos, leguminosas em relação às meninas (p < 0,05. Os adolescentes de 10 a 13 anos consumiram com maior freqüência milho, mel, açúcar, rapadura enquanto aqueles com idade entre 17 e 19 anos consumiram mais arroz, bolos, biscoitos, rosca, balas, goma de mascar, refrigerantes, frutas verde-amarelo.

  7. Transformation of Shewanella baltica with ColE1-like and P1 plasmids and their maintenance during bacterial growth in cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Klaudia; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2015-09-01

    The presence of natural plasmids has been reported for many Shewanella isolates. However, knowledge about plasmid replication origin and segregation mechanisms is not extensive for this genus. Shewanella baltica is an important species in the marine environment due to its denitrification ability in oxygen-deficient zones and the potential role in bioremediation processes. However, no information about possible use of plasmid vectors in this species has been reported to date. Here we report that plasmids with ColE1-type and plasmid P1 origin can transform S. baltica and replicate in this bacterium. Without the antibiotic selection pressure plasmid maintenance is less efficient than in Escherichia coli. Nevertheless, cultivation of S. baltica in the presence of appropriate antibiotics caused relatively stable maintenance of ColE1-like and P1-derived plasmids. This indicates that plasmid-based genetic manipulations and gene transfer in S. baltica are possible. PMID:26170108

  8. Comportamiento in vitro del colágeno de la unión amelodentinaria en premolares humanos sometidos a altas temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Medina; Carlos Mejía; Freddy Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento in vitro del colágeno de la unión amelo-dentinaria en premolares humanos sometidos a altas temperaturas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo pseudo-experimental in vitro de corte transversal que determinó, a través de microscopía electrónica de barrido, el comportamiento físico del colágeno de la unión amelodentinaria en 60 premolares humanos sometidos a altas temperaturas (200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C y 1.000°C), para proporcionar evidencia ci...

  9. COL11A2 mutation associated with autosomal recessive Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome: molecular and clinical overlap with otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Tamar; Rabinowitz, Ronen; Hendler, Netta; Galil, Aharon; Flusser, Hagit; Chemke, Juan; Gradstein, Libe; Lifshitz, Tova; Ofir, Rivka; Elbedour, Khalil; Birk, Ohad S

    2005-01-01

    Autosomal recessive Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome (WZS) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by rhizomelic dwarfism and severe hearing loss. Mutations in the COL11A2 gene have been implicated in causing the autosomal dominant form of this syndrome as well as non-ocular Stickler syndrome and the autosomal recessive syndrome otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED). In a consanguineous Bedouin tribe living in Southern Israel, five individuals affected by autosomal recessive WZS were available for genetic analysis. Homozygosity of a mutation in the COL11A2 gene was found in all affected individuals. This finding lends molecular support to the clinical notion that autosomal recessive WZS and OSMED are a single entity. PMID:15558753

  10. Correlating alleles of genes LPH, CALCR, COL1A1, VDR with the indicators of bone tissue mineral density in female population of Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Akilzhanova

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper attemts to identify distribution of frequency of alleles of LPH,CALCR, COL1A1, VDR genes and correlation with indicators of bonetissue mineral density (BTMD in population of reproductive agefemales in the Eastern region of Kazakhstan.Genetic research has been conducted on 475 females exhibiting LPH,CALCR, COL1A1, VDR genes, presence of which, according to previousresearch, is due to confirmed increased risk of osteoporosis. Examinedfemales were distributed by race: 213 women were of European descent,262 -Asian (Turkic.Women of Turkic descent presented a much elevated rate of allelespertaining to the genes associated with the risk of reduced BTMD.Moreover, correlation has been established between osteopeniacsyndrome and existence of certain recessive alleles in heterozygouscases.

  11. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  12. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  13. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  14. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eikmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  15. Power Generation and Distribution System of Modern Civil Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the aircraft industry is moving towards the all electric and More Electric Aircraft (MEA; is the future trend in adopting single power type for driving the non-propulsive aircraft systems; i.e. is the electrical power. The trend in the aircraft industry is to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems achieving more comfort and monitoring features. The structure of MEA distribution system improves aircraft maintainability, reliability, flight safety and efficiency. Moreover, MEA reduces the emissions of air pollutant gases from aircrafts, which can contribute in significantly solving some of the problems of climate change. However, the MEA puts some challenges on the aircraft electrical system, both in the amount of the required power and the processing and management of this power. MEA electrical distribution systems are mainly in the form of multi-converter power electronic system.

  16. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  17. Californium-based neutron radiography for corrosion detection in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of an overall program aimed at minimizing disassembly and reducing inspection time during aircraft maintenance, a series of projects has been carried out to determine the feasibility of applying neutron radiographic techniques to the nondestructive (NDT) inspection of aircraft and aircraft components. These investigations have clearly demonstrated the superiority of neutron radiography over all other NDT techniques in its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure. This capability is particularly significant where the corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in the wing tank of E-2C, C-130, and DC-9 aircraft; rear stabilators of F-4 and F-111 aircraft; aft spar, starboard and port wing, and rudder of the F-8; fuselage skin of the 727; rotary blades of AH-1 and SH-3 helicopters; rotary tail flaps of the UH-2 helicopter; and nose landing gear of A-7 aircraft

  18. Human COL2A1-directed SV40 T antigen expression in transgenic and chimeric mice results in abnormal skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The ability of SV40 T antigen to cause abnormalities in cartilage development in transgenic mice and chimeras has been tested. The cis- regulatory elements of the COL2A1 gene were used to target expression of SV40 T antigen to differentiating chondrocytes in transgenic mice and chimeras derived from embryonal stem (ES) cells bearing the same transgene. The major phenotypic consequences of transgenic (pAL21) expression are malformed skeleton, disproportionate dwarfism, and perinatal/neonatal d...

  19. Efeito da instilação correta de colírios sobre a pressão intra-ocular de pacientes com glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidergorn Paulo Gelman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da instilação correta de colírios hipotensores oculares no comportamento pressórico de pacientes portadores de glaucoma crônico. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo realizado em 90 olhos, de 47 pacientes. Em cada participante era realizada uma minicurva pressórica antes, e outra após lhe ser explicado como proceder à instilação correta de colírios. A seguir, as médias pressóricas obtidas nas duas minicurvas eram comparadas. RESULTADOS: Houve queda significativa de 22,3% na pressão intra-ocular média de 35 (38,9% olhos. Dos restantes, 35 (38,9 % olhos exibiram pequena queda (-8,2% em sua média pressórica e, 20 (22,2 %, pequeno aumento (+8,4%, ambos não estatisticamente significantes. CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se que parcela expressiva da população estudada conseguiu obter redução adicional em sua média pressórica por meio da instilação correta de colírios. Portanto, o ensino da técnica adequada da instilação de colírio é necessária a todos os pacientes, podendo resultar em benefício extra para os usuários de medicação hipotensora ocular.

  20. Association analysis of the COL1A1 polymorphism with bone mineral density and prevalent fractures in Polish postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Michalina; Drwęska-Matelska, Natalia; Michalak, Michał; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Słomski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polymorphism in the promoter region of collagen type 1α (COL1A1) +1245G/T (Sp1, rs1800012) was in some studies shown to be relevant for bone mineral density (BMD) and low-energy fracture prediction. The aim of the study was to confirm this finding in a group of postmenopausal women diagnosed with osteoporosis. Material and methods We investigated 311 Caucasian women (mean age: 65.2 ±9.39 years) either after low-energy fractures (regardless of the location) or meeting World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for osteoporosis. All patients underwent clinical examination in order to exclude secondary osteoporosis; hip and lumbar spine DEXA was performed (Lunar). The three genotypes of Sp1 polymorphism were determined by RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). Results Distribution of COL1A1 genotypes (SS/Ss/ss) agreed with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No relation between COL1A1 genotypes and hip/L1-L4 BMD was found. Fractures were reported in 26.3% of women. Prevalence of low-energy fractures, regardless of the type, was 50.0% in ss genotype carriers, 26.4% in SS homozygotes and 23.7% in Ss heterozygotes. There was no statistically significant recessive or dominant effect of any Sp1 genotype on fracture prevalence (p = 0.613). Conclusions We failed to observe that COL1A1 Sp 1 genotypes contribute to BMD determination or are associated with prevalent low-energy fractures in a Polish cohort of postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  1. Demise of the northern Tethyan Urgonian carbonate platform and subsequent transition towards pelagic conditions: the sedimentary record of the Col de la Plaine Morte area, central Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Föllmi K.B.; Gainon F.

    2008-01-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Col de la Plaine Morte area (Helvetic Alps, central Switzerland) documents the disappearance of the northern Tethyan Urgonian platform in unprecedented detail and suggests stepwise platform demise, with each drowning phase documented by erosion and phosphogenesis. The first identified drowning phase terminated Urgonian carbonate production in a predominantly photozoan mode. Using a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record with the well-dated record from SE F...

  2. Transcription profiling by array of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col-0) and flowering time mutants to investigate synchronized induction of flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Valentim, F.L.; Mourik, van, J.A.; Posé, D.; Kim, M.C.; M. Schmid; van der Ham; Busscher, M.; Sanchez-Perez, G.F.; Molenaar, J.; Immink, G.H.; Dijk, van, G.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronized induction of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col-0) and flowering time mutants (soc1, agl24, fd) by shifting from short day (8 hr light, 16 hr dark; 23C; 65% rel humidity) to long day (16 hr light, 8 hr dark; 23C; 65% rel humidity) for 0, 3, 5, and 7 days. Biotinylated probes were synthesized from RNA isolated from manually disseted shoot meristems and hybridized to Affymetrix ATH1 arrays.

  3. Mechanical and Electrophysiological Properties of the Sarcolemma of Muscle Fibers in Two Murine Models of Muscle Dystrophy: Col6a1−/− and Mdx

    OpenAIRE

    Canato, M.; Dal Maschio, M.; Sbrana, F.; R. Raiteri; C. Reggiani; Vassanelli, S.; A. Megighian

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the sarcolemma of Col6a1−/− fibers in comparison with wild type and mdx fibers, taken as positive control in view of the known structural and functional alterations of their membranes. Structural and mechanical properties were studied in single muscle fibers prepared from FDB muscle using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conventional electrophysiological techniques to measure ionic conductance and capacitance. While the sarcolemma topography was pres...

  4. SIN Retroviral Vectors Expressing COL7A1 Under Human Promoters for Ex Vivo Gene Therapy of Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    OpenAIRE

    Titeux, Matthias; Pendaries, Valérie; Zanta-Boussif, Maria A; Décha, Audrey; Pironon, Nathalie; Tonasso, Laure; Mejia, José E; Brice, Agnes; Danos, Olivier; Hovnanian, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in COL7A1 encoding type VII collagen which forms key structures (anchoring fibrils) for dermal–epidermal adherence. Patients suffer since birth from skin blistering, and develop severe local and systemic complications resulting in poor prognosis. We lack a specific treatment for RDEB, but ex vivo gene transfer to epidermal stem cells shows a therapeutic potential. To minimize the risk of oncogenic events...

  5. The Christopher Columbus Project: An Enterprise of Modernity El proyecto de Cristóbal Colón: Una empresa de la modernidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Rojas Arias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The project of discovering America by Christopher Columbus is an enterprise of Modernity, understood as the modern mentality displayed in the capitalist system. Even though Columbus lived during the Renaissance period, the mentality carried in his project is closer to some modern philosophers such as Descartes and Hobbes, who from rationality and individualism constitute a change of time. The hypothesis that Columbus is a modern person is sustained with evidence in the reasons he explained to defend his project from the Spanish court and especially the final agreement, "the capitulation", in which rationality and individualism took precedence over divine or medieval considerations. The rationalist mentality of Columbus prefigures that from modern businessman who does not stitch without thimble.El descubrimiento de América, impulsado por Cristóbal Colón, es una empresa  de la Modernidad, entendida esta como la mentalidad moderna desplegada en el sistema capitalista. Si bien es cierto que Colón, por la época en que vivió, se ubica  dentro del Renacimiento, la mentalidad con que fue llevada a cabo su iniciativa está más cerca de modernos como Descartes y Hobbes, quienes, a partir de la racionalidad y el individualismo, configuran un cambio de época. La hipótesis de que Colón es un moderno se sustenta con muchas evidencias en las razones que construyó para defender su proyecto ante la corte española y especialmente en el acuerdo final, “la capitulación”, en donde la racionalidad y el individualismo priman sobre consideraciones divinas o medievales. La mentalidad racionalista de Colón prefigura la del empresario moderno que no da puntada sin dedal.  

  6. Comportamiento in vitro del colágeno de la unión amelodentinaria en premolares humanos sometidos a altas temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Medina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento in vitro del colágeno de la unión amelo-dentinaria en premolares humanos sometidos a altas temperaturas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo pseudo-experimental in vitro de corte transversal que determinó, a través de microscopía electrónica de barrido, el comportamiento físico del colágeno de la unión amelodentinaria en 60 premolares humanos sometidos a altas temperaturas (200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C y 1.000°C, para proporcionar evidencia científica que permita emplear la separación del esmalte y la dentina como un marcador fehaciente repetitivo de utilidad en los procesos de identificación odontológica y documentación de la necropsia médico-legal para el caso de cadáveres o restos humanos que resulten quemados, carbonizados o incinerados. Resultados: Se observa que el diseño micro-estructural del patrón reticular de colágeno de la dentina en relación con los cristales de hidroxiapatita resulto afectado conforme aumentaba la temperatura. Conclusiones: En conjunto, la alteración del patrón reticular del colágeno y los cambios micro-estructurales de la hidroxiapatita de calcio (fusión y sinterización de las nano-esferas de fosfato octa-cálcico de la dentina y del esmalte, explican la separación gradual y progresiva de estos dos tejidos a nivel de la unión amelo-dentinaria.

  7. Membranas de colágeno y quitosano de fuentes alternativas: evaluación para su uso potencial en ingeniería de tejidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia E. Castro-Piedra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Los polímeros naturales, como el colágeno y el quitosano, presentan características físicas, químicas y biológicas que los hacen buenos candidatos para usarlos como soportes análogos de matriz extracelular, con potenciales aplicaciones en la ingeniería de tejidos. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron membranas biopoliméricas de colágeno y quitosano de material considerado tradicionalmente de desecho en la industria pesquera, para el cultivo de fibroblastos dérmicos. Se emplearon matrices de 100% colágeno, 100% quitosano y colágeno:quitosano en proporciones 8:2, 2:8, 6:4 y 4:6, obtenidos a partir fuentes alternativas (cáscara de camarón y piel de tilapia. El principal reto para el empleo de estos materiales en aplicaciones biomédicas es su esterilización, para lo cual se evaluaron diferentes métodos, incluyendo tratamientos químicos (etanol, antibióticos y acetona y físicos (rayos X, radiación UVC. El único procedimiento que permitió la desinfección efectiva sin comprometer la integridad de los biomateriales fue la incubación con antibióticos y antimicóticos durante 48 horas. Además, se confirmó la adhesión y proliferación celular sobre las membranas. Estos resultados demostraron el potencial biomédico de estos materiales.

  8. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  9. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lovejoy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to unavoidable vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is anisotropic not isotropic. In this paper, we show how this can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 tropospheric data following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k−5/3 (although smoothed by aircraft intertia at scales <3 km. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations with all of these effects occurring over the entire range of scales so that the trajectories influence the wind measurements over large ranges of scale. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have no apparent scale breaks and the corresponding coherencies and phases are low reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions we then estimate the small and large scale exponents finding that they are close to the Kolmogorov values (5/3, 1/3 and the vertical values (2.4, 0.73 respectively (for the spectral and real space scaling exponents (β, H the latter are close to those estimated by drop sondes (2.4, 0.75 in the vertical direction. In addition, for each leg we estimate the energy flux, the sphero

  10. Construcció d'una comunitat d'aprenentatge mitjançant la utilització de col·laboració i tecnologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Vidal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available L'objectiu de l'article és presentar una experiència educativa de col.laboració per crear una comunitat d'aprenentatge composta dels estudiants i la professora. Aquesta comunitat es va formar en un curs de comunicació oral de nivell avançat d'espanyol a la Duke University en treballar de forma cooperativa en la creació de contingut i en participar els estudiants en certes decisions sobre l'avaluació d'una tasca. La combinació d'estratègies col.laboratives i tecnològiques utilitzades van crear un ambient on es van millorar destreses lingüístiques, discursives i, al mateix temps, es va crear una plataforma on es va facilitar el pensament crític. Aquesta experiència educativa va transformar els rols dels estudiants i de la professora per permetre una màxima col.laboració i integració dels seus rols.

  11. SF/COL/PLLA静电纺丝三维纳米纤维支架材料的性能研究*%A research on the performance of SF/COL/PLLA electrospun three-dimensiona nanofiber scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠芮; 王红; 高维岳; 王家奎; 黄嵩涛; 殷丽华; 王琳; 余占海

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare a kind of nanofiber scaffolds composed of different mass ratios of silkfi-broin(SF)/collagen/PLLA by using electrospinning technique and to evaluate its properties.1 ,1 ,1 ,3 ,3 ,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP)was taken as solvent to prepare the nanofiber scaffolds and the mass ratios of SF/collagen/PLLA were set as 0∶100,30∶70,50∶50,70∶30,100∶0.And then the preoperties of the as-prepared samples were tested before and after crosslinked by 25% glutaraldehyde vapor for 48 h.The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD),thermo gravimetric (TG)analysis and the hydrophily was analysed by water contact angle (WCA)analysis.The results of SEM revealed that the uniformity of the blending nanofibers had im-proved.The thermal stability of the scaffold material increased with the increase of the blend ratios of PLLA.The XRD results indicated that stableβ-folding conformation of silk has formed and the crystallization of materials has increased. The contact water angle meter analysis suggested that the hydrophilic property of the blending composite nanofibers de-creased with the existence of PLLA.The periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs)were seeded on the blending com-posite nanofibers in vitro.The cells grew well on the surface of materials,and had great adhesion and proliferation abili-ties.The cytocompatibility and physicochemical properties of the scaffold with content of 70% PLLA are superior to other groups,which suggest the as-prepared sampleis expected to become a new type of scaffold forperiodontal tissue en-gineering.%基于PLLA(左旋聚乳酸)的优异性能,以六氟异丙醇(HFIP)为溶剂采用静电纺丝法制备质量比为0∶100,30∶70,50∶50,70∶30和100∶0的8%SF/COL/PLLA共混纳米纤维支架,并用浓度为25%戊二醛蒸汽交联48 h,通过扫描电镜、X 射线衍射、热重分析仪、接触角检测仪对共混材料交联前后的理化性

  12. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  13. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  14. Col2-Cre recombinase is co-expressed with endogenous type II collagen in embryonic renal epithelium and drives development of polycystic kidney disease following inactivation of ciliary genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kolpakova-Hart, Elona; Nicolae, Claudia; Zhou, Jing; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2008-01-01

    Here we report on the severe defects in renal epithelium induced by the transgenic Col2-Cre line used previously for skeletal tissue-specific gene targeting. We demonstrate that conditional ablation of the Kif3a or Pkd1 genes encoding primary cilium/intraflagellar transport-associated proteins using type II collagen-specific Cre transgenic strain results in a severe form of polycystic kidney disease in mice. We detect Col2-Cre recombinase expression in kidney epithelium, which reflects expres...

  15. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  16. Effects of aircraft noise on human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Under controlled conditions in two test rooms, studies were made of the response of sleeping subjects to the stimuli of simulated sonic booms and subsonic jet aircraft noise. Children were relatively nonresponsive to the stimuli. In general, the older the subject, the more likely is behavioral awakening. The response rates to the two types of stimuli were essentially the same. The stimulus intensity had little, if any, effect on frequency of arousal, although other degrees of response did increase.

  17. Route optimization model for strike aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Steve H. K.

    1995-01-01

    A model is designed and implemented to construct a 'flyable,' least- risk route for strike aircraft from takeoff to target, through enemy radars, in a defined area of operations. A network is fust constructed by discretizing the airspace into a three-dimensional grid of nodes and then connecting adjacent nodes with arcs. A shortest-path model in this network is then constructed with arc lengths that are a function of the probability of detection by radars monitoring t...

  18. Force Feedback for Assembly of Aircraft Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marie; Murray, Tom; Robertsson, Anders; Stolt, Andreas; Ossbahr, Gilbert; Nilsson, Klas

    2010-01-01

    Variability in composite manufacture and the limitations in positional accuracy of common industrial robots have hampered automation of assembly tasks within aircraft manufacturing. One way to handle geometry variations and robot compliancy is to use force control. Force control technology utilizes a sensor mounted on the robot to feedback force data to the controller system so instead of being position driven, i.e. programmed to achieve a certain position with the tool, the robot can be prog...

  19. Study of hydrogen as an aircraft fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaravino, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The conversion to hydrogen as a naval aviation fuel would allow for independence on fuel cost and supply, as hydrogen is globally accessible. The biggest obstacle to using hydrogen is its very low density, a property that even combined with hydrogen's high heat of combustion still results in very large fuel tanks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) with its higher density would still require a larger volume than kerosene for the aircraft to achieve...

  20. Speed stress and the aircraft pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.T.V. Adiseshiah

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available When the human component in a man-machine system of pushed beyond the limits of human capacity in grasping information presented to senses or in executing a series of actions correctly, a condition of "speed stress" may be said to occur. Conditions encountered by aircraft at high speeds, make a consideration of the forms of speed stress, and of the measures to alleviate them, extremely important.

  1. Review Article: Influenza Transmission on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air travel is associated with the spread of influenza through infected passengers and potentially through in-flight transmission. Contact tracing after exposure to influenza is not performed systematically. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the evidence for influenza transmission aboard aircraft. Methods: Using PubMed and EMBASE databases, we identified and critically appraised identified records to assess the evidence of such transmission to passengers seated in close proximity to the index cases. We also developed a bias assessment tool to evaluate the quality of evidence provided in the retrieved studies. Results: We identified 14 peer-reviewed publications describing contact tracing of passengers after possible exposure to influenza virus aboard an aircraft. Contact tracing during the initial phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic was described in 11 publications. The studies describe the follow-up of 2,165 (51%) of 4,252 traceable passengers. Altogether, 163 secondary cases were identified resulting in an overall secondary attack rate among traced passengers of 7.5%. Of these secondary cases, 68 (42%) were seated within two rows of the index case. Conclusion: We found an overall moderate quality of evidence for transmission of influenza virus aboard an aircraft. The major limiting factor was the comparability of the studies. A majority of secondary cases was identified at a greater distance than two rows from the index case. A standardized approach for initiating, conducting, and reporting contact tracing could help to increase the evidence base for better assessing influenza transmission aboard aircraft. PMID:27253070

  2. Trajectory management for aircraft noise mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2009-01-01

    Comunicació convidada This paper gives an overview of aircraft trajectory management aimed at producing noise abatementprocedures. Area Navigation (RNAV) concepts play an important role in the design of flexible and, therefore, noise friendly depart or approach procedures. In addition, the lowest dispersion of RNAV tracks help to contain noise footprints in a smaller area if compared with footprints that are produced when conventional procedures are flown. However, RNAV turns still produce...

  3. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  4. Digital adaptive control laws for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.

    1979-01-01

    Honeywell has designed a digital self-adaptive flight control system for flight test in the VALT Research Aircraft (a modified CH-47). The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts: one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs are compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  5. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.

  6. Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Sven; Claesson, Ingvar

    2001-01-01

    A noisy environment dominated by low frequency noise can often be improved through the use of active noise control. This situation arises naturally in propeller aircraft where the propellers induce periodic low frequency noise inside the cabin. The cabin noise is typically rather high, and the passenger flight comfort could be improved considerably if this level were significantly reduced. This paper addresses same design aspects for multiple-reference active noise control systems based on th...

  7. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AS COMPLEX MULTISTRUCTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abufanas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The principles of constructing mathematical models of unmanned aircraft systems as complex systems consisting of a plurality ofsubsystems, each of which is considered as a system. In this case, the relationship between the subsystems are described by equations based on the topological graph theory, and for the preparation of component equations describing the dynamics of the subsystems is proposed to use differential equations discontinuous type based on systems theory of random structure.

  8. Aircraft System Simulation for Preliminary Design

    OpenAIRE

    Krus, Petter; Braun, Robert; Nordin, Peter; Eriksson, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Developments in computational hardware and simulation software have come to a point where it is possible to use whole mission simulation in a framework for conceptual/preliminary design. This paper is about the implementation of full system simulation software for conceptual/preliminary aircraft design. It is based on the new Hopsan NG simulation package, developed at the Linköping University. The Hopsan NG software is implemented in C++. Hopsan NG is the first simulation software that has su...

  9. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. The reactor auxiliary system building allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioctivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. In order not to increase the construction cost, and yet to assure the safety of the plant, some dynamic tests of conventionally reinforced slabs have to be performed all the way to collapse. These calculations have assumptions of achieving the maximum velocity instantaneously after impact, and take into account the kinetic energy in the broken wall. Nonlinear equations of motion are also formulated and solved. The results indicate that the phantom jet would go through the first wall. The second wall would stop the jet, but would sustain some permanent deformation and damage

  10. Structural ballistic armour for transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I; Austin, S J; Bishop, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the structural response of a current ceramic-faced composite armour system and a proposed structural armour system for aircraft use. The proposed structural ballistic armour system is shown to be capable of providing significant structural integrity even after ballistic impact whilst providing ballistic protection equivalent to an existing applique system. The addition of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic front panel to the existing ceramic faced composite armour system i...

  11. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Pelliccioni, M; Villari, R

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H*(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. PMID:14978289

  12. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H *(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. (authors)

  13. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in, the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers sad and traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control functions. This paper describes a conflict detection, and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm, which is often used for missile guidance during the terminal phase. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection, and the conflict resolution methods.

  14. Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

  15. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem. The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article. The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise. Of the three main areas of the noise problem, i.e. generation, propagation, and radiation, propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation. Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model. Of the various classes of propagation equations, linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain. The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques, bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations, e.g. acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed, with differing degrees of success.

  16. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  17. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  18. Aircraft measurement of organic aerosols over China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Takami, Akinori; Li, Hong; Wang, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Lower to middle (0.5-3.0 km altitude) tropospheric aerosols (PM2.5) collected by aircraft over inland and east coastal China were, for the first time, characterized for organic molecular compositions to understand anthropogenic, natural, and photochemical contribution to the air quality. n-Alkanes, fatty acids, sugars, polyacids are detected as major compound classes, whereas lignin and resin products, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalic acids are minor species. Average concentrations of all the identified compounds excluding malic acid correspond to 40-50% of those reported on the ground sites. Relative abundances of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components such as malic acid are much higher in the aircraft samples, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production over China. Organic carbon (OC) concentrations in summer (average, 24.3 microg m(-3)) were equivalent to those reported on the ground sites. Higher OC/EC (elemental carbon) ratios in the summer aircraft samples also support a significant production of SOA over China. High loadings of organic aerosols in the Chinese troposphere may be responsible to an intercontinental transport of the pollutants and potential impact on the regional and global climate changes. PMID:17539513

  19. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingtao Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematical explanation of RISM is presented in this paper. The efficiency of RISM can be improved by four times compared with traditional static aeroelastic analysis. General purpose computing on graphical processing units (GPGPU is adopted to accelerate the RISM further, and GPU-accelerated RISM is constructed. The efficiency of GPU-accelerated RISM can be raised by about 239 times compared with that of the loosely coupled aeroelastic analysis. Test shows that the fidelity of GPU-accelerated RISM is high enough for optimization. Optimization framework based on Kriging model is constructed. The efficiency of the proposed optimization system can be improved greatly with the aid of GPU-accelerated RISM. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is optimized using this framework and the range is improved by 4.67% after optimization, which shows effectiveness and efficiency of this framework.

  20. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S. [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Seibersdorf (Austria); Latocha, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)