WorldWideScience

Sample records for airborne ultrasound technology

  1. Predictive maintenance and inspection through airborne ultrasound technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandes, A. [UE Systems, Inc., Elmsford, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Airborne ultrasound can be considered an ideal integrating technology in that these instruments can stand alone to detect a variety of potential problems or they can be used to support vibration and infrared inspection programs. Usually portable, these instruments detect leaks in both pressurized gas systems or vacuum systems and related equipment such as tanks, pipes, heat exchangers, valves and steam traps. Additional applications include inspection of high voltage apparatus for corona, arcing and tracking. They are used to trend bearing failure as well as to detect conditions such as lack of lubrication and rubbing. A brief overview of the technology, its applications and suggested inspection techniques are explained. (orig.) 2 refs.

  2. Airborne ultrasound enters the ear through the eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Musical spectrum above 20000 Hz has been demonstrated to influence human judgments and physiology. Moreover airborne ultrasonic noise has been implicated in hearing loss, tinnitus, and other subjective effects such as headaches and fullness in the ear. Contact ultrasound, i.e., with a transducer affixed to the skin of the head/neck, is audible; assumed by bone conduction. However, lightly touching the soft tissues of the head, avoiding bone, can also produce audibility. When contact ultrasound is applied to the head, energy from 25 to ~60 kHz can be recorded from the closed eyelid, with care to avoid sensor contact with the orbit. If the same frequency band of noise is passed through a transducer in from of the eye, with just air coupling, the same response is again recordable on the head. An acrylic barrier between the eye and the transducer eliminates the response. Once airborne ultrasound exceeds the impedance mismatch of the eye it readily propagates through the soft tissues of the eye and brain via one of the fluid windows (end lymphatic, perilymphatic or vascular) to the cochlea. The eye fenestration explains how people can detect airborne ultrasonic components in music and develop ear effects from airborne ultrasonic noise.

  3. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N.; Hazlehurst, T.; Povey, M.; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R.; Sandoz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product.

  4. Ultrasound technology: A decision-making tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultrasound demonstration was conducted for participants (~ 110 people) of the Arkansas Cattle Grower’s Conference, Hope, AR. Evaluation of live animals with ultrasound technology allows beef producers the ability to make selection and management decisions. Specifically, ultrasound at the conclu...

  5. Generation and detection of broadband airborne ultrasound with cellular polymer ferroelectrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansachmüller, Mario; Minev, Ivan; Bartu, Petr; Graz, Ingrid; Arnold, Nikita; Bauer, Siegfried

    2007-11-01

    Cellular polypropylene ferroelectrets are useful for broadband airborne ultrasound generation and detection up to the fundamental thickness extension resonance. The authors show that the coupling of ferroelectrets to air alters the electromechanical resonance of the foam. In an acoustical cavity, Fabry-Perot resonances are obtained, which is in excellent agreement with the plane wave model calculations. For material assessment in airborne ultrasound applications, a figure of merit is used based on the electromechanical coupling factor and acoustical impedance of the material. The good coupling of ferroelectrets to gases results from the small acoustical impedance of the material.

  6. Airborne infections and modern building technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaForce, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last 30 yr an increased appreciation of the importance of airborne infection has evolved. The concept of droplet nuclei, infectious particles from 0.5 to 3 ..mu.. which stay suspended in air for long periods of time, has been accepted as an important determinant of infectivity. Important airborne pathogens in modern buildings include legionella pneumophila, Aspergillus sp., thermophilic actinomycetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles, varicella and rubella. Perhaps, the most important microbiologic threat to most buildings is L. pneumophila. This organism can multiply in water cooling systems and contaminate effluent air which can be drawn into a building and efficiently circulated throughout by existing ventilation systems. Hospitals are a special problem because of the concentration of immunosuppressed patients who are uniquely susceptible to airborne diseases such as aspergillosis, and the likelihood that patients ill from diseases that can be spread via the airborne route will be concentrated. Humidifiers are yet another problem and have been shown to be important in several outbreaks of allergic alveolitis and legionellosis. Control of airborne infections is largely an effort at identifying and controlling reservoirs of infection. This includes regular biocide treatment of cooling towers and evaporative condensers and identification and isolation of patients with diseases that may be spread via the airborne route.

  7. Enhancement of convective drying by application of airborne ultrasound - a response surface approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Svenja M; Sabarez, Henry; Gaukel, Volker; Knoerzer, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Drying is one of the oldest and most commonly used processes in the food manufacturing industry. The conventional way of drying is by forced convection at elevated temperatures. However, this process step often requires a very long treatment time, is highly energy consuming and detrimental to the product quality. Therefore, an investigation of whether the drying time and temperature can be reduced with the assistance of an airborne ultrasound intervention is of interest. Previous studies have shown that contact ultrasound can accelerate the drying process. It is assumed that mechanical vibrations, creating micro channels in the food matrix or keeping these channels from collapsing upon drying, are responsible for the faster water removal. In food samples, due to their natural origin, drying is also influenced by fluctuations in tissue structure, varying between different trials. For this reason, a model food system with thermo-physical properties and composition (water, cellulose, starch, fructose) similar to those of plant-based foods has been used in this study. The main objective was, therefore, to investigate the influence of airborne ultrasound conditions on the drying behaviour of the model food. The impact of airborne ultrasound at various power levels, drying temperature, relative humidity of the drying air, and the air speed was analysed. To examine possible interactions between these parameters, the experiments were designed with a Response Surface Method using Minitab 16 Statistical Software (Minitab Inc., State College, PA, USA). In addition, a first attempt at improving the process conditions and performance for better suitability and applicability in industrial scale processing was undertaken by non-continuous/intermittent sonication.

  8. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Zill-e-Huma; Khan, Muhammed Kamran

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasound is well known to have a significant effect on the rate of various processes in the food industry. Using ultrasound, full reproducible food processes can now be completed in seconds or minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the processing cost, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water and consuming only a fraction of the time and energy normally needed for conventional processes. Several processes such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, and extraction have been applied efficiently in the food industry. The advantages of using ultrasound for food processing, includes: more effective mixing and micro-mixing, faster energy and mass transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, reduced temperature, selective extraction, reduced equipment size, faster response to process extraction control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. Food processes performed under the action of ultrasound are believed to be affected in part by cavitation phenomena and mass transfer enhancement. This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on application of ultrasound in food technology including processing, preservation and extraction. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about ultrasound the technology, the technique, and safety precautions. We will also discuss some of the factors which make the combination of food processing and ultrasound one of the most promising research areas in the field of modern food engineering.

  9. Influence of thermodynamic properties of a thermo-acoustic emitter on the efficiency of thermal airborne ultrasound generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschewski, M; Kreutzbruck, M; Prager, J

    2015-12-01

    In this work we experimentally verify the theoretical prediction of the recently published Energy Density Fluctuation Model (EDF-model) of thermo-acoustic sound generation. Particularly, we investigate experimentally the influence of thermal inertia of an electrically conductive film on the efficiency of thermal airborne ultrasound generation predicted by the EDF-model. Unlike widely used theories, the EDF-model predicts that the thermal inertia of the electrically conductive film is a frequency-dependent parameter. Its influence grows non-linearly with the increase of excitation frequency and reduces the efficiency of the ultrasound generation. Thus, this parameter is the major limiting factor for the efficient thermal airborne ultrasound generation in the MHz-range. To verify this theoretical prediction experimentally, five thermo-acoustic emitter samples consisting of Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) coatings of different thicknesses (from 65 nm to 1.44 μm) on quartz glass substrates were tested for airborne ultrasound generation in a frequency range from 10 kHz to 800 kHz. For the measurement of thermally generated sound pressures a laser Doppler vibrometer combined with a 12 μm thin polyethylene foil was used as the sound pressure detector. All tested thermo-acoustic emitter samples showed a resonance-free frequency response in the entire tested frequency range. The thermal inertia of the heat producing film acts as a low-pass filter and reduces the generated sound pressure with the increasing excitation frequency and the ITO film thickness. The difference of generated sound pressure levels for samples with 65 nm and 1.44 μm thickness is in the order of about 6 dB at 50 kHz and of about 12 dB at 500 kHz. A comparison of sound pressure levels measured experimentally and those predicted by the EDF-model shows for all tested emitter samples a relative error of less than ±6%. Thus, experimental results confirm the prediction of the EDF-model and show that the model can

  10. Development of a Low-Cost Airborne Ultrasound Sensor for the Detection of Brick Joints behind a Wall Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XVth century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research. PMID:22438711

  11. Acoustic imaging in application to reconstruction of rough rigid surface with airborne ultrasound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynkin, A.; Dolcetti, G.; Hunting, S.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the surface roughness is of high importance to various areas of science and engineering. One important application of this technology is for remote monitoring of open channel flows through observing its dynamic surface roughness. In this paper a novel airborne acoustic method of roughness reconstruction is proposed and tested with a static rigid rough surface. This method is based on the acoustic holography principle and Kirchhoff approximation which make use of acoustic pressure data collected at multiple receiver points spread along an arch. The Tikhonov regularisation and generalised cross validation technique are used to solve the underdetermined system of equations for the acoustic pressures. The experimental data are collected above a roughness created with a 3D printer. For the given surface, it is shown that the proposed method works well with the various number of receiver positions. In this paper, the tested ratios between the number of surface points at which the surface elevation can be reconstructed and number of receiver positions are 2.5, 5, and 7.5. It is shown that, in a region comparable with the projected size of the main directivity lobe, the method is able to reconstruct the spatial spectrum density of the actual surface elevation with the accuracy of 20%.

  12. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  13. WE-A-18C-01: Emerging and Innovative Ultrasound Technology in Diagnosis and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelianov, S [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Oraevsky, A [Fairway Medical Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Stafford, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The application of new ultrasound-based technologies in medicine has expanded in recent years. One area of rapid growth has been the combination of ultrasound with other methods of image generation and imaging modalities to produce hybrid approaches for diagnostic imaging and noninvasive therapeutic intervention. The presentations associated with this session will provide an overview of two emerging technologies that are currently being developed and implemented to enhance ultrasound-related diagnostic imaging and therapy: the utilization of optically-induced ultrasound imaging (optoacoustic / photoacoustic imaging) and the use of magnetic resonance imaging to guide the use of high-intensity focused ultrasound for therapeutic applications. Learning Objectives: Develop a general understanding of the underlying technologies associated with optoacoustic / photoacoustic tomography and MRguided high-intensity focused ultrasound. Develop an understanding of the current methods of these new ultrasound-based technologies in preclinical research and clinical applications.

  14. Linear array transducer for high-power airborne ultrasound using flextensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Jun; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tabaru, Marie; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-07-01

    To change the direction of ultrasonic irradiation without moving a transducer, a high-power airborne ultrasonic transducer for a one-dimensional phased array system was designed and tested. A flextensional element transducer with higher-mode bending vibration was fabricated to obtain a high vibration amplitude over a wide aperture, where a phase-compensating stepped structure was employed. The width of the main lobe at half maximum and the sidelobe level were measured to be 14.3 deg and 0.78, respectively. The maximal sound pressure of 132 dB (0 dB re. 0.02 mPa) was obtained under the applied voltage of 4.0 V. The beam steering characteristics of a phased array using eight elements were compared with the simple theory.

  15. Generic aspects of the airborne spread of human pathogens indoors and emerging air decontamination technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, M Khalid; Zargar, Bahram; Wright, Kathryn E; Rubino, Joseph R; Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-02

    Indoor air can be an important vehicle for a variety of human pathogens. This review provides examples of airborne transmission of infectious agents from experimental and field studies and discusses how airborne pathogens can contaminate other parts of the environment to give rise to secondary vehicles leading air-surface-air nexus with possible transmission to susceptible hosts. The following groups of human pathogens are covered because of their known or potential airborne spread: vegetative bacteria (staphylococci and legionellae), fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium spp and Stachybotrys chartarum), enteric viruses (noro- and rotaviruses), respiratory viruses (influenza and coronaviruses), mycobacteria (tuberculous and nontuberculous), and bacterial spore formers (Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis). An overview of methods for experimentally generating and recovering airborne human pathogens is included, along with a discussion of factors that influence microbial survival in indoor air. Available guidelines from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other global regulatory bodies for the study of airborne pathogens are critically reviewed with particular reference to microbial surrogates that are recommended. Recent developments in experimental facilities to contaminate indoor air with microbial aerosols are presented, along with emerging technologies to decontaminate indoor air under field-relevant conditions. Furthermore, the role that air decontamination may play in reducing the contamination of environmental surfaces and its combined impact on interrupting the risk of pathogen spread in both domestic and institutional settings is discussed.

  16. Airborne Lidar: Advances in Discrete Return Technology for 3D Vegetation Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Ussyshkin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional discrete return airborne lidar systems, used in the commercial sector for efficient generation of high quality spatial data, have been considered for the past decade to be an ideal choice for various mapping applications. Unlike two-dimensional aerial imagery, the elevation component of airborne lidar data provides the ability to represent vertical structure details with very high precision, which is an advantage for many lidar applications focusing on the analysis of elevated features such as 3D vegetation mapping. However, the use of conventional airborne discrete return lidar systems for some of these applications has often been limited, mostly due to relatively coarse vertical resolution and insufficient number of multiple measurements in vertical domain. For this reason, full waveform airborne sensors providing more detailed representation of target vertical structure have often been considered as a preferable choice in some areas of 3D vegetation mapping application, such as forestry research. This paper presents an overview of the specific features of airborne lidar technology concerning 3D mapping applications, particularly vegetation mapping. Certain key performance characteristics of lidar sensors important for the quality of vegetation mapping are discussed and illustrated by the advanced capabilities of the ALTM-Orion, a new discrete return sensor manufactured by Optech Incorporated. It is demonstrated that advanced discrete return sensors with enhanced 3D mapping capabilities can produce data of enhanced quality, which can represent complex structures of vegetation targets at the level of details equivalent in some aspects to the content of full waveform data. It is also shown that recent advances in conventional airborne lidar technology bear the potential to create a new application niche, where high quality dense point clouds, enhanced by fully recorded intensity for multiple returns, may provide sufficient

  17. DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF AIRBORNE 3D IMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne 3D image which integrates GPS,attitude measurement unit (AMU),sca nning laser rangefinder (SLR) and spectral scanner has been developed successful ly.The spectral scanner and SLR use the same optical system which ensures laser point to match pixel seamlessly.The distinctive advantage of 3D image is that it can produce geo_referenced images and DSM (digital surface models) images wi thout any ground control points (GCPs).It is no longer necessary to sur vey GCPs and with some softwares the data can be processed and produce digital s urface models (DSM) and geo_referenced images in quasi_real_time,therefore,the efficiency of 3 D image is 10~100 times higher than that of traditional approaches.The process ing procedure involves decomposing and checking the raw data,processing GPS dat a,calculating the positions of laser sample points,producing geo_referenced im age,producing DSM and mosaicing strips.  The principle of 3D image is first introduced in this paper,and then we focus on the fast processing technique and algorithm.The flight tests and processed r esults show that the processing technique is feasible and can meet the requireme nt of quasi_real_time applications.

  18. Survey of subsurface geophysical exploration technologies adaptable to an airborne platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a Research Development Demonstration Testing and Evaluation (RDDT E) project by EG G Energy Measurement's (EG G/EM) Remote Sensing Laboratory. It examines geophysical detection techniques which may be used in Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) surveys to locate buried waste, waste containers, potential waste migratory paths, and aquifer depths. Because of the Remote Sensing Laboratory's unique survey capabilities, only those technologies which have been adapted or are capable of being adapted to an airborne platform were studied. This survey describes several of the available subsurface survey technologies and discusses the basic capabilities of each: the target detectability, required geologic conditions, and associated survey methods. Because the airborne capabilities of these survey techniques have not been fully developed, the chapters deal mostly with the ground-based capabilities of each of the technologies, with reference made to the airborne capabilities where applicable. The information about each survey technique came from various contractors whose companies employ these specific technologies. EG G/EM cannot guarantee or verify the accuracy of the contractor information; however, the data given is an indication of the technologies that are available.

  19. Survey of subsurface geophysical exploration technologies adaptable to an airborne platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a Research Development Demonstration Testing and Evaluation (RDDT&E) project by EG&G Energy Measurement`s (EG&G/EM) Remote Sensing Laboratory. It examines geophysical detection techniques which may be used in Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) surveys to locate buried waste, waste containers, potential waste migratory paths, and aquifer depths. Because of the Remote Sensing Laboratory`s unique survey capabilities, only those technologies which have been adapted or are capable of being adapted to an airborne platform were studied. This survey describes several of the available subsurface survey technologies and discusses the basic capabilities of each: the target detectability, required geologic conditions, and associated survey methods. Because the airborne capabilities of these survey techniques have not been fully developed, the chapters deal mostly with the ground-based capabilities of each of the technologies, with reference made to the airborne capabilities where applicable. The information about each survey technique came from various contractors whose companies employ these specific technologies. EG&G/EM cannot guarantee or verify the accuracy of the contractor information; however, the data given is an indication of the technologies that are available.

  20. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2014:chap 66. Cosgrove DO, Eckersley RJ, Harvey CJ, Lim A. Ultrasound. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard ... Northside Radiology Associates, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  1. [Novel dianostics and therapeutics with ultrasound technologies and nanotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Omata, Daiki; Sawaguchi, Yoshikazu; Negishi, Yoichi; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is a good tool for theranostics due to have multi-potency both of diagnostics with sonography and therapeutics with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). In addition, microbubbles and nanobubbles are utilized as not only contrast imaging agent but also enhancer of drug and gene delivery by combination of ultrasound. Recently, we developed novel liposomal nanobubbles (Bubble liposomes) which were containing perfluoropropane. Bubble liposomes induced jet stream by low intensity ultrasound exposure and resulted in enhancing permeability of cell membrane. This phenomenon has been utilized as driving force for drug and gene delivery. On the other hand, the combination of Bubble liposomes and high intensity ultrasound induces strong jet stream and increase temperature. This condition can directly damage to tumor cells, we are applying this for cancer therapy. Therefore, their combination has potency for various cancer therapies such as gene therapy, immunotherapy and hyperthermia. In this review, we discuss about cancer therapy by the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound.

  2. New NIH-Funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents A ... to dramatically improve patient care all over the world. With a one-hand user interface, Vscan provides ...

  3. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  4. Evaluation of an electrostatic particle ionization technology for decreasing airborne pathogens in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Raynor, Peter C; Davies, Peter R; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    Influenza A virus (IAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and Staphylococcus aureus are important swine pathogens capable of being transmitted via aerosols. The electrostatic particle ionization system (EPI) consists of a conductive line that emits negative ions that charge particles electrically resulting in the settling of airborne particles onto surfaces and potentially decreasing the risk of pathogen dissemination. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the EPI system on the quantity and viability of IAV, PRRSV, PEDV and S. aureus in experimentally generated aerosols and in aerosols generated by infected animals. Efficiency at removing airborne particles was evaluated as a function of particle size (ranging from 0.4 to 10 µm), distance from the source of ions (1, 2 and 3 m) and relative air humidity (RH 30 vs. 70 %). Aerosols were sampled with the EPI system "off" and "on." Removal efficiency was significantly greater for all pathogens when the EPI line was the closest to the source of aerosols. There was a greater reduction for larger particles ranging between 3.3 and 9 µm, which varied by pathogen. Overall airborne pathogen reduction ranged between 0.5 and 1.9 logs. Viable pathogens were detected with the EPI system "on," but there was a trend to reducing the quantity of viable PRRSV and IAV. There was not a significant effect on the pathogens removal efficiency based on the RH conditions tested. In summary, distance to the source of ions, type of pathogen and particle size influenced the removal efficiency of the EPI system. The reduction in infectious agents in the air by the EPI technology could potentially decrease the microbial exposure for pigs and people in confinement livestock facilities.

  5. Transvaginal ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endovaginal ultrasound; Ultrasound - transvaginal; Fibroids - transvaginal ultrasound; Vaginal bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; Uterine bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; Menstrual bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; ...

  6. Airborne Multisensor Pod System, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Second quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) which is a collaboration of many of the DOE national laboratories to provide a scientific environment to research multiple sensors and the new information that can be derived from them. The bulk of the research has been directed at nonproliferation applications, but it has also proven useful in environmental monitoring and assessment, and land/water management. The contents of this issue are: using AMPS technology to detect proliferation and monitor resources; combining multisensor data to monitor facilities and natural resources; planning a AMPS mission; SAR pod produces images day or night, rain or shine; MSI pod combines data from multiple sensors; ESI pod will analyze emissions and effluents; and accessing AMPS information on the Internet.

  7. Ultrasound assisted chrome tanning: Towards a clean leather production technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Embialle; Smets, Ilse; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for a cleaner, but still effective alternative for production processes like in the leather industry. Ultrasound (US) assisted processing of leather might be promising in this sense. In the present paper, the use of US in the conventional chrome tanning process has been studied at different pH, temperature, tanning time, chrome dose and US exposure time by exposing the skin before tanning and during tanning operation. Both prior exposure of the skin to US and US during tanning improves the chrome uptake and reduces the shrinkage significantly. Prior exposure of the skin to US increase the chrome uptake by 13.8% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 5% (% based on skin weight) and shorten the process time by half while US during tanning increases the chrome uptake by 28.5% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 4% (half) and the tanning time to one third compared to the control without US. Concomitantly, the resulting leather quality (measured as skin shrinkage) improved from 5.2% to 3.2% shrinkage in the skin exposed to US prior tanning and to 1.3% in the skin exposed to US during the tanning experiment. This study confirms that US chrome tanning is an effective and eco-friendly tanning process which can produce a better quality leather product in a shorter process time with a lower chromium dose.

  8. The research of a gyro-stabilized platform and POS application technology in airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Du, Qi

    2009-07-01

    The distortion of the collected images usually takes place since the attitude changes along with the flying aerocraft on airborne remote sensing. In order to get original images without distortion, it is necessary to use professional gyro-stabilized platform. In addition to this, another solution of correcting the original image distortion is to utilize later geometric rectification using position & orientation system ( POS ) data. The third way is to utilize medium-accuracy stabilized platform to control the distortion at a tolerant range, and then make use of the data obtained by high-solution posture measure system to correct the low-quality remote sensing images. The third way which takes advantage of both techniques is better than using only one of the two other ways. This paper introduces several kinds of structural forms of gyro-stabilized platforms, and POS acquiring instruments respectively. Then, the essay will make some analysis of their advantages and disadvantages, key technologies and the application experiment of the third method. After the analysis, the thesis discusses the design of the gyro-stabilized platform. The thesis provides crucial information not only for the application technology of gyro-stabilized platform and POS but also for future development.

  9. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  10. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M.

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  11. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-12-19

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination - and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.

  12. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica Da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino Da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-12-01

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination – and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.

  13. Ultrasound Technologies for the Spatial Patterning of Cells and Extracellular Matrix Proteins and the Vascularization of Engineered Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Kelley A.

    Technological advancements in the field of tissue engineering could save the lives of thousands of organ transplant patients who die each year while waiting for donor organs. Currently, two of the primary challenges preventing tissue engineers from developing functional replacement tissues and organs are the need to recreate complex cell and extracellular microenvironments and to vascularize the tissue to maintain cell viability and function. Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy that can noninvasively and nondestructively interact with tissues at the cell and protein level. In this thesis, novel ultrasound-based technologies were developed for the spatial patterning of cells and extracellular matrix proteins and the vascularization of three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs. Acoustic radiation forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields were utilized to noninvasively control the spatial organization of cells and cell-bound extracellular matrix proteins within collagen-based engineered tissue. Additionally, ultrasound induced thermal mechanisms were exploited to site-specifically pattern various extracellular matrix collagen microstructures within a single engineered tissue construct. Finally, ultrasound standing wave field technology was used to promote the rapid and extensive vascularization of three-dimensional tissue constructs. As such, the ultrasound technologies developed in these studies have the potential to provide the field of tissue engineering with novel strategies to spatially pattern cells and extracellular matrix components and to vascularize engineered tissue, and thus, could advance the fabrication of functional replacement tissues and organs in the field of tissue engineering.

  14. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  15. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound: a new technology for clinical neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolesz, Ferenc A; McDannold, Nathan J

    2014-02-01

    Transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) is an old idea but a new technology that may change the entire clinical field of the neurosciences. TcMRgFUS has no cumulative effect, and it is applicable for repeatable treatments, controlled by real-time dosimetry, and capable of immediate tissue destruction. Most importantly, it has extremely accurate targeting and constant monitoring. It is potentially more precise than proton beam therapy and definitely more cost effective. Neuro-oncology may be the most promising area of future TcMRgFUS applications.

  16. Duplex ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular ultrasound; Peripheral vascular ultrasound ... A duplex ultrasound combines: Traditional ultrasound: This uses sound waves that bounce off blood vessels to create pictures. Doppler ultrasound: This ...

  17. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  18. [High-intensity focused ultrasound and prostate cancer: technology, state of the art and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespasiani, G; Asimakopoulos, A D; Finazzi Agrò, E; Virgili, G

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The potential applications of the high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as a minimally invasive therapy of the localized prostate cancer explain the growing interest of the urologic community towards this technique. HIFU has been assessed for its role in the treatment of localized prostate cancer in patients who otherwise would not have benefited from surgery, and in local recurrences after radiation failure. Methods. Relevant information on HIFU treatment was identified through a literature search of published studies. RESULTS. High biochemical efficacy, excellent tumor local control and favorable mid- and long-term oncological data with a low morbidity rate have been shown in many series of patients. CONCLUSIONS. Although HIFU is a recent and emerging technology, it has been well studied and developed to a point that HIFU will undoubtedly be an effective alternative to radiation therapy.

  19. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  20. Based on the Airborne LIDAR Technology Research and its Prospect%基于机载LIDAR技术的研究及其展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭向前; 郝伟涛; 李响

    2013-01-01

    This article through to the airborne laser radar scanning technique for measuring the working principle, system composition and characteristics of LIDAR is discussed, showing the airborne LIDAR technology advantage, and the development prospect was presented.%通过对机载三维激光雷达扫描测量技术的工作原理、系统组成和LIDAR特点的论述,展示出机载LIDAR技术的优势,并对其发展前景做了一定的展望.

  1. Anti-airborne-molecular-contamination technology in clean rooms; Kukichu no kagaku osen no teigen taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, S.; Sato, K.; Takahashi, H.; Okada, T.

    1998-07-31

    As for, countermeasures for chemical contaminants in a cleanroom air, the technical development has progressed earnestly since T top phenomenon of photo-amplified resist with basic gas due to atmosphere was pointed out in 1991 by MacDonald. Airborne-Molecular-Contamination (AMC) is classified into acids, bases, condensables, and dopants. According to SEMATECH no 95052812A-TR, condensable are defined as silicones or hydrocarbons with a boiling point greater than or equal to 150 degC. Water-soluble gaseous contaminants in outdoor air coming into cleanrooms are removed with a water spray equipment. AMC originated from circulating air in cleanrooms are prevented using various chemical filters. Conventional chemical filters made of activated charcoal, however, have several defects. Ceramic chemical filters developed by the authors are nonflammable, and consist of inorganic materials without any volatile organic matters and without alkaline metal and so on, and they have high removal efficiencies of condensable. 15 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Ultrasound technology effect on wastewater sludge treatment; Efecto de los ultrasonidos en el tratamiento de lodos de depuradora de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesas Diaz, J. A.

    2003-07-01

    The ultrasound technology has been used since long time ago in the medicine, food industry, cosmetics and cleaning systems; but during the last few years is when this technology has stated to be used in the wastewater and sludge treatment industry. The application of low frequency and high intensity ultrasound in the wastewater and sludge treatment has numerous benefits. The ultrasound technology improves the aerobic and anaerobic digestion process, increases the biogas production, improves the sludge dewatering, reduces the polymer consumption, reduces the final biosolids production, reduces or removes the bulking and foaming problems,and enhances nutrient removal (N, P). (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Airborne wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on 'Fundamentals' contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, o

  4. Photoacoustic imaging system for peripheral small-vessel imaging based on clinical ultrasound technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Hirota, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Murakoshi, Dai; Ishii, Hiroyasu; Tada, Takuji; Wada, Takatsugu; Hayakawa, Toshiro; Azuma, Ryuichi; Otani, Naoki; Itoh, Kenji; Ishihara, Miya

    2016-03-01

    One of the features of photoacoustic (PA) imaging is small-vessel visualization realized without injection of a contrast agent or exposure to X-rays. For carrying out clinical studies in this field, a prototype PA imaging system has been developed. The PA imaging system utilizes a technological platform of FUJIFILM's clinical ultrasound (US) imaging system mounting many-core MPU for enhancing the image quality of US B-mode and US Doppler mode, which can be superposed onto PA images. By evaluating the PA and US Doppler images of the prototyped system, the applicability of the prototype system to small-vessel visualization has been discussed. The light source for PA imaging was on a compact cart of a US unit and emitted 750 nm wavelength laser pulses. The laser light was transferred to illumination optics in a handheld US transducer, which was connected to the US unit. Obtained PA rf data is reconstructed into PA images in the US unit. 3D images were obtained by scanning a mechanical stage, which the transducer is attached to. Several peripheral parts such as fingers, palms and wrists were observed by PA and US Doppler imaging. As for small arteries, US Doppler images were able to visualize the bow-shaped artery in the tip of the finger. Though PA images cannot distinguish arteries and veins, it could visualize smaller vessels and showed good resolution and vascular connectivity, resulting in a complementary image for the US Doppler images. Therefore, superposed images of the PA, US B-mode and US Doppler can visualize from large to small vessels without a contrast agent, which should be a differentiating feature of US/PA combined technology from other clinical vascular imaging modalities.

  5. High intensity focused ultrasound technology, its scope and applications in therapy and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenix, Christopher Peter; Togtema, Melissa; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Curiel, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a safe, inexpensive and wide-spread diagnostic tool capable of producing real-time non-invasive images without significant biological effects. However, the propagation of higher energy, intensity and frequency ultrasound waves through living tissues can induce thermal, mechanical and chemical effects useful for a variety of therapeutic applications. With the recent development of clinically approved High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) systems, therapeutic ultrasound is now a medical reality. Indeed, HIFU has been used for the thermal ablation of pathological lesions; localized, minimally invasive ultrasound-mediated drug delivery through the transient formation of pores on cell membranes; the temporary disruption of skin and the blood brain barrier; the ultrasound induced break-down of blood clots; and the targeted release of drugs using ultrasound and temperature sensitive drug carriers. This review seeks to engage the pharmaceutical research community by providing an overview on the biological effects of ultrasound as well as highlighting important therapeutic applications, current deficiencies and future directions.

  6. Mechanisms for improving mass transfer in food with ultrasound technology: Describing the phenomena in two model cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate how ultrasound mechanisms (direct and indirect effects) improve the mass transfer phenomena in food processing, and which part of the process they are more effective in. Two model cases were evaluated: the hydration of sorghum grain (with two water activities) and the influx of a pigment into melon cylinders. Different treatments enabled us to evaluate and discriminate both direct (inertial flow and "sponge effect") and indirect effects (micro channel formation), alternating pre-treatments and treatments using an ultrasonic bath (20 kHz of frequency and 28 W/L of volumetric power) and a traditional water-bath. It was demonstrated that both the effects of ultrasound technology are more effective in food with higher water activity, the micro channels only forming in moist food. Moreover, micro channel formation could also be observed using agar gel cylinders, verifying the random formation of these due to cavitation. The direct effects were shown to be important in mass transfer enhancement not only in moist food, but also in dry food, this being improved by the micro channels formed and the porosity of the food. In conclusion, the improvement in mass transfer due to direct and indirect effects was firstly discriminated and described. It was proven that both phenomena are important for mass transfer in moist foods, while only the direct effects are important for dry foods. Based on these results, better processing using ultrasound technology can be obtained.

  7. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Obstetric Ultrasound Obstetric ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures ... limitations of Obstetrical Ultrasound Imaging? What is Obstetrical Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves ... the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and ...

  9. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Musculoskeletal Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... Ultrasound Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System? Ultrasound is safe ...

  10. Ultrasound - Scrotum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Scrotum Ultrasound imaging of the scrotum uses sound ... of Ultrasound Imaging of the Scrotum? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Scrotum? Ultrasound imaging of the ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Vascular Vascular ultrasound uses sound waves to evaluate ... the limitations of Vascular Ultrasound? What is Vascular Ultrasound? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  12. Hip Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Hip Ultrasound Hip ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures ... of Ultrasound Imaging of the Hip? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Hip? Ultrasound images of the ...

  13. [Estimating individual tree aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest using airborne LiDAR technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Lei, Pi-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Wugang forest farm in Xuefeng Mountain as the research object, using the airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data under leaf-on condition and field data of concomitant plots, this paper assessed the ability of using LiDAR technology to estimate aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest. A semi-automated individual tree LiDAR cloud point segmentation was obtained by using condition random fields and optimization methods. Spatial structure, waveform characteristics and topography were calculated as LiDAR metrics from the segmented objects. Then statistical models between aboveground biomass from field data and these LiDAR metrics were built. The individual tree recognition rates were 93%, 86% and 60% for coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, respectively. The adjusted coefficients of determination (R(2)adj) and the root mean squared errors (RMSE) for the three types of forest were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.74, and 28.22, 29.79 and 32.31 t · hm(-2), respectively. The estimation capability of model based on canopy geometric volume, tree percentile height, slope and waveform characteristics was much better than that of traditional regression model based on tree height. Therefore, LiDAR metrics from individual tree could facilitate better performance in biomass estimation.

  14. Therapeutic ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Lawrence A [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, 1013 NE 40th Street, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  15. Application of the advanced communications technology satellite to teleradiology and real-time compressed ultrasound video telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B K; Carter, S J; Cook, J N; Abbe, B S; Pinck, D; Rowberg, A H

    1999-05-01

    The authors have investigated the application of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to teleradiology and telemedicine using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-developed ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) uplink. In this experiment, bidirectional 128, 256, and 384 kbps satellite links were established between the ACTS/AMT, the ACTS in geosynchronous orbit, and the downlink terrestrial terminal at JPL. A terrestrial Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN) link was established from JPL to the University of Washington Department of Radiology to complete the bidirectional connection. Ultrasound video imagery was compressed in real-time using video codecs adhering to the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Recommendation H.261. A 16 kbps in-band audio channel was used throughout. A five-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three transmission bandwidths (128, 256, and 384 kbps). The central question involved determination of the bandwidth requirements to provide sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for the remote visualization of fine- and low-contrast objects. The 384 kbps bandwidth resulted in only slight tiling artifact and fuzziness owing to the quantizer step size; however, these motion artifacts were rapidly resolved in time at this bandwidth. These experiments have demonstrated that real-time compressed ultrasound video imagery can be transmitted over multiple ISDN line bandwidth links with sufficient temporal, contrast, and spatial resolution for clinical diagnosis of multiple disease and pathology states to provide subspecialty consultation and educational at a distance.

  16. Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor: A New Technology for Biotreatment of Airborne Volatile Organic Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghorbani Shahna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological treatment is a new established technology for the air pollutants. This technology can be an alternative for physical and chemical treatment methods. Among bioreators, the Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor (BFER is a new alternative that has not the problems of the conventional ones. In this reactor bed clogging in the conventional bioreactor was resolved by bioactive foam as a substitute of packing bed. The pollutant absorption has been increased using biocompatible organic phase in liquid .This reactor can be used for higher inlet toluene concentration. The objective of this study was designing and optimizing the operational parameters of BFER for toluene treatment.Materials & Methods: In the first step of this experimental-analytic study, the toluene degradation microorganisms were identified, extracted and concentrated for injection to bioreactor. Then the effect of several parameters such as Kind and concentration of organic phase,and residence time oxygen content on bioreactor performance were studied and the optimum conditions were selected for continuous operation. The continuous operation of bioreactor was monitored at the optimum conditions.Results: Experimental results showed that the residence time of 15s, oxygen content of 40%, and the 4 % (v/v n-hexadecane as organic phase were the optimum conditions. The average elimination capacity (EC and removal efficiency of bioreactor were 231.68 g/m3h and 88.44% respectively for the inlet concentration about of 1 g/m3. The statistical developed model predicted that the maximum EC of this reactor could reach to 426.21 g/m3h.Conclusion: Since the elimination capacity of this reactor is several times more than the other bioreactors, it has the potential to be applied instead of biofilters and biotrickling filters.

  17. The investigation of ultrasound technology to measure breast muscle depth as a correlated trait to breast meat yield in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, L A; Wood, B J; Miller, S P

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound measurements of muscle depth were analyzed to determine if these traits could be used to increase the rate of genetic gain in breast meat yield (BMY). Two measurements of breast depth, one taken horizontally across both breast lobes and one parallel to the keel, were captured using ultrasound. Heritabilities of muscle depth traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.70. These values were greater than heritabilities of conformation scores, which ranged from 0.25 to 0.47 within sex and line. The ultrasound traits also showed strong genetic correlations to BMY, ranging from 0.43 to 0.75, indicating that selection, using ultrasound depth as a correlated information source, could result in improved BMY. Including each ultrasound trait in a linear regression model predicting BMY increased the proportion of variation explained by the models by 0.08 to 0.17, relative to using conformation score as the only in vivo estimate. Based on results from a simulated turkey breeding program with selection pressure only on BMY, the ultrasound measures could increase the accuracy of a selection index for BMY by 0.02 to 0.16. As a result, ultrasound technology has the potential to improve the rate of genetic gain in BMY in a breeding program.

  18. Ultrasound - Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Breast Ultrasound imaging of the breast uses sound waves ... the Breast? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland ...

  20. THE FIRST EXPERIENCE IN USING THE ULTRASOUND AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGE FUSION TECHNOLOGY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kapustin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the feasibility of the image fusion technology to choose a target portion for needle biopsy in prostate cancer (PC. Subjects and methods. Ultrasound (US-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-guided needle biopsies were made in 12 patients. All the patients underwent intravenous bolus-enhanced MRI, then MRI and US images were fused during transrectal ultrasound studies (TRUS and targets were determined to make a needle biopsy. Results. The image fusion technology allows one to concurrently assess MRI and US images in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer and after radical prostatectomy (RPE. The MRI and transrectal images are compared with a high degree of accuracy, providing the clear positioning of the portions substantially accumulating the MRI contrast agent during real-time TRUS. Conclusion. The MRI-US image fusion procedure enables the choice of the targets to be biopsied both in the primary diagnosis of PC and in its suspected recurrence in patients after RPE. The increased accumulation of a MRI contrast agent is a major criterion for choosing a target portion.

  1. THE FIRST EXPERIENCE IN USING THE ULTRASOUND AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGE FUSION TECHNOLOGY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kapustin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the feasibility of the image fusion technology to choose a target portion for needle biopsy in prostate cancer (PC. Subjects and methods. Ultrasound (US-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-guided needle biopsies were made in 12 patients. All the patients underwent intravenous bolus-enhanced MRI, then MRI and US images were fused during transrectal ultrasound studies (TRUS and targets were determined to make a needle biopsy. Results. The image fusion technology allows one to concurrently assess MRI and US images in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer and after radical prostatectomy (RPE. The MRI and transrectal images are compared with a high degree of accuracy, providing the clear positioning of the portions substantially accumulating the MRI contrast agent during real-time TRUS. Conclusion. The MRI-US image fusion procedure enables the choice of the targets to be biopsied both in the primary diagnosis of PC and in its suspected recurrence in patients after RPE. The increased accumulation of a MRI contrast agent is a major criterion for choosing a target portion.

  2. Percutaneous transhepatic portal catheterization guided by ultrasound technology for islet transplantation in rhesus monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengGao; Shao-DongAi; ShengLiu; Wen-BinZeng; WeiWang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pig islet xenotransplantation has the potential to overcome the shortage of donated human islets for islet cell transplantation in type 1 diabetes. Testing in non-human primate models is necessary before clinical application in humans. Intraportal islet transplantation in monkeys is usually performed by surgical infusion during laparotomy or laparoscopy. In this paper, we describe a new method of percutaneous transhepatic portal catheterization (PTPC) as an alternative to current methods of islet transplantation in rhesus monkeys. METHODS: We performed ultrasound-guided PTPC in five adult rhesus monkeys weighing 7-8 kg, with portal vein catheterization confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. We monitored for complications in the thoracic and abdominal cavity. To evaluate the safety of ultrasound-guided PTPC, we recorded the changes in portal pressure throughout the microbead transplantation procedure. RESULTS:  Ultrasound-guided PTPC and infusion of 16 000 microbeads/kg body weight into the portal vein was successful in all five monkeys. Differences in the hepatobiliary anatomy of rhesus monkeys compared to humans led to a higher initial complication rate. The first monkey died of abdominal hemorrhage 10 hours post-transplantation. The second suffered from a mild pneumothorax but recovered fully after taking only conservative measures. After gaining experience with the first two monkeys, we decreased both the hepatic puncture time and the number of puncture attempts required, with the remaining three monkeys experiencing no complications. Portal pressures initially increased proportional to the number of transplanted microbeads but returned to pre-infusion levels at 30 minutes post-transplantation. The changes in portal pressures occurring during the procedure were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided PTPC is an effective, convenient, and minimally invasive method suitable for use in non-human primate models of

  3. Curved PVDF airborne transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Toda, M

    1999-01-01

    In the application of airborne ultrasonic ranging measurement, a partially cylindrical (curved) PVDF transducer can effectively couple ultrasound into the air and generate strong sound pressure. Because of its geometrical features, the ultrasound beam angles of a curved PVDF transducer can be unsymmetrical (i.e., broad horizontally and narrow vertically). This feature is desired in some applications. In this work, a curved PVDF air transducer is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two resonances were observed in this transducer. They are length extensional mode and flexural bending mode. Surface vibration profiles of these two modes were measured by a laser vibrometer. It was found from the experiment that the surface vibration was not uniform along the curvature direction for both vibration modes. Theoretical calculations based on a model developed in this work confirmed the experimental results. Two displacement peaks were found in the piezoelectric active direction of PVDF film for the length extensional mode; three peaks were found for the flexural bending mode. The observed peak positions were in good agreement with the calculation results. Transient surface displacement measurements revealed that vibration peaks were in phase for the length extensional mode and out of phase for the flexural bending mode. Therefore, the length extensional mode can generate a stronger ultrasound wave than the flexural bending mode. The resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes of the two modes strongly depend on the structure parameters as well as the material properties. For the transducer design, the theoretical model developed in this work can be used to optimize the ultrasound performance.

  4. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  5. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  6. Doppler echocardiography and myocardial dyssynchrony: a practical update of old and new ultrasound technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galderisi Maurizio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Morbidity and mortality rates are higher in patients with severe left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction and ECG-derived prolonged QRS interval than in those with normal QRS duration. QRS duration is currently used on the grounds that it reflects the presence of ventricular dyssynchrony. However, 30–40% of patients selected on the basis of a prolonged QRS do not receive benefit by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT since they do not show any significant inverse LV remodeling and QRS duration does not accurately distinguish responders to CRT. Consequently, mechanical dyssynchrony (particularly intra-ventricular dyssynchrony seems to be much more important than electrical dyssinchrony. Pre- and post-echocardiographic assessment should require the combination of conventional and specific applications ranging from M-mode and pulsed/continuous Doppler, to pulsed Tissue Doppler, the off-line analysis of colour Tissue Velocity Imaging, Strain Rate Imaging, and real time three-dimensional reconstruction However, there is not no consensus about the best approach and the best ultrasound parameter for selecting candidates to CRT and ECG representation of abnormal cardiac conduction still remains as the main criterion in guidelines. This review is a practical update of ultrasound methods and measurements of atrio-ventricular, inter-ventricular and intra-ventricular dyssynchrony and describes experiences which used either conventional Doppler echocardiography and more advanced techniques. By these experiences, the global amount of LV dyssynchrony seems to be critical: the greater intra-ventricular dyssynchrony, the higher the possibility of significant LV inverse remodeling. After CRT, it is necessary also to evaluate the optimal atrio-ventricular delay and ventricular-ventricular delay setting that maximizes LV systolic function.

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently ... pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men A Doppler ultrasound exam ...

  8. Intravascular ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    IVUS; Ultrasound - coronary artery; Endovascular ultrasound; Intravascular echocardiography ... A tiny ultrasound wand is attached to the top of a thin tube. This tube is called a catheter. The catheter ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning ...

  10. Generalized TV and sparse decomposition of the ultrasound image deconvolution model based on fusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiaonong; Wan, Suiren

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound image deconvolution involves noise reduction and image feature enhancement, denoising need equivalent the low-pass filtering, image feature enhancement is to strengthen the high-frequency parts, these two requirements are often combined together. It is a contradictory requirement that we must be reasonable balance between these two basic requirements. Image deconvolution method of partial differential equation model is the method based on diffusion theory, and sparse decomposition deconvolution is image representation-based method. The mechanisms of these two methods are not the same, effect of these two methods own characteristics. In contourlet transform domain, we combine the strengths of the two deconvolution method together by image fusion, and introduce the entropy of local orientation energy ratio into fusion decision-making, make a different treatment according to the actual situation on the low-frequency part of the coefficients and the high-frequency part of the coefficient. As deconvolution process is inevitably blurred image edge information, we fusion the edge gray-scale image information to the deconvolution results in order to compensate the missing edge information. Experiments show that our method is better than the effect separate of using deconvolution method, and restore part of the image edge information.

  11. Development of photoacoustic imaging technology overlaid on ultrasound imaging and its clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Miya; Tsujita, Kazuhiro; Horiguchi, Akio; Irisawa, Kaku; Komatsu, Tomohiro; Ayaori, Makoto; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kasamatsu, Tadashi; Hirota, Kazuhiro; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ikewaki, Katsunori; Asano, Tomohiko

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) enables one to visualize the distribution of hemoglobin and acquire a map of microvessels without using contrast agents. The purpose of our study is to develop a clinically applicable PAI system integrated with a clinical ultrasound (US) array system with handheld PAI probes providing coregistered PAI and US images. Clinical research trials were performed to evaluate the performance and feasibility of clinical value. Materials and Methods: We developed two types of handheld PAI probes: a linear PAI probe combining a conventional linear-array US probe with optical illumination and a transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-type PAI probe. We performed experiments with Japanese white rabbits and conducted clinical research trials of urology and vascular medicine with the approval of the medical human ethics committee of the National Defense Medical College. Results: We successfully acquired high-dynamic-range images of the vascular network ranging from capillaries to landmark arteries and identified the femoral vein, deep femoral vein, and great saphenous vein of rabbits. These major vessels in the rabbits groin are surrounded with microvessels connected to each other. Periprostatic microvessels were monitored during radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer and they were colocalized with nerve fibers, and their distribution was consistent with the corresponding PAI. The TRUS-type PAI probe clearly demonstrated the location and extent of the neurovascular bundle (NVB) better than does TRUS alone. Conclusions: The system, which can obtain a PAI, a US image, and a merged image, was innovatively designed so that medical doctors can easily find the location without any prior knowledge or extended skills to analyze the obtained images. Our pilot feasibility study confirms that PAI could be an imaging modality useful in the screening study and diagnostic biopsy.

  12. Obstetric Ultrasound and the Technological Mediation of Morality: A Postphenomenological Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter-Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the moral relevance of technological artifacts and its possible role in ethical theory, by taking the postphenomenological approach that has developed around the work of Don Ihde into the domain of ethics. By elaborating a postphenomenological analysis of the mediating role of

  13. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound for the characterization and staging of rectal cancer. Current state of the method. Technological advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersak, Mariana M; Badea, Radu; Graur, Florin; Hajja, Nadim Al; Furcea, Luminita; Dudea, Sorin M

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound is the most accurate type of examination for the assessment of rectal tumors. Over the years, the method has advanced from gray-scale examination to intravenous contrast media administration and to different types of elastography. The multimodal approach of tumors (transrectal, transvaginal) is adapted to each case. 3D ultrasound is useful for spatial representation and precise measurement of tumor formations, using CT/MR image reconstruction; color elastography is useful for tumor characterization and staging; endoscopic ultrasound using intravenous contrast agents can help study the amount of contrast agent targeted at the level of the tumor formations and contrast wash-in/wash-out time, based on the curves displayed on the device. The transvaginal approach often allows better visualization of the tumor than the transrectal approach. Performing the procedure with the rectal ampulla distended with contrast agent may be seen as an optimization of the examination methodology. All these aspects are additional methods for gray-scale endoscopic ultrasound, capable of increasing diagnostic accuracy. This paper aims at reviewing the progress of transrectal and transvaginal ultrasound, generically called endoscopic ultrasound, for rectal tumor diagnosis and staging, with emphasis on the current state of the method and its development trends.

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... time to the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, you may actually hear pulse-like ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... investigation of the uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries ... abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or sonohysterography for patients with infertility. Three- ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... needles are used to extract a sample of cells from organs for laboratory testing. Doppler ultrasound images ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently used to evaluate the ... vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men A Doppler ultrasound exam may be part of ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently used to evaluate the ... vaginal ( transvaginal , endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men A Doppler ultrasound exam may be part of ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as detailed as with the transrectal probe. An MRI of the pelvis may be obtained as an ... Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate ...

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007646.htm Endoscopic ultrasound To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Endoscopic ultrasound is a type of imaging test. It is ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the procedure? In women, a pelvic ultrasound is most often performed to evaluate the: uterus cervix ovaries ... page How is the procedure performed? Transabdominal: For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? In women, a pelvic ultrasound is most ... child's favorite channel. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a ...

  5. Combining transcranial ultrasound with intelligent communication methods to enhance the remote assessment and management of stroke patients: Framework for a technology demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mort, Alasdair; Eadie, Leila; Regan, Luke; Macaden, Ashish; Heaney, David; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Rushworth, Gordon; Wilson, Philip

    2016-09-01

    With over 150,000 strokes in the United Kingdom every year, and more than 1 million living survivors, stroke is the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of severe physical disability among adults. A major challenge in administering timely treatment is determining whether the stroke is due to vascular blockage (ischaemic) or haemorrhage. For patients with ischaemic stroke, thrombolysis (i.e. pharmacological 'clot-busting') can improve outcomes when delivered swiftly after onset, and current National Health Service Quality Improvement Scotland guidelines are for thrombolytic therapy to be provided to at least 80 per cent of eligible patients within 60 min of arrival at hospital. Thrombolysis in haemorrhagic stroke could severely compound the brain damage, so administration of thrombolytic therapy currently requires near-immediate care in a hospital, rapid consultation with a physician and access to imaging services (X-ray computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) and intensive care services. This is near impossible in remote and rural areas, and stroke mortality rates in Scotland are 50 per cent higher than in London. We here describe our current project developing a technology demonstrator with ultrasound imaging linked to an intelligent, multi-channel communication device - connecting to multiple 2G/3G/4G networks and/or satellites - in order to stream live ultrasound images, video and two-way audio streams to hospital-based specialists who can guide and advise ambulance clinicians regarding diagnosis. With portable ultrasound machines located in ambulances or general practices, use of such technology is not confined to stroke, although this is our current focus. Ultrasound assessment is useful in many other immediate care situations, suggesting potential wider applicability for this remote support system. Although our research programme is driven by rural need, the ideas are potentially applicable to urban areas where access to

  6. Airborne Next: Rethinking Airborne Organization and Applying New Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    supported them, both inside and outside of the classroom . The direction of this project was kept on track thanks to Professor Leo Blanken, COL Guy LeMire...the areas of organization, doctrine, technology , and strategy as guiding frames of reference, this thesis recommends updating the organizational... technology , and strategy as guiding frames of reference, this thesis recommends updating the organizational structures of airborne forces to model a

  7. Instant controlled pressure drop technology and ultrasound assisted extraction for sequential extraction of essential oil and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaf, Tamara; Tomao, Valérie; Ruiz, Karine; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) technology enabled both the extraction of essential oil and the expansion of the matrix itself which improved solvent extraction. The sequential use of DIC and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) triggered complementary actions materialized by supplementary effects. We visualized these combination impacts by comparing them to standard techniques: Hydrodistillation (HD) and Solvent Extraction (SE). First, the extraction of orange peel Essential Oils (EO) was achieved by HD during 4h and DIC process (after optimization) during 2 min; EO yields was 1.97 mg/g dry material (dm) with HD compared to 16.57 mg/g d m with DIC. Second, the solid residue was recovered to extract antioxidant compounds (naringin and hesperidin) by SE and UAE. Scanning electron microscope showed that after HD the recovered solid shriveled as opposite to DIC treatment which expanded the product structure. HPLC analyses showed that the best kinetics and yields of naringin and hesperidin extraction was when DIC and UAE are combined. Indeed, after 1h of extraction, DIC treated orange peels with UAE were 0.825 ± 1.6 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) for hesperidin and 6.45 × 10(-2) ± 2.3 × 10(-4)g/g d m for naringin compared to 0.64 ± 2.7 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) and 5.7 × 10(-2) ± 1.6 × 10(-3)g/g d m, respectively with SE. By combining DIC to UAE, it was possible to enhance kinetics and yields of antioxidant extraction.

  8. Fabrication of fiber-optic broadband ultrasound emitters by micro-opto-mechanical technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, L.; Vannacci, E.; Mancarella, F.; Ferri, M.; Veronese, G. P.; Biagi, E.; Roncaglia, A.

    2014-08-01

    A micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS) technology for the fabrication of fiber-optic optoacoustic emitters is presented. The described devices are based on the thermoelastic generation of ultrasonic waves from patterned carbon films obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of photoresist layers and fabricated on miniaturized single-crystal silicon frames used to mount the emitters on the tip of an optical fiber. Thanks to the micromachining process adopted, high miniaturization levels are reached in the fabrication of the emitters, and self-standing devices on optical fiber with diameter around 350 µm are demonstrated, potentially suited to minimally invasive medical applications. The functional testing of fiber-optic emitter prototypes in water performed by using a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd-YAG excitation laser source is also presented, yielding broadband emission spectra extended from low frequencies up to more than 40 MHz, and focused emission fields with a maximum peak-to-peak pressure level of about 1.2 MPa at a distance of 1 mm from the devices.

  9. Carotid Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Carotid Ultrasound Also known as carotid duplex. Carotid ultrasound is a painless imaging test that uses high- ... of your carotid arteries. This test uses an ultrasound machine, which includes a computer, a screen, and ...

  10. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  11. Net Warrior D10 Technology Report: Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) and Data Link Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    decision support; mobile technologies with a tactical sensor suite and situational communication endpoint; CORBA Component Model architectures for...WARRIOR EVENTS AND ENABLING RESEARCH..................... 30 5.1 CORBA Component Model...10 Figure 8: Net Warrior reference architecture.............................................................................. 12 Figure 9: OMG CORBA

  12. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract. We are grateful to the Universidad de Costa Rica, the NASA Airborne Science and Earth Surface & Interior Programs, the Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil de Costa Rica, and FH Düsseldorf for their support.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of the structure and function of the common carotid artery in hypertriglyceridemic subjects using ultrasound radiofrequency-data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Hai-Jun, E-mail: danhaijun@163.com [Department of Physical Examination, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei (China); Wang, Yan [Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Sha, Hai-Jing [Second Department of Geriatrics, The Central Hospital of Handan, Handan 056001, Hebei (China); Wen, Shu-Bin [Department of Physical Examination, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei (China)

    2012-11-15

    Assessment of the properties of blood-vessel walls by ultrasound radiofrequency (RF)-data technology is an innovative technique. We quantitatively evaluated the intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial elasticity of the common carotid artery (CCA) in asymptomatic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) using RF-data technology. Thirty HTG subjects and 30 matched controls were enrolled in the study. The common carotid arterial systolic diameter, diastolic diameter, IMT, carotid distensibility (CD), local pulse wave velocity (PWV{beta}), and stiffness ({beta}) were compared between the two groups, as was the correlation between triglyceride level and the parameters mentioned above. The HTG group had significantly higher values of CCA-IMT compared with the control group (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between the HTG group and controls in terms of higher values of PWV{beta} and {beta}, and lower values of CD (all p < 0.05). No difference was observed in terms of the systolic and diastolic diameter of the CCA (p > 0.05). The level of triglycerides had significant positive correlations with CCA-IMT (r = 0.493, p < 0.001), whereas significant correlations with CD, PWV{beta}, and {beta} were not observed in the HTG group. Ultrasound RF-data technology can be used to non-invasively and quantitatively detect the change in the structure and function of the CCA in asymptomatic HTG subjects for evaluating preclinical atherosclerosis.

  14. Long-Term Outcomes of Speech Therapy for Seven Adolescents with Visual Feedback Technologies: Ultrasound and Electropalatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacsfalvi, Penelope; Bernhardt, Barbara May

    2011-01-01

    This follow-up study investigated the speech production of seven adolescents and young adults with hearing impairment 2-4 years after speech intervention with ultrasound and electropalatography. Perceptual judgments by seven expert listeners revealed that five out of seven speakers either continued to generalize post-treatment or maintained their…

  15. Thyroid ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in th...

  16. Ultrasound physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The instrumentation, including transducers and image processing, is important in the acquisition of appropriate sonographic images. Understanding how these concepts interplay with each other enables practitioners to obtain the best possible images.

  17. 超声波技术在柴油氧化脱硫中的应用%Application of ultrasound technologies in diesel fuels oxidative desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先军; 王宝辉; 刘淑芝; 崔宝臣

    2011-01-01

    介绍了超声波在H2O2-无机酸、H2O2-有机酸" H2O2-固体酸、Fenton试剂氧化柴油脱硫技术中的应用,其中超声波-Fenton试剂氧化脱硫效果较好,极有可能获得更广阔的工业化前景.SulphCo已成功的应用超声波在相当低的温度和压力条件下使用一套5000桶/d的可移动的超声裂化装置对柴油进行脱硫处理,该装置造价比新的高压加氢装置低50%,在柴油精制中应用该技术总成本也非常低.同时,对柴油超声波氧化脱硫技术的应用前景进行了展望.%Several ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization(UAOD)technologies were reviewed,including H2O2- inorganic acid systems and H2O2- organic acid systems and Fenton' s reagent systems.The UAOD technologies in combination with Fenton' s reagent showed a good desulfurization effect.SulphCo has successfully used a 5000 barrel/d mobile Sonocracking unit to duplicate on a commercial scale its proprietary process that applies ultrasonics at relatively low temperatures and pressures.The UAOD technology estimate capital costs less than half the cost of a new high-pressure hydrotreater.The total costs of the Sonocracking technology in many diesel finishing applications are much cheaper.The opinions with respect to the future application trend of ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization technologies of diesel fuels are proposed.

  18. 航空伽马能谱测量方法技术现状与展望%THE STATUS AND PROSPECTS OF AIRBORNE GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRY TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万建华; 熊盛青; 范正国

    2012-01-01

    简要地介绍了国内外航空伽马能谱测量方法技术的发展现状,尤其是近年来航空伽马能谱测量在仪器研制、数据处理与资料解释方法技术及应用领域等方面取得的最新进展,并结合我国当前地质找矿工作的需求,提出今后一段时期我国航空伽马能谱量测工作的重点应着眼于加强区域性航空伽马能谱测量工作,重视资料的二次开发利用及拓展新应用领域;要作好仪器国产化之后的实用化开发,及加强航空伽马能谱测量新方法技术研究.%This paper has described the development state of the airborne gamma-ray spectrometry technology and its applications both in China and aboard, especially the recent development in the aspects of instruments, data processing and interpretation technology as well as the applications. On the basis of the present requirements of China's geological work, the focus work of Chinas airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in the coming period was pointed out. Firstly, the regional airborne gamma-ray spectrometry surveying and the exploitation of the existing data should be strengthened, and the new application fields should be opened up. Secondly, the practical development should be carried out following the full utilization of Chinese-made instruments. Finally, the new methods and techniques for the airborne gamma ray spectrometry surveying ought to be strengthened.

  19. Carotid Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Carotid Carotid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce ... limitations of Carotid Ultrasound Imaging? What is Carotid Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures ... limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  1. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Venous (Extremities) Venous ultrasound uses sound waves to ... limitations of Venous Ultrasound Imaging? What is Venous Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  2. Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most recent work in the United States has addressed the use of silver-exchanged faujasites and mordenites. The chemical reactions of iodine with silver on the sorbent are not well defined, but it is generally believed that chemisorbed iodides and iodates are formed. The process for iodine recovery generally involves passage of the iodine-laden gas stream through a packed bed of the adsorbent material preheated to a temperature of about 150/degree/C. Most iodine removal system designs utilizing silver-containing solid sorbents assume only a 30 to 50% silver utilization. Based on laboratory tests, potentially 60 to 70% of the silver contained in the sorbents can be reacted with iodine. To overcome the high cost of silver associated with these materials, various approaches have been explored. Among these are the regeneration of the silver-containing sorbent by stripping the iodine and trapping the iodine on a sorbent that has undergone only partial silver exchange and is capable of attaining a much higher silver utilization. This summary report describes the US work in regeneration of iodine-loaded solid sorbent material. In addition, the report discusses the broader subject of plant off-gas treatment including system design. The off-gas technologies to recovery No/sub x/ and to recover and dispose of Kr, /sup 14/C, and I are described as to their impacts on the design of an integrated off-gas system. The effect of ventilation philosophy for the reprocessing plant is discussed as an integral part of the overall treatment philosophy of the plant off-gas. 103 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. 超声波在食品技术中的应用%Applications of ultrasound in food technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷德柱; 高大维; 于淑娟

    2000-01-01

    High power ultrasound has mechanical, cavitational and thermal effects on its propagating medium, and therefore mass and heat transportations can be enhanced. Strong tangential force are generated against the viscous medium. Ultrasound aids extraction, freezing, emulsifying, filtering, crystallizing and drying in food processing and these functions will be reviewed presently.%强超声在媒质中传播时产生力学效应、空化效应和热效应,并由此增强质量传输和热传递,对介质产生强的切向力。本文对超声波在辅助或强化提取、冷冻、乳 化、过滤、结晶和干燥等食品的加工技术中应用加以综述。

  4. Use of up-to-date ultrasound technologies in the diagnosis of metastatic ovarian tumors in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Chekalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the results of ultrasound and postoperative histological studies of 14 patients with primary diagnosis of gastric cancer who received treatment at the cancer research center in 2014. Metastases to the ovaries detected in all cases with disseminated gastric cancer as the primary diagnosis, and in monitoring the effectiveness of treatment. The most characteristic ultrasound signs of metastatic ovarian tumors. When elastography in all cases, metastatic the affected ovaries were determined in the solid sections of the component of high-density (stiffness, charterhouses type 5 (blue, the average rigidity coefficient was 10.2–32.2. Solid-cystic masses in cases of tumor were mapped to 4 of Krukenberg type (which met as the dense and elastic stretches, charterhouses blue and green colors.

  5. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease. It is also used to measure conditions affecting blood flow to and within the brain, such as: Stenosis : ... saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures ... represent the flow of blood through the blood vessels. top of ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also evaluates the myometrium (muscular walls of the uterus). Sonohysterography allows for a more ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a nodule found during a rectal exam, detect abnormalities, and determine whether the gland is enlarged. Ultrasound ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries in planes that ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How is the procedure performed? In men, the prostate gland is located directly in front ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have had the tail end of their ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to best travel ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to best travel ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams are also used to monitor the health and development of an embryo or fetus during ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to distract the child and make the time pass quickly. The ultrasound exam room may have a ... tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body. top of page Additional ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal bleeding other menstrual problems and help identify: ... children, pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic pain ambiguous genitalia and anomalies of pelvic organs early ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view ... detect: uterine anomalies uterine scars endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule found during ... difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the examination process. To ensure a smooth experience, it often helps to explain the procedure to the ... on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the procedure. Ultrasound examinations are very sensitive to motion, and an active or crying child can prolong ... computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  5. 超声波加工技术在纺织印染中的研究新进展%Recent advances of ultrasound technology in textile industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程浩南; 何源

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound have been studied in areas such as environmental remediation, biological imaging and communication location. The establishment and intensive investigation of ultrasonic chemistry has injected new vigor for the traditional textile and dyeing industry, broaden new ideas. The ultrasound technology was successfully applied in wet processing such as scouring, desizing, dyeing, printing bleaching and finishing. With the development of nano-science, nano-dyeing and nano-printing appeared. The utilization of ultrasound in textile industry was approved to have such advantages as reduction of energy, chemicals and time. Functional nano-material and textile substrate material have been combined by ultrasonic method, including functional nanoparticles in-situ synthesis and nano-materials combination with substrate by ultrasonic. The research results were concluded from the past traditional ultrasonic technology and the new ultrasonic chemistry in the field of textile printing and dyeing. The further research for ultrasonic in textile printing and dyeing was also proposed.%超声波早已被大量研究证明其在环境治理、生物造影、通讯定位等领域的作用。超声化学的创立和研究为传统纺织印染行业注入了新的活力,开拓了新思路。其在湿加工方面如退浆、精炼、漂白、染色、印花、后整理等的运用已有成效。此外,随着纳米科学的发展,纳米整理、纳米染色、纳米印花等技术不断涌现。超声波加工在纺织印染的应用已经被证实具有节能、缩短时间、减少化学品用量等优势。国内外相关研究了利用超声化学法将功能化纳米物质与纺织材料底物结合的新方法,包括纳米颗粒的原位超声合成、纳米材料与底物的超声复合等。总结从过去传统的超声加工到新型超声化学在纺织印染领域的研究成果,提出超声加工在纺织印染领域的研究方向。

  6. Trauma Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures.

  7. Find, Fight, Follow: Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, P.G.; Gruell, H.; Steinbach, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    The integration of therapeutic interventions with diagnostic imaginghas been recognized as one of the next technological developments that will have a major impact on medical treatments. Therapeutic applications using ultrasound, for example thermal ablation, hyperthermia or ultrasound induced drug

  8. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... forms of information technology. Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  9. Airborne geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Bastos, L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne geoid mapping techniques may provide the opportunity to improve the geoid over vast areas of the Earth, such as polar areas, tropical jungles and mountainous areas, and provide an accurate "seam-less" geoid model across most coastal regions. Determination of the geoid by airborne methods...

  10. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  11. Ultrasound Imaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    texture mapping hardware," IEEE Tranactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, Submitted. [14] C.R. Castro Pareja , J.M. Jagadeesh and R. Shekhar...modulation in real-time three-dimensional sparse synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging systems "* Carlos R. Castro Pareja , Masters of Science, The Ohio...C.R. Castro Pareja , "An architecture for real-time image registration," M.S. Thesis, The Ohio State University, March 2002. 14. C.R. Castro Pareja , R

  12. 机载预警雷达天线发展趋势及关键技术%Development Trend and Key Technology of Airborne Early-warning Radar Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭先松; 孔令兵; 刘小飞

    2015-01-01

    A trend for next generation airborne early warning radar is multi-function integrated detection .The antenna array is re-quired to have the characteristic of multi-function and integration with the platform , and meanwhile realize the ultra-wideband and multiple frequency band performance .The hardware supporting the digital intelligent radar scheme is also required .Firstly, the development trend and current status is introduced of the airborne early warning radar antenna in the world -wide.Then the key technology of the airborne early warning radar antenna is analyzed .Finally, the technical routes and core issues are illustrated and partially the solution methods are proposed .%综合性预警探测多功能一体化系统是下一代机载预警雷达的一种必然趋势,它要求天线阵面具备多功能、与平台一体化的特征,实现超宽带、多频段性能,并能在硬件资源上支撑数字智能化的系统体系架构. 文中首先分析了机载预警雷达天线阵面的发展趋势和国内外研究现状,继而分析了目前机载预警雷达天线系统的关键技术,阐述了相应的技术实施途径和核心问题,提出部分解决方案.

  13. Colour Doppler ultrasound of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, C.J.; Sriprasad, S.; Sidhu, P.S. E-mail: paulsidhu@compuserve.com

    2003-07-01

    Because it is a superficial structure, the penis is ideally suited to ultrasound imaging. A number of disease processes, including Peyronie's disease, penile fractures and penile tumours, are clearly visualized with ultrasound. An assessment of priapism can also be made using spectral Doppler waveform technology. Furthermore, dynamic assessment of cavernosal arterial changes after pharmaco-stimulation allows diagnosis of arterial and venogenic causes for impotence. This pictorial review illustrates the range of diseases encountered with ultrasound of the penis.

  14. Effect of Supplementation with Wheat Bran Aqueous Extracts Obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Technologies on the Sensory Properties and the Antioxidant Activity of Dry Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Delvecchio, Laura Nunzia; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Laddomada, Barbara; Urso, Valeria; Mazzaglia, Agata; Ruisi, Paolo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Phenolic compounds have antioxidant properties and activate endogenous detoxification defense systems able to scavenge the reactive species of oxygen. The external layers of wheat caryopsis, largely constituting by-products of the milling industry such as bran and various middlings, contain relevant amounts of phenolic compounds. The aim of the research has been to evaluate the effect of supplementation with wheat bran aqueous extracts, obtained by ultrasound-assisted technologies, on the sensory properties and antioxidant activity of dry pasta. The HPLC-DAD characterization of the extract evidenced the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids. The supplemented pasta showed significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content than the control, coupled to good overall sensory judgment. In addition, two different pasta drying diagrams were adopted, and the comparison of the corresponding end-products allowed it to be pointed out that the processing technology has to be carefully set up to prevent possible detrimental effects on the antioxidant activity. The proposed utilization of bran might add value to a milling by-product that, otherwise, is mostly employed in animal feeding.

  15. Real-Time 3-Dimensional Ultrasound-Assisted Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Catheter Placement: Implications of a New Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Clendenen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are a variety of techniques for targeting placement of an infraclavicular blockade; these include eliciting paresthesias, nerve stimulation, and 2-dimensional (2D ultrasound (US guidance. Current 2D US allows direct visualization of a “flat” image of the advancing needle and neurovascular structures but without the ability to extensively analyze multidimensional data and allow for real-time manipulation. Three-dimensional (3D ultrasonography has gained popularity and usefulness in many clinical specialties such as obstetrics and cardiology. We describe some of the potential clinical applications of 3D US in regional anesthesia. Methods. This case represents an infraclavicular catheter placement facilitated by 3D US, which demonstrates 360-degree spatial relationships of the entire anatomic region. Results. The block needle, peripheral nerve catheter, and local anesthetic diffusion were observed in multiple planes of view without manipulation of the US probe. Conclusion. Advantages of 3D US may include the ability to confirm correct needle and catheter placement prior to the injection of local anesthetic. The spread of local anesthetic along the length of the nerve can be easily observed while manipulating the 3D images in real-time by simply rotating the trackball on the US machine to provide additional information that cannot be identified with 2D US alone.

  16. A Web-Based Airborne Remote Sensing Telemetry Server Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Web-based Airborne Remote Sensing Telemetry Server (WARSTS) is proposed to integrate UAV telemetry and web-technology into an innovative communication, command,...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  18. Using basic fibroblast growth factor nanoliposome combined with ultrasound-introduced technology to early intervene the diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Xin-Qiao; Zheng, Lei; Lu, Cui-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-loaded liposome (bFGF-lip) combined with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique was investigated to prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Cardiac function and myocardial ultrastructure were assessed. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, immunohistochemistry staining, and Western blot assay were used to investigate the signal pathway underlying the expression of bFGF in DCM treatment. From Mason staining and TUNEL staining, bFGF-lip + UTMD group showed significant differences from the diabetes group and other groups treated with bFGF or bFGF-lip. The diabetes group showed similar results (myocardial capillary density, collagen volume fraction, and cardiac myocyte apoptosis index) to other bFGF treatment groups. Indexes from transthoracic echocardiography and hemodynamic evaluation also proved the same conclusion. These results confirmed that the abnormalities including diastolic dysfunctions, myocardial fibrosis, and metabolic disturbances could be suppressed by the different extents of twice-weekly bFGF treatments for 12 consecutive weeks (free bFGF or bFGF-lip +/- UTMD), with the strongest improvements observed in the bFGF-lip + UTMD group. The group combining bFGF-lip with UTMD demonstrated the highest level of bFGF expression among all the groups. The bFGF activated the PI3K/AKT signal pathway, causing the reduction of myocardial cell apoptosis and increase of microvascular density. This strategy using bFGF-lip and UTMD is a potential strategy in early intervention of DCM in diabetes.

  19. Airborne Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — AFRL's Airborne Evaluation Facility (AEF) utilizes Air Force Aero Club resources to conduct test and evaluation of a variety of equipment and concepts. Twin engine...

  20. Using basic fibroblast growth factor nanoliposome combined with ultrasound-introduced technology to early intervene the diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Zheng Zhao,1,2 Ming Zhang,1 Xin-Qiao Tian,3 Lei Zheng,4 Cui-Tao Lu1,2 1College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, 2Department of Ultrasonography, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 3Department of Ultrasonic Diagnosis, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou City, Henan, 4Department of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF-loaded liposome (bFGF-lip combined with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD technique was investigated to prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM. Cardiac function and myocardial ultrastructure were assessed. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry staining, and Western blot assay were used to investigate the signal pathway underlying the expression of bFGF in DCM treatment. From Mason staining and TUNEL staining, bFGF-lip + UTMD group showed significant differences from the diabetes group and other groups treated with bFGF or bFGF-lip. The diabetes group showed similar results (myocardial capillary density, collagen volume fraction, and cardiac myocyte apoptosis index to other bFGF treatment groups. Indexes from transthoracic echocardiography and hemodynamic evaluation also proved the same conclusion. These results confirmed that the abnormalities including diastolic dysfunctions, myocardial fibrosis, and metabolic disturbances could be suppressed by the different extents of twice-weekly bFGF treatments for 12 consecutive weeks (free bFGF or bFGF-lip +/- UTMD, with the strongest improvements observed in the bFGF-lip + UTMD group. The group combining bFGF-lip with UTMD demonstrated the highest level of bFGF expression among all the groups. The bFGF activated the PI3K/AKT signal pathway, causing the reduction of myocardial cell

  1. Study on analysis from sources of error for Airborne LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H. C.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z. J.; Zuo, Z. Q.; Xu, Q. Q.; Li, F. F.; Song, C.

    2016-11-01

    With the advancement of Aerial Photogrammetry, it appears that to obtain geo-spatial information of high spatial and temporal resolution provides a new technical means for Airborne LIDAR measurement techniques, with unique advantages and broad application prospects. Airborne LIDAR is increasingly becoming a new kind of space for earth observation technology, which is mounted by launching platform for aviation, accepting laser pulses to get high-precision, high-density three-dimensional coordinate point cloud data and intensity information. In this paper, we briefly demonstrates Airborne laser radar systems, and that some errors about Airborne LIDAR data sources are analyzed in detail, so the corresponding methods is put forwarded to avoid or eliminate it. Taking into account the practical application of engineering, some recommendations were developed for these designs, which has crucial theoretical and practical significance in Airborne LIDAR data processing fields.

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... not stain or discolor clothing. In some ultrasound studies, the transducer is attached to a probe and ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ... Ultrasound examinations are painless and easily tolerated by most patients. Ultrasound exams in which the transducer is ...

  5. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  6. Assessment of early radial injury after transradial coronary intervention by high-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy:innovative technology application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hua; JIA De-an; HAN Hong-ya; YU Miao; MA Qian; XU Xiao-han; ZHOU Yu-jie; LIU Yu-yang; DU Jie; LIU Xiao-li; YAN Zhen-xian; WANG Zhi-jian; GAO Fei; YANG Shi-wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Transradial coronary intervention (TRI) introduces injury to the radial artery (RA) which will affect repeat transradial coronary procedure and the quality as a bypass conduit.We sought to compare the early radial injury after TRI between first-TRI and repeat-TRI by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods A total of 1116 patients who underwent the transradial coronary procedures were enrolled.The patients depending on whether for the first time to accept transradial coronary procedure were divided into first-TRI group and repeat-TRI group.The RA was examined by UBM before and one day after the procedure.Results Compared with first-TRI group,the mean RA diameter of repeat-TRI one day after the procedure decreased significantly (P <0.05).In first-TRI group,the mean RA diameter was (2.32±0.53) and (1.93±0.57) mm before procedure and one day after the procedure respectively (P <0.05).In repeat-TRI group,the mean RA diameter was (2.37±0.51) and (1.79±0.54) mm before procedure and one day after the procedure,respectively (P <0.01).Compared with first-TRI group,the mean RA diameter was reduced significantly in repeat-TRI group one day after the procedure (P<0.05).The early radial injuries and intimal thickening were compared between first-TRI and repeat-TRI.The mean intima-media thickness of RA was (0.24±0.13) mm and (0.59±0.28) mm before procedure and one day after the procedure in first-TRI group.The mean intima-media thickness of RA was (0.29±0.16) mm and (0.68±0.32) mm before procedure and one day after the procedure in repeat-TRI group.Compared with first-TRI group,the mean intimal thickening was increased significantly in repeat-TRI group one day after the procedure (P<0.05).Intimal dissection,stenosis and occlusion were all significantly greater in repeat-TRI RAs (P <0.05).Linear regression analysis revealed that diameter,repeated TRI procedure and PCI procedure were the independent predictors of intimal thickening.Conclusions RA early

  7. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures ... of Ultrasound of the Thyroid? What is an Ultrasound of the Thyroid? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  8. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce ... of Ultrasound of the Thyroid? What is an Ultrasound of the Thyroid? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ...

  9. Review on DEM Key Technologies of Airborne LIDAR Point Cloud with the Scale of 1∶10000%机载 LiDAR 点云更新1∶1万 DEM 关键技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金盈; 胡小庆; 张广庆

    2014-01-01

    Combining with post processing of TerraSolid software to airborne LIDAR data,few key tech-nologies of DEM extracted by using LIDAR datas have been analyzed,including filtering technology,air-craft belt splicing technology,feature lines and feature points involved in DEM extraction and the remedial treatment after manual classification with the height difference between flightlines.%结合 TerraSolid 对机载激光雷达数据进行后处理的生产流程,重点分析利用 LiDAR 数据提取 DEM 的几个关键技术:滤波技术、航带拼接技术、特征线\特征点参与 DEM 构建技术以及点云人工编辑分类后航带间高差超限的补救性处理方法。

  10. A brief history of ultrasound in rheumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Terslev, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound is an evolving technique widely used in rheumatology thanks to the numerous advances and the improved work on standardisation. This article deals with the new developments in terms of technology and validation....

  11. Breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, E

    1996-03-01

    In ultrasound, ultrasonic images are formed by means of echoes among tissues with different acoustic impedance. Acoustic impedance is the product of sound speed and bulk modulus. The bulk modulus expresses the elasticity of an object, and in the human body, the value is increased by conditions such as fibrosis and calcification. The sound speed is usually high in elastic tissues and low in water. In the body, it is lowest in the fatty tissue. Ultrasound echoes are strong on the surface of bones which are hard and have a high sound speed. In organs filled with air such as the lungs, the bulk modulus is low and the sound speed is extremely low at 340 m/s, which produce strong echoes (the sound speed in solid tissues is 1,530 m/s). Human tissue is constructed of units smaller than the ultrasonic beam, and it is necessary to understand back-scattering in order to understand the ultrasonic images of these tissues. When ultrasound passes through tissue, it is absorbed as thermal energy and attenuated. Fiber is a tissue with a high absorption and attenuation rate. When the rate increases, the posterior echoes are attenuated. However, in masses with a high water content such as cysts, the posterior echoes are accentuated. This phenomenon is an important, basic finding for determining the properties of tumors. Breast cancer can be classified into two types: stellate carcinoma and circumscribed carcinoma. Since stellate carcinoma is rich in fiber, the posterior echoes are attenuated or lacking. However, circumscribed carcinoma has a high cellularity and the posterior echoes are accentuated. The same tendency is also seen in benign tumors. In immature fibroadenomas, posterior echoes are accentuated, while in fibroadenomas with hyalinosis, the posterior echoes are attenuated. Therefore, if the fundamentals of this tissue characterization and the histological features are understood, reading of ultrasound becomes easy. Color Doppler has also been developed and has contributed

  12. The Application of Ultrasound Technology in Diagnosis of Abnormal Twin Pregnancy%超声技术在异常双胎妊娠诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯彩霞; 梅红; 黄秀英; 程广婷

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨超声技术在异常双胎妊娠诊断中的价值。方法对2009年1月~2012年12月在我院行超声检查的双胎异常妊娠孕妇的结果进行分析。结果经超声检查,30例孕妇双胎异常妊娠的详细情况均得到了确认。结论超声诊断能够检出大部分胎儿畸形,在异常双胎妊娠的筛查中起着重要作用,可为临床提供可靠信息。%Objective To explore the diagnostic value of ultrasound technology in abnormal twin pregnancy. Methods Ultrasound results of abnormal twin pregnancy of pregnant women who were examined by ultrasound technology form 2009 to 2012 in obstetrical department in our hospital were analyzed. Results The detailed information of abnormal twin pregnancy of 30 cases were conifrmed by ultrasonic diagnosis. Conclusion Ultrasonic diagnosis which can detect most of the fetal abnormalities plays an important role in the screening of abnormal twin pregnancy, and can provide reliable information for clinical results.

  13. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  14. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Needles, A. [Visualsonics, Toronto (Canada); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  15. Target detection algorithm for airborne thermal hyperspectral data

    OpenAIRE

    Marwaha, R.; Kumar, A.; Raju, P.L.N.; Y. V. N. Krishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging is constantly being used for classification purpose. But airborne thermal hyperspectral image usually is a challenge for conventional classification approaches. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that helps in the spatial and spectral analysis of targets utilizing a single sensor. It is based on the technology of Fourier-transform which yields high spectral resolution and enables high accuracy radiometric calibration. ...

  16. Mapping intravascular ultrasound controversies in interventional cardiology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maresca

    Full Text Available Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound innovation has been relatively limited. Intravascular ultrasound remains a niche technology; its clinical practice did not vastly expand, except in Japan, where intravascular ultrasound is an appraised tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. In this qualitative research study, we follow scholarship on the sociology of innovation in exploring both the current adoption practices and perspectives on the future of intravascular ultrasound. We conducted a survey of biomedical experts with experience in the technology, the practice, and the commercialization of intravascular ultrasound. The collected information enabled us to map intravascular ultrasound controversies as well as to outline the dynamics of the international network of experts that generates intravascular ultrasound innovations and uses intravascular ultrasound technologies. While the technology is praised for its capacity to measure coronary atherosclerotic plaque morphology and is steadily used in clinical research, the lack of demonstrated benefits of intravascular ultrasound guided coronary interventions emerges as the strongest factor that prevents its expansion. Furthermore, most of the controversies identified were external to intravascular ultrasound technology itself, meaning that decision making at the industrial, financial and regulatory levels are likely to determine the future of intravascular ultrasound. In light of opinions from the responding experts', a wider adoption of intravascular ultrasound as a stand-alone imaging modality seems rather uncertain, but the appeal for this technology may be renewed by improving image quality and through combination with

  17. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  18. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  19. Indoor airborne infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne infection from person to person is an indoor phenomenon. The infectious organisms are atomized by coughing, sneezing, singing, and even talking. The smallest droplets evaporate to droplet nuclei and disperse rapidly and randomly throughout the air of enclosed spaces. Droplet nuclei have negligible settling velocity and travel wherever the air goes. Outdoors, dilution is so rapid that the chance of inhaling an infectious droplet nucleus is minimal. Measles and other childhood contagions, the common respiratory virus infections, pulmonary tuberculosis, and Legionnaires' Disease are typically airborne indoors. In analyzing a measles outbreak, the probability that a susceptible person would breathe a randomly distributed quantum of airborne infection during one generation of an outbreak was expressed mathematically. Estimates of the rate of production of infectious droplet nuclei ranged between 93 and 8 per min, and the concentration in the air produced by the index case was about 1 quantum per 5 m/sup 3/ of air. Infectious aiborne particles are thus few and far between. Control of indoor airborne infection can be approached through immunization, therapeutic medication, and air disinfection with ultraviolet radiation.

  20. Airborne Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Jakobsen, Henrik Byrial; Paulsen, E.

    1999-01-01

    The air around intact feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler and a dynamic headspace technique. No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted f...

  1. Ultrasound-Assisted Alcohol Fermentation Technology%超声波辅助酒精发酵技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振斌; 刘凤叶; 马海乐; 王林; 张存胜; 闫景坤; 刘加友

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote the development of liquor-making technology, the mechanism of ultrasonic treatment to advance alcohol fermen-tation was explored. Based on the change in yeast amount, residual sugar content in fermenting liquid, ethanol yield, and fermenting liquid vis-cosity before and after ultrasonic treatment, the surface features and water clusters of yeasts before and after ultrasonic treatment were studied by SEM and NMR. The results showed that, in control group, yeast amount and alcohol content reached up to 2.86 × 108 cfu/mL at 42 h and 4.5 g/L at 90 h respectively, fermenting liquid viscosity reduced gradually, the surface of yeast was well-stacked with no defect and no big sag, and 17O half-peak breadth of water clusters was 85.39 Hz;in ultrasonic treatment group, yeast amount reached up to the maximum number of 2.75 × 108 cfu/mL 18 hours in advance, and the consumption rate of reducing sugar and ethanol yield significantly increased, fermenting liquid viscosity was evidently lower than that in the control group, and the surface of yeast was rough and with big sag on the surface, and 17O half-peak breadth of water clusters was 54.32 Hz. This study provided a theoretical evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment in biological fermentation.%为了促进酿酒工艺的发展,探讨超声波促进酵母酒精发酵的机理,在对超声波处理前后的酵母菌数量、发酵液残糖量、酒精产生量和发酵液黏度研究的基础上,利用扫描电镜和核磁共振技术对超声波处理前后的酵母菌表征和水分子团簇进行了研究。研究结果表明,对照组酵母菌落数和酒精含量分别在42 h和90 h达到最大值2.65×108 cfu/mL和4.5 g/L,发酵液黏度逐渐降低,酵母细胞表面形体饱满,无大的凹陷,发酵末期水分子团17O半峰宽为85.39 Hz。超声组相比对照组菌落总数提前18 h达到最大值2.75×108 cfu/mL,还原糖消耗速率和酒精产生速率显著

  2. Bubble-assisted ultrasound : Application in immunotherapy and vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escoffre, JM; Deckers, Roel; Bos, Clemens; Moonen, Chrit

    2016-01-01

    Bubble-assisted ultrasound is a versatile technology with great potential in immunotherapy and vaccination. This technology involves the exposure of immune cells (i.e., dendritic cells, lymphocytes) in-vitro or diseased tissues (i.e., brain, tumor) in-vivo to ultrasound treatment with gas bubbles. B

  3. The use of trigger point "dry" needling under ultrasound guidance for the treatment of myofascial pain (technological innovation and literature review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnov, Rostyslav V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the use of trigger point dry needling under ultrasound guidance and myofascial release for the treatment of myofascial pain and to increase the provability of the puncture treatment by visual verification. A review of modern and traditional approaches to myofascial pain treatment is presented in the article. For the first time the trigger point was visualized by ultrasound (US) in this study and ultrasound guided needling therapy of muscles was performed as well. The group of 91 patients, suffered from myofascial pain of different location was included in the study. The patients were treated during last year by patented method (UA patent A 2010 06283). The pain relief effect was registered in 93.3% patients.

  4. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  5. Estimation of blood velocities using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    Ultrasound systems are especially useful in estimating blood velocities in the human body because they are noninvasive and can display an estimate in real time. This book offers a comprehensive treatment of this relatively new, important technology. The book begins with an introduction to ultraso......Ultrasound systems are especially useful in estimating blood velocities in the human body because they are noninvasive and can display an estimate in real time. This book offers a comprehensive treatment of this relatively new, important technology. The book begins with an introduction...... to ultrasound, flow physics, and the circulatory system. Next, the interaction of ultrasound with blood is discussed. The special contribution of the book lies in the remaining chapters, which offer a lucid, thorough description of continuous and pulsed wave systems, the latest systems for doing color flow...

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy ... limitations of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the ...

  7. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  8. The effect of a 'vanishing twin' on biochemical and ultrasound first trimester screening markers for Down's syndrome in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A C; Loft, A; Pinborg, Anja

    2008-01-01

    . The presence of a perished embryo may further complicate prenatal screening among women pregnant after ART. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 'vanishing twin' on first trimester combined biochemical and ultrasound screening in pregnancies conceived after IVF and intracytoplasmatic sperm...

  9. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, N; Hazlehurst, T; Povey, M; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R; Sandoz, JP

    2014-01-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non cont...

  10. Practical sonochemistry power ultrasound uses and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, T J

    2002-01-01

    This updated version of Practical Sonochemistry for advanced students and teachers in chemistry and chemical engineering conveys the increasing growth in applications and equipment to power ultrasound. Equipment now on the market offers a wider range of frequencies with more reproducible experimentation and a variety of scale-up systems. The book provides detailed descriptions of newer ultrasonic equipment and its applications, and practical laboratory uses of ultrasound technology for industrial scale performance.Modern exercises familiarise readers with recent sonochemical operations

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnose heart conditions, and assess damage after a heart attack. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ... heart failure, and to assess damage after a heart attack. Ultrasound of the heart is commonly called an “ ...

  12. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  13. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  14. Transvaginal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transvaginal ultrasound is a method of imaging the genital tract in females. A hand held probe is inserted directly ... vaginal cavity to scan the pelvic structures, while ultrasound pictures are viewed on a monitor. The test ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to diagnose a ... the scan begins. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a ...

  16. Structural Modeling and Analysis on Dynamic Characteristics of Antenna Pedestal in Airborne SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Li-ping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Finite element modeling and structural dynamic characteristics of antenna pedestal in airborne SAR were studied in this paper. The Finite element model of antenna pedestal in airborne SAR was set up on the basis of structural dynamic theory, then, the key technologies of dynamic simulation were pointed out, and the modal analysis and transient analysis were carried out. Simulation results show that the dynamic characteristics of antenna pedestal in airborne SAR can meet the requirements of servo bandwidth and structural strength. The fast finite element modeling and simulation method proposed in this paper are of great significance to the weight reducing design of antenna pedestal in airborne SAR.

  17. Potential scientific research which will benefit from an airborne Doppler lidar measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    Areas of research which can be significantly aided by the Doppler lidar airborne system are described. The need for systematic development of the airborne Doppler lidar is discussed. The technology development associated with the systematic development of the system will have direct application to satellite systems for which the lidar also promises to be an effective instrument for atmospheric research.

  18. Diagnostic and interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound: part 1. Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jay; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2009-01-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound involves the use of high-frequency sound waves to image soft tissues and bony structures in the body for the purposes of diagnosing pathology or guiding real-time interventional procedures. Recently, an increasing number of physicians have integrated musculoskeletal ultrasound into their practices to facilitate patient care. Technological advancements, improved portability, and reduced costs continue to drive the proliferation of ultrasound in clinical medicine. This increased interest creates a need for education pertaining to all aspects of musculoskeletal ultrasound. The primary purpose of this article is to review diagnostic ultrasound technology and its potential clinical applications in the evaluation and treatment of patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders. After reviewing this article, physicians should be able to (1) list the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound compared with other available imaging modalities, (2) describe how ultrasound machines produce images using sound waves, (3) discuss the steps necessary to acquire and optimize an ultrasound image, (4) understand the different ultrasound appearances of tendons, nerves, muscles, ligaments, blood vessels, and bones, and (5) identify multiple applications for diagnostic and interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound in musculoskeletal practice. Part 1 of this 2-part article reviews the fundamentals of clinical ultrasonographic imaging, including relevant physics, equipment, training, image optimization, and scanning principles for diagnostic and interventional purposes.

  19. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Abdomen KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Abdomen Print A A A What's in this article? ... Child If You Have Questions en español Ultrasonido: abdomen What It Is An abdominal ultrasound is a ...

  20. Modeling of ultrasound transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David

    This Ph.D. dissertation addresses ultrasound transducer modeling for medical ultrasound imaging and combines the modeling with the ultrasound simulation program Field II. The project firstly presents two new models for spatial impulse responses (SIR)s to a rectangular elevation focused transducer...

  1. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Bladder KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Bladder A A A What's in this article? ... español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  2. Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate arte

  3. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Pelvis A A A What's in this article? ... español Ultrasonido: pelvis What It Is A pelvic ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  4. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip A A A What's in this ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  5. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Abdomen KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Abdomen A A A What's in this article? ... español Ultrasonido: abdomen What It Is An abdominal ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  6. Properties of Ultrasound Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Rusina, M.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement properties of ultrasound probes. Ultrasound probes and their parameters significantly affect the quality of the final image. In this work there are described the possibility of measuring the spatial resolution, sensitivity of the probe and measuring the length of the dead zone. Ultrasound phantom ATS Multi Purpose Phantom Type 539 was used for measurements.

  7. Guiding tissue regeneration with ultrasound in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Diane; Comeau, Eric S.; Raeman, Carol H.; Child, Sally Z.; Hobbs, Laura; Hocking, Denise C.

    2015-05-01

    Developing new technologies that enable the repair or replacement of injured or diseased tissues is a major focus of regenerative medicine. This paper will discuss three ultrasound technologies under development in our laboratories to guide tissue regeneration both in vitro and in vivo. A critical obstacle in tissue engineering is the need for rapid and effective tissue vascularization strategies. To address this challenge, we are developing acoustic patterning techniques for microvascular tissue engineering. Acoustic radiation forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields provide a rapid, non-invasive approach to spatially pattern cells in three dimensions without affecting cell viability. Acoustic patterning of endothelial cells leads to the rapid formation of microvascular networks throughout the volumes of three-dimensional hydrogels, and the morphology of the resultant microvessel networks can be controlled by design of the ultrasound field. A second technology under development uses ultrasound to noninvasively control the microstructure of collagen fibers within engineered tissues. The microstructure of extracellular matrix proteins provides signals that direct cell functions critical to tissue regeneration. Thus, controlling collagen microfiber structure with ultrasound provides a noninvasive approach to regulate the mechanical properties of biomaterials and control cellular responses. The third technology employs therapeutic ultrasound to enhance the healing of chronic wounds. Recent studies demonstrate increased granulation tissue thickness and collagen deposition in murine dermal wounds exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In summary, ultrasound technologies offer noninvasive approaches to control cell behaviors and extracellular matrix organization and thus hold great promise to advance tissue regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Airborne field strength monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bredemeyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  9. Laser links for mobile airborne nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Knapek, Markus; Horwath, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircrafts (RPA's) and especially Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) are currently operated over long distances, often across several continents. This is only made possible by maintaining Beyond Line Of Side (BLOS) radio links between ground control stations and unmanned vehicles via geostationary (GEO) satellites. The radio links are usually operated in the Ku-frequency band and used for both, vehicle command & control (C2) - it also refers to Command and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) - as well as transmission of intelligence data - the associated communication stream also refers to Payload Link (PL). Even though this scheme of communication is common practice today, various other issues are raised thereby. The paper shows that the current existing problems can be solved by using the latest technologies combined with altered intuitive communication strategies. In this context laser communication is discussed as a promising technology for airborne applications. It is clearly seen that for tactical reasons, as for instance RPA cooperative flying, Air-to-Air communications (A2A) is more advantageous than GEO satellite communications (SatCom). Hence, together with in-flight test results the paper presents a design for a lightweight airborne laser terminal, suitable for use onboard manned or unmanned airborne nodes. The advantages of LaserCom in combination with Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) technologies particularly for Persistent Wide Area Surveillance (PWAS) are highlighted. Technical challenges for flying LaserCom terminals aboard RPA's are outlined. The paper leads to the conclusion that by combining both, LaserCom and ISR, a new quality for an overall system arises which is more than just the sum of two separate key technologies.

  10. 低芳香成分姜黄素超声提取技术研究%Study on ultrasound assisted extraction technology of low aromatic ingredient curcumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁英髦; 曹雁平

    2013-01-01

    以低芳香成分姜黄素的提取方法为研究对象,以溶剂选择,提取时间和溶剂体积为考察因素,研究了超声场中溶剂法提取姜黄素和挥发油的最佳条件.以紫外分光光度法和气相色谱法分析实验结果,并在电子显微镜下观察超声前后姜黄细胞的形态变化,以确定超声场对实验的影响.先提取挥发油再提取姜黄素比先提取姜黄素再提取挥发油的挥发油产量高36.1%以上达1.21g/h,且姜黄素产量高361.4%以上为0.787mg/h.以姜黄素为目标产物时,宜使用石油醚为提取剂,以挥发油为目标产物时,使用乙醚作为提取剂效果更好.提取量随时间和溶剂体积的增大而提高.超声场破坏了姜黄细胞的细胞壁和纤维物质使目标产物提取效果更好.本实验研究提取低芳香成分的姜黄素技术,让其能更广泛地应用在化妆品、食品等领域.%Low aromatic curcumin extraction methods as the study based on solvent choice,extract time and solvent volume for the experimental conditions,researched the method of solvent extract of curcumin in ultrasonic field and volatile oil of the best conditions.Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and gas chromatographic analysis of laboratory test results,and observed under electron microscope before and after ultrasonic curcuma cell morphological changed,to determine effects of ultrasound on the experimental.Extracted volatile oil first,than to extract curcumin,again extracted curcumin first,than to extract volatile oil,the volatile oil yield was high by more than 36.1%,up to 1.21g/h,and a higher yield of curcumin by more than 361.4%,to 0.787mg/h.With curcumin as the target product,used petroleum ether as extract agent,with volatile oil as the target product,better used ethyl ether as extract agent.Extract volume increased with time and solvent volume improved.Ultrasonic destructed the cell walls and fiber of curcuma for target extracted better,the study on extracted low

  11. Compositae dermatitis from airborne parthenolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    -allergic patients and (ii) re-assess the role of PHL and other SQLs in airborne contact allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Feverfew-allergic patients were patch tested with extracts and fractions containing volatile monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as well as extracts of airborne particles from flowering feverfew plants......, whether they were oxidized or not. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical results have proved that some feverfew-allergic patients are sensitive to airborne particles released from the plant, and isolation of PHL from the particle-containing HIVAS extract in allergenic amounts is strong evidence of PHL......BACKGROUND: Compositae dermatitis confined to exposed skin has often been considered on clinical grounds to be airborne. Although anecdotal clinical and plant chemical reports suggest true airborne allergy, no proof has been procured. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a European Compositae plant...

  12. 超声波-表面活性剂协同提取桑叶总黄酮%Study on the Ultrasound-Surfactant Extraction Technology of Total Flavones from Mulbery Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董树国; 陆钊; 曹宏梅

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-surfactant extraction technology of total flavones from Mulbery leaves was studied.Based on the results of single factor test,orthogonal test was used to optimize the extraction conditions.The optimum extraction conditions of extracting was;mass fraction of Tween 80 solution 1.5%,the solid-liquid ratio 1:30,time of extraction 45min,temperature of extraction 30℃.The ultrasound-surfactant extraction is a fast and an efficient extraction method.%研究桑叶中总黄酮的超声波-表面活性剂协同提取的工艺条件。以总黄酮得率为考察指标,在单因素的基础上,利用正交试验优化提取工艺条件为:Tween 80的质量分数为1.5%,提取时间45min,料液比1:30,提取温度30℃。超声波-表面活性剂协同提取是一种快速、高效的提取方法。

  13. Ultrasound as Visual Feedback in Speech Habilitation: Exploring Consultative Use in Rural British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, B. May; Bacsfalvi, Penelope; Adler-Bock, Marcy; Shimizu, Reiko; Cheney, Audrey; Giesbrecht, Nathan; O'Connell, Maureen; Sirianni, Jason; Radanov, Bosko

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound has shown promise as a visual feedback tool in speech therapy. Rural clients, however, often have minimal access to new technologies. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate consultative treatment using ultrasound in rural communities. Two speech-language pathologists (SLPs) trained in ultrasound use provided consultation with…

  14. Ultrasound in obstetric anaesthesia: a review of current applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ecimovic, P

    2010-07-01

    Ultrasound equipment is increasingly used by non-radiologists to perform interventional techniques and for diagnostic evaluation. Equipment is becoming more portable and durable, with easier user-interface and software enhancement to improve image quality. While obstetric utilisation of ultrasound for fetal assessment has developed over more than 40years, the same technology has not found a widespread role in obstetric anaesthesia. Within the broader specialty of anaesthesia; vascular access, cardiac imaging and regional anaesthesia are the areas in which ultrasound is becoming increasingly established. In addition to ultrasound for neuraxial blocks, these other clinical applications may be of value in obstetric anaesthesia practice.

  15. Application of tissue characterization in intravascular ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, William L.; Fitzgerald, Peter J.; Yock, Paul G.

    1994-05-01

    Current intravascular ultrasound imaging technology is able to determine the extent and distribution of pathologic processes within the vessel wall, but is not highly sensitive in discriminating between certain types of tissue. `Tissue characterization' refers to a set of computer-based techniques that utilize features of the ultrasound signal beyond basic amplitude to help define the composition of the tissue of interest. This technique involves quantitative analysis of the ultrasound signals reflected from tissue before these signals pass through the processing steps in the ultrasound instrument.

  16. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of

  17. The International Airborne Wind Energy Conference 2015: Book of abstracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmehl, R.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne wind energy is an emerging field in the renewable energy technologies that aims to replace the use of fossil fuels for energy production on an economical basis. A characteristic feature of the various concepts that are currently pursued is the use of tethered flying devices to access wind e

  18. Effective and accurate processing and inversion of airborne electromagnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Andersen, Kristoffer Rønne;

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data is used throughout the world for mapping of mineral targets and groundwater resources. The development of technology and inversion algorithms has been tremendously over the last decade and results from these surveys are high-resolution images of the subsurface...

  19. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  20. Airborne laser fish finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Li, Zaiguang; Huang, Houzheng

    1998-05-01

    An experimental airborne laser fish finder has been developed and field trial has been conducted. The Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser output is of 100 HZ pulse repetition rate, 2 MW peak power, 8 ns pulse width. The green light receiving telescope is transmissive with 1400 mm focal length and 200 mm aperture. The varying-gain control of PMT and logarithmic amplifier are used to compress the 105 dynamic range of received signals. The main features of data real-time processing subsystem are of 200 Ms/s sampling rate, 8 bit resolution, adjacent average treatment of return waveforms with high noise, and pseudo-color display of water depth.

  1. Airborne laser bathymetry experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenqiang; Zhu, Xiao; Yang, Kecheng; Li, Zaiguang

    1999-09-01

    An experimental airborne laser bathymetry system has been developed and field trial has been conducted. The Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser output is of 100 HZ pulse repetition rate, 2 MW peak power, 8 ns pulse width. The green light receiving telescope is transmissive with 1400 mm focal length and 200 mm aperture. The varying-gain control of PMT and logarithmic amplifier are used to compress the 105 dynamic range of received signals. The main features of data real-time processing subsystem are of 200 Ms/s sampling rate, 8 bit resolution, adjacent average treatment of return waveforms with high noise, and pseudo-color display of sea depth.

  2. A Computer Simulation of Ultrasound Thermal Bio-Effect in Embryonic Model

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    At the present time, the usage of ultrasound diagnostic equipment has become an inseparable part of diagnosis for a number of medical investigations. Several scientific studies published in the last years showed that when applying a diagnostic ultrasound system on animals it is possible to create negative changes in tissues. New ultrasound technologies and higher output acoustic powers have brought a possible risk connected to the usage of ultrasound in diagnostics. The knowledge of risk leve...

  3. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    Medical ultrasound has been a widely used imaging modality in healthcare platforms for examination, diagnostic purposes, and for real-time guidance during surgery. However, despite the recent advances, medical ultrasound remains the most operator-dependent imaging modality, as it heavily relies...... on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  4. Inactivation of microbes using ultrasound: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyasena, P; Mohareb, E; McKellar, R C

    2003-11-01

    Alternative methods for pasteurization and sterilization are gaining importance, due to increased consumer demand for new methods of food processing that have a reduced impact on nutritional content and overall food quality. Ultrasound processing or sonication is one of the alternative technologies that has shown promise in the food industry. Sonication alone is not very effective in killing bacteria in food; however, the use of ultrasound coupled with pressure and/or heat is promising. Thermosonic (heat plus sonication), manosonic (pressure plus sonication), and manothermosonic (heat and pressure plus sonication) treatments are likely the best methods to inactivate microbes, as they are more energy-efficient and effective in killing microorganisms. Ultrasonic processing is still in its infancy and requires a great deal of future research in order to develop the technology on an industrial scale, and to more fully elucidate the effect of ultrasound on the properties of foods.

  5. Musculoskeletal ultrasound: elbow imaging and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth S; Rosas, Humberto G; Craig, Joseph G

    2010-09-01

    Elbow injuries, both acute and chronic sports-related cases, have increased over the last decade. With one in every four members of a household participating in sports, both clinics and radiology departments are seeing more patients with elbow pain. High-resolution ultrasound is well suited for evaluating the elbow. Ultrasound is growing in popularity and fast becoming another modality that the radiologist can use to help diagnose elbow pathology. With advancing transducer technology and accessibility, ultrasound offers focused and real-time high-resolution imaging of tendons, ligaments, and nerve structures. Its advantages include the use of safe nonionizing radiation, accessibility, and cost effectiveness. Another unique advantage is its ability for dynamic assessment of tendon and ligament structures such as in cases of partial tears of the medial ulnar collateral ligament or ulnar nerve dislocation. It is also easy to assess the contralateral side as a control. Ultrasound is also useful in therapeutic guided injections for its multiplanar capability and clear visualization of major vessels and nerves. We discuss the unique application of ultrasound in evaluating common elbow pathology and in advanced ultrasound-guided treatments such as dextrose prolotherapy and platelet-rich plasma.

  6. Target detection algorithm for airborne thermal hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, R.; Kumar, A.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging is constantly being used for classification purpose. But airborne thermal hyperspectral image usually is a challenge for conventional classification approaches. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that helps in the spatial and spectral analysis of targets utilizing a single sensor. It is based on the technology of Fourier-transform which yields high spectral resolution and enables high accuracy radiometric calibration. The Hypercam instrument has 84 spectral bands in the 868 cm-1 to 1280 cm-1 region (7.8 μm to 11.5 μm), at a spectral resolution of 6 cm-1 (full-width-half-maximum) for LWIR (long wave infrared) range. Due to the Hughes effect, only a few classifiers are able to handle high dimensional classification task. MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction) rotation is a data dimensionality reducing approach to segregate noise in the data. In this, the component selection of minimum noise fraction (MNF) rotation transformation was analyzed in terms of classification accuracy using constrained energy minimization (CEM) algorithm as a classifier for Airborne thermal hyperspectral image and for the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and color digital photograph. On comparing the accuracy of all the classified images for airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and combination of Airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph, it was found that accuracy was highest for MNF component equal to twenty. The accuracy increased by using the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph instead of using LWIR data alone.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse- ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a ...

  10. NASA_Airborne_Lidar_Flights

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon beginning in July 1982 and continuing to January 1984. Data in ASCII...

  11. Medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy...... are shown. Both systems using linear and non-linear propagation of ultrasound are described. The blood velocity can also be non-invasively visualized using ultrasound and the basic signal processing for doing this is introduced. Examples for spectral velocity estimation, color flow maging and the new vector...

  12. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI- ... Ultrasound-and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI- ...

  13. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  14. Airborne bacteria in the atmosphere: Presence, purpose, and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Wenke; Moretti, Serena; Denys, Siegfried; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Numerous recent studies have highlighted that the types of bacteria present in the atmosphere often show predictable patterns across space and time. These patterns can be driven by differences in bacterial sources of the atmosphere and a wide range of environmental factors, including UV intensity, precipitation events, and humidity. The abundance of certain bacterial taxa is of interest, not only for their ability to mediate a range of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, such as cloud formation and ice nucleation, but also for their implications -both beneficial and detrimental-for human health. Consequently, the widespread importance of airborne bacteria has stimulated the search for their applicability. Improving air quality, modelling the dispersal of airborne bacteria (e.g. pathogens) and biotechnological purposes are already being explored. Nevertheless, many technological challenges still need to be overcome to fully understand the roles of airborne bacteria in our health and global ecosystems.

  15. Modern Display Technologies for Airborne Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    from the sulphonic acid group and achieved operating life of greater than 10’ cycles with over 3 years shelf-life. The switching speed was rather slow...pitch. In spite of all this ordering, however, liquid crystals are clearly liquid, flowing readily with quite low viscosity . Consequently the...solids and is the basis of most optical effects used in displays. Other physical properties, such as electrical conductivity, elasticity, viscosity

  16. Airborne Emissions from Si/FeSi Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Ida; Grådahl, Svend; Tranell, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    The management of airborne emissions from silicon and ferrosilicon production is, in many ways, similar to the management of airborne emissions from other metallurgical industries, but certain challenges are highly branch-specific, for example the dust types generated and the management of NO X emissions by furnace design and operation. A major difficulty in the mission to reduce emissions is that information about emission types and sources as well as abatement and measurement methods is often scarce, incomplete and scattered. The sheer diversity and complexity of the subject presents a hurdle, especially for new professionals in the field. This article focuses on the airborne emissions from Si and FeSi production, including greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, airborne particulate matter also known as dust, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The aim is to summarize current knowledge in a state-of-the-art overview intended to introduce fresh industry engineers and academic researchers to the technological aspects relevant to the reduction of airborne emissions.

  17. Airborne Emissions from Si/FeSi Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Ida; Grådahl, Svend; Tranell, Gabriella

    2017-02-01

    The management of airborne emissions from silicon and ferrosilicon production is, in many ways, similar to the management of airborne emissions from other metallurgical industries, but certain challenges are highly branch-specific, for example the dust types generated and the management of NO X emissions by furnace design and operation. A major difficulty in the mission to reduce emissions is that information about emission types and sources as well as abatement and measurement methods is often scarce, incomplete and scattered. The sheer diversity and complexity of the subject presents a hurdle, especially for new professionals in the field. This article focuses on the airborne emissions from Si and FeSi production, including greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, airborne particulate matter also known as dust, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The aim is to summarize current knowledge in a state-of-the-art overview intended to introduce fresh industry engineers and academic researchers to the technological aspects relevant to the reduction of airborne emissions.

  18. 超声法制备苯甲酸钠微胶囊的工艺研究%Research on Processing Technology of Sodium Benzoate Microcapsules by Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斌; 刘志聪; 侯小桢; 赖宣; 许淼鑫; 王士超

    2014-01-01

    以β-环糊精为壁材,以包埋率为指标,采用单因素试验和Box-Behnken 中心组合设计试验对超声法制备苯甲酸钠微胶囊的工艺进行优化。试验结果表明:超声法制备苯甲酸钠包合物的最佳工艺条件为芯/壁材比1∶7.17,超声包埋时间29.9 min,超声包埋功率180 W,此条件下的实际包埋率为80.5%,与模型预测值之间具有较好的拟合性。%Takeβ-cyclodextrin as wall material and embedding rate of sodium benzoate as main index, the single factor experiment and Box-Behnken response surface methodology for optimization of sodi-um benzoate microcapsules by ultrasound method is explored.The results show that the optimum process conditions for preparation of sodium benzoate clathrate by ultrasound method are as follows:the core/wall material ratio of 1∶7.17,the ultrasonic embedding time of 29.9 min,the ultrasonic embedding power of 180 W,the embedding rate can reach 80.5%,and the regression model is con-sistent with the predicted results.

  19. South African Airborne Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne operations entail the delivery of ground troops and their equipment by air to their area of operations. They can also include the subsequent support of these troops and their equipment by air. Historically, and by definition, this would encompass delivery by fixed-wing powered aircraft, by glider, by parachute or by helicopter. Almost any troops can be delivered by most of these means. However, the technical expertise and physical as well as psychological demands required by parachuting have resulted in specialist troops being selected and trained for this role. Some of the material advantages of using parachute troops, or paratroops, are: the enormous strategic reach provided by the long-distance transport aircraft used to convey them; the considerable payload which these aircraft are capable of carrying; the speed with which the parachute force can deploy; and the fact that no infrastructure such as airfields are required for their arrival. Perhaps most attractively to cash-strapped governments, the light equipment scales of parachute units’ makes them economical to establish and maintain. There are also less tangible advantages: the soldiers selected are invariably volunteers with a willingness or even desire to tackle challenges; their selection and training produces tough, confident and aggressive troops, psychologically geared to face superior odds and to function independently from other units; and their initiative and self-reliance combined with a high level of physical fitness makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles.

  20. Exploiting Ultrasound Harmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Matte (Guillaume)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUltrasound imaging is an inexpensive method which provides an accurate diagnosis tool. This thesis provides elements to characterise the acoustic pressure generated by ultrasound transducers as well as signal processing method that could improve modern echography. The first measurement

  1. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology.

  2. MO-AB-210-00: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Control and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Hands-On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  3. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  4. [Ultrasound of the Thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, C F; Bojunga, J

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid nodules and thyroid abnormalities are common findings in the general population. Ultrasonography is the most important imaging tool for diagnosing thyroid disease. In the majority of cases a correct diagnosis can already be made in synopsis of the sonographic together with clinical findings and basal thyroid hormone parameters and an appropriate therapy can be initiated thereafter. A differentiation of hormonally active vs. inactive nodes, and in particular benign vs. malignant nodules is sonographically, however, not reliably possible. In this context, radioscanning has its clinical significance predominantly in diagnosing hormonal activity of thyroid nodules. Efforts of the past years aimed to improve sonographic risk stratification to predict malignancy of thyroid nodules through standardized diagnostic assessment of evaluated risk factors in order to select patients, who need further diagnostic work up. According to the "Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System" (BI-RADS), "Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems" (TI-RADS) giving standardized categories with rates of malignancy were evaluated as a basis for further clinical management. Recent technological developments, such as elastography, also showpromising data and could gain entrance into clinical practice. The ultrasound-guided fineneedle aspiration is the key element in the diagnosis of sonographically suspicious thyroid nodules and significantly contributes to the diagnosis of malignancy versus benignity.

  5. Role of ultrasound-based e-flow technology combined with trapezoidal imaging in diagnosis of perforating venous insufficiency of lower extremity%超声e-flow技术结合梯形成像在下肢交通支静脉功能不全诊断中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖瑞青

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of ultrasound-based e-flow technology combined with trapezoidal imaging in the diagnosis of perforating venous insufficiency of lower extremity. Methods The retrospective analysis of preoperative ultrasound images for detection of perforating veins by ultrasound-based e-flow technology combined with trapezoidal imaging was performed in 23 cases with perforating venous ligation in lower extremity. To verify the accuracy of ultrasound images, the positioning of perforating veins using e-flow technology was compared with the operation results. Results Perforating venous insufficiency of lower extremities was shown as ribbon-like strip or reticular flow toward the surface. Forty-seven of incompetent perforating veins were detected by ultrasound, while 56 perforating veins were found by operation. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound was 83.9%. Conclusion Ultrasound-based e-flow technology combined with trapezoidal imaging can accurately diagnose and localize the insufficient perforating veins, which is contributed to the localization of perforating veins during the operation of perforating venous ligation.%目的:探讨超声e-flow技术结合梯形成像在下肢交通支静脉功能不全诊断中的作用。方法回顾性分析23例行交通静脉结扎手术患者的超声图像,术前利用超声e-flow技术结合梯形成像检出交通支静脉,将其定位结果与手术结果比较,以检验其准确率。结果下肢交通支静脉功能不全表现为朝向体表的条状或网状血流,超声检出功能不全的交通支静脉47条,手术发现交通支静脉56条,以手术结果为金标准,诊断准确率为83.9%。结论超声e-flow技术结合梯形成像能准确诊断和定位功能不全的交通支静脉,有助于术中寻找需结扎的交通支静脉。

  6. Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroutil, Robert T.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.; Miller, David P.; Cardarelli, John; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy; Kudaraskus, Paul

    2010-08-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75 missions that included over 250 hours of flight operation. ASPECT's initial mission responsibility was to provide air quality monitoring (i.e., identification of vapor species) during various oil burning operations. The ASPECT airborne wide-area infrared remote sensing spectral data was used to evaluate the hazard potential of vapors being produced from open water oil burns near the Deepwater Horizon rig site. Other significant remote sensing data products and innovations included the development of an advanced capability to correctly identify, locate, characterize, and quantify surface oil that could reach beaches and wetland areas. This advanced identification product provided the Incident Command an improved capability to locate surface oil in order to improve the effectiveness of oil skimmer vessel recovery efforts directed by the US Coast Guard. This paper discusses the application of infrared spectroscopy and multispectral infrared imagery to address significant issues associated with this national crisis. More specifically, this paper addresses the airborne remote sensing capabilities, technology, and data analysis products developed specifically to optimize the resources and capabilities of the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command structure personnel and their remediation efforts.

  7. Hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various...... of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role....

  8. Bedside ocular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Pedro J; Hatch, Nicholas; Barr, Laurel; Wu, Teresa S

    2014-04-01

    Many ocular emergencies are difficult to diagnose in the emergency setting with conventional physical examination tools. Additionally, persistent efforts to re-examine the eye may be deleterious to a patient's overall condition. Ultrasound is an important tool because it affords physicians a rapid, portable, accurate, and dynamic tool for evaluation of a variety of ocular and orbital diseases. The importance of understanding orbital anatomy, with attention to the firm attachment points of the various layers of the eye, cannot be understated. This article describes the relevant eye anatomy, delves into the ultrasound technique, and illustrates a variety of orbital pathologies detectable by bedside ultrasound.

  9. Educational ultrasound nondestructive testing laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, Vladimir; Zagorski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was developed for applied engineering technology students at Drexel University's Goodwin College of Professional Studies. This three-credit, hands-on laboratory course consists of two parts: the first part with an emphasis on the foundations of NDE, and the second part during which ultrasound NDE techniques are utilized in the evaluation of parts and materials. NDE applications are presented and applied through real-life problems, including calibration and use of the latest ultrasonic testing instrumentation. The students learn engineering and physical principles of measurements of sound velocity in different materials, attenuation coefficients, material thickness, and location and dimensions of discontinuities in various materials, such as holes, cracks, and flaws. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught during classroom sessions. This course will ultimately result in improvements in the educational process ["The greater expectations," national panel report, http://www.greaterexpectations.org (last viewed February, 2008); R. M. Felder and R. Brent "The intellectual development of Science and Engineering Students. Part 2: Teaching to promote growth," J. Eng. Educ. 93, 279-291 (2004)] since industry is becoming increasingly reliant on the effective application of NDE technology and the demand on NDE specialists is increasing. NDE curriculum was designed to fulfill levels I and II NDE in theory and training requirements, according to American Society for Nondestructive Testing, OH, Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2006).

  10. 超声引导经皮肾穿刺活检方法的改进%Study on technological improvement by ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伊伦; 陈芬; 胡志强; 王慧萍

    2000-01-01

    目的 改进肾穿刺方法,以减少肾穿刺的并发症,提高标本质量.方法 将100例有肾穿刺适应症的患者随机分成3组,均在B超引导下用穿刺枪取材.A组:定位于右肾下极外侧,略偏近髓质,垂直进针;B组:定位于右肾下极外侧皮质为主的部位,垂直进针;C组:定位于右肾下极外侧,靠近肾外缘处,穿刺时针略向内倾斜,针尖对准肾皮质较厚的部位.结果 每厘米肾组织中肾小球个数C组最多,B组次之,A组最少.穿刺的成功率三组相似.血尿的发生率A组最高,B组次之,C组最小.结论 在应用活检枪的基础上,通过超声仪选择合适的穿刺位点及准确的导向对减少并发症,提高标本质量起决定性的作用.C组的穿刺方法每厘米肾小球个数最多,血尿发生率最低.%Objective To improve the method of percutaneous renal biopsy for decreasing the complications and ameliorating the sample quality.Methods One hundred patients who had an indication of performing the renal biopsy were divided into three groups and vertically punctured under ultrasound-guided by a biopsy gun to obtain a sample from the exterior side of the lower area of the right kidney,near the renal medulla(group A)and the area where the remal cortex was thicker(group B)and near the verge of the kidney,the needle was titled slightIy,aimed the tip Of the needle at the area where the renal eortex was thicker.(group C),respectively.Results The number of gIomeruIus of per centlmetre renal tissue was the most in group C,the medium in guoup B,and the least in group A.The rate of successful puncture was similar in the three groups.The incidence of hematuria occured ofter renal biopsy was the highest in group A,the medium in group B,and the lowest in group C.Conclusions Using a biOpsy gun,selecting a suitable puncture pomt and the accurate direction improving guided by ultrasound instrument are important in decreasing the complications after renal biopsy and improving the

  11. 探讨实时超声造影技术评价肝移植术前门静脉通畅性的研究%Study of Real-time Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound Technology Evaluation of Portal Vein Flow Resistance Preoperative Liver Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宇光

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较目前的两种超声技术,普通超声和实时超声造影技术对肝脏移植手术前门静脉的畅通性评价特点。方法:对经普通超声技术检查后被怀疑门静脉一级分支或主干中有栓塞的34例患者进行实时超声造影检查。结果:经螺旋CT的门静脉成像、三维动态磁共振的血管成像和肝移植手术等方法的证实,34例患者中有27例门静脉栓塞患者,7例门静脉畅通患者。普通超声技术和实时超声造影技术的诊断信心评分分别为(8.32±1.89)分和(9.29±1.01)分;普通超声技术和实时超声造影技术的敏感性分别为87.9%和81.9%,特异性分别为32.8%和100%,准确性分别为68.7%和89.1%;鉴别栓子程度和栓子性质时,实时超声造影技术明显优于普通超声技术。其中,对于在实时超声造影技术中显示的16例门静脉栓塞患者,实时超声造影技术是可以百分百全部鉴别的,但在普通超声技术可以显示的17例门静脉栓塞患者中,只能鉴别出9例患者。结论:在肝移植手术前诊断门静脉的畅通性时,实时超声造影技术的诊断水平明显高于普通超声技术,能够提供更准确、丰富的术前诊断信息,实时超声造影技术可以很好地补充普通超声技术,值得临床推广应用。%Objective:To compare the two kinds of ultrasonic imaging technology,common ultrasonic and real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound technology to the smooth general characteristic evaluation characteristic of portal vein flow preoperative liver transplantation.Method:For suspected portal vein after normal ultrasound examination level branches or trunk of 34 patients with embolization were given real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination.Result:The spiral CT portal imaging,3D dynamic magnetic resonance angiography and the proof of the method such as a liver transplant confirmed,in 34 patients,there were 27 cases of portal vein

  12. Ultrasound transducer assembly and method for manufacturing an ultrasound transducer assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Henneken, V.A.; Louwerse, M.C.; Raganato, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasound transducer assembly (10), in particular for intravascular ultrasound systems. The ultrasound transducer assembly comprises at least one silicon substrate element (30) including an ultrasound transducer element (14) for emitting and receiving ultrasound

  13. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE) Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Victor; Dulchavsky, Scott; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Doug

    2009-01-01

    To date, diagnostic quality ultrasound images were obtained aboard the International Space Station (ISS) using the ultrasound of the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Laboratory module. Through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) and the Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (BRASLET SDTO) studies, non-expert ultrasound operators aboard the ISS have performed cardiac, thoracic, abdominal, vascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound assessments using remote guidance from ground-based ultrasound experts. With exploration class missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces on the horizon, crew medical officers will necessarily need to operate with greater autonomy given communication delays (round trip times of up to 5 seconds for the Moon and 90 minutes for Mars) and longer periods of communication blackouts (due to orbital constraints of communication assets). The SURGE project explored the feasibility and training requirements of having non-expert ultrasound operators perform autonomous ultrasound assessments in a simulated exploration mission outpost. The project aimed to identify experience, training, and human factors requirements for crew medical officers to perform autonomous ultrasonography. All of these aims pertained to the following risks from the NASA Bioastronautics Road Map: 1) Risk 18: Major Illness and Trauna; 2) Risk 20) Ambulatory Care; 3) Risk 22: Medical Informatics, Technologies, and Support Systems; and 4) Risk 23: Medical Skill Training and Maintenance.

  14. MO-AB-210-02: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammet, S. [University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  15. MO-AB-210-01: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z. [University of Chicago (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive ( ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s ... Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a woman's vagina to view the uterus and ovaries. top ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and unborn child ( fetus ) in pregnant patients eyes thyroid and parathyroid glands scrotum (testicles) brain in infants hips in infants spine in infants Ultrasound is also used to: guide procedures such as ...

  1. Thyroid and parathyroid ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghervan, Cristina

    2011-03-01

    Thyroid ultrasound is easy to perform due to the superficial location of the thyroid gland, but appropriate equipment is mandatory with a linear high frequency transducer (7.5 - 12) MHz. Some pathological aspects of the thyroid gland are easily diagnosed by ultrasound, like the enlargement of the thyroid volume (goiter) or the presence of nodules and cysts; while other aspects are more difficult and need more experience (diffuse changes in the structure, echogenicity and vascularization of the parenchyma, differential diagnosis of malignant nodules). Ultrasound has become the diagnostic procedure of choice in guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules; most structural abnormalities of the thyroid need evaluation and monitoring but not intervention. A good knowledge of the normal appearance of the thyroid gland is compulsory for an accurate ultrasound diagnosis.

  2. Pelvic ultrasound - abdominal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tubes Abnormal vaginal bleeding Menstrual problems Problems becoming pregnant (infertility) Normal pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy , a pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus Pelvic pain Pelvic ultrasound is also used during ...

  3. Ultrasound Modulated Bioluminescence Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly-scattering medium from ultrasound modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to best travel ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...

  6. Ultrasound in pregnancy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing ... abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other ... does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered ...

  7. Application of airborne remote sensing to the ancient Pompeii site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Fausto; Giordano, Antonio; Borfecchia, Flavio; Martini, Sandro; De Cecco, Luigi

    1996-12-01

    The ancient Pompeii site is in the Sarno Valley, an area of about 400 km2 in the South of Italy near Naples, that was utilized by man since old time (thousands of years ago). Actually the valley is under critical environmental conditions because of the relevant industrial development. ENEA is conducting various studies and research in the valley. ENEA is employing historical research, ground campaigns, cartography and up-to-date airborne multispectral remote sensing technologies to make a geographical information system. Airborne remote sensing technologies are very suitable for situations as that of the Sarno Valley. The paper describes the archaeological application of the research in progress as regarding the ancient site of Pompeii and its fluvial port.

  8. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  9. Ultrasound in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippey, James C R; Royse, Alistair G

    2009-09-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound is well suited for use in the emergency setting for assessment of the trauma patient. Currently, portable ultrasound machines with high-resolution imaging capability allow trauma patients to be imaged in the pre-hospital setting, emergency departments and operating theatres. In major trauma, ultrasound is used to diagnose life-threatening conditions and to prioritise and guide appropriate interventions. Assessment of the basic haemodynamic state is a very important part of ultrasound use in trauma, but is discussed in more detail elsewhere. Focussed assessment with sonography for Trauma (FAST) rapidly assesses for haemoperitoneum and haemopericardium, and the Extended FAST examination (EFAST) explores for haemothorax, pneumothorax and intravascular filling status. In regional trauma, ultrasound can be used to detect fractures, many vascular injuries, musculoskeletal injuries, testicular injuries and can assess foetal viability in pregnant trauma patients. Ultrasound can also be used at the bedside to guide procedures in trauma, including nerve blocks and vascular access. Importantly, these examinations are being performed by the treating physician in real time, allowing for immediate changes to management of the patient. Controversy remains in determining the best training to ensure competence in this user-dependent imaging modality.

  10. Consider ultrasound first for imaging the female pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacerraf, Beryl R; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Bromley, Bryann; Goldstein, Steven R; Groszmann, Yvette; Shipp, Thomas D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound technology has evolved dramatically in recent years and now includes applications such as 3-dimensional volume imaging, real-time evaluation of pelvic organs (simultaneous with the physical examination), and Doppler blood flow mapping without the need for contrast, which makes ultrasound imaging unique for imaging the female pelvis. Among the many cross-sectional imaging techniques, we should use the most informative, less invasive, and less expensive modality to avoid radiation when possible. Hence, ultrasound imaging should be the first imaging modality used in women with pelvic symptoms.

  11. A MATLAB GEODETIC SOFTWARE FOR PROCESSING AIRBORNE LIDAR BATHYMETRY DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pepe, M.; G. Prezioso

    2015-01-01

    The ability to build three-dimensional models through technologies based on satellite navigation systems GNSS and the continuous development of new sensors, as Airborne Laser Scanning Hydrography (ALH), data acquisition methods and 3D multi-resolution representations, have contributed significantly to the digital 3D documentation, mapping, preservation and representation of landscapes and heritage as well as to the growth of research in this fields. However, GNSS systems led to the use...

  12. Effectiveness of evaluating tumor vascularization using 3D power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow technology in the prediction of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Kuo, Shou-Jen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced ultrasound (US) imaging of vascular flow and morphological features in the prediction of a pathologic complete response (pCR) and a partial response (PR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with T2 breast cancer treated with six courses of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler US with high-definition flow (HDF) technology was used to investigate the blood flow in and morphological features of the tumors. Six vascularity quantization features, three morphological features, and two vascular direction features were selected and extracted from the US images. A support vector machine was used to evaluate the changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and pCR and PR were predicted on the basis of these changes. The most accurate prediction of pCR was achieved after the first chemotherapy cycle, with an accuracy of 93.1% and a specificity of 85.5%, while that of a PR was achieved after the second cycle, with an accuracy of 79.31% and a specificity of 72.22%. Vascularity data can be useful to predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Determination of changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 3D power Doppler US with HDF can generate accurate predictions of the patient response, facilitating early decision-making.

  13. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate ... MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate ...

  14. Experimental Investigations on Airborne Gravimetry Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapeng Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gravity surveys are an important research topic in geophysics and geodynamics. This paper investigates a method for high accuracy large scale gravity anomaly data reconstruction. Based on the airborne gravimetry technology, a flight test was carried out in China with the strap-down airborne gravimeter (SGA-WZ developed by the Laboratory of Inertial Technology of the National University of Defense Technology. Taking into account the sparsity of airborne gravimetry by the discrete Fourier transform (DFT, this paper proposes a method for gravity anomaly data reconstruction using the theory of compressed sensing (CS. The gravity anomaly data reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which can be transformed into a sparse optimization problem. This paper uses the zero-norm as the objective function and presents a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP to solve the corresponding minimization problem. The test results have revealed that the compressed sampling rate is approximately 14%, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by OMP is 0.03 mGal and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is 56.48 dB. In contrast, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by the existing nearest-interpolation method (NIPM is 0.15 mGal and the SNR is 42.29 dB. These results have shown that the OMP algorithm can reconstruct the gravity anomaly data with higher accuracy and fewer measurements.

  15. Experimental investigations on airborne gravimetry based on compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yapeng; Wu, Meiping; Wang, Jinling; Zhang, Kaidong; Cao, Juliang; Cai, Shaokun

    2014-03-18

    Gravity surveys are an important research topic in geophysics and geodynamics. This paper investigates a method for high accuracy large scale gravity anomaly data reconstruction. Based on the airborne gravimetry technology, a flight test was carried out in China with the strap-down airborne gravimeter (SGA-WZ) developed by the Laboratory of Inertial Technology of the National University of Defense Technology. Taking into account the sparsity of airborne gravimetry by the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), this paper proposes a method for gravity anomaly data reconstruction using the theory of compressed sensing (CS). The gravity anomaly data reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which can be transformed into a sparse optimization problem. This paper uses the zero-norm as the objective function and presents a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) to solve the corresponding minimization problem. The test results have revealed that the compressed sampling rate is approximately 14%, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by OMP is 0.03 mGal and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 56.48 dB. In contrast, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by the existing nearest-interpolation method (NIPM) is 0.15 mGal and the SNR is 42.29 dB. These results have shown that the OMP algorithm can reconstruct the gravity anomaly data with higher accuracy and fewer measurements.

  16. Diagnosis Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging Technology for Small Liver Cancer: Meta Analysis%对比增强超声造影对小肝癌诊断价值的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭娟; 郭瑞强; 陈金玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:应用Meta分析探讨对比增强超声造影技术在诊断小肝癌中的临床应用价值.方法:以“超声造影、小肝癌”为检索词,检索2006年1月至2011年12月期间的Cochrance图书馆、Embase、中国学术期刊网全文数据库(CNKI)等数据库.利用循证医学方法,对采纳资料的原始数据进行异质性检验及质量评价,进而计算合并灵敏度和特异度,建立综合受试者工作特征曲线(SROC),计算曲线下面积评价对比增强超声造影技术诊断小肝癌的价值.根据循证医学中的证据质量评价标准,应用QUADAS项目对所采纳文献进行评价.结果:共入选9篇文献,670例病人.按照固定效应模型合并,超声造影诊断小肝癌的灵敏度和特异度分别为83%和86%,曲线下面积为93.41%.结论:超声造影对于小肝癌有很好的临床应用价值.%Objective: To evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosing small hepato-cellular carcinoma with Meta-analysis. Methods: With 'ultrasonic imaging' and 'small hepatocel-lular carcinoma' as the key words, evidence was collected from Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKK2006. 1-2011. 12) and so on according to search strategy. Methods of evidence-based medicine were used to calculate the specificity, sensitivity, and summary receiver operating curve (SROC) , and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to evaluate the diagnosis value of contrast enhancement ultrasonic imaging technology for small liver cancer. According to the quality evaluation standard of evidence-based medicine evidence, QUAD AS items were used to evaluate the quality of evidence. Results: A total of 9 studies were identified and the total number of case is 670. With the random effects pattern, the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosing small hepatocellular carcinoma were 83% and 86%, respectively. The AUC is 93. 41%. Conclusion; The contrast-enhanced ultrasound will be helpful in

  17. Quality assurance in diagnostic ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, Outi, E-mail: outi.sipila@hus.fi [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029 HUS (Finland); Mannila, Vilma, E-mail: vilma.mannila@hus.fi [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki University (Finland); Vartiainen, Eija, E-mail: eija.vartiainen@hus.fi [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 750, 00029 HUS (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To setup a practical ultrasound quality assurance protocol in a large radiological center, results from transducer tests, phantom measurements and visual checks for physical faults were compared. Materials and methods: Altogether 151 transducers from 54 ultrasound scanners, from seven different manufacturers, were tested with a Sonora FirstCall aPerio{sup TM} system (Sonora Medical Systems, Inc., Longmont, CO, USA) to detect non-functional elements. Phantom measurements using a CIRS General Purpose Phantom Model 040 (CIRS Tissue Simulation and Phantom Technology, VA, USA) were available for 135 transducers. The transducers and scanners were also checked visually for physical faults. The percentages of defective findings in these tests were computed. Results: Defective results in the FirstCall tests were found in 17% of the 151 transducers, and in 16% of the 135 transducers. Defective image quality resulted with 15% of the transducers, and 25% of the transducers had a physical flaw. In 16% of the scanners, a physical fault elsewhere than in the transducer was found. Seven percent of the transducers had a concurrent defective result both in the FirstCall test and in the phantom measurements, 8% in the FirstCall test and in the visual check, 4% in the phantom measurements and in the visual check, and 2% in all three tests. Conclusion: The tested methods produced partly complementary results and seemed all to be necessary. Thus a quality assurance protocol is forced to be rather labored, and therefore the benefits and costs must be closely followed.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be guided by ultrasound, are used to sample cells from organs for laboratory testing help detect the ... in which needles are used to extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound ...

  19. Ultrasound physics in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrera, Marc D

    2010-12-01

    This content presents to the neophyte ultrasonographer the essential nutshell of information needed to properly interpret ultrasound images. Basic concepts of physics related to ultrasound are supported with formulas and related to clinical use.

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  1. Medical ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeff; Kremkau, Frederick

    2011-08-06

    Medical ultrasound imaging has advanced dramatically since its introduction only a few decades ago. This paper provides a short historical background, and then briefly describes many of the system features and concepts required in a modern commercial ultrasound system. The topics addressed include array beam formation, steering and focusing; array and matrix transducers; echo image formation; tissue harmonic imaging; speckle reduction through frequency and spatial compounding, and image processing; tissue aberration; Doppler flow detection; and system architectures. It then describes some of the more practical aspects of ultrasound system design necessary to be taken into account for today's marketplace. It finally discusses the recent explosion of portable and handheld devices and their potential to expand the clinical footprint of ultrasound into regions of the world where medical care is practically non-existent. Throughout the article reference is made to ways in which ultrasound imaging has benefited from advances in the commercial electronics industry. It is meant to be an overview of the field as an introduction to other more detailed papers in this special issue.

  2. A comparison of real and simulated airborne multisensor imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloechl, Kevin; De Angelis, Chris; Gartley, Michael; Kerekes, John; Nance, C. Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology and results for the comparison of simulated imagery to real imagery acquired with multiple sensors hosted on an airborne platform. The dataset includes aerial multi- and hyperspectral imagery with spatial resolutions of one meter or less. The multispectral imagery includes data from an airborne sensor with three-band visible color and calibrated radiance imagery in the long-, mid-, and short-wave infrared. The airborne hyperspectral imagery includes 360 bands of calibrated radiance and reflectance data spanning 400 to 2450 nm in wavelength. Collected in September 2012, the imagery is of a park in Avon, NY, and includes a dirt track and areas of grass, gravel, forest, and agricultural fields. A number of artificial targets were deployed in the scene prior to collection for purposes of target detection, subpixel detection, spectral unmixing, and 3D object recognition. A synthetic reconstruction of the collection site was created in DIRSIG, an image generation and modeling tool developed by the Rochester Institute of Technology, based on ground-measured reflectance data, ground photography, and previous airborne imagery. Simulated airborne images were generated using the scene model, time of observation, estimates of the atmospheric conditions, and approximations of the sensor characteristics. The paper provides a comparison between the empirical and simulated images, including a comparison of achieved performance for classification, detection and unmixing applications. It was found that several differences exist due to the way the image is generated, including finite sampling and incomplete knowledge of the scene, atmospheric conditions and sensor characteristics. The lessons learned from this effort can be used in constructing future simulated scenes and further comparisons between real and simulated imagery.

  3. Ultrasound imaging for quantitative evaluation of magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanaee, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to an investigation of the potential and technological possibilities of an inline ultrasound system as a quality control system for wet recycling of solid waste. The main targeted recycling technology is magnetic density separation (MDS), a novel technique that was investiga

  4. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  5. Design and implementation of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for high intensity focused ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaner, Yalçın Feysel; Yamaner, Yalcin Feysel

    2011-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a medical procedure for noninvasive treatment of cancers. High intensity focused ultrasound is used to heat and destroy the diseased tissue. Piezoelectricity has been the core mechanism for generation of ultrasound waves in the treatment. Focusing can be done by using spherically curved transducers or using a lens or electronically steering sound waves by using phased arrays. Current research in HIFU technology targets the development of MR-guided m...

  6. Analysis methods for airborne radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ala-Heikkilä, Jarmo J

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is an analysis method well suitable for monitoring airborne radioactivity. Many of the natural radionuclides and a majority of anthropogenic nuclides are prominent gamma-ray emitters. With gamma-ray spectrometry different radionuclides are readily observed at minute concentrations that are far from health hazards. The gamma-ray spectrometric analyses applied in air monitoring programmes can be divided into particulate measurements and gas measurements. I...

  7. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  8. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... of SA imaging. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have both dynamic transmit and receive focusing to improve contrast and resolution. It is also possible to improve penetration depth by employing codes during ultrasound transmission. Data sets for vector flow imaging can be acquired using...... short imaging sequences, whereby both the correct velocity magnitude and angle can be estimated. A number of examples of both phantom and in-vivo SA images will be presented measured by the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS to demonstrate the many benefits of SA imaging....

  9. Ultrasound applications in electrodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Andrea J; Smith, Jay; Harper, C Michel

    2012-01-01

    This review article discusses the current scope of high-resolution diagnostic ultrasound in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease, both as a complementary tool to electrodiagnosis and in some cases as a stand-alone imaging modality. Indications, limitations, potential for research, and training and credentialing are discussed. Indications include needle guidance for nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography, diagnosis of nerve entrapment, diagnostic muscle imaging via grayscale analysis, and dynamic real-time imaging, including sonopalpation, to provide additional diagnostic information. The role of neuromuscular ultrasound in research is discussed, including the need to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and cost-effectiveness of these techniques when they are used alone or in combination. Training and credentialing are reviewed, specifically noting the challenge of the lack of formal training programs and the relatively long, flat learning curve of diagnostic ultrasound.

  10. Developing an emergency ultrasound app

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, K. T.; Subhi, Y.; Aagaard, R.

    2015-01-01

    Focused emergency ultrasound is rapidly evolving as a clinical skill for bedside examination by physicians at all levels of education. Ultrasound is highly operator-dependent and relevant training is essential to ensure appropriate use. When supplementing hands-on focused ultrasound courses, e-le...

  11. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  12. Ultrasound as a Tool to Assess Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound has been used effectively to assess body fat for nearly 5 decades, yet this method is not known as well as many other body composition techniques. The purpose of this review is to explain the technical principles of the ultrasound method, explain the procedures for taking a measurement and interpreting the results, evaluate the reliability and validity of this method for measuring subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, highlight the advantages and limitations of ultrasound relative to other body composition methods, consider its utility to clinical populations, and introduce new body composition-specific ultrasound technology. The focus of this review is adipose, although various tissue thicknesses (e.g., muscle and bone can be measured with ultrasound. Being a portable imaging device that is capable of making fast regional estimates of body composition, ultrasound is an attractive assessment tool in instances when other methods are limited. Furthermore, much of the research suggests that it is reliable, reproducible, and accurate. The biggest limitations appear to be a lack of standardization for the measurement technique and results that are highly dependent on operator proficiency. New ultrasound devices and accompanying software designed specifically for the purpose of body composition assessment might help to minimize these limitations.

  13. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  14. High Resolution Airborne Digital Imagery for Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program is a NASA initiative that seeks to demonstrate the application of cost-effective aircraft and sensor technology to private commercial ventures. In 1997-98, a series of flight-demonstrations and image acquisition efforts were conducted over the Hawaiian Islands using a remotely-piloted solar- powered platform (Pathfinder) and a fixed-wing piloted aircraft (Navajo) equipped with a Kodak DCS450 CIR (color infrared) digital camera. As an ERAST Science Team Member, I defined a set of flight lines over the largest coffee plantation in Hawaii: the Kauai Coffee Company's 4,000 acre Koloa Estate. Past studies have demonstrated the applications of airborne digital imaging to agricultural management. Few studies have examined the usefulness of high resolution airborne multispectral imagery with 10 cm pixel sizes. The Kodak digital camera integrated with ERAST's Airborne Real Time Imaging System (ARTIS) which generated multiband CCD images consisting of 6 x 106 pixel elements. At the designated flight altitude of 1,000 feet over the coffee plantation, pixel size was 10 cm. The study involved the analysis of imagery acquired on 5 March 1998 for the detection of anomalous reflectance values and for the definition of spectral signatures as indicators of tree vigor and treatment effectiveness (e.g., drip irrigation; fertilizer application).

  15. Instrumentation in ultrasound cardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy VMK

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac ultrasound/Echocardiography is a. simple, safe and non-invasive method for detecting heart diseases. When combined with ECG, X-ray and isotopic studies, ultrasound provides signifi-cant diagnostic information not previously available. M-Mode technique gives a unidimensional representation of movements of various structures of the heart whereas stop-action imaging or real time imaging gives a clear two-dimensional view of the various sections of the heart, thus permitting a comparison of anatomical juxta-positioning and continuity.

  16. 射频超声技术定量评估陕西地区正常儿童颈部动脉的研究%Radio frequency ultrasound technology to quantitatively assess of normal children In Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安茂; 冯晓蕾; 刘婷; 张婕; 白强; 李华; 陈广生

    2013-01-01

    【Objective】 To quantitative evaluat the normal children carotid artery intima-media thickness(IMT) and wall elastic various parameters of the salary range,and provide normal reference data for atherosclerosis early diagnosis and childhood intervention in Shaanxi. 【Methods】The quality intima-media thickness (QIMT)and quality arterial stiffness (QAS)of ultrasound radio frequency(RF) technology were applied for 150 normal children volunteer to obtain bilateral carotid intima-media thickness IMT,compliance index (distend compliance DC.conform compliance CC) and stiffness index (augmentation index AIX, a coefficient, βcoefficient, pulse wave velocity PWV) , parameters childhood range. 【Results】 1) Normal children aged 7 ~ 15 in Shaanxi had IMTC441. 483±85. 126)ntn,DC(0. 077±0. 030)mm2/kPa,CC(2. 290 ± 0. 952) mm2/kPa,AIX(-2. 804±2. 449),α(l. 453 + 0. 519),β(3. 002±l. 050),PWV(3. 650±0. 558) m/s. 2)Carotid artery between the right and left sides,between the different gender carotid parameters showed no significant differences. 【Conclusion】Application of radio frequency ultrasound technology can accurately provide normal childhood common carotid artery intima-media thickness IMT,vascular elastic parameter,and scientific basis for intervention in the prevention of arteriosclerosis in Shaanxi area.%[目的]定量评估陕西地区正常儿童双侧颈部动脉内中膜厚度及管壁弹性各项参数的大致范围,为动脉粥样硬化早期诊断和儿童期干预提供正常参考数据. [方法]对150例正常儿童志愿者应用超声射频信号血管内中膜分析技术QIMT及超声射频信号动脉僵硬度分析技术QAS获取双侧颈动脉的内中膜厚度(IMT)、顺应性指标(膨胀系数DC、顺应系数CC)及僵硬度指标(反射波增强指数AIX、a系数、β系数、脉搏波传导速度PWV),确定各项参数儿童期的大致范围. [结果]1)陕西地区7~15岁正常儿童IMT(441.483±85.126)μm,DC(0.077±0.030) mm2/k

  17. 超声波分级提取玫瑰精油和色素的工艺优化%Optimization of technology for ultrasound-assisted sequential extraction of rose essential oil and pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊魏; 唐琳; 陈浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To optimize the fractionation extraction of rose essential oil and pigment from Pingyin rose by ultrasound technology, not only extracted rose essential oil but also increased the yield of pigment. Methods Pingyin rose petals was used as raw material, the rose essential oil and pigments were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted ethanol aqueous. The rough yield of rose pigment was measured by pH-differential method, and the gas chromatography was used to determine the relative content of essential oils. The ether-petroleum ether mixture was used to extract rose essential oil, and macroporous resin was used in the purification of pigment. Results The optimized best extraction parameters:ultrasonic-assisted extraction time 20 min, ultrasound power 130 W, liquid-solid ratio 4:30 (g/mL), ethanol concentration 50%, then the yield of rose essential oil (0.22±0.02) mg/g, and crude yield of pigment (0.83±0.02) mg/g. The purified yield of pigment (0.74±0.02) mg/g. Conclusion Rose essential oil are extracted using ultrasonic technology, and the high yield of the pigment are achieved.%目的:研究超声波技术分级提取玫瑰精油与色素的最佳工艺条件,在提取玫瑰精油的同时,增加色素的得率。方法以平阴玫瑰花瓣为原料,超声波辅助乙醇水溶液提取玫瑰中的精油与色素。通过pH示差法测定玫瑰色素的粗得率,气相色谱法确定精油的相对含量。采用乙醚-石油醚混合液萃取玫瑰精油,并使用大孔树脂纯化色素。结果最佳工艺参数:超声功率130 W,超声时间20 min,液料比4:30(g/mL),乙醇浓度50%,此时玫瑰精油得率为(0.22±0.02) mg/g,粗提液中色素得率为(0.83±0.02) mg/g。经大孔树脂纯化后的色素得率为(0.74±0.02)mg/g。结论利用超声技术实现了玫瑰花精油提取,同时获得较高得率的色素。

  18. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  19. High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy: an overview for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Min Joo; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choi, Dongil

    2008-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy is a novel, emerging, therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves, propagated through tissue media, as carriers of energy. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation as well as hemostasis, thrombolysis and targeted drug/gene delivery. However, the application of this technology still has many drawbacks. It is expected that current obstacles to implementation will be resolved in the near future. In this review, we provide an overview of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy from the basic physics to recent clinical studies with an interventional radiologist's perspective for the purpose of improving the general understanding of this cutting-edge technology as well as speculating on future developments.

  20. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy: an Overview for Radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choi, Dong Il [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Min Joo [College of Medicine, Cheju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy is a novel, emerging, therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves, propagated through tissue media, as carriers of energy. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation as well as hemostasis, thrombolysis and targeted drug/gene delivery. However, the application of this technology still has many drawbacks. It is expected that current obstacles to implementation will be resolved in the near future. In this review, we provide an overview of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy from the basic physics to recent clinical studies with an interventional radiologist's perspective for the purpose of improving the general understanding of this cutting-edge technology as well as speculating on future developments

  1. [Screening with meaning? Use of ultrasound in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, K A

    1994-06-30

    Norway introduced an offer of one routine ultrasound examination to all pregnant women in 1986. Since then, an improved ultrasound technology and more skillful operators have made it possible to detect foetal malformations at a much higher rate. A new consensus conference on the use of diagnostic ultrasound during pregnancy will be held in Norway in 1995. The present paper reviews the recent literature on ultrasound screening. Three randomized controlled trials (the Uppsala-trial from 1988, the Helsinki-trial from 1990, and the RADIUS-trial from 1993) and one meta-analysis (Bucher and Scmidt, 1993) are evaluated. The author also comments on the recent epidemiological studies on the safety aspects of routine ultrasonography during pregnancy.

  2. Combined photoacoustic and ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler; Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C; Lu, Huihong; Mathewson, Kory; Walsh, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J

    2009-11-23

    We report on the development of an imaging system capable of combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging based on a fast-scanning single-element 25-MHz ultrasound transducer and a unique light-delivery system. The system is capable of 20 ultrasound frames per second and slower photoacoustic frame rates limited by laser pulse-repetition rates. Laser and ultrasound pulses are interlaced for co-registration of photoacoustic and ultrasound images. In vivo imaging of a human finger permits ultrasonic visualization of vessel structures and speckle changes indicative of blood flow, while overlaid photoacoustic images highlight some small vessels that are not clear from the ultrasound scan. Photoacoustic images provide optical absorption contrast co-registered in the structural and blood-flow context of ultrasound with high-spatial resolution and may prove important for clinical diagnostics and basic science of the microvasculature.

  3. Ultrasound of the scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudiak, C M; Venta, L A; Olson, M C; Posniak, H V; Salomon, C G

    1992-01-01

    High-resolution real time ultrasound of the scrotum, including gray-scale and color Doppler sonography is presented. The normal anatomy of the scrotum with sonographic correlation is reviewed. The sonographic features of scrotal pathology, including congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic conditions are presented.

  4. Recursive ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for recursive ultrasound imaging is presented. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created at every pulse emission. In receive, parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data is added to the previously...

  5. Deconvolution of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1992-01-01

    Based on physical models, it is indicated that the received pressure field in ultrasound B-mode images can be described by a convolution between a tissue reflection signal and the emitted pressure field. This result is used in a description of current image formation and in formulating a new...

  6. Cardiological Ultrasound Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, J.M.; Korte, C.L. de

    2014-01-01

    This review paper is intended for the interested outsider of the field of echocardiography and it presents a short introduction into the numerous ultrasound (US) methods and techniques for anatomical and functional diagnosis of the heart. The basic techniques are generally used for some time already

  7. [Ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliev, B G

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness and results of ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) for the treatment of patients with large stones in renal pelvis. The results of PNL in 138 patients who underwent surgery for kidney stones from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed. Seventy patients (Group 1) underwent surgery with combined ultrasound and radiological guidance, and 68 patients (Group 2)--only with ultrasound guidance. The study included patients with large renal pelvic stones larger than 2.2 cm, requiring the formation of a single laparoscopic approach. Using the comparative analysis, the timing of surgery, the number of intra- and postoperative complications, blood loss and length of stay were evaluated. Percutaneous access was successfully performed in all patients. Postoperative complications (exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, gross hematuria) were observed in 14.3% of patients in Group 1 and in 14.7% of patients in Group 2. Bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and injuries of adjacent organs were not registered. Efficacy of PNL in the Group 1 was 95.7%; 3 (4.3%) patients required additional interventions. In Group 2, the effectiveness of PNL was 94.1%, 4 (5.9%) patients additionally underwent extracorporeal lithotripsy. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of PNL, the volume of blood loss and duration of hospitalization. Ultrasound guided PNL can be performed in large pelvic stones and sufficient expansion of renal cavities, thus reducing radiation exposure of patients and medical staff.

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  9. Application of ultrasound technology in the personal hygiene nursing robot%超声波技术在个人卫生护理机器人中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩征峰; 尚振东; 胡志刚; 周志立

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of bathing of the person who can not take care of themselves, the technology of ultrasonic applied to the personal hygiene nursing robot was investigated. After the analysis of the ultrasonic acoustic characteristics, the cleaning mechanism and the irradiation injury, the relationship between safety and effectiveness of ultrasonic bathing was established. A method was presented that the frequency, power distribution, wave type and irradiation time of the ultrasonic for person bathing should choose 40 kHz around, less-than 1.5 W/cm2, and the pulse wave less than 5 min. The relationship between safety and effectiveness of ultrasonic bathing were evaluated on the personal hygiene nursing robot. The experiments of ultrasonic cleaning were tested. The experimental results show that the method is feasible.%为解决行动不便者独立或有限人工辅助下的洗浴问题,将超声波清洗技术应用到个人卫生服务机器人中.通过分析超声波声学特性和清洁机理,研究了超声波对生命体组织的影响,建立了人体超声波洗浴的有效性和安全性之间的关系,提出了人体超声波洗浴方法:洗浴用超声波宜采用频率为40 kHz左右的脉冲波,并保证浴缸中的功率分布不大于1.5 W/cm2,洗浴中人体最大超声波辐照时间为5 min.在个人卫生服务机器人上对超声波人体洗浴的安全性和有效性进行了评价,并进行了超声波洗浴试验,试验结果表明该方法是可行的.

  10. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  11. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) proposes to develop a miniaturized Airborne Chemical Microsensor Instrument (ACMI) suitable for real-time, airborne measurements of...

  12. [Modern ultrasound methods of examination in clinical ophthalmology. Background problems and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlap, S I

    2003-01-01

    Historic aspects of ultrasound diagnostics in ophthalmology are described. The technological development of ultrasound diagnostic systems and the clinical application of different ultrasound modes in examining the eye and its choroids are traced back. The efficiency of Doppler mapping in the mode of three-dimension reconstruction at examining the orbital vascular system is evaluated. An experience obtained at the Research Institute for Eye Disease of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and outlooks for the diagnostic usage of computer ultrasound in clinical ophthalmology and angiologia are presented.

  13. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  14. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  15. Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Marcel R. [Philips Research Europe, Biomolecular Engineering, HTC11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University Hospital Muenster, Albert Schweitzerstrasse 33, 48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: marcel.bohmer@philips.com; Klibanov, Alexander L. [Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Cobb Hall, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Hospital Drive, Cobb Hall RM 1026, Charlottesville, VA 22908-158 (United States); Tiemann, Klaus [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University Hospital Muenster, Albert Schweitzerstrasse 33, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Hall, Christopher S. [Philips Research North America, Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy, 345 Scarborough Road, Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510 (United States); Gruell, Holger; Steinbach, Oliver C. [Philips Research Europe, Biomolecular Engineering, HTC11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The integration of therapeutic interventions with diagnostic imaging has been recognized as one of the next technological developments that will have a major impact on medical treatments. Important advances in this field are based on a combination of progress in guiding and monitoring ultrasound energy, novel drug classes becoming available, the development of smart delivery vehicles, and more in depth understanding of the mechanisms of the cellular and molecular basis of diseases. Recent research demonstrates that both pressure sensitive and temperature sensitive delivery systems hold promise for local treatment. The use of ultrasound for the delivery of drugs has been demonstrated in particular the field of cardiology and oncology for a variety of therapeutics ranging from small drug molecules to biologics and nucleic acids.

  16. First airborne transient em survey in antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Mikucki, J. J.; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2012-01-01

    A first airborne transient electromagnetic survey was flown in Antarctica in December 2011 with the SkyTEM system. This transient airborne EM system has been optimized in Denmark for almost ten years and was specially designed for ground water mapping. The SkyTEM tool is ideal for mapping...

  17. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  18. Resuscitation effects of catalase on airborne bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Marthi, B; Shaffer, B. T.; Lighthart, B; Ganio, L

    1991-01-01

    Catalase incorporation into enumeration media caused a significant increase (greater than 63%) in the colony-forming abilities of airborne bacteria. Incubation for 30 to 60 min of airborne bacteria in collection fluid containing catalase caused a greater than 95% increase in colony-forming ability. However, catalase did not have any effects on enumeration at high relative humidities (80 to 90%).

  19. SIMULATION STUDY ON AIRBORNE SAR ECHO SIGNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Houbing; Liu Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Through analyzing the influence on echo signal by factors of kinematical parameters of airborne SAR platform and radar antenna direction, this letter, on the basis of classical SAR echo signal analogue algorithm, puts forward certain airborne SAR echo signal analogue algorithm of distance directional frequency domain pulse coherent accumulation, and goes through simulation. The simulation results have proved the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  20. Towards a Multi-Mission, Airborne Science Data System Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S.; Law, E.; Freeborn, D.; Kay-Im, E.; Lau, G.; Oswald, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA earth science instruments are increasingly relying on airborne missions. However, traditionally, there has been limited common infrastructure support available to principal investigators in the area of science data systems. As a result, each investigator has been required to develop their own computing infrastructures for the science data system. Typically there is little software reuse and many projects lack sufficient resources to provide a robust infrastructure to capture, process, distribute and archive the observations acquired from airborne flights. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been developing a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This includes improving data system interoperability across each instrument. A principal characteristic is being able to provide an agile infrastructure that is architected to allow for a variety of configurations of the infrastructure from locally installed compute and storage services to provisioning those services via the "cloud" from cloud computer vendors such as Amazon.com. Investigators often have different needs that require a flexible configuration. The data system infrastructure is built on the Apache's Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) suite of components which has been used for a number of spaceborne missions and provides a rich set of open source software components and services for constructing science processing and data management systems. In 2010, a partnership was formed between the ACCE team and the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to support the data processing and data management needs

  1. Doppler ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maulik, D. [Winthrop Univ. Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Zalud, I. (eds.) [Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The second edition of Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology has been expanded and comprehensively updated to present the current standards of practice in Doppler ultrasound and the most recent developments in the technology. Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology encompasses the full spectrum of clinical applications of Doppler ultrasound for the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist, including the latest advances in 3D and color Doppler and the newest techniques in 4D fetal echocardiography. Written by preeminent experts in the field, the book covers the basic and physical principles of Doppler ultrasound; the use of Doppler for fetal examination, including fetal cerebral circulation; Doppler echocardiography of the fetal heart; and the use of Doppler for postdated pregnancy and in cases of multiple gestation. Chapters on the use of Doppler for gynecologic investigation include ultrasound in ectopic pregnancy, for infertility, for benign disorders and for gynecologic malignancies. (orig.)

  2. EUFAR the unique portal for airborne research in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Elisabeth; Brown, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Created in 2000 and supported by the EU Framework Programmes since then, EUFAR was born out of the necessity to create a central network and access point for the airborne research community in Europe. With the aim to support researchers by granting them access to research infrastructures, not accessible in their home countries, EUFAR also provides technical support and training in the field of airborne research for the environmental and geo-sciences. Today, EUFAR2 (2014-2018) coordinates and facilitates transnational access to 18 instrumented aircraft and 3 remote-sensing instruments through the 13 operators who are part of EUFAR's current 24-partner European consortium. In addition, the current project supports networking and research activities focused on providing an enabling environment for and promoting airborne research. The EUFAR2 activities cover three objectives, supported by the internet website www.eufar.net: (I - Institutional) improvement of the access to the research infrastructures and development of the future fleet according to the strategic advisory committee (SAC) recommendations; (ii - Innovation) improvement of the scientific knowledge and promotion of innovating instruments, processes and services for the emergence of new industrial technologies, with an identification of industrial needs by the SAC; (iii - Service) optimisation and harmonisation of the use of the research infrastructures through the development of the community of young researches in airborne science, of the standards and protocols and of the airborne central database. With the launch of a brand new website (www.eufar.net) in mid-November 2015, EUFAR aims to improve user experience on the website, which serves as a source of information and a hub where users are able to collaborate, learn, share expertise and best practices, and apply for transnational access, and education and training funded opportunities within the network. With its newly designed eye-catching interface

  3. WE-B-210-02: The Advent of Ultrafast Imaging in Biomedical Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanter, M. [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique (France)

    2015-06-15

    In the last fifteen years, the introduction of plane or diverging wave transmissions rather than line by line scanning focused beams has broken the conventional barriers of ultrasound imaging. By using such large field of view transmissions, the frame rate reaches the theoretical limit of physics dictated by the ultrasound speed and an ultrasonic map can be provided typically in tens of micro-seconds (several thousands of frames per second). Interestingly, this leap in frame rate is not only a technological breakthrough but it permits the advent of completely new ultrasound imaging modes, including shear wave elastography, electromechanical wave imaging, ultrafast doppler, ultrafast contrast imaging, and even functional ultrasound imaging of brain activity (fUltrasound) introducing Ultrasound as an emerging full-fledged neuroimaging modality. At ultrafast frame rates, it becomes possible to track in real time the transient vibrations – known as shear waves – propagating through organs. Such “human body seismology” provides quantitative maps of local tissue stiffness whose added value for diagnosis has been recently demonstrated in many fields of radiology (breast, prostate and liver cancer, cardiovascular imaging, …). Today, Supersonic Imagine company is commercializing the first clinical ultrafast ultrasound scanner, Aixplorer with real time Shear Wave Elastography. This is the first example of an ultrafast Ultrasound approach surpassing the research phase and now widely spread in the clinical medical ultrasound community with an installed base of more than 1000 Aixplorer systems in 54 countries worldwide. For blood flow imaging, ultrafast Doppler permits high-precision characterization of complex vascular and cardiac flows. It also gives ultrasound the ability to detect very subtle blood flow in very small vessels. In the brain, such ultrasensitive Doppler paves the way for fUltrasound (functional ultrasound imaging) of brain activity with unprecedented

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A. E.; Sun, Da-Wen

    Freezing is a well-known preservation method widely used in the food industry. The advantages of freezing are to a certain degree counterbalanced by the risk of damage caused by the formation and size of ice crystals. Over recent years new approaches have been developed to improve and control the crystallization process, and among these approaches sonocrystallization has proved to be very useful, since it can enhance both the nucleation rate and the crystal growth rate. Although ultrasound has been successfully used for many years in the evaluation of various aspects of foods and in medical applications, the use of power ultrasound to directly improve processes and products is less popular in food manufacturing. Foodstuffs are very complex materials, and research is needed in order to define the specific sound parameters that aid the freezing process and that can later be used for the scale-up and production of commercial frozen food products.

  5. Challenges and Successes Managing Airborne Science Data for CARVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, S. H.; Dinardo, S. J.; Lee, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission collects detailed measurements of important greenhouse gases on local to regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic and demonstrates new remote sensing and improved modeling capabilities to quantify Arctic carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes. Airborne missions offer a number of challenges when it comes to collecting and processing the science data and CARVE is no different. The biggest challenge relates to the flexibility of the instrument payload. Within the life of the mission, instruments may be removed from or added to the payload, or even reconfigured on a yearly, monthly or daily basis. Although modification of the instrument payload provides a distinct advantage for airborne missions compared to spaceborne missions, it does tend to wreak havoc on the underlying data system when introducing changes to existing data inputs or new data inputs that require modifications to the pipeline for processing the data. In addition to payload flexibility, it is not uncommon to find unsupported files in the field data submission. In the case of CARVE, these include video files, photographs taken during the flight and screen shots from terminal displays. These need to captured, saved and somehow integrated into the data system. The CARVE data system was built on a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This well-tested and proven infrastructure allows the CARVE data system to be easily adapted in order to handle the challenges posed by the CARVE mission and to successfully process, manage and distribute the mission's science data. This

  6. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  7. Artifacts in diagnostic ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Hindi A; Peterson C; Barr RG

    2013-01-01

    Ammar Hindi,1 Cynthia Peterson,2 Richard G Barr3,41Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; 2Department of Allied Health, Kent State University, Salem, OH, USA; 3Department of Radiology, Northeastern Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH, USA; 4Radiology Consultants, Youngstown, OH, USAAbstract: Ultrasound artifacts are encountered daily in clinical practice and may be a source of confusion on interpretation. Some artifacts arise secondary to improper...

  8. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  9. Doppler Ultrasound: What Is It Used for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your neck (carotid artery stenosis) A Doppler ultrasound can estimate how fast blood flows by measuring the rate of change in its pitch (frequency). During a Doppler ultrasound, a technician trained in ultrasound imaging (sonographer) presses ...

  10. Optimization of extraction technology of dracorhodin from Daemonorops draco Bl.by ultrasound extraction with orthogonal test%正交试验优化麒麟血竭中血竭素的超声提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟玲; 张钦德; 吴君

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究正交试验优化血竭中血竭素的超声提取工艺。方法在单因素考察的基础上,采用正交试验法,考察乙醇浓度、料液比、提取时间因素对血竭中血竭素提取率的影响。结果在40℃,500 W的超声条件下,加入料液比1砄20的95%乙醇,提取30 min,提取次数为2次。血竭中血竭素的平均提取率为38.60 mg/g,平均转移率为99.28%。结论优选出的工艺稳定,重复性好,操作简单,为提取血竭中血竭素的提取方法改进提供参考。%Objective To investigate optimum extraction process of dracorhodin from Daemonorops draco Bl., by ultrasound extraction. Methods On the basis of the single factor investigation, investigate the influential factors of ethanol concentration, ratio of material and liquid and exacting time.The evaluation indicator was the extraction rate of dracorhodin from Daemonorops draco Bl.by orthogonal test.Results The optimum extraction technology was 20 volume folds of 95% ethanol, and thirty minutes extraction time in the ultrasonic power 500 W at 40 ℃, under these conditions, the average extraction rate of dracorhodin was 38.60 mg/g and the average transfer rate was 99.28%.Conclusion The process is stable, reproducible, easy-to-use, and can be used to extract dracorhodin from Daemonorops draco Bl., which provides reference of extract method for Daemonorops draco Bl..

  11. Clinician-performed thyroid ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrera, Marc D

    2014-08-01

    This article is intended to demystify the process for those with a potential interest in acquiring ultrasound skills. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of head and neck ultrasound but, rather, is focused on the bare minimum requirements and considerations involved in clinician-performed ultrasound. The article covers the initial diagnosis and the unparalleled usefulness of ultrasound for surgical planning just before incision. Further readings are listed at the end of the article to direct the reader to some excellent texts to help build confidence and experience.

  12. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P. [Russian Radiology Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kotlyarov, Peter M. [Russian Center of Roentgenradiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V. [Yaroslavl Railway Clinic (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Yury K. [State Medical Academy, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  13. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bani, MD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes.

  14. Ultrasonic airborne insertion loss measurements at normal incidence (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jayrin; Anderson, Brian E

    2010-12-01

    Transmission loss and insertion loss measurements of building materials at audible frequencies are commonly made using plane wave tubes or as a panel between reverberant rooms. These measurements provide information for noise isolation control in architectural acoustics and in product development. Airborne ultrasonic sound transmission through common building materials has not been fully explored. Technologies and products that utilize ultrasonic frequencies are becoming increasingly more common, hence the need to conduct such measurements. This letter presents preliminary measurements of the ultrasonic insertion loss levels for common building materials over a frequency range of 28-90 kHz using continuous-wave excitation.

  15. Airborne Wind Energy: Implementation and Design for the U.S. Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Excitement among researchers about Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) technology matches DoD aims to advance and employ renewable energy. AWE seeks to cost...effectively tap the vast supply of wind energy available at altitudes high above the reach of conventional, ground-based wind turbines (e.g. 500

  16. Development of Signal Processing Algorithms for High Resolution Airborne Millimeter Wave FMCW SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    For airborne earth observation applications, there is a special interest in lightweight, cost effective, imaging sensors of high resolution. The combination of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques can lead to such a sensor. In this paper

  17. Airborne FM-CW SAR and Integrated Navigation System Data Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorga, J.F.M.; Meta, A.; Wit, J.J.M. de; Mulder, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of compact FM-CW radar technology and high resolution SAR pro- cessing techniques should pave the way for the development of a small and cost e®ective imaging radar with high resolution. However, airborne SAR is a very novel application for FM-CW radars. In order to investigate the p

  18. Performance Analysis of a High Resolution Airborne FM-CW Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Hoogeboom, P.

    2003-01-01

    Compact FM-CW technology combined with high resolution SAR techniques should pave the way for a small and cost effective imaging radar. A research project has been inìtiated to investigate the feasibility of FM-CW SAR. Within the framework of the project an operational airborne FM-CW SAR demonstrato

  19. Three Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Technology in the Diagnosis of Fetal Spina Bifida%三维超声成像技术在诊断胎儿脊柱裂的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉秀

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究分析胎儿脊柱裂使用三维超声成像技术诊断的效果。方法根据2011年至2014年我院接收的1024例中晚期妊娠胎儿进行三维超声检查结果分析,并和二维超声检验结果进行比较,结合临床随访来进行探讨。结果全部1024例中晚期妊娠胎儿接受超声检查后,共有38例脊柱裂胎儿,使用二维超声检查共出现了2例漏诊和1例误诊的病例,特异性为94.74%,敏感性为99.9%;使用三维超声和二维超声联合检查无漏诊和误诊的情况出现,胎儿脊柱裂临床诊断准确率是100%。结论三维超声成像技术的应用效果好,能够对胎儿脊柱形态进行良好的反映,提升胎儿脊柱裂的临床检出率,应用价值很高。%Objective Study on the ef ect of the crack diagnosis analysis using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of the fetal spine. Methods From 2011 to 2014 in our hospital received 1024 cases of fetal 3D echocardiography results analysis, and compared with the test results of two dimensional ultrasound, combined with clinical fol ow-up were discussed. Results Al of 1024 cases of advanced pregnancy underwent ultrasound examination, a total of 38 cases of spina bifida fetus using two-dimensional ultrasound examination, there were 2 cases of missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of 1 cases of patients, the specificity was 94.74%, the sensitivity was 99.9%; situation of using 3D ultrasound and two-dimensional ultrasound examination no missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis the fetal spina bifida, clinical diagnosis accuracy rate is 100%. Conclusion The application ef ect of 3D ultrasound imaging technique, can carry on the good response to fetal spine morphology, improving clinical fetal spina bifida detection rate, high application value.

  20. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  1. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Futang; Zhang, Zuyin

    1999-09-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized channels. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo- color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously, all parameters of flight and radiometric data are sorted in hard disk for post- processing. The sensitivity of the radiometer (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new displaying method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate that the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  2. Airborne Collision Avoidance System as a Cyber-Physical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. NAE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the key concepts of ITS - Intelligent Transport Systems, CPS - Cyber-Physical Systems and SM - Smart Mobility are defined and correlated with the need for ACAS – Airborne Collision Avoidance System, as the last resort safety net and indispensable ingredient in civil aviation. Smart Mobility is addressed from a Cyber Physical-Systems perspective, detailing some of the elements that this entails. Here we consider the Air Transportations System of the future as a Cyber-Physical System and analyze the implications of doing so from different perspectives. The objective is to introduce a 4D collision avoidance shield technology which forms a last resort safety net technology for the next generation air transport (2050 and beyond. The new system will represent a step change over the performance of current technology. As conclusions, the benefits of implementing Transport Cyber-Physical Systems are discussed, as well as what this would require for future deployment.

  3. Prehospital chest ultrasound by a Dutch helicopter emergency medical service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, R.; Hoogerwerf, N.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to advancements in technology, the use of a portable ultrasound (US) machine in the out-of-hospital setting is increasingly feasible. It has diagnostic and therapeutic advantages and may improve the management and treatment of patients. It can be used in-flight and can be easily taug

  4. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  5. Guideline report. Medical ultrasound imaging: progress and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, M

    1989-01-01

    Utilization of medical ultrasound has expanded rapidly during the past several years. In 1988, sales of ultrasound equipment will approach $600 million, which is higher than any other individual imaging modality, including the most capital intensive, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and cath lab angiography. This growth would have been difficult to predict previously, since ultrasound appeared to be a relatively mature imaging modality not too long ago. There are several reasons for this growth. Technological developments have been quite rapid; ultrasound has become easier to use, image quality has improved dramatically, and diagnostic accuracy has been enhanced. There has been a proliferation of new equipment at all ends of the price spectrum, allowing the user a wide choice in instrument performance, multi-function capabilities, and automated features to increase patient throughput. The DRG environment and the prospect for more pre-admission tests have also been a stimulus. Hospital buying activity has expanded, and many more ultrasound exams are now being conducted on an outpatient basis. Sales to freestanding imaging centers and individual physicians have similarly increased. The hospital user is willing to pay a large premium for advanced technical performance and is prepared to retire or replace older technology in less than three years. This replacement cycle is much shorter than the four to five year period which existed prior to 1985. By comparison, some of the more traditional imaging areas, such as radiology, have replacement rates of eight to ten years. The reason for early replacement is obvious. Ultrasound exams in hospitals generate revenues at a rate that justifies the purchase of the most advanced equipment. It also improves the referral rate and positions the hospital as a high quality provider. Even with low utilization rates, an ultrasound instrument can normally pay for itself in less than one year of regular

  6. Ultrasound-induced microbubble coalescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Michiel; Marmottant, Philippe; Lancée, Charles T.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Jong, de Nico

    2004-01-01

    We studied the interaction of ultrasound contrast agent bubbles coated with a layer of lipids, driven by 0.5 MHz ultrasound. High-speed photography on the submicrosecond timescale reveals that some bubbles bounce off each other, while others show very fast coalescence during bubble expansion. This f

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the internal organs and blood vessels ... Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not use any ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show ...

  8. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shpak, O.; Verweij, M.; Jong, de N.; Versluis, M.; Escoffre, J.M.; Bouakaz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to

  9. Muscle ultrasound in neuromuscular disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillen, S.; Arts, I.M.P.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, as these disorders result in muscle atrophy and intramuscular fibrosis and fatty infiltration, which can be visualized with ultrasound. Several prospective studies have reported high sensitivities and specificities in th

  10. Ultrasound in environmental protection - Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.J. [Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom). School of Science and the Environment

    2002-07-01

    There can be little doubt that there is an increasing interest in the development of new methods for environmental protection and remediation. Driven by the interests of scientists and engineers but increasingly by legislation a very wide range of new technologies is being examined. Amongst these power ultrasound is proving to be a front-runner and offers a wide range of applications. Not all of these are likely to become industrial realities nevertheless there are a few which have a real chance of adoption. Some of the stronger contenders are reviewed below. (orig.)

  11. Environmental applications of ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, James Dean

    The application of ultrasound to environmental problems relies on the process of acoustic cavitation: the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The collapse of such bubbles creates hot spots with temperatures as high as 5000 K, pressures up to 800 atm, and cooling rates in excess of 1010K/s. This thesis describes the use of ultrasound for the dissolution of gas into water, an investigation the sonochemistry of ionic liquids, and the sonochemical preparation of nanostructured materials for the catalytic hydrodehalogenation of organic halides. A variety of ultrasonic methods and configurations were designed and tested for the dispersion and dissolution of O2 in water. Ultrasonic methods examined include 20 kHz Ti horns, 336 to 1.41 MHz transducers, specially designed ultrasonic gas dispersion cell including the hollow horn extensions, Ti frits, and a modified 20 kHz cup horn. Most methods increased the dispersion rate when compared to non-ultrasonic control runs. Room-temperature ionic liquids were examined for their potential application as green solvents for sonochemical reactions. The effects of ultrasound on room-temperature ionic liquids were investigated using butylmethyl imidazolium chloride (BuMeImCl), butylmethyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BuMeImBF 4), and decylmethyl imidazolium tetraphenylborate. Gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry head-gas analysis and multibubble sonoluminescence were used to show that room-temperature ionic liquids decomposed in the presence of ultrasound. As previously reported, molybdenum carbonyl and tungsten carbonyl were decomposed sonochemically in hexadecane to form porous aggregates of 2--3 nm high surface area Mo2C and W2C particles. The activity of these materials was studied for the catalytic hydrodehalogenation of aliphatic and aromatic halocarbons at low temperatures (T = 200--300°C). Both catalysts were selective, active, and stable for all substrates tested. The HDH of substrates bearing

  12. Ultrasound Artifacts - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönhof, J A

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of artifacts is essential for the competent use of ultrasound. Artifacts are method-based and should be differentiated from image errors of another genesis. They are logical and occur because the conditions required for image generation do not fully correspond to the reality. Artifacts occur due to disregard of the true dimensions of sound lobes (slice-thickness artifacts and bow artifacts, range ambiguities) and due to different types of mirroring with different appearances. There are also comet-tail-like artifacts such as comet-tail and ring-down artifacts.

  13. Reconfigurable Weather Radar for Airborne Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc (IAI) and its university partner, University of Oklahoma (OU), Norman, propose a forward-looking airborne environment sensor based on...

  14. Photoacoustic study of airborne and model aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebic-Juretic, A.; Zetsch, C.; Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particulates of either natural or anthropogenic origin constitute a significant portion of atmospheric pollution. Environmental xenobiotics, among which are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, often adsorb to aerosols and as such are transported through the atmosphere w

  15. Airborne Infrared Search and Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Srivastava

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared search and track (IRST systems are required for fighter aircraft to enable them to passively search, detect, track, classify, and prioritise multiple airborne targets under all aspects, look-up, look-down, and co-altitude conditions and engage them at as long ranges as possible. While the IRST systems have been proven in performance for ground-based and naval-based platforms, it is still facing some technical problems for airborne applications. These problems arise from uncertainty in target signature, atmospheric effects, background clutter (especially dense and varying clouds, signal and data processing algorithms to detect potential targets at long ranges and some hardware limitations such as large memory requirement to store and process wide field of view data. In this paper, an overview of airborne IRST as a system has been presented with detailed comparative simulation results of different detectionitracking algorithms and the present status of airborne IRSTs

  16. Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mesa Photonics proposes to develop an Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor (AMUGS) based upon two-tone, frequency modulation spectroscopy (TT-FMS). Mesa Photonics has developed...

  17. Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of...

  18. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  19. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  20. Crystallization of glycine with ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Karjalainen, Milja; Rantanen, Jukka;

    2006-01-01

    Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound with an ultr......Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound...... with an ultrasound frequency of 20kHz at two temperature ranges 40-50 and 20-30 degrees C in a jacketed 250-ml cooling crystallizer equipped with a stirrer. The polymorph composition of the obtained crystals was analyzed with a temperature variable X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD). XRPD results showed that...... ultrasound power. This study also showed, the higher the ultrasound amplitude the smaller the crystals obtained....

  1. Ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Ben, R. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Dehghanpisheh, K.; Chatham, W.W.; Alarcon, G.S. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Lee, D.H.; Oakes, J. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Surgery

    2006-11-15

    We describe the ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads. Retrospective analysis of imaging in a series of five patients initially referred for evaluation of periarticular soft-tissue swelling of the hands involving the dorsum of the PIP and MP joints. Two patients had associated Dupuytren's contractures. Ultrasound and radiographs of the hands in all patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical history and physical exams. Radiographs in four patients demonstrated dorsal soft-tissue thickening. Ultrasound exams showed increased dorsal subcutaneous thickening, with either diffuse or focal hypoechoic areas corresponding to the areas of soft-tissue fullness identified on physical exam. No erosions or synovial proliferation were identified either by radiographs or ultrasound of the underlying joints. Knuckle pads can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from synovitis on physical examination. Musculoskeletal ultrasound can quickly identify these superficial lesions and exclude underlying synovial proliferation.

  2. Buildings for advanced technology

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, E; Murday, James

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the design and construction of buildings for nanoscale science and engineering research. The information provided in this book is useful for designing and constructing buildings for such advanced technologies as nanotechnology, nanoelectronics and biotechnology. The book outlines the technology challenges unique to each of the building environmental challenges outlined below and provides best practices and examples of engineering approaches to address them: • Establishing and maintaining critical environments: temperature, humidity, and pressure • Structural vibration isolation • Airborne vibration isolation (acoustic noise) • Isolation of mechanical equipment-generated vibration/acoustic noise • Cost-effective power conditioning • Grounding facilities for low electrical interference • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)/Radio frequency interference (RFI) isolation • Airborne particulate contamination • Airborne organic and chemical contamination • Environment, safety a...

  3. Airborne Network Optimization with Dynamic Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    AIRBORNE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC NETWORK UPDATE THESIS Bradly S. Paul, Capt, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-030 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-030 AIRBORNE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC NETWORK UPDATE THESIS Presented to the...NETWORK OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC NETWORK UPDATE Bradly S. Paul, B.S.C.P. Capt, USAF Committee Membership: Maj Thomas E. Dube Chair Dr. Kenneth M. Hopkinson

  4. Clinical neurosonography. Ultrasound of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidich, T.P.; Quencer, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Neurosonography is the application of ultrasound technology to the diagnosis and follow-up of lesions of the brain and meninges, spinal cord and canal, carotid arteries, eye and orbit. The authors of this book have reviewed neurosonography in separate sections on fetal neurosonography, the neonate head, the neonatal spine, intraoperative neurosonography, post-operative neurosonography, carotid sonography, and orbital echography. In each section, the authors discuss basic diagnosis, present recent advances in the area. The contents discussed are: Fetal neurosonography. - The neonatal head. - The neonatal spine. - Intraopertive neurosonography. - Post-operative neurosonography. - Duplex carotid ultrasound. - Orbital echography. Subject Index.

  5. On Ground Surface Extraction Using Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanner for Cim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K.; Chikatsu, H.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be capable of improving the accuracy of ground surface extraction for forested areas, in contrast to discrete airborne laser scanners, as technological innovation. For forested areas, fundamental studies for construction information management (CIM) were conducted to extract ground surface using full-waveform airborne laser scanners based on waveform information.

  6. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, H.

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  8. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  9. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital (EVS-1) Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, A.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC is developing a technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two Earth System Science Pathfinder Missions. The two missions are CARVE: Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment and AirMOSS: Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface. The two missions are collecting over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from the traditional field campaign and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC are currently working with the CARVE and AirMOSS teams as well as investigating cyberinfrastructures from other DAACs to develop a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that will enable spatial, flight-line, or keyword-based search and discovery, integration as needed of related satellite- and ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. We discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  10. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  11. Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning for Automated Map Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula

    2016-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and multispectral information is for the first time directly available for 3D ALS point clouds. This article discusses the potential of this new single-sensor technology in map updating, especially in automated object detection and change detection. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from a random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral intensity information is useful for land cover classification, also when considering ground surface objects and classes, such as roads. An out-of-bag estimate for classification error was about 3% for separating classes asphalt, gravel, rocky areas and low vegetation from each other. For buildings and trees, it was under 1%. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral features based on several channels were more useful that those based on one channel. Automatic change detection utilizing the new multispectral ALS data, an old digital surface model (DSM) and old building vectors was also demonstrated. Overall, our first analyses suggest that the new data are very promising for further increasing the automation level in mapping. The multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and intensity images produced from the data do not include shadows. These are significant advantages when the development of automated classification and change detection procedures is considered.

  12. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (preactor fed with ultrasound pretreated diluted OMW produced approximately 20

  13. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-05-05

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation) in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes.

  14. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes.

  15. Airborne Contamination Control through Directed Airflow in the Exam Room: A Pilot Study Using a Membrane Diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Pati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne infections have been documented as a major source of hospital acquired infection - one of the major concerns in healthcare delivery. An important factor contributing to airborne infection is cross contamination through air particulate dispersion as affected by the ventilation system design. Clean room technology (with membrane ceiling has been successfully used in technology and pharmaceutical industries to control airborne contamination. This study examined the performance of membrane ceiling technology in controlling air particulate dispersion in a mock-up exam room. It included both performance tests in a mock-up room and a simulation study of six different ventilation system designs using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis. Findings suggest that a membrane diffuser directed airflow ventilation strategy occupying approximately 20% to 30% of the ceiling surface and placed over the patient in a contemporary sized exam room provides a less turbulent airflow pattern and less mixing of the air between the patient and others in the room.

  16. New Ultrasound Modalities in Rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Okano, Tadashi; Reginato, Anthony M; Cazenave, Tomas; Ventura-Rios, Lucio; Bertolazzi, Chiara; Pineda, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Over the years, ultrasound (US) has accumulated important evidence supporting its relevant role for the assessment of inflammatory processes of different rheumatologic diseases, as well as in the follow-up in assessing the response to different therapeutic approaches. This has been possible because of the increase in training, competency, and knowledge, as well as the rapid progress in the US technologies.Currently, some US machines can be equipped by sophisticated software modalities (i.e., 3-dimensional US, elastosonography, automated cardiovascular software, and fusion imaging) that can augment US traditional role as a safe, fast, and easy-to-perform modality and giving it new life and increased relevance in rheumatology. In this article, we evaluated the US developments, from conventional B-mode to more sophisticated technologies, and their potential clinical impact in the field of rheumatology.Three-dimensional US can improve the accuracy of the assessment of bone erosions and the quantification of power Doppler because of its multiplanar view including coronal, axial and sagital view. Elastosonography is still looking for its role in rheumatology. Preliminary works induce us to consider it as a promise tool for the assessment of tendon pathology and skin of patients with connective tissue disorders. The automated method for the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness permits a rapid and accurate assessment. The preliminary published data showed that it is reliable, and valid compared to the traditional method; they also support the future of rheumatologists as the direct operators in evaluating the cardiovascular risk in daily practice. Fusion imaging increases the diagnostic power of US, displaying simultaneously in the monitor, the US image, and the corresponding computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging image. However, there are no sufficient data supporting its application in daily rheumatologic practice.

  17. Basics of biomedical ultrasound for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Azhari, Haim

    2010-01-01

    "Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers is a structured textbook for university engineering courses in biomedical ultrasound and for researchers in the field. This book offers a tool for building a solid understanding of biomedical ultrasound, and leads the novice through the field in a step-by-step manner. The book begins with the most basic definitions of waves, proceeds to ultrasounds in fluids, and then delves into solid ultrasounds, the most complicated kind of ultrasound. It encompasses a wide range of topics within biomedical ultrasound, from conceptual definitions of waves to the intricacies of focusing devices, transducers, and acoustic fields"--Provided by publisher.

  18. [Development of ultrasonic cancer therapy using ultrasound sensitive liposome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been utilized as a useful tool for diagnosis and therapy. US mediated drug and gene delivery is paid to attention as a non-invasive system. The combination of US and microbubbles generated microjet stream by inducing disruption of bubbles and resulted in enhancing permeability of cell membrane. This phenomenon has been utilized as driving force for drug and gene delivery. Recently, we developed ultrasound sensitive liposome [Bubble liposome (BL)] containing perfluoropropane gas. US combined with BL could effectively transfer gene in vivo compared to conventional cationic liposomes. Using this method, we succeeded to obtain a therapeutic effect in cancer gene therapy with Interleukin-12 corded plasmid DNA. Therefore, it is expected that US combined with BL might be a useful non-viral vector system. From this result, the fusion of liposomal and ultrasound technologies would be important for establishment of advanced cancer therapy.

  19. Microbubbles and Ultrasound: Therapeutic Applications in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei J; Matkar, Pratiek N; Chen, Hao H; Mofid, Azadeh; Leong-Poi, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease. Current therapeutic strategies aiming at optimization of serum glucose and blood pressure are beneficial in early stage DN, but are unable to fully prevent disease progression. With the limitations of current medical therapies and the shortage of available donor organs for kidney transplantation, the need for novel therapies to address DN complications and prevent progression towards end-stage renal failure is crucial. The development of ultrasound technology for non-invasive and targeted in-vivo gene delivery using high power ultrasound and carrier microbubbles offers great therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of DN. The promising results from preclinical studies of ultrasound-mediated gene delivery (UMGD) in several DN animal models suggest that UMGD offers a unique, non-invasive platform for gene- and cell-based therapies targeted against DN with strong clinical translation potential.

  20. Wireless power transmission - Applications and technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Bradford W.; Brown, Alan M.

    The history of wireless power transmission systems is reviewed and current and future applications and technology are discussed. Design constraints for terrestrial systems, airborne platforms, and space systems are presented.

  1. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time.

  2. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  3. Ultrasound call detection in capybara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S.C. Nogueira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The vocal repertoire of some animal species has been considered a non-invasive tool to predict distress reactivity. In rats ultrasound emissions were reported as distress indicator. Capybaras[ vocal repertoire was reported recently and seems to have ultrasound calls, but this has not yet been confirmed. Thus, in order to check if a poor state of welfare was linked to ultrasound calls in the capybara vocal repertoire, the aim of this study was to track the presence of ultrasound emissions in 11 animals under three conditions: 1 unrestrained; 2 intermediately restrained, and 3 highly restrained. The ultrasound track identified frequencies in the range of 31.8±3.5 kHz in adults and 33.2±8.5 kHz in juveniles. These ultrasound frequencies occurred only when animals were highly restrained, physically restrained or injured during handling. We concluded that these calls with ultrasound components are related to pain and restraint because they did not occur when animals were free of restraint. Thus we suggest that this vocalization may be used as an additional tool to assess capybaras[ welfare.

  4. Overcoming Biological Barriers with Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Dhaval; Gupta, Roohi; Mohan, Praveena; Monson, Kenneth; Rapoport, Natalya

    2011-01-01

    Effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels and cell membranes to macromolecules and nanodroplets was investigated using mouse carotid arteries and tumor cells. Model macromolecular drug, FITC-dextran with molecular weight of 70,000 Da was used in experiments with carotid arteries. The effect of unfocused 1-MHz ultrasound and and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether nanodroplets stabilized with the poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D,L-lactide) block copolymer shells was studied. In cell culture experiments, ovarian carcinoma cells and Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone nanodroplets were used. The data showed that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of all biological barriers tested. Under the action of ultrasound, not only FITC-dextran but also nanodroplets effectively penetrated through the arterial wall; the effect of continuous wave ultrasound was stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound. In cell culture experiments, ultrasound triggered DOX penetration into cell nuclei, presumably due to releasing the drug from the carrier. Detailed mechanisms of the observed effects require further study. PMID:24839333

  5. Ultrasounds: an industrial solution to optimise costs, environmental requests and quality for textile finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouters, Moïse; Rumeau, Pascal; Tierce, Pascal; Costes, Sandrine

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasounds are widely used at industrial scale for cleaning of mechanical pieces for example. Potential applications exist for finishing of textiles. This work aimed to improve traditional textile finishing processes thanks to ultrasound. The technical objective was to develop specific applicators of ultrasonic energy which could be adapted on jigger, a widespread textile finishing machine. Laboratory studies have allowed to define the conditions for application of ultrasounds and check their effects on fibre structure, validated by trials in dynamic conditions. Ultrasound technology makes it possible to intensify the phenomena of diffusion and washing by the effect of cavitation and improves effectiveness of traditional washing treatments. Industrial ultrasound processes need further optimisation on industrial machines.

  6. [Ultrasound for peripheral neural block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianakis, F

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasound is well established in medicine. Unfortunately, ultrasound is still rarely used in the area of anesthesia. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound in regional anesthesia. The basic principles of ultrasound are the piezoelectric effect and the behaviour of acoustic waveforms in human tissue. Ultrasound imaging in medicine uses high frequency pulses of sound waves (2.5-10 MHz). The following images are built up from the reflected sounds. The ultrasound devices used in regional anesthesia (commonly by 10 MHz) deliver a two-dimensional view. The main step for a successful regional anaesthesia is to identify the exact position of the nerve. In addition, specific surface landmarks and the use of peripheral nerve stimulator help to detect the correct position of the needle. Nerves are demonstrated as an composition of hyperechogenic (white) and hypoechogenic (black) areas. The surrounding hyperechogenic parts are epi- and perineurium, the dark hypoechogenic part is the neural tissue. The composition of peripheral nerves are always similar, but the quantities of each part, of surrounding perineurium and nerval structures, differ. Further the imaging of nerves is significantly influenced by the angle of beam to the nerve and the surrounding anatomic structures. Only experience and correct interpretation make the ultrasound a valid method in clinical practice. Correct interpretation has to be learned by standardized education. Three examples of peripheral nerve blocks are described. The detection of nerves and the visualization of the correct spread of local anesthetics to the nerves are the main principles of effective ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, whereas closest proximity of the needle to the target nerve is not necessary. The described examples of ultrasound guidance for nerval block illustrates the specific procedures with reduced probability of nerval irritation, high success and low rate of

  7. Planar electrostatic gradiometer for airborne geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, B.; Christophe, B.; Lebat, V.; Boulanger, D.

    2011-12-01

    The knowledge of the gravity field of the Earth has been considerably improved for the last decades, thanks to satellites, in particular, both for gravity measurements and positioning. Gravity, and especially gravity gradiometry data are then of great interest to the study of the structure of the continental margins. Space gravity measurements, in particular with the GOCE satellite in orbit since 2009, provide an absolute gravity reference and should contribute to estimate the systematic effects that would affect the surface datasets. But the spatial resolution of those data essentially addresses the large and medium wavelengths of the field (down to a resolution of 90km) and it is therefore essential to complete them at the shorter wavelengths in particular in the littoral area. To this aim, gravity gradiometry systems may be particularly suitable by covering the land/sea transition zone with a uniform precision, and a spatial resolution higher than from gravimetry. The GREMLIT instrument is taking advantage of technologies, formerly developed by ONERA for the GRACE and GOCE space missions, by adapting them to an airborne environment, using a planar configuration for the gradiometer and designing and building a dedicated stabilized platform controlled by the common mode outputs of the instrument itself similarly to the drag free control of the GOCE satellite. The mains interests of the planar configuration are: - its definition, optimized for levitation in the Earth's gravity field ; - its intrinsic linearity, which minimizes the aliasing due to high frequency vibrations or motions generated outside the measurement bandwidth ; - its compactness, ensuring an excellent dimensional stability, a better thermal homogeneity and making the realization of the decoupling platform easier. The performance objective is 0.1 Eötvös. This lowered performance level with respect to a one hundred times better GOCE-type instrument, takes into account the difficulty of measurements

  8. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  9. Ultrasound of Sternal Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Lahham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old female was brought in by ambulance after being the restrained driver of a head-on motor vehicle collision at 40MPH. There was positive airbag deployment and intrusion from the other vehicle. During workup, the patient complained of midline chest pain, and left chest wall pain. The patient was not in acute respiratory distress, and had the following vital signs: temperature 37°C, heart rate 84, blood pressure of 150/64, respiratory rate 18, and oxygen saturation of 97% on two liters of oxygen. On physical exam, breath sounds were heard bilaterally, with no acute cardiopulmonary issues identified. A bruise was identified on the lower abdomen, which was thought to be a potential seatbelt sign. A focused assessment with sonography for trauma was negative, and an ultrasound of additional chest and mediastinal structures was performed for the chest tenderness.

  10. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Shrivastava; Kailash

    2004-08-01

    The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment of the patients also takes comparatively more time because of more number of sittings. Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more disintegration efficiency of the lithotripters, which give better treatment to the patients.

  11. Error Analysis for the Airborne Direct Georeferincing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Ahmed S.; Habib, Ayman F.

    2016-10-01

    Direct Georeferencing was shown to be an important alternative to standard indirect image orientation using classical or GPS-supported aerial triangulation. Since direct Georeferencing without ground control relies on an extrapolation process only, particular focus has to be laid on the overall system calibration procedure. The accuracy performance of integrated GPS/inertial systems for direct Georeferencing in airborne photogrammetric environments has been tested extensively in the last years. In this approach, the limiting factor is a correct overall system calibration including the GPS/inertial component as well as the imaging sensor itself. Therefore remaining errors in the system calibration will significantly decrease the quality of object point determination. This research paper presents an error analysis for the airborne direct Georeferencing technique, where integrated GPS/IMU positioning and navigation systems are used, in conjunction with aerial cameras for airborne mapping compared with GPS/INS supported AT through the implementation of certain amount of error on the EOP and Boresight parameters and study the effect of these errors on the final ground coordinates. The data set is a block of images consists of 32 images distributed over six flight lines, the interior orientation parameters, IOP, are known through careful camera calibration procedure, also 37 ground control points are known through terrestrial surveying procedure. The exact location of camera station at time of exposure, exterior orientation parameters, EOP, is known through GPS/INS integration process. The preliminary results show that firstly, the DG and GPS-supported AT have similar accuracy and comparing with the conventional aerial photography method, the two technologies reduces the dependence on ground control (used only for quality control purposes). Secondly, In the DG Correcting overall system calibration including the GPS/inertial component as well as the imaging sensor itself

  12. Simulation and training of ultrasound supported anaesthesia: a low-cost approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, T.; Lamontain, M.; Hilpert, J.; Schilling, F.; Tolxdorff, T.

    2010-03-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging technology during techniques of peripheral nerve blockade offers several clinical benefits. Here we report on a new method to educate residents in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. The daily challenge for the anesthesiologists is the 3D angle-depending handling of the stimulation needle and the ultrasound probe while watching the 2D ultrasound image on the monitor. Purpose: Our approach describes how a computer-aided simulation and training set for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia could be built based on wireless low-cost devices and an interactive simulation of a 2D ultrasound image. For training purposes the injection needle and the ultrasound probe are replaced by wireless Bluetooth-connected 3D tracking devices, which are embedded in WII-mote controllers (Nintendo-Brand). In correlation to the tracked 3D positions of the needle and transducer models the visibility and position of the needle should be simulated in the 2D generated ultrasound image. Conclusion: In future, this tracking and visualization software module could be integrated in a more complex training set, where complex injection paths could be trained based on a 3D segmented model and the training results could be part of a curricular e-learning module.

  13. How to introduce diagnostic ultrasound in medical institutions of limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, O E

    1983-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that diagnostic ultrasound may have a role in Medicine, independently of the technological level of a society, as well as of the geographical factors of influence on its pathology. This means that many countries require ultrasound equipment of low cost and a decision must be made as to what kind of ultrasound facilities to set up and how: a central ultrasound unit for general application or different specialized services in several hospital departments. Alternatively, it is suggested a combined action of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, the ultrasound departments of highly developed countries, dealers and medical institutions of limited resources for the setting up of an ultrasound unit. This should be preceded by previous scientific training of medical staff of those institutions on the main diagnostic ultrasound applications, a survey of the potential users, a selection of the staff for the new service and continuous information. An outline of a proposal for that program is presented.

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive ( ...

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound and pancreas divisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    cholangiopancreatography is the gold standard for its diagnosis, but is invasive and associated with significant adverse effects. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allows the detailed evaluation of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system without injecting contrast in these ducts. Moreover, it provides detailed images...

  16. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... of the excitation signal. Although a gain in signal-to-noise ratio of about 20 dB is theoretically possible for the time-bandwidth product available in ultrasound, it is shown that the effects of transducer weighting and tissue attenuation reduce the maximum gain at 10 dB for robust compression with low sidelobes...... is described. Application of coded excitation in array imaging is evaluated through simulations in Field II. The low degree of the orthogonality among coded signals for ultrasound systems is first discussed, and the effect of mismatched filtering in the cross-correlation properties of the signals is evaluated...

  17. Ultrasound-modulated bioluminescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Guillaume; Schotland, John C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly scattering medium from ultrasound-modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to best travel ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  20. The Belfast musculoskeletal ultrasound course.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Taggart, Allister J

    2009-09-01

    To conduct a training course in musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) for rheumatologists in Northern Ireland with the aim of equipping the participants with a basic knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of MSUS as they are applied to rheumatology.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scans, your doctor may ask you to withhold food and drink for several hours before your child's ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  2. Skin Ultrasound in Kaposi Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, R; Alfageme, F; Roustán, G; Suarez, M D

    2016-05-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging has recently been increasing in numerous dermatologic diseases. This noninvasive technique provides additional details on the structure and vascularization of skin lesions. Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor that typically arises in the skin and mucosas. It can spread to lymph nodes and internal organs. We performed B-mode and color Doppler ultrasound studies in 3 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma confirmed by histological examination. We found differences in the ultrasound pattern between nodular and plaque lesions, in both B-mode and color Doppler. We believe that skin ultrasound imaging could be a useful technique for studying cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma, providing additional information on the structural and vascular characteristics of the lesion.

  3. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek; Ola I. Saleh; Howida A. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH) level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound throug...

  4. Extending the role of liposuction in body contouring with ultrasound-assisted liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, R J; Beran, S J; Kenkel, J M; Adams, W P; DiSpaltro, F

    1998-04-01

    fibrous areas such as the back and male breast, where aspiration volumes were approximately equal. The total ultrasound-assisted liposuction treatment times were reduced after our initial 30 patients, and suction-assisted lipoplasty times increased. Total aspiration rates in our later patients averaged 36.2 cc/per minute for ultrasound-assisted and 58.4 cc/per minute for suction-assisted lipoplasty, whose rates were approximately 1.5 to 2 times faster than for ultrasound-assisted liposuction in most areas. After using this technology in our initial series of 30 patients, it became apparent that ultrasound was not a substitute for suction-assisted lipoplasty but rather a natural complement. We have found that the marriage of the techniques enhances results and minimizes complications, such as seromas, which have been reported to be 11.4 percent with ultrasound-assisted liposuction alone and are 2.6 percent in our series.

  5. Ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block in total hip replacement: in-plane technology with vertical scan versus out-of-plane technology with longitudinal scan%超声引导下腰丛神经阻滞在全髋关节置换术中的应用:短轴平面内对长轴平面外技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑萍; 赵达强; 王爱忠; 江伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical outcomes of ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block in the patients with total hip replacement when in-plane technology with vertical scan or out-of-plane technology with longitudinal scan was used. Methods Totally 150 patients (aged 24 - 86 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade Ⅰ - Ⅲ) scheduled for total hip replacement were randomized into 2 groups (n = 75). They received ultrasound-guided nerve block of lumbar plexus either by out-of-plane technology with longitudinal scan or by in-plane technology with vertical scan. The duration of image acquisition and puncture were recorded. Sensory block was tested in the distributions of femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator and sciatic nerves. Knee movement was assessed by the modified knee motion score. The incidences of bilateral block and other adverse reactions were also observed. Results The image acquisition time was significantly shorter in out-of-plane group than that in in-plane group ([29.20± 14.47] s vs. [39.20±25. 79] s, P0. 05); neither were there differences in the effective block of femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator and sciatic nerves, the incidence of bilateral block, and the 0 to 2 score rates of motor block of the knee between the two groups at 30 mins after nerve block (all P>0.05). There was no nerve injury and other adverse reactions except that one patient who complained of dizziness after anesthesia in out-of-plane group. The satisfaction degree of the patients and the operators reached 2 or 3 degree and there was no difference between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion Both methods of ultrasonic puncture can provide good nerve block of lumbar plexus, but it is easier to acquire image by out-of-plane technology with longitudinal scan than by in-plane technology with vertical scan.%目的 比较超声引导下短轴平面内技术与长轴平面外技术在全髋关节置换术中行腰丛神经阻滞的操作便捷性、阻

  6. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  7. Storage Test on Apple Juice After Ultrasound Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice. PMID:27800306

  8. An automated in vitro model for the evaluation of ultrasound modalities measuring myocardial deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigö Albin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiography is the method of choice when one wishes to examine myocardial function. Qualitative assessment of the 2D grey scale images obtained is subjective, and objective methods are required. Speckle Tracking Ultrasound is an emerging technology, offering an objective mean of quantifying left ventricular wall motion. However, before a new ultrasound technology can be adopted in the clinic, accuracy and reproducibility needs to be investigated. Aim It was hypothesized that the collection of ultrasound sample data from an in vitro model could be automated. The aim was to optimize an in vitro model to allow for efficient collection of sample data. Material & Methods A tissue-mimicking phantom was made from water, gelatin powder, psyllium fibers and a preservative. Sonomicrometry crystals were molded into the phantom. The solid phantom was mounted in a stable stand and cyclically compressed. Peak strain was then measured by Speckle Tracking Ultrasound and sonomicrometry. Results We succeeded in automating the acquisition and analysis of sample data. Sample data was collected at a rate of 200 measurement pairs in 30 minutes. We found good agreement between Speckle Tracking Ultrasound and sonomicrometry in the in vitro model. Best agreement was 0.83 ± 0.70%. Worst agreement was -1.13 ± 6.46%. Conclusions It has been shown possible to automate a model that can be used for evaluating the in vitro accuracy and precision of ultrasound modalities measuring deformation. Sonomicrometry and Speckle Tracking Ultrasound had acceptable agreement.

  9. Ultrasound Fracture Diagnosis in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Amponsah, David; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; vanHolsbeeck, Marnix

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This ground-based investigation accumulated high-level clinical evidence on the sensitivity and specificity of point of care ultrasound performed by expert and novice users for the rapid diagnosis of musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries. We developed preliminary educational methodologies to provide just-in-time training of novice users by creating multi-media training tools and imaging procedures for non expert operators and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of non-expert performed musculoskeletal ultrasound to diagnose acute injuries in a Level 1 Trauma Center. Methods: Patients with potential MSK injuries were identified in the emergency room. A focused MSK ultrasound was performed by expert operators and compared to standard radiographs. A repeat examination was performed by non-expert operators who received a short, just-in-time multimedia education aid. The sensitivity and specificity of the expert and novice ultrasound examinations were compared to gold standard radiography. Results: Over 800 patients were enrolled in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of expert performed ultrasound exceeded 98% for MSK injuries. Novice operators achieved 97% sensitivity and 99% specificity for targeted examinations with the greatest error in fractures involving the hand and foot. Conclusion: Point of care ultrasound is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for MSK injury when performed by experts and just-in-time trained novice operators.

  10. Ultrasound in environmental engineering. Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehm, A.; Neis, U. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    This book presents recent research and state-of-the-art information on the scientific basis, modes of use, and engineering developments of ultrasound application in the field of environmental protection. The information is loosely grouped into the following themes: ultrasound and sonochemistry, design of sonoreactors, applications in water, waste water and sludge treatment: aggregation of suspended particles, degradation of hazardous pollutants, disinfection, disintegration of biosolids. Ultrasound is generated and applied at frequencies from 20 kHz to several MHz. Reactor design, applied intensity, duration of sonication, and physico-chemical parameters of the sonicated media influence ultrasound effects. Thus, ultrasound, at a first glance, is a complex and probably confusing matter. This book has been compiled from presentations held at the first workshop 'Ultrasound in Environmental Engineering' on March 22nd and 23rd, 1999, at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg in cooperation with the German Association for the Water Environment (ATV) and the DECHEMA e.V. (orig.)

  11. GNSS kinematic position and velocity determination for airborne gravimetry

    OpenAIRE

    K. He

    2015-01-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a significant role in the fields of airborne gravimetry. The objective of this thesis is to develop reliable GNSS algorithms and software for kinematic highly precise GNSS data analysis in airborne gravimetry.

  12. Towards airborne nanoparticle mass spectrometry with nanomechanical string resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Kurek, Maksymilian; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Airborne nanoparticles can cause severe harm when inhaled. Therefore, small and cheap portable airborne nanoparticle monitors are highly demanded by authorities and the nanoparticle producing industry. We propose to use nanomechanical resonators to build the next generation cheap and portable...

  13. Ultrasound-Mediated Polymeric Micelle Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue; Tong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of multi-functional nanocarriers and the design of new stimuli-responsive means are equally important for drug delivery. Ultrasound can be used as a remote, non-invasive and controllable trigger for the stimuli-responsive release of nanocarriers. Polymeric micelles are one kind of potential drug nanocarrier. By combining ultrasound and polymeric micelles, a new modality (i.e., ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery) has been developed and has recently received increasing attention. A major challenge remaining in developing ultrasound-responsive polymeric micelles is the improvement of the sensitivity or responsiveness of polymeric micelles to ultrasound. This chapter reviews the recent advance in this field. In order to understand the interaction mechanism between ultrasound stimulus and polymeric micelles, ultrasound effects, such as thermal effect, cavitation effect, ultrasound sonochemistry (including ultrasonic degradation, ultrasound-initiated polymerization, ultrasonic in-situ polymerization and ultrasound site-specific degradation), as well as basic micellar knowledge are introduced. Ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery has been classified into two main streams based on the different interaction mechanism between ultrasound and polymeric micelles; one is based on the ultrasound-induced physical disruption of the micelle and reversible release of payload. The other is based on micellar ultrasound mechanochemical disruption and irreversible release of payload.

  14. Airborne measurements in the longwave infrared using an imaging hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Jean-Pierre; Chamberland, Martin; Farley, Vincent; Marcotte, Frédérick; Rolland, Matthias; Vallières, Alexandre; Villemaire, André

    2008-08-01

    Emerging applications in Defense and Security require sensors with state-of-the-art sensitivity and capabilities. Among these sensors, the imaging spectrometer is an instrument yielding a large amount of rich information about the measured scene. Standoff detection, identification and quantification of chemicals in the gaseous state is one important application. Analysis of the surface emissivity as a means to classify ground properties and usage is another one. Imaging spectrometers have unmatched capabilities to meet the requirements of these applications. Telops has developed the FIRST, a LWIR hyperspectral imager. The FIRST is based on the Fourier Transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. The FIRST, a man portable sensor, provides datacubes of up to 320x256 pixels at 0.35mrad spatial resolution over the 8-12 μm spectral range at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25cm-1. The FIRST has been used in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection [http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.795119.1]. More recently, an airborne system integrating the FIRST has been developed to provide airborne hyperspectral measurement capabilities. The airborne system and its capabilities are presented in this paper. The FIRST sensor modularity enables operation in various configurations such as tripod-mounted and airborne. In the airborne configuration, the FIRST can be operated in push-broom mode, or in staring mode with image motion compensation. This paper focuses on the airborne operation of the FIRST sensor.

  15. The study of micro crack detection in dissimilar metal weld using a variable ultrasound infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Man Yong; Kwon, Koo Ahn [Dept. of Research and Development, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [Center of Safety Measurements, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    As a nondestructive inspection technology currently in use, infrared thermography has gradually expanded its application range to industry. The method detects only defect areas by grafting ultrasound on a technique of detecting infrared energy emitted from all objects with absolute temperature of 0 K and converting this energy into thermography for inspection. Ultrasound infrared thermography has merits including the ability to inspect a wide area in a short time without contacting the target object. This study investigated the applicability of the technique for defect detection using variable ultrasound excitation inspection methods on samples of Terfenol-D, a magnetostrictive material with a tunable natural resonant frequency.

  16. Microbubble-Assisted Ultrasound for Drug Delivery in the Brain and Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Alison; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier is a serious impediment to the delivery of pharmaceutical treatments for brain diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative and neuropsychatric diseases. Focused ultrasound, when combined with microbubbles, has emerged as an effective method to transiently and locally open the blood-brain barrier to promote drug delivery to the brain. Focused ultrasound has been used to successfully deliver a wide variety of therapeutic agents to pre-clinical disease models. The requirement for clinical translation of focused ultrasound technology is considered.

  17. Techniques of Ultrasound Cavitation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Skvortsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control methods of ultrasonic cavitation applied now within the range from 20 kHz to 80 kHz use either control of ultrasound source parameters (amplitude, acoustic power, etc. or control of one of the cavitation effects (erosion of materials, sonoluminescence, power of acoustic noise, etc.. These methods provide effective management of technological processes, however, make it impossible to relate the estimated effect with parameters of pulsations of cavitation bubbles. This is, mainly, due to influence of a number of uncontrollable parameters, in particular, such as temperature, composition of liquid, gas content, etc. as well as because of the difficulty to establish interrelation between the estimated effect and parameters of pulsations. As a result, in most cases it is difficult to compare controlled parameters of ultrasonic cavitation among themselves, and quantitative characteristics of processes become depending on the type of ultrasonic installation and conditions of their measurement.In this regard, methods to determine parameters of bubble pulsations through sounding a cavitation area by low-intensity laser radiation or to record cavitation noise sub-harmonics reflecting dynamics of changing radius of cavitation bubbles are of interest. The method of optical sounding, via the analysis of spectral components of a scattered signal recorded by a photo-detector, allows us to define a phase of the bubbles collapse with respect to the sound wave and a moving speed of the bubbles wall, as well as to estimate a cavitation index within the light beam section.The method to record sub-harmonicas of cavitation noise allows us to define parameters of pulsations, average for cavitation areas.The above methods allow us both to study mechanisms of cavitation action and to form quantitative criteria of its efficiency based on the physical processes, rather than their consequences and are convenient for arranging a feedback in the units using

  18. Ultrasound beamforming using compressed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yen-Feng; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    The rapid advancements in electronics technologies have made software-based beamformers for ultrasound array imaging feasible, thus facilitating the rapid development of high-performance and potentially low-cost systems. However, one challenge to realizing a fully software-based system is transferring data from the analog front end to the software back end at rates of up to a few gigabits per second. This study investigated the use of data compression to reduce the data transfer requirements and optimize the associated trade-off with beamforming quality. JPEG and JPEG2000 compression techniques were adopted. The acoustic data of a line phantom were acquired with a 128-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.5 MHz, and the acoustic data of a cyst phantom were acquired with a 64-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.33 MHz. The receive-channel data associated with each transmit event are separated into 8 × 8 blocks and several tiles before JPEG and JPEG2000 data compression is applied, respectively. In one scheme, the compression was applied to raw RF data, while in another only the amplitude of baseband data was compressed. The maximum compression ratio of RF data compression to produce an average error of lower than 5 dB was 15 with JPEG compression and 20 with JPEG2000 compression. The image quality is higher with baseband amplitude data compression than with RF data compression; although the maximum overall compression ratio (compared with the original RF data size), which was limited by the data size of uncompressed phase data, was lower than 12, the average error in this case was lower than 1 dB when the compression ratio was lower than 8.

  19. Are Ultrasound "Snapshots" of Your Unborn Baby a Good Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Are Ultrasound "Snapshots" of Your Unborn Baby a Good Idea? ... It Works Risks of Nonmedical Ultrasounds What's an Ultrasound? For many expectant parents, ultrasounds offer a window ...

  20. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Methane Using Pulsed Laser Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Wu, Stewart; Gonzalez, Brayler; Rodriguez, Michael; Hasselbrack, William; Fahey, Molly; Yu, Anthony; Stephen, Mark; Mao, Jianping; Kawa, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. At NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) we have been developing a laser-based technology needed to remotely measure CH4 from orbit. We report on our development effort for the methane lidar, especially on our laser transmitters and recent airborne demonstration. Our lidar transmitter is based on an optical parametric process to generate near infrared laser radiation at 1651 nanometers, coincident with a CH4 absorption. In an airborne flight campaign in the fall of 2015, we tested two kinds of laser transmitters --- an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The output wavelength of the lasers was rapidly tuned over the CH4 absorption by tuning the seed laser to sample the CH4 absorption line at several wavelengths. This approach uses the same Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique we have used for our CO2 lidar for ASCENDS. The two laser transmitters were successfully operated in the NASAs DC-8 aircraft, measuring methane from 3 to 13 kilometers with high precision.

  1. Airborne Detection and Tracking of Geologic Leakage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jamey; Allamraju, Rakshit; Axelrod, Allan; Brown, Calvin; Chowdhary, Girish; Mitchell, Taylor

    2014-11-01

    Safe storage of CO2 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely affecting energy use or hindering economic growth requires development of monitoring technology that is capable of validating storage permanence while ensuring the integrity of sequestration operations. Soil gas monitoring has difficulty accurately distinguishing gas flux signals related to leakage from those associated with meteorologically driven changes of soil moisture and temperature. Integrated ground and airborne monitoring systems are being deployed capable of directly detecting CO2 concentration in storage sites. Two complimentary approaches to detecting leaks in the carbon sequestration fields are presented. The first approach focuses on reducing the requisite network communication for fusing individual Gaussian Process (GP) CO2 sensing models into a global GP CO2 model. The GP fusion approach learns how to optimally allocate the static and mobile sensors. The second approach leverages a hierarchical GP-Sigmoidal Gaussian Cox Process for airborne predictive mission planning to optimally reducing the entropy of the global CO2 model. Results from the approaches will be presented.

  2. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  3. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  4. A Dual-Modality System for Both Multi-Color Ultrasound-Switchable Fluorescence and Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandukuri, Jayanth; Yu, Shuai; Cheng, Bingbing; Bandi, Venugopal; D’Souza, Francis; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Hong, Yi; Yuan, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous imaging of multiple targets (SIMT) in opaque biological tissues is an important goal for molecular imaging in the future. Multi-color fluorescence imaging in deep tissues is a promising technology to reach this goal. In this work, we developed a dual-modality imaging system by combining our recently developed ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) imaging technology with the conventional ultrasound (US) B-mode imaging. This dual-modality system can simultaneously image tissue acoustic structure information and multi-color fluorophores in centimeter-deep tissue with comparable spatial resolutions. To conduct USF imaging on the same plane (i.e., x-z plane) as US imaging, we adopted two 90°-crossed ultrasound transducers with an overlapped focal region, while the US transducer (the third one) was positioned at the center of these two USF transducers. Thus, the axial resolution of USF is close to the lateral resolution, which allows a point-by-point USF scanning on the same plane as the US imaging. Both multi-color USF and ultrasound imaging of a tissue phantom were demonstrated. PMID:28165390

  5. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  6. Inactivation of an enterovirus by airborne disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly. Methods A procedure has been developed to determine the virucidal activity of peracetic acid-based airborne disinfectants on a resistant non-enveloped virus poliovirus type 1. This virus was laid on a stainless carrier. The products were spread into the room by hot fogging at 55°C for 3...

  7. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from airborne wind energy system developers and the public related to these systems so that the FAA...

  8. Intensification of heat and mass transfer by ultrasound: application to heat exchangers and membrane separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondrexon, N; Cheze, L; Jin, Y; Legay, M; Tissot, Q; Hengl, N; Baup, S; Boldo, P; Pignon, F; Talansier, E

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to illustrate the interest of ultrasound technology as an efficient technique for both heat and mass transfer intensification. It is demonstrated that the use of ultrasound results in an increase of heat exchanger performances and in a possible fouling monitoring in heat exchangers. Mass transfer intensification was observed in the case of cross-flow ultrafiltration. It is shown that the enhancement of the membrane separation process strongly depends on the physico-chemical properties of the filtered suspensions.

  9. UTILIZATION OF ULTRASOUND TECHNOGICAL ADVANCES IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Rani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound has been employed for processing purposes in industries and now it is emerging as a perspective technology in different segments of food industries. This potential technology is gaining rapid momentum in food processing organization. Earlier, ultrasonics was used for cleaning purposes in food sectors. The range extends from the cleaning of nozzles used in breweries to the cleaning of bread pans in bakeries. Besides cleaning, it has also proved its significance and potential for the extraction of juice, concentration of thixotropic composition, homogenization and emulsification, improving crystallization rate and drying. This broad spectrum of application can safeguard its use as a valuable technology of the 21st century.

  10. Unravelling airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in southern China using tree-rings of 100-yr old Pinus Kwangtungensis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Y. W.; Huang, Z.H.; Wen, D Z; Li, J; L. B. Huang

    2011-01-01

    Reliable perennial biomonitoring of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is urgently necessary to detect long-term impacts of anthropogenic emission, in response to industrial policies and combustion technology adoption. One hundred records of airborne PAHs were novelly demonstrated by analyzing the tree-rings of Kwangtung pine (Pinus kwangtungensis) formed from 1883 to 2007 at Naling Mountains of southern China. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs) detec...

  11. A Review of Lawsuits Related to Point-of-Care Emergency Ultrasound Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolz, Lori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: New medical technology brings the potential of lawsuits related to the usage of that new technology. In recent years the use of point-of-care (POC ultrasound has increased rapidly in the emergency department (ED. POC ultrasound creates potential legal risk to an emergency physician (EP either using or not using this tool. The aim of this study was to quantify and characterize reported decisions in lawsuits related to EPs performing POC ultrasound. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all United States reported state and federal cases in the Westlaw database. We assessed the full text of reported cases between January 2008 and December 2012. EPs with emergency ultrasound fellowship training reviewed the full text of each case. Cases were included if an EP was named, the patient encounter was in the emergency department, the interpretation or failure to perform an ultrasound was a central issue and the application was within the American College of Emergency Physician (ACEP ultrasound core applications. In order to assess deferred risk, cases that involved ultrasound examinations that could have been performed by an EP but were deferred to radiology were included. Results: We identified five cases. All reported decisions alleged a failure to perform an ultrasound study or a failure to perform it in a timely manner. All studies were within the scope of emergency medicine and were ACEP emergency ultrasound core applications. A majority of cases (n=4 resulted in a patient death. There were no reported cases of failure to interpret or misdiagnoses. Conclusion: In a five-year period from January 2008 through December 2012, five malpractice cases involving EPs and ultrasound examinations that are ACEP core emergency ultrasound applications were documented in the Westlaw database. All cases were related to failure to perform an ultrasound study or failure to perform a study in a timely manner and none involved failure to

  12. Ultrasound of the airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kundra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the role of ultrasound (US in anaesthesia-related airway assessment and procedural interventions is encouraging, though it is still ill defined. US can visualise anatomical structures in the supraglottic, glottic and subglottic regions. The floor of the mouth can be visualised by both transcutaneous view of the neck and also by transoral or sublinguial views. However, imaging the epiglottis can be challenging as it is suspended in air. US may detect signs suggestive of difficult intubation, but the data are limited. Other possible applications in airway management include confirmation of correct endotracheal tube placement, prediction of post-extubation stridor, evaluation of soft tissue masses in the neck prior to intubation, assessment of subglottic diameter for determination of paediatric endotracheal tube size and percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. With development of better probes, high-resolution imaging, real-time picture and clinical experience, US has become the potential first-line noninvasive airway assessment tool in anaesthesia and intensive care practice.

  13. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Airborne Gravity Data for AN01 (2009-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2009-2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  14. Diagnostics in inflammatory bowel disease: Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeikeStrobel; RuedigerSGoertz; ThomasBernatik

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and imaging data. Imaging of the morphological characteristics of IBD includes the assessment of mucosal alterations, transmural involvement and extraintestinal manifestations. No single imaging technique serves as a diagnostic gold standard to encompass all disease manifestations. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow cross-sectional imaging of the transmural alterations and extraintestinal manifestations. While in the USA the technique of choice is CT, in Europe the focus is more on MRI and ultrasound (US). Most patients with chronic IBD are diagnosed at a young age. After baseline diagnosis many of these young patients have to undergo repetitive imaging procedures during the variable clinical course of the disease, characterized by alternate periods of remission and active disease, and in monitoring the response to treatment. US has the advantage of being noninvasive, less costly, and easily repeatable, and thus can be very useful in following up patients with IBD. In addition, rising concern about radiation exposure in young adults indicates the demand for radiation-sparing techniques like US and MRI. This article focuses on the current clinical practice of US in IBD, describing the current technologies used in transabdominal intestinal US and the characteristic sonographic findings in Crohn′s disease and ulcerative colitis.

  15. Ultrasound Review of Metastatic Lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Ghanshyam Kachewar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic Lymphadenopathy is a common occurrence now with the earlier detection possible due to advances in imaging sciences. Although, at times the site of original malignancy is known; there are instances when the primary source of malignancy remains unknown. Ultrasound has the potential to non invasively evaluate the affected lymph nodes. Hence we reviewed the ultrasound findings in all fine needle aspiration cytology proven cases of metastatic lymphadenopathy that presented in the imaging department in the last 12 months. Multiple criteria on Grey Scale ultrasound imaging and on Color Doppler ultrasound imaging were used to label metastatic lymphadenopathy. Round nodes without any matting, presence of intranodal necrosis, intranodal calcifications, increased vascularity and elevated Doppler Pulsatility and Resisitivity Indices were the hallmarks of metastatic lymphadenopathy which enabled correct diagnosis with a sensitivity of 85.25% and a sensitivity of 98.36 %. In our review, the most sensitive and specific criteria was the Roundness Index on Gray scale imaging and Resistance to Perfusion on Color Doppler imaging. This review shows how, ultrasound can satisfactorily diagnose metastatic lymphadenopathy and can therefore be used in the diagnosis as well as follow up of such cases. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 196-201

  16. Precision Rectification of Airborne SAR Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Liao, M.; Zhang, Zhe

    1997-01-01

    A simple and direct procedure for the rectification of a certain class of airborne SAR data is presented. The relief displacements of SAR data are effectively removed by means of a digital elevation model and the image is transformed to the ground coordinate system. SAR data from the Danish EMISAR...

  17. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2) Dete

  18. The National Airborne Field Experiment Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, J. P.; Balling, Jan E.; Bell, M.

    2007-01-01

    The National Airborne Field Experiment's (NAFE) were a series of intensive experiments recently conducted in different parts of Australia. These hydrologic-focused experiments have been designed to answer a range of questions which can only be resolved through carefully planned and executed field...

  19. Experimental airborne transmission of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Bøtner, Anette; Takai, H.

    2004-01-01

    A series of three experiments, differing primarily in airflow volume, were performed to evaluate the likelihood of airborne transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) from infected to non-infected pigs. Pigs were housed in two units (unit A and unit B) located 1 m...

  20. Mapping Waterhyacinth Infestations Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  1. Airborne gravity field Measurements - status and developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Forsberg, René

    2016-01-01

    English Abstract:DTU-Space has since 1996 carried out large area airborne surveys over both polar, tropical and temperate regions, especially for geoid determination and global geopotential models. Recently we have started flying two gravimeters (LCR and Chekan-AM or inertial navigation systems) ...

  2. Effect of modulated ultrasound parameters on ultrasound-induced thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, Azita; Volz, Kim R; Hansmann, Doulas R [Research and Development Department, EKOS Corporation, 11911 N Creek Parkway S, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States)], E-mail: asoltani@ekoscorp.com

    2008-12-07

    The potential of ultrasound to enhance enzyme-mediated thrombolysis by application of constant operating parameters (COP) has been widely demonstrated. In this study, the effect of ultrasound with modulated operating parameters (MOP) on enzyme-mediated thrombolysis was investigated. The MOP protocol was applied to an in vitro model of thrombolysis. The results were compared to a COP with the equivalent soft tissue thermal index (TIS) over the duration of ultrasound exposure of 30 min (p < 0.14). To explore potential differences in the mechanism responsible for ultrasound-induced thrombolysis, a perfusion model was used to measure changes in average fibrin pore size of clot before, after and during exposure to MOP and COP protocols and cavitational activity was monitored in real time for both protocols using a passive cavitation detection system. The relative lysis enhancement by each COP and MOP protocol compared to alteplase alone yielded values of 33.69 {+-} 12.09% and 63.89 {+-} 15.02% in a thrombolysis model, respectively (p < 0.007). Both COP and MOP protocols caused an equivalent significant increase in average clot pore size of 2.09 x 10{sup -2} {+-} 0.01 {mu}m and 1.99 x 10{sup -2} {+-} 0.004 {mu}m, respectively (p < 0.74). No signatures of inertial or stable cavitation were observed for either acoustic protocol. In conclusion, due to mechanisms other than cavitation, application of ultrasound with modulated operating parameters has the potential to significantly enhance the relative lysis enhancement compared to application of ultrasound with constant operating parameters.

  3. Controlling the levels of airborne pollen: can heterogeneous photocatalysis help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2013-10-15

    Airborne pollen is a worldwide problem because is a very important allergenic agent; it can be altered only by certain microorganisms and by some oxidizers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, heterogeneous photocatalysis (HPC) arose as a promising technology for reducing the level of contaminants in the air, based on their degradation by the production of ROS. In this paper, study of the feasibility of HPC to diminish the counts of pollen is undertaken. The research has been carried out at different levels, from solutions to mortar specimens with the evidence that HPC is able to reduce the amount of pollen grains. This is a major breakthrough that opens the door to a whole field of research, already full of gaps, whose implications could be quite controversial.

  4. Breast cancer screening with imaging: recommendations from the Society of Breast Imaging and the ACR on the use of mammography, breast MRI, breast ultrasound, and other technologies for the detection of clinically occult breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol H; Dershaw, D David; Kopans, Daniel; Evans, Phil; Monsees, Barbara; Monticciolo, Debra; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence; Berg, Wendie; Feig, Stephen; Hendrick, Edward; Mendelson, Ellen; D'Orsi, Carl; Sickles, Edward; Burhenne, Linda Warren

    2010-01-01

    Screening for breast cancer with mammography has been shown to decrease mortality from breast cancer, and mammography is the mainstay of screening for clinically occult disease. Mammography, however, has well-recognized limitations, and recently, other imaging including ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have been used as adjunctive screening tools, mainly for women who may be at increased risk for the development of breast cancer. The Society of Breast Imaging and the Breast Imaging Commission of the ACR are issuing these recommendations to provide guidance to patients and clinicians on the use of imaging to screen for breast cancer. Wherever possible, the recommendations are based on available evidence. Where evidence is lacking, the recommendations are based on consensus opinions of the fellows and executive committee of the Society of Breast Imaging and the members of the Breast Imaging Commission of the ACR.

  5. Sterile working in ultrasonography: the use of dedicated ultrasound covers and sterile ultrasound gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhofer, Peter; Fritsch, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently an important tool for diagnostic and interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging provides significant advantages as compared to other imaging methods. The widespread use of ultrasound also carries the risk of drawbacks such as cross-infections. A large body of literature reports this possibly life-threatening side effect and specific patient populations are particularly at risk (e.g., neonates). Various methods of ultrasound probe disinfection are described; however, none of the mechanical or chemical probe disinfection procedures is optimal and, in particular, disinfection with high concentration of alcohol might be associated with ultrasound probe damage. The preparation of ultrasound probes with dedicated probe covers is a useful alternative for sterile working conditions. One ultrasound probe cover discussed in this paper is directly glued on to the ultrasound probe without the use of ultrasound coupling gel. By the use of sterile ultrasound coupling gel at the outer surface, additional effects on aseptic working conditions can be obtained.

  6. Real-Time data processing for the airborne detection of hot spots

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ATELLITES and aircraft have traditionally been the primary source of remote sensing data. The increasing number of satellite constellations and the improvement of the quality of airborne sensors have produced a great deal of imagery and high-precision geographic data. At present, the miniaturization of electronics, computers, and sensors creates new opportunities for remote sensing applications. Small and/or unmanned aircraft are promising technologies, especially for tactical reacti...

  7. Design and Development of a Scanning Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2005 we began developing an airborne scanning direct detection molecular Doppler lidar. The instrument is being built as part of the Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE), a three year project selected by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office under the Instrument Incubator Program. The TWiLiTE project is a collaboration involving scientists and engineers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab, Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. The TWiLiTE instrument will leverage significant research and development investments made by NASA Goddard and it's partners in the past several years in key lidar technologies and sub-systems (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. These sub-systems will be integrated into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57. The WB57 flies at an altitude of 18 km and from this vantage point the nadir viewing Doppler lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a future spaceborne tropospheric wind system. In addition to being a technology testbed for space based tropospheric wind lidar, when completed the TWiLiTE high altitude airborne lidar will be used for studying mesoscale dynamics and storm research (e.g. winter storms, hurricanes) and could be used for calibration and validation of satellite based wind systems such as ESA's Aeolus Atmospheric Dynamics Mission. The TWiLiTE Doppler lidar will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 km to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and < 2mls

  8. ROLE OF ULTRASOUND IN THYROID DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Janani Parkkunam; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography has established itself has a useful tool in evaluating and managing thyroid disorders. This article provides an overview of basic principles of ultrasound, how it is used in different thyroid disorders, different sonographic pattern of thyroid disorders, comparative features of malignant and benign nodule, ultrasound features of diffuse thyroid disorders and congenital thyroid disorders, ultrasound guided FNAC, advanced techniques of ultrasound in thyroid imaging.

  9. Adaptive Beamforming for Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund

    This dissertation investigates the application of adaptive beamforming for medical ultrasound imaging. The investigations have been concentrated primarily on the Minimum Variance (MV) beamformer. A broadband implementation of theMV beamformer is described, and simulated data have been used...... to demonstrate the performance. The MV beamformer has been applied to different sets of ultrasound imaging sequences; synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging and plane wave ultrasound imaging. And an approach for applying MV optimized apodization weights on both the transmitting and the receiving apertures...

  10. [Economic contribution of gynecological and obstetrical ultrasound in an advanced strategy for the Zinguinchor region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, P; Tal Dia, A; Fall, C; Diédhiou, A; Aris, F Badji

    2003-03-01

    Aiming to strengthen the accessibility of ultrasound technology to rural populations, an advanced strategy ultrasound programme was implemented in the health districts of Sedhiou, Oussouye, Bignona and Ziguinchor all located within Casamance in Senegal. Within the first year of activity (January 1, 2001-December 31, 2001), the team from the regional health centre (RHC) was dispatched 56 times. Ultrasound scans were performed in the homes of 1,273 patients among which 192 were referred to the RHC for specialised follow-up and treatment. The financial benefit for the RHC totaled 3,120,000 francs; 2,612,500 francs for the district hospital; and 3,561,300 francs for the population at large. The advanced strategy for performing ultrasound scans has therefore been economically profitable at the community level as much as at the level of health structures. Through supporting the activities of the district hospitals, the RHC contributed technical support and increased the potential, not solely for the treatment of disease but for the health services overall. The revenue generated has given managers a greater possibility to improve health care and services. The decentralisation programme and reduction in the cost have decreased the unsatisfied needs in ultrasound services by making the technology more financially and geographically accessible. Thus, by saving input costs in terms of time, transportation and capital, the practice of ultrasound scans in district hospitals has been strengthened and has improved the capacity to provide care and treat the population's health problems. The continuation of this programme is advantageous, but necessitates two complementary actions: enhancing of the technical level and capacity of the district hospitals with the installation of ultrasound technology and equipment, and raising the level of knowledge by training staff in administering ultrasound scans.

  11. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... Field II simulations and measurements with the ultrasound research scanner SARUS and a 3.5MHz 1024 element 2-D transducer array. In all investigations, 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieved a smaller main-lobe, lower sidelobes, higher contrast, and better signal to noise ratio than parallel...

  12. Non-linear Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang

    without iteration steps. The ASA is implemented in combination with Field II and extended to simulate the pulsed ultrasound fields. The simulated results from a linear array transducer are made by the ASA based on Field II, and by a released non-linear simulation program- Abersim, respectively....... The calculation speed of the ASA is increased approximately by a factor of 140. For the second harmonic point spread function the error of the full width is 1.5% at -6 dB and 6.4% at -12 dB compared to Abersim. To further investigate the linear and non-linear ultrasound fields, hydrophone measurements.......3% relative to the measurement from a 1 inch diameter transducer. A preliminary study for harmonic imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has been demonstrated. A wire phantom underwater measurement is made by an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS...

  13. Ultrasound Imaging Velocimetry: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelma, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Whole-field velocity measurement techniques based on ultrasound imaging (a.k.a. `ultrasound imaging velocimetry' or `echo-PIV') have received significant attention from the fluid mechanics community in the last decade, in particular because of their ability to obtain velocity fields in flows that elude characterisation by conventional optical methods. In this review, an overview is given of the history, typical components and challenges of these techniques. The basic principles of ultrasound image formation are summarised, as well as various techniques to estimate flow velocities; the emphasis is on correlation-based techniques. Examples are given for a wide range of applications, including in vivo cardiovascular flow measurements, the characterisation of sediment transport and the characterisation of complex non-Newtonian fluids. To conclude, future opportunities are identified. These encompass not just optimisation of the accuracy and dynamic range, but also extension to other application areas.

  14. Ultrasound: from Earth to space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Macbeth, Paul B

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasonography is a versatile imaging modality that offers many advantages over radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On Earth, the use of ultrasound has become standard in many areas of medicine including diagnosis of medical and surgical diseases, management of obstetric and gynecologic conditions, assessment of critically ill patients, and procedural guidance. Advances in telecommunications have enabled remotely-guided ultrasonography for both geographically isolated populations and astronauts aboard the International Space Station. While ultrasound has traditionally been used in spaceflight to study anatomical and physiological adaptations to microgravity and evaluate countermeasures, recent years have seen a growth of applications adapted from terrestrial techniques. Terrestrial, remote, and space applications for ultrasound are reviewed in this paper.

  15. Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements at the Heel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugschies, M.; Brixen, K.; Hermann, P.;

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound can be used to predict osteoporotic fracture risk, but its ability to monitor therapy is unclear possibly because of its limited precision. We developed a quantitative ultrasound device (foot ultrasound scanner) that measures the speed of sound at the heel with t...

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Year Plan [Huang Yong; KEJI RIBAO, 25 Dec 90] ...... 7 Gene Transfer Using Ultrasound [Cheng Meimei, Hu Mucheng; KEJI RIBAO, 19 Dec 90...Beijing KEJI RIBAO [SCIENCE AND nese biotechnology development. TECHNOLOGY DAILY] in Chinese 25 Dec 90 p I Gene Transfer Using Ultrasound [Article by...transferring plant research. Among the key research results attained during genes using ultrasonic waves. The cavitation mechanism the Seventh 5-Year

  17. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2001-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  18. Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: animal experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Meaney, Paul M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Geimer, Shireen D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-03-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) uses focused ultrasound beams to ablate localized tumors noninvasively. Multiple clinical trials using HIFU treatment of liver, kidney, breast, pancreas and brain tumors have been conducted, while monitoring the temperature distribution with various imaging modalities such as MRI, CT and ultrasound. HIFU has achieved only minimal acceptance partially due to insufficient guidance from the limited temperature monitoring capability and availability. MR proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift thermometry is currently the most effective monitoring method; however, it is insensitive in temperature changes in fat, susceptible to motion artifacts, and is high cost. Exploiting the relationship between dielectric properties (i.e. permittivity and conductivity) and tissue temperature, in vivo dielectric property distributions of tissue during heating were reconstructed with our microwave tomographic imaging technology. Previous phantom studies have demonstrated sub-Celsius temperature accuracy and sub-centimeter spatial resolution in microwave thermal imaging. In this paper, initial animal experiments have been conducted to further investigate its potential. In vivo conductivity changes inside the piglet's liver due to focused ultrasound heating were observed in the microwave images with good correlation between conductivity changes and temperature.

  19. Characterization of drinking water treatment sludge after ultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasonic technology alone or the combination of ultrasound with alkaline or thermal hydrolysis as pretreatment for anaerobic digestion of activated sludge has been extensively documented. However, there are few reports on ultrasound as pretreatment of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS), and thereby the characteristic variability of sonicated DWTS has not been fully examined. This research presents a lab-scale study on physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a DWTS sample collected from a water plant after ultrasonic treatment via a bath/probe sonoreactor. By doing this work, we provide implications for using ultrasound as pretreatment of enhanced coagulation of recycling sludge, and for the conditioning of water and wastewater mixed sludge by ultrasound combined with polymers. Our results indicate that the most vigorous DWTS disintegration quantified by particles' size reduction and organic solubilization is achieved with 5 W/ml for 30 min ultra-sonication (specific energy of 1590 kWh/kg TS). The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) specific surface area of sonicated DWTS flocs increase as ultra-sonication prolongs at lower energy densities (0.03 and 1 W/ml), while decrease as ultra-sonication prolongs at higher energy densities (3 and 5 W/ml). Additionally, the pH and zeta potential of sonicated DWTS slightly varies under all conditions observed. A shorter sonication with higher energy density plays a more effective role in restraining microbial activity than longer sonication with lower energy density.

  20. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2004-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  1. Synthetic Aperture Beamforming in Ultrasound using Moving Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Henrik

    Medical ultrasound (US) is widely used because it allows cheap real-time imaging of soft tissue with no known side-effects or hazards to either patients or operating personnel. US has existed since the 1960s and was originally adapted from the concept of radar and sonar. The development in ultras......Medical ultrasound (US) is widely used because it allows cheap real-time imaging of soft tissue with no known side-effects or hazards to either patients or operating personnel. US has existed since the 1960s and was originally adapted from the concept of radar and sonar. The development...... in ultrasound has allowed the technology to evolve from a showing a simple echo along a line to fully visualize entire organs. The image changes significantly depending on the orientation of the transducer, making it more difficult to see exact features. This poses challenges since anatomy is three...... was missed and allows a more precise measurement of organ dimensions [2, 3, 4]. Conventional 3D ultrasound imaging is basically faced with two limitations. It is only able to have a single transmit focus point and each line in a 3D volume has to be created independently. This reduces image quality outside...

  2. New piezoelectric transducers for therapeutic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelon, J Y; Cathignol, D; Cain, C; Ebbini, E; Kluiwstra, J U; Sapozhnikov, O A; Fleury, G; Berriet, R; Chupin, L; Guey, J L

    2000-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound (US) has been of increasing interest during the past few years. However, the development of this technique depends on the availability of high-performance transducers. These transducers have to be optimised for focusing and steering high-power ultrasonic energy within the target volume. Recently developed high-power 1-3 piezocomposite materials bring to therapeutic US the exceptional electroacoustical properties of piezocomposite technology: these are high efficiency, large bandwidth, predictable beam pattern, more flexibility in terms of shaping and definition of sampling in annular arrays, linear arrays or matrix arrays. The construction and evaluation of several prototypes illustrates the benefit of this new approach that opens the way to further progress in therapeutic US.

  3. Mixed Frequency Ultrasound Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    香勇; 霍健; 施克仁; 陈以方

    2004-01-01

    A mixed frequency ultrasonic phased array (MPA) was developed to improve the focus, in which the element excitation frequencies are not all the same as in a normal constant frequency phased array. A theoretical model of the mixed frequency phased array based on the interference principle was used to simulate the array's sound distribution. The pressure intensity in the array focal area was enhanced and the scanning area having effective contrast resolution was enlarged. The system is especially useful for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with more powerful energy and ultrasound imaging diagnostics with improved signal to noise ratios, improved beam forming and more uniform imaging quality.

  4. Diagnostic Ophthalmic Ultrasound for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Cynthia J; Prager, Thomas C; Cheng, Han; Gombos, Dan; Tang, Rosa A; Schiffman, Jade S

    2015-08-01

    Ophthalmic ultrasound is an invaluable tool that provides quick and noninvasive evaluation of the eye and the orbit. It not only allows the clinicians to view structures that may not be visible with routine ophthalmic equipment or neuroimaging techniques but also provides unique diagnostic information in various ophthalmic conditions. In this article, the basic principles of ophthalmic ultrasound and examination techniques are discussed. Its clinical application is illustrated through a variety of ocular pathologic abnormalities (eg, narrow angles, ciliary body tumor, detached retina, choroidal melanoma, and papilledema).

  5. Virtual ultrasound sources in high-resolution ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    beamforming procedure for 3D ultrasound imaging. The position of the virtual source, and the created waveform are investigated with simulation, and with pulse-echo measurements. There is good agreement between the estimated wavefront and the theoretically tted one. Several examples of the use of virtual...

  6. Central corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth measurement by Sirius® Scheimpflug tomography and ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available J Jorge,1 JL Rosado,2 JA Díaz-Rey,1 JM González-Méijome11Clinical and Experimental Optometry Research Laboratory, Center of Physics (Optometry, School of Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, 2Opticlinic, Lisboa, PortugalBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new Sirius® Scheimpflug anterior segment examination device for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT and anterior chamber depth (ACD with that of CCT measurements obtained by ultrasound pachymetry and ACD measurements obtained by ultrasound biometry, respectively.Methods: CCT and ACD was measured in 50 right eyes from 50 healthy subjects using a Sirius Scheimpflug camera, SP100 ultrasound pachymetry, and US800 ultrasound biometry.Results: CCT measured with the Sirius was 546 ± 39 µm and 541 ± 35 µm with SP100 ultrasound pachymetry (P = 0.003. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference 4.68 ± 10.5 µm; limits of agreement −15.8 to 25.20 µm. ACD measured with the Sirius was 2.96 ± 0.3 mm compared with 3.36 ± 0.29 mm using US800 ultrasound biometry (P < 0.001. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference −0.40 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.72 to 0.07 mm. When the ACD values obtained using ultrasound biometry were corrected according to the values for CCT measured by ultrasound, the agreement increased significantly between both technologies for ACD measurements (mean difference 0.15 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.16 to 0.45 mm.Conclusion: CCT and ACD measured by Sirius and ultrasound methods showing good agreement between repeated measurements obtained in the same subjects (repeatability with either instrument. However, CCT and ACD values, even after correcting ultrasound ACD by subtracting the CCT value obtained with either technology should not be used interchangeably.Keywords: Scheimpflug corneal tomography, ultrasound biometry, ultrasound pachymetry, limits of agreement

  7. [Abdominal ultrasound course an introduction to the ultrasound technique. Physical basis. Ultrasound language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Grau, A; Sáez-Fernández, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Díaz-Rodríguez, N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive, accessible, and versatile diagnostic technique that uses high frequency ultrasound waves to define outline the organs of the human body, with no ionising radiation, in real time and with the capacity to visual several planes. The high diagnostic yield of the technique, together with its ease of uses plus the previously mentioned characteristics, has currently made it a routine method in daily medical practice. It is for this reason that the multidisciplinary character of this technique is being strengthened every day. To be able to perform the technique correctly requires knowledge of the physical basis of ultrasound, the method and the equipment, as well as of the human anatomy, in order to have the maximum information possible to avoid diagnostic errors due to poor interpretation or lack of information.

  8. WE-G-12A-01: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); O' Neill, B [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    More and more emphasis is being made on alternatives to invasive surgery and the use of ionizing radiation to treat various diseases including cancer. Novel screening, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of response to treatment are also hot areas of research and new clinical technologies. Ultrasound(US) has gained traction in all of the aforementioned areas of focus. Especially with recent advances in the use of ultrasound to noninvasively treat various diseases/organ systems. This session will focus on covering MR-guided focused ultrasound and the state of the art clinical applications, and the second speaker will survey the more cutting edge technologies e.g. Focused Ultrasound (FUS) mediated drug delivery, principles of cavitation and US guided FUS. Learning Objectives: Fundamental physics and physical limitations of US interaction with tissue and nanoparticles The alteration of tissue transport using focused ultrasound US control of nanoparticle drug carriers for targeted release The basic principles of MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery and therapy the current state of the art clinical applications of MRgFUS requirements for quality assurance and treatment planning.

  9. New development and application of ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction in gene therapy and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Qiu, Ri-Xiang; Jiang, Lan; Zhou, Xing-Xing; Yu, Jiang-Xiu

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasound is a common used technique for clinical imaging. In recent years, with the advances in preparation technology of microbubbles and the innovations in ultrasound imaging, ultrasound is no longer confined to detection of tissue perfusion, but extends to specific ultrasound molecular imaging and target therapy gradually. With the development of research, ultrasound molecular imaging and target therapy have made great progresses. Targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging are achieved by binding target molecules, specific antibody or ligand to the surface of microbubbles to obtain specific imaging by attaching to target tissues. Meanwhile, it can also achieve targeting gene therapy or drug delivery by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) mediating genes or drugs to specific target sites. UTMD has a number of advantages, such as target-specific, highly effective, non-invasivity, relatively low-cost and no radiation, and has broad application prospects, which is regarded as one hot spot in medical studies. We reviewed the new development and application of UTMD in gene therapy and drug delivery in this paper. With further development of technology and research, the gene or drug delivery system and related methods will be widely used in application and researches.

  10. Investigation and evaluation of ultrasound reactor for reduction of fungi from sewage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEHGHANI Mohammad Hadi; MAHVI Amir Hossein; JAHED Gholam Reza; SHEIKHI Razieh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to study the application of ultrasound reactor technology (USRT) as a disinfectant for reduction of fungi from sewage effluent. Fungi are carbon heterotrophs that require preformed organic compounds as carbon sources. USRT is an attractive means to improve water quality because of the system simplicity and no production of toxic by-products: An ultrasound reactor produces strong cavitation in aqueous solution causing shock waves and reactive free radicals by the violent collapse of the cavitation bubble. These effects should contribute to the physical disruption of microbial structures and inactivation of organisms. There was significant reduction in fungal growth, with decreased fungal growth with increasing USRT. In this study, ultrasound irradiation at a frequency of 42 kHz was used to expose suspensions of fungi to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of the ultrasound reactor. Also, this study showed that in this system more than 99% reduction of sewage fungi was achieved after 60 min.

  11. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound molecular imaging is a highly sensitive modality. • A clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent has entered first in human clinical trials. • Several new potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging are being explored. - Abstract: Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging.

  12. Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, William E.; Steele, Bradley; Nelson, Graham; Truscott, Antony; Itzler, Mark; Entwistle, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 15 years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and private industry have been developing airborne LiDAR systems based on arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors capable of detecting a single photon. The extreme sensitivity of GmAPD detectors allows operation of LiDAR sensors at unprecedented altitudes and area collection rates in excess of 1,000 km2/hr. Up until now the primary emphasis of this technology has been limited to defense applications despite the significant benefits of applying this technology to non-military uses such as mapping, monitoring critical infrastructure and disaster relief. This paper briefly describes the operation of GmAPDs, design and operation of a Geiger-mode LiDAR, a comparison of Geiger-mode and traditional linear mode LiDARs, and a description of the first commercial Geiger-mode LiDAR system, the IntelliEarth™ Geospatial Solutions Geiger-mode LiDAR sensor.

  13. Data Integration: Airborne Data Collections Provide Opportunity for Creative Data Management at ASF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, R. R.; Wolf, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) archives and distributes processed airborne data collections, including the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR), the Alaska High Altitude Photography (AHAP) Collection, the USGS Glacier Collection, and various other photo collections over Alaska. Each dataset presents different management challenges that are being solved using a variety of technological methods. The mechanism for collecting Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data differs greatly from the methods used to collect satellite-borne SAR data. As a result, metadata for airborne SAR are more complex and are have larger file size than other SAR datasets at ASF. Variations in data format require the need to manipulate the data products as they are ingested at ASF, creating zipped files to reduce the overall volume of individual products, to develop new data products, and tools to promote inter-operability. A goal of the facility is to offer all of the collections through web based interfaces, provide the opportunity for faster download speed, to download the data at several different resolutions, provide bulk download options, and allow for easy data discovery over the customer's selected area of interest. The UAVSAR and AirSAR data collections are digital and fully available online through the ASF data pool. The data are downloaded through a new web interface, designed to facilitate the discovery of online data resources. The aerial photo collections are dominantly hard copies of images, or in film format. Creating logical, systematic, minimum metadata standards for airborne data is a critical step for easy data discovery.

  14. Effect of Ultrasound on Desorption Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦炜; 原永辉; 戴猷元

    2001-01-01

    Effects of ultrasound on intensification of separation process were investigated through the experiment of desorption equilibrium behavior. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) on NKA-X resin and phenol on a solvent impregnated resin, CL-TBP resin, were used for desorption processes. The desorption rate was measured with and without ultrasound. Desorption equilibrium was studied under various ultrasonic power densities or thermal infusion. Results showed that the desorption rate with ultrasound was much higher than that with normal thermal infusion. Both ultrasound and thermal infusion broke the desorption equilibrium existed at room temperature. However, after the systems were cooled down, the amount of solute desorbed in the liquid phase in the presence of ultrasound was much higher than that at the temperature corresponding to the same ultrasound power. It is proved that the initial desorption equilibrium was broken as a result of the spot energy effect of ultrasound.

  15. Coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound correlation and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2014-09-01

    Both photoacoustics and ultrasound have been researched extensively but separately. In this letter, we report an initial study on the coherent correlation between pulsed photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave. By illuminating an object with a pulsed laser and external ultrasound sequentially, both the endogenous photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave are received and coherently correlated, demonstrating enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Image contrast of the proposed coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging is also demonstrated to be improved significantly on vessel-mimicking phantom, due to fusion of the optical absorption and ultrasound reflection contrasts by coherent correlation of either conventional laser-induced photoacoustic imaging or pulse-echo ultrasound imaging separately.

  16. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; ZHU Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that ultrasound at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and power of 480 W. Under the condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound power was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of power during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics.

  17. Nonparametric estimation of ultrasound pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Leeman, Sidney

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for nonparametric estimation of 1D ultrasound pulses in echo sequences from human tissues is derived. The technique is a variation of the homomorphic filtering technique using the real cepstrum, and the underlying basis of the method is explained. The algorithm exploits a priori...... liver from in vivo pulse-echo data. Estimates are given for 8 different patients...

  18. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Gynecologic Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is helpful in the assessment of many common gynecological conditions from early teens to the late postmenopause. Female pelvic anatomy and pathology are readily imaged through a distended urinary bladder. In gynecologic cancer, examination of peritoneal cavity, kidneys and liver can suggest metastatic spread, which aids tumor staging.

  19. Ultrasound particle sizing: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm J.W.Povey

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound spectrometry is one of very few methods that can size particles over the range 10 nm to 1 mm for optically opaque,undiluted materials.It has in-line,non-invasive capabilities which make it a serious contender for use in industrial process monitoring,with the potential for 100% inspection.In aqueous systems,it is more sensitive to nanoparticles than to particles in the micrometre range upwards because the scattering power varies as the inverse square of particle diameter,making it suitable for the detection of nanoparticles in concentrated,mixed systems.Future development of ultrasound spectrometers suitable for widespread laboratory and industrial use depends on meeting the challenges of complex data interpretation and the need for considerable know how.In this review we provide a brief account of ultrasound propagation and scattering theory which underlies the ultrasound spectrometer,describe several types of spectrometer and demonstrate its successful use in the characterization of colloidal silica,whole milk and protein solutions.

  20. Ultrasound Imaging and its modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Modern medical ultrasound scanners are used for imaging nearly all soft tissue structures in the body. The anatomy can be studied from gray-scale B-mode images, where the reflectivity and scattering strength of the tissues are displayed. The imaging is performed in real time with 20 to 100 images...

  1. Ultrasound fields from triangular apertures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed field from a triangular aperture mounted in an infinite, rigidbaffle is calculated. The approach of spatial impulse responses,as developed by Tupholme and Stepanishen, is used. By this both the emitted and received pulsed ultrasound field can be found for any transducerexcitation...

  2. Ultrasound Harmonic Classification of Microemboli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Palanchon

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe ultrasound community has experienced dramatic technical advances over the last decades, such as blood °ow measurements with elabo rate Doppler techniques or real time three-dimensional imaging with 2-D phased array transducers. This was partly ascribed to the advantages of ultraso

  3. Ultrasound tomography of breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, Earle; Babkin, Alex; Duncan, Robert; Kalinin, Arkady; Pevzner, Roman; Tokarev, Michael

    2003-05-01

    The Karmanos Cancer Institute is developing an ultrasound device for measuring and imaging acoustic parameters of human tissue. This paper discusses the experimental results relating to tomographic reconstructions of phantoms and tissue. The specimens were scanned by the prototype scanner at a frequency of 1.5 MHz using 2 microsecond pulses. The receivers and transmitters were positioned along a ring trajectory having a diameter of 20 cm. The ring plane is translated in the vertical direction allowing for 3-D reconstructions from stacked 2-D planes of data. All ultrasound scans were performed at 10 millimeter slice thickness to generate multiple tomographic images. In a previous SPIE paper we presented preliminary results of ultrasound tomographic reconstruction of formalin-fixed breast tissue. We now present new results from data acquired with the scanner. Images were constructed using both reflection-based and transmission based algorithms. The resulting images demonstrate the ability to detect sub-mm features and to measure acoustic properties such as sound speed. Comparison with conventional ultrasound indicates the potential for better margin definition and acoustic characterization of tissue.

  4. Error Comparison and Analysis of the Two-pass and Three-pass Approaches in Airborne D-InSAR

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yan-lei; Liang Xing-dong; Ding Chi-biao

    2013-01-01

    Airborne differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (D-InSAR) is a kind of potential technology to survey the surface deformation. In this paper, the errors of two usually used modes of this technology, namely, two-pass and three-pass approaches, are compared and analyzed. In the analysis, all the errors are decomposed and sorted according to the principle of independence, and the coupling between motion error and other errors is considered. Based on the analysis, analytical express...

  5. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  6. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) systems have already demonstrated that elevation maps can be generated rapidly with single pass airborne across-track interferometry systems (XTT), and satellite repeat track interferometry (RTT) techniques have been used to map both elevation...... and perturbations of the surface of the Earth. The Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) has experimented with airborne INSAR since 1993. Multiple track data are collected in a special mode in which the radar directly steers the aircraft which allows for very precise control of the flight path. Such data sets...... have been acquired at both L- and C-band. During 1994/95 the system was further modified to add the capability to perform single pass interferometric data acquisitions at C-band. This paper will discuss: (1) the general principles of INSAR systems and their application to topographic mapping and (2...

  7. Infrared signature generation of airborne targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Michael R.

    1993-08-01

    This report proposes a generic methodology for generating infrared signatures of airborne targets. The various issues, assumptions and simplifications utilized in signature studies are outlines to insure baseline consistency among future models and evaluation tools. More specifically, the target is characterized on a component level, and the at-aperture signature is generated by the correct inclusion of atmospheric transmission. While the technique and general concepts may apply to all airborne targets, this study places emphasis on cruise missiles and related targets due to their low contrast. For these targets, the background signature becomes more important as both the emitted target radiance and the reflected background radiance contribute to the overall signature. Example target signatures generated using the proposed methodology will be presented following the discussion of signature modeling.

  8. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  9. Comprehensive characterization of indoor airborne bacterial profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.L.Chan; P.H.F.Yu; Y.W.Cheng; C.Y.Chan; P.K.Wong

    2009-01-01

    This is the first detailed characterization of the air-borne bacterial profiles in indoor environments and two restaurants were selected for this study.Fifteen genera of bacteria were isolated from each restaurant and identified by three different bacterial identification systems including MIDI, Biolog and Riboprinter?.The dominant bacteria of both restaurants were Gram-positive bacteria in which Micrococcus and Bacillus species were the most abundant species.Most bacteria identified were representative species of skin and respiratory tract of human, and soil.Although the bacterial levels in these restaurants were below the limit of the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objective (HKIAQO) Level 1 standard (i.e., < 500 cfu/m3), the majority of these bacteria were opportunistic pathogens.These results suggested that the identity of airborne bacteria should also be included in the IAQ to ensure there is a safety guideline for the public.

  10. Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

  11. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  12. Nonlinear acoustics in biomedical ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Robin O.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound is widely used to image inside the body; it is also used therapeutically to treat certain medical conditions. In both imaging and therapy applications the amplitudes employed in biomedical ultrasound are often high enough that nonlinear acoustic effects are present in the propagation: the effects have the potential to be advantageous in some scenarios but a hindrance in others. In the case of ultrasound imaging the nonlinearity produces higher harmonics that result in images of greater quality. However, nonlinear effects interfere with the imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (typically micron sized bubbles with a strong nonlinear response of their own) and nonlinear effects also result in complications when derating of pressure measurements in water to in situ values in tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a non-invasive therapeutic modality which can result in thermal ablation of tissue. For thermal ablation, the extra effective attenuation resulting from nonlinear effects can result in enhanced heating of tissue if shock formation occurs in the target region for ablation - a highly desirable effect. However, if nonlinearity is too strong it can also result in undesired near-field heating and reduced ablation in the target region. The disruption of tissue (histotripsy) and fragmentation of kidney stones (lithotripsy) exploits shock waves to produce mechanically based effects, with minimal heating present. In these scenarios it is necessary for the waves to be of sufficient amplitude that a shock exists when the waveform reaches the target region. This talk will discuss how underlying nonlinear phenomenon act in all the diagnostic and therapeutic applications described above.

  13. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, M; Stilianakis, N. I.; Drossinos, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as ...

  14. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  15. Calibration/Validation Technology for the CO2 Satellite Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to develop high altitude CO2 analyzer technology that can be deployed on the research aircraft of NASA's Airborne Science Program (ASP). The...

  16. Cryospheric Applications of Modern Airborne Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. Lower-cost equipment, more powerful software, and simplified methods have lowered the barriers-to-entry significantly and now allow repeat-mapping of cryospheric dynamics that were previously too expensive to consider. The current state-of-the-art is the ability to use an airborne equipment package costing less than $20,000 to make topographic maps on landscape-scales at 10 cm pixel size with a vertical repeatability of about 10 cm. Nearly any surface change on the order of decimeters can be measured using these techniques through analysis of time-series of such maps. This presentation will discuss these new methods and their application to cryospheric dynamics such as the measurement of snow depth, coastal erosion, valley-glacier volume-change, permafrost thaw, frost heave of infrastructure, river bed geomorphology, and aufeis melt. Because of the expense of other airborne methods, by necessity measurements of these dynamics are currently most often made on the ground along benchmark transects that are then extrapolated to the broader scale. The ability to directly measure entire landscapes with equal or higher accuracy than transects eliminates the need to extrapolate them and the ability to do so at lower costs than transects may revolutionize the way we approach studying change in the cryosphere, as well as our understanding of the cryosphere itself.

  17. Ultrasound treatment of neurological diseases--current and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenga, Gerhard; Langton, Christian; Nisbet, Rebecca; Götz, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Like cardiovascular disease and cancer, neurological disorders present an increasing challenge for an ageing population. Whereas nonpharmacological procedures are routine for eliminating cancer tissue or opening a blocked artery, the focus in neurological disease remains on pharmacological interventions. Setbacks in clinical trials and the obstacle of access to the brain for drug delivery and surgery have highlighted the potential for therapeutic use of ultrasound in neurological diseases, and the technology has proved useful for inducing focused lesions, clearing protein aggregates, facilitating drug uptake, and modulating neuronal function. In this Review, we discuss milestones in the development of therapeutic ultrasound, from the first steps in the 1950s to recent improvements in technology. We provide an overview of the principles of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound, for surgery and transient opening of the blood-brain barrier, and its application in clinical trials of stroke, Parkinson disease and chronic pain. We discuss the promising outcomes of safety and feasibility studies in preclinical models, including rodents, pigs and macaques, and efficacy studies in models of Alzheimer disease. We also consider the challenges faced on the road to clinical translation.

  18. Dual-Frequency Piezoelectric Transducers for Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Heath Martin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For many years, ultrasound has provided clinicians with an affordable and effective imaging tool for applications ranging from cardiology to obstetrics. Development of microbubble contrast agents over the past several decades has enabled ultrasound to distinguish between blood flow and surrounding tissue. Current clinical practices using microbubble contrast agents rely heavily on user training to evaluate degree of localized perfusion. Advances in separating the signals produced from contrast agents versus surrounding tissue backscatter provide unique opportunities for specialized sensors designed to image microbubbles with higher signal to noise and resolution than previously possible. In this review article, we describe the background principles and recent developments of ultrasound transducer technology for receiving signals produced by contrast agents while rejecting signals arising from soft tissue. This approach relies on transmitting at a low-frequency and receiving microbubble harmonic signals at frequencies many times higher than the transmitted frequency. Design and fabrication of dual-frequency transducers and the extension of recent developments in transducer technology for dual-frequency harmonic imaging are discussed.

  19. Bubble-Assisted Ultrasound: Application in Immunotherapy and Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Deckers, Roel; Bos, Clemens; Moonen, Chrit

    2016-01-01

    Bubble-assisted ultrasound is a versatile technology with great potential in immunotherapy and vaccination. This technology involves the exposure of immune cells (i.e., dendritic cells, lymphocytes) in-vitro or diseased tissues (i.e., brain, tumor) in-vivo to ultrasound treatment with gas bubbles. Bubble destruction leads to physical forces that induce the direct delivery of weakly permeant immuno-stimulatory molecules either into the cytoplasm of immune cells, or through the endothelial barrier of diseased tissues. Hence, therapeutic antibodies (i.e., antibody-based immunotherapy) and cytokine-encoding nucleic acids (i.e., cytokine gene therapy) can be successfully delivered into diseased tissues, thus improving immune responses. In addition, protein antigens, as well as antigen-encoding nucleic acids (pDNA, mRNA), can be delivered into dendritic cells (i.e., dendritic cell-based vaccines), thus leading to a long-lasting prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. This chapter focuses on the state-of-the-art of bubble-assisted ultrasound in the field of immunotherapy and vaccination.

  20. Simulation of the Performances of WIND, an Airborne CO2 Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D.; Dabas, A.; Lieutaud, F.; Loth, C.; Flamant, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    An airborne Doppler coherent lidar is under development as a joint project between France and Germany. The instrument is designed around CO2 laser technology, heterodyne detection, and a conical scanning of the line-of-site. The 10 micron domain is suitable for long range measurements due to the maturity of the technology and because it corresponds to an atmospheric window. The objectives of WIND are twofold: (1) to conduct mesoscale scientific studies in particular over oceanic and inhomogeneous terrain areas; and (2) to support the Earth-orbiting wind lidar projects.

  1. Geological Mapping of Sabah, Malaysia, Using Airborne Gravity Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauzi Nordin, Ahmad; Jamil, Hassan; Noor Isa, Mohd;

    2016-01-01

    using airborne gravity surveys. Airborne gravity data over land areas of Sabah has been combined with the marine airborne gravity data to provide a seamless land-to-sea gravity field coverage in order to produce the geological mapping. Free-air and Bouguer anomaly maps (density 2.67 g/cm3) have been......Airborne gravimetry is an effective tool for mapping local gravity fields using a combination of airborne sensors, aircraft and positioning systems. It is suitable for gravity surveys over difficult terrains and areas mixed with land and ocean. This paper describes the geological mapping of Sabah...... gravity data were 5-6 km. The airborne gravity survey database for landand marine areas has been compiled using ArcGIS geodatabase format in order to produce the update geological map of Sabah....

  2. a Matlab Geodetic Software for Processing Airborne LIDAR Bathymetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, M.; Prezioso, G.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to build three-dimensional models through technologies based on satellite navigation systems GNSS and the continuous development of new sensors, as Airborne Laser Scanning Hydrography (ALH), data acquisition methods and 3D multi-resolution representations, have contributed significantly to the digital 3D documentation, mapping, preservation and representation of landscapes and heritage as well as to the growth of research in this fields. However, GNSS systems led to the use of the ellipsoidal height; to transform this height in orthometric is necessary to know a geoid undulation model. The latest and most accurate global geoid undulation model, available worldwide, is EGM2008 which has been publicly released by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) EGM Development Team. Therefore, given the availability and accuracy of this geoid model, we can use it in geomatics applications that require the conversion of heights. Using this model, to correct the elevation of a point does not coincide with any node must interpolate elevation information of adjacent nodes. The purpose of this paper is produce a Matlab® geodetic software for processing airborne LIDAR bathymetry data. In particular we want to focus on the point clouds in ASPRS LAS format and convert the ellipsoidal height in orthometric. The algorithm, valid on the whole globe and operative for all UTM zones, allows the conversion of ellipsoidal heights using the EGM2008 model. Of this model we analyse the slopes which occur, in some critical areas, between the nodes of the undulations grid; we will focus our attention on the marine areas verifying the impact that the slopes have in the calculation of the orthometric height and, consequently, in the accuracy of the in the 3-D point clouds. This experiment will be carried out by analysing a LAS APRS file containing topographic and bathymetric data collected with LIDAR systems along the coasts of Oregon and Washington (USA).

  3. A MATLAB GEODETIC SOFTWARE FOR PROCESSING AIRBORNE LIDAR BATHYMETRY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pepe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to build three-dimensional models through technologies based on satellite navigation systems GNSS and the continuous development of new sensors, as Airborne Laser Scanning Hydrography (ALH, data acquisition methods and 3D multi-resolution representations, have contributed significantly to the digital 3D documentation, mapping, preservation and representation of landscapes and heritage as well as to the growth of research in this fields. However, GNSS systems led to the use of the ellipsoidal height; to transform this height in orthometric is necessary to know a geoid undulation model. The latest and most accurate global geoid undulation model, available worldwide, is EGM2008 which has been publicly released by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA EGM Development Team. Therefore, given the availability and accuracy of this geoid model, we can use it in geomatics applications that require the conversion of heights. Using this model, to correct the elevation of a point does not coincide with any node must interpolate elevation information of adjacent nodes. The purpose of this paper is produce a Matlab® geodetic software for processing airborne LIDAR bathymetry data. In particular we want to focus on the point clouds in ASPRS LAS format and convert the ellipsoidal height in orthometric. The algorithm, valid on the whole globe and operative for all UTM zones, allows the conversion of ellipsoidal heights using the EGM2008 model. Of this model we analyse the slopes which occur, in some critical areas, between the nodes of the undulations grid; we will focus our attention on the marine areas verifying the impact that the slopes have in the calculation of the orthometric height and, consequently, in the accuracy of the in the 3-D point clouds. This experiment will be carried out by analysing a LAS APRS file containing topographic and bathymetric data collected with LIDAR systems along the coasts of Oregon and Washington

  4. Ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography using energy-scaled amplitude ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound attenuation of breast tumors is related to their types and pathological states, and can be used to detect and characterize breast cancer. Particularly, ultrasound scattering attenuation can infer the margin properties of breast tumors. Ultrasound attenuation tomography quantitatively reconstructs the attenuation properties of the breast. Our synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays records both ultrasound reflection and transmission signals. We develop an ultrasound attenuation tomography method using ultrasound energy-scaled amplitude decays of ultrasound transmission signals and conduct ultrasound attenuation tomography using a known sound-speed model. We apply our ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography method to a breast phantom dataset, and compare the ultrasound attenuation tomography results with conventional beamforming ultrasound images obtained using reflection signals. We show that ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography complements beamforming images in identifying breast lesions.

  5. Measuring airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

      Airborne transmission has been suspected to be responsible for epidemics of highly infectious disease in livestock production. In such transmission, the pathogenic microorganisms may associate with dust particles. However, the extent to which airborne transmission plays a role in the spread of diseases between farms, and the relationship between microorganisms and dust remain unclear. In order to better understand airborne transmission and to set up effective control techniques, this s...

  6. The use of ink jets in ultrasound registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, T; Nilsson, J; Almquist, L O; Holmer, N G

    1991-01-01

    The continuous ink jet method developed by Professor Hellmuth Hertz, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden, is today used in printers that print digitally stored high-quality images rapidly and at low cost. The development started in the late 1950s when there was a need for a direct registration method for ultrasound echocardiograms. The development steps are described from the early ultrasound registrations to the true halftone printing of digital images today. Images from ultrasonic color Doppler examinations have been printed by an ink jet printer at our laboratory. The color capabilities of the printer are further illustrated by the printing of pseudo-colored gray-scale images and an image where color is used to highlight differences between two gray-scale images. The results show that the printer based on continuous ink jets is an interesting alternative to the existing hard-copy devices for medical images.

  7. Effect of Enhancement Technique on Nonuniform and Uniform Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Lehana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of adequate scientific resources in the area of medical sciences sometimes leads to improper diagnosis of diseases and hence the treatments of such diseases are affected badly. However, with the advancement of technology, the complicacy of various malfunctions inside the human body reduces. Ultrasound imaging is one of the biomedical scanning techniques that let the pathologist make comment reasonably and accurately on the disease or irregularity seen in the scan while low imaging quality lets the diagnosis go wrong. Even a little distortion can route the pathologist away from the main cause of the disease. In this research work, the enhancement of dark ultrasound images has been done. An algorithm is developed using enhancement technique for nonuniform and uniform dark images. Finally, we compared the quality of the processed and unprocessed images. Both ETNUD and mean and median filtering techniques were used for image analysis.

  8. Downsizing of Georgia Tech's Airborne Fluorescence Spectrometer (AFS) for the Measurement of Nitrogen Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholm, Scott

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses the Tropospheric Trace Gas and Airborne Measurements (TTGAMG) endeavors to further downsize and stabilize the Georgia Institute of Technology's Airborne Laser Induced Fluorescence Experiment (GITALIFE). It will mainly address the TTGAMG successes and failures as participants in the summer 1998 Wallops Island test flights on board the P3-B. Due to the restructuring and reorganization of the TTGAMG since the original funding of this grant, some of the objectives and time lines of the deliverables have been changed. Most of these changes have been covered in the preceding annual report. We are anticipating getting back on track with the original proposal's downsizing effort this summer, culminating in the GITALIFE no longer occupying a high bay rack and the loss of several hundred pounds.

  9. Navigation Facility for High Accuracy Offline Trajectory and Attitude Estimation in Airborne Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Renga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a navigation facility, relying on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS technology, developed to generate high-accuracy attitude and trajectory measurements in postprocessing. Target performance is cm-level positioning with tenth of degree attitude accuracy. The facility is based on the concept of GPS-aided inertial navigation but comprises carrier-phase differential GPS (CDGPS processing and attitude estimation based on multiantenna GPS configurations. Expected applications of the system include: (a performance assessment of integrated navigation systems, developed for general aviation aircraft and medium size unmanned aircraft systems (UAS; (b generation of reference measurements to evaluate the flight performance of airborne sensors (e.g., radar or laser; and (c generation of reference trajectory and attitude for improving imaging quality of airborne remote sensing data. The paper describes system architecture, selected algorithms for data processing and integration, and theoretical performance evaluation. Experimental results are also presented confirming the effectiveness of the implemented approach.

  10. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Allison

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites. Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context.

  11. Design on the Time-domain Airborne Electromagnetic Weak Signal Data Acquisition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to principle of transient electromagnetic method as well as its signal characteristics, this paper designed and implemented a time-domain airborne electromagnetic weak signal data acquisition system. With the use of the floating-point amplification technology, the system amplifies the weak transient electromagnetic signal dynamically. CPLD and DSP were used as the decoding control circuit and the main controller for processing the sampled data, respectively. The transient electromagnetic signal acquisition system, which was designed with a dynamic range up to 144dB and a sampling rate up to 100 kHz, meets the requirements of the high sampling rate with high precision and it has been applied in the time-domain fixed-wing airborne electromagnetic mineral exploration.

  12. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Robert S.; Johnston, Joshua M.; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  13. Superharmonic microbubble Doppler effect in ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliopoulos, Antonios N.; Choi, James J.

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of microbubbles in focused ultrasound therapies has enabled a diverse range of non-invasive technologies: sonoporation to deliver drugs into cells, sonothrombolysis to dissolve blood clots, and blood-brain barrier opening to deliver drugs into the brain. Current methods for passively monitoring the microbubble dynamics responsible for these therapeutic effects can identify the cavitation position by passive acoustic mapping and cavitation mode by spectral analysis. Here, we introduce a new feature that can be monitored: microbubble effective velocity. Previous studies have shown that echoes from short imaging pulses had a Doppler shift that was produced by the movement of microbubbles. Therapeutic pulses are longer (>1 000 cycles) and thus produce a larger alteration of microbubble distribution due to primary and secondary acoustic radiation force effects which cannot be monitored using pulse-echo techniques. In our experiments, we captured and analyzed the Doppler shift during long therapeutic pulses using a passive cavitation detector. A population of microbubbles (5  ×  104-5  ×  107 microbubbles ml-1) was embedded in a vessel (inner diameter: 4 mm) and sonicated using a 0.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (peak-rarefactional pressure: 75-366 kPa, pulse length: 50 000 cycles or 100 ms) within a water tank. Microbubble acoustic emissions were captured with a coaxially aligned 7.5 MHz passive cavitation detector and spectrally analyzed to measure the Doppler shift for multiple harmonics above the 10th harmonic (i.e. superharmonics). A Doppler shift was observed on the order of tens of kHz with respect to the primary superharmonic peak and is due to the axial movement of the microbubbles. The position, amplitude and width of the Doppler peaks depended on the acoustic pressure and the microbubble concentration. Higher pressures increased the effective velocity of the microbubbles up to 3 m s-1, prior to the onset of

  14. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balius, Ramon [Sport Catalan Council, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Rodas, Gil [F.C. Barcelona Medical Services, Barcelona (Spain); Pedret, Carles [Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Sports Medicine and Imaging Department, Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Capdevila, Lluis [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Laboratory of Sport Psychology, Barcelona (Spain); Alomar, Xavier [Clinica Creu Blanca, Barcelona (Spain); Bong, David A. [Instituto Poal de Reumatologia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  15. High-Performance Airborne Optical Carbon Dioxide Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental species measurement on airborne atmospheric research craft is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer...

  16. High-Performance Airborne Optical Carbon Dioxide Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental species measurement on airborne atmospheric research craft is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer many...

  17. A novel educational tool for teaching ocular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ms; Montgomery, J; Atta, Hr

    2011-01-01

    Ocular ultrasound is now in increasing demand in routine ophthalmic clinical practice not only because it is noninvasive but also because of ever-advancing technology providing higher resolution imaging. It is however a difficult branch of ophthalmic investigations to grasp, as it requires a high skill level to interface with the technology and provide accurate interpretation of images for ophthalmic diagnosis and management. It is even more labor intensive to teach ocular ultrasound to another fellow clinician. One of the fundamental skills that proved difficult to learn and teach is the need for the examiner to "mentally convert" 2-dimensional B-scan images into 3-dimensional (3D) interpretations. An additional challenge is the requirement to carry out this task in real time. We have developed a novel approach to teach ocular ultrasound by using a novel 3D ocular model. A 3D virtual model is built using widely available, open source, software. The model is then used to generate movie clips simulating different movements and orientations of the scanner head. Using Blender, Quicktime motion clips are choreographed and collated into interactive quizzes and other pertinent pedagogical media. The process involves scripting motion vectors, rotation, and tracking of both the virtual stereo camera and the model. The resulting sequence is then rendered for twinned right- and left-eye views. Finally, the twinned views are synchronized and combined in a format compatible with the stereo projection apparatus. This new model will help the student with spatial awareness and allow for assimilation of this awareness into clinical practice. It will also help with grasping the nomenclature used in ocular ultrasound as well as helping with localization of lesions and obtaining the best possible images for echographic diagnosis, accurate measurements, and reporting.

  18. Effects of ultrasound and ultrasound contrast agent on vascular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Steven C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound (US imaging can be enhanced using gas-filled microbubble contrast agents. Strong echo signals are induced at the tissue-gas interface following microbubble collapse. Applications include assessment of ventricular function and virtual histology. Aim While ultrasound and US contrast agents are widely used, their impact on the physiological response of vascular tissue to vasoactive agents has not been investigated in detail. Methods and results In the present study, rat dorsal aortas were treated with US via a clinical imaging transducer in the presence or absence of the US contrast agent, Optison. Aortas treated with both US and Optison were unable to contract in response to phenylephrine or to relax in the presence of acetylcholine. Histology of the arteries was unremarkable. When the treated aortas were stained for endothelial markers, a distinct loss of endothelium was observed. Importantly, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL staining of treated aortas demonstrated incipient apoptosis in the endothelium. Conclusions Taken together, these ex vivo results suggest that the combination of US and Optison may alter arterial integrity and promote vascular injury; however, the in vivo interaction of Optison and ultrasound remains an open question.

  19. Handheld probe integrating laser diode and ultrasound transducer array for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual modality imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daoudi, K.; Berg, van den P.J.; Rabot, O.; Kohl, A.; Tisserand, S.; Brands, P.J.; Steenbergen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound and photoacoustics can be utilized as complementary imaging techniques to improve clinical diagnoses. Photoacoustics provides optical contrast and functional information while ultrasound provides structural and anatomical information. As of yet, photoacoustic imaging uses large and expens

  20. Progress Report on the ASCII for Science Data, Airborne and Geospatial Working Groups of the 2014 ESDSWG for MEaSUREs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K. D.; Krotkov, N. A.; Mattmann, C. A.; Boustani, M.; Law, E.; Conover, H.; Chen, G.; Olding, S. W.; Walter, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth Science Data Systems Working Groups (ESDSWG) were setup by NASA HQ 10 years ago. The role of the ESDSWG is to make recommendations relevant to NASA's Earth science data systems from users experiences. Each group works independently focussing on a unique topic. Participation in ESDSWG groups comes from a variety of NASA-funded science and technology projects, NASA information technology experts, affiliated contractor staff and other interested community members from academia and industry. Recommendations from the ESDSWG groups will enhance NASA's efforts to develop long term data products. The ASCII for Science Data Working Group (WG) will define a minimum set of information that should be included in ASCII file headers so that the users will be able to access the data using only the header information. After reviewing various use cases, such as field data and ASCII data exported from software tools, and reviewing ASCII data guidelines documentation, this WG will deliver guidelines for creating ASCII files that contain enough header information to allow the user to access the science data. The Airborne WG's goal is to improve airborne data access and use for NASA science. The first step is to evaluate the state of airborne data and make recommendations focusing on data delivery to the DAACs (data centers). The long term goal is to improve airborne data use for Earth Science research. Many data aircraft observations are reported in ASCII format. The ASCII and Airborne WGs seem like the same group, but the Airborne WG is concerned with maintaining and using airborne for science research, not just the data format. The Geospatial WG focus is on the interoperability issues of Geospatial Information System (GIS) and remotely sensed data, in particular, focusing on DAAC(s) data from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. This WG will provide a set of tools (GIS libraries) to use with training and/or cookbooks through the use of Open Source technologies. A progress