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Sample records for airborne trace element

  1. Trace elements in airborne particulates in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate materials were monitored continously with calendar month sampling periods at 5 rural/background, 4 rural/developing/peri-urban, 6 urban and 7 industrial sites in South Africa. Concentrations of Al, Br, Ca, Cs, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, V and Zn were determined with neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) employed on a complementary basis. A review of sources of airborne trace elements is given. The monitoring program, sampling, sample-handling procedures, as well as the analytical methods used, are discussed in detail. The results of related studies, i.e. effects of filter materials; sampling rates and geometry; determinations of collection efficiencies; particle size ranges; effects of internal flux monitors on the precision and accuracy of NAA; trace impurities in blank materials; quality control by routine analysis of reference materials; comparison of results obtained by NAA, AAS, and PIXE analysis; are given, as is a review of air-pollution control and research policy in South Africa and of ambient air quality standards. Results are discussed in terms of general patterns in trace-element concentrations and enrichments, the general pattern in population centres, the variability of monthly concentrations, and in terms of long-term trends at background, rural, developing, peri-urban, urban and industrial sites. Cases of concern in respect of increasing concentrations are pointed out, as are the constantly high Pb levels at urban sites

  2. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several trace elements are being introduced into the atmosphere from various sources. Since many of the trace elements are highly toxic, the concentrations of them should be measured and controlled continuously for public health. Concentrations of trace elements have been determined in air samples collected from seven different districts of Ankara by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.)

  3. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele;

    2009-01-01

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for...... consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions...... influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some...

  4. Measuring the trace elemental composition of size-resolved airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herner, Jorn D; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2006-03-15

    A new method to measure the trace elemental composition of size-resolved airborne particles that uses acetone extraction followed by ICPMS analysis is compared to three other established methods: copper anode XRF, molybdenum anode XRF, and an ICPMS method that uses HF digestion. The method detection limit (MDL), accuracy, and precision of each method is studied through the analysis of ambient samples collected in California. The MDLs of the new acetone-ICPMS method are similar to MDLs for the established HF-ICPMS method. Both sets of ICPMS MDLs are 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than XRF MDLs for approximately 50 elements other than the light crustal elements such as silicon, sulfur, calcium, and zinc. The accuracy of the acetone-ICPMS method was verified by comparison to measurements made using ion chromatography and the HF-ICPMS method. The acetone-ICPMS analysis method was more precise than the conventional HF-ICPMS method for collocated measurements. Both ICPMS methods were more precise than XRF for most elements. The size distribution of 21 elements contained in ambient particles collected with cascade impactors could be measured with good precision using the new acetone-ICPMS analysis method: lithium, sulfur, potassium, titanium, vanadium, manganese, iron, gallium, germanium, arsenic, selenium, bromine, rubidium, strontium, cadmium, tin, antimony, barium, thallium, lead, and bismuth. It is likely that the size distribution of an additional 9 elements could also be measured when concentrations are sufficiently high: phosphorus, molybdenum, niobium, palladium, cesium, europium, holmium, platinum, and uranium. None of the conventional methods were able to measure the size distribution of these elements with acceptable precision under the conditions studied. The new acetone-ICPMS method should provide useful data for the study of the health effects of airborne particles. PMID:16570617

  5. Bags with oven-dried moss for the active monitoring of airborne trace elements in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, S., E-mail: simonetta.giordano@unina.i [Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Adamo, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell' Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali (DISSPAPA), Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, I-80055 Portici (Namibia) (Italy); Monaci, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Pittao, E.; Tretiach, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri, 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bargagli, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    To define a harmonized methodology for the use of moss and lichen bags as active monitoring devices of airborne trace elements in urban areas, we evaluated the element accumulation in bags exposed in Naples in different spring weather conditions for 6- and 12-weeks. Three different pre-exposure treatments were applied to moss and lichen materials: water-washing, acid-washing and oven-drying. During the different exposure periods in the Naples urban environment the moss accumulated always higher amounts of elements (except Hg) than lichens and the element accumulation increased during wetter weather and higher PM{sub 10} conditions. The oven pre-treatment did not substantially modify the morphology and element composition of moss and the exposure in bags of this material for 6-weeks was sufficient to detect the pattern of airborne trace elements. - A 6-week exposure with oven-dried moss bags resulted a suitable approach to evaluate airborne trace elements in a Mediterranean urban environment.

  6. Trace element determination in the airborne particulate matter of Bangkok and Samutprakan by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During October 1995 - January 1996, 66 samples of airborne particulate matter were collected from Bangkok and Samutprakan provinces. Samples of the particle sizes of 2.5 - 10 microns (33 samples) and less than 2.5 microns (33 samples) were determined for elemental concentration of 34 elements. A comparative study of the data from both sampling size was initiated to investigate the trends, source and origin of the aerosols by comparing the concentration, enrichment factor (E F) and coarse/ fine ratio. The results show Al, Fe, Sc are from crustal elements, Ca, K, Mn, V has moderate high E F and As, Br, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sb, Se and Zn has rather high E F. Comparison between the two sites yields higher levels of As and Sb at Samutprakan appearly due to smelting or other industries nearby. Higher level of Br might be due to the heavier of transportation of trucks in and out of the city

  7. Study on the behavior of trace elements and radionuclides in airborne particulate matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matters (PM) are collected by HV-1000 high volume air sampler in Musashi Institute of Technology in Japan from October, 2002, to November, 2003. The elements were determined by a neutron activation analysis and radioactive nuclides were detected by γ-ray spectrometry. The concentration of PM decreased with increasing amount of precipitation. The amount of PM was affected by wash out depend on rain a day before. 12 to 17 kinds of elements are determined in the samples. The correlation coefficient of Br and Sb was 0.81 of the concentration of element and 0.60 of concentration of composition. The same tendency was observed among Sc, Fe and La. Na is thought to be affected by sea salt particles. Sc and Th in PM were originated by wikipedia in Asia. The concentration of Sc, V, La and Th are smaller than the earth's crust. However, its Br and Sb were larger than it. Pb-210 and Be-7 are determined and both average concentrations were increased by north wind. (S.Y.)

  8. Active moss biomonitoring of small-scale spatial distribution of airborne major and trace elements in the Belgrade urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Razumenić, Ivana; Goryainova, Zoya; Frontasyeva, Marina; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2013-08-01

    In urban environments, human exposure to air pollutants is expected to be significantly increased, especially near busy traffic streets, street canyons, tunnels, etc. where urban topography and microclimate may additionally cause poor air conditions giving rise to pollution hotspots. As a practical and cost-effective approach, active moss biomonitoring survey of some major and trace element air pollution was performed in the Belgrade street canyons and city tunnel in 2011 with the aim to evaluate possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for investigation of the small-scale vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of the elements. In five street canyons, the moss bags were hung at heights of about 4, 8 and 16 m, during 10 weeks, and also, for the same time, the moss bags were exposed in the tunnel, in front of and out of it. After the exposure period, the concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in the moss were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. According to the results, in all street canyons, the vertical distribution patterns of the moss elements concentration (Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) showed statistically significant decrease from the first to the third heights of bags exposure. In the tunnel experiment, from inner to out of the tunnel, for Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K and Zn, decreasing trend of concentrations was obtained. Significantly higher concentration of the elements was pronounced for the tunnel in comparison with the street canyons. The results indicate that the use of S. girgensohnii moss bags is a simple, sensitive and inexpensive way to monitor the small-scale inner city spatial distribution of airborne major and trace element content. PMID:23430735

  9. Implementation of airborne trace element monitoring with devitalised transplants of Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw.: Assessment of temporal trends and element contribution by vehicular traffic in Naples city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, P., E-mail: paola.adamo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell' Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Giordano, S., E-mail: simonetta.giordano@unina.it [Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Sforza, A., E-mail: antonio.sforza@unina.it [Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Bargagli, R., E-mail: bargagli@unisi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    A biomonitoring of airborne trace elements was performed in 2006 in Naples urban area through the exposure of devitalised Hypnum cupressiforme for 10 weeks at 4 m height. In one street, the moss was exposed at different heights to assess vertical gradients of element concentrations. Results were compared with those of a 1999 biosurvey. Correlations among Al, Fe and Ti suggested a soil particles contribution to element uptake. Cu, Mo and Fe were related with traffic flows. Long-range transport contributed to Cd, Cu and Mo accumulation in moss at higher heights. As in 1999, the airborne element load was higher in coastal sites, more affected by marine aerosols and traffic. In all sites, contents of Cd, Fe, Pb, Ni and V in moss were remarkably lower than in 1999, indicating a positive effect of actions set up in recent years to reduce the traffic and to improve the city air quality. - Highlights: > The devitalised Hypnum cupressiforme moss is applied as new biomaterial for monitoring air quality in Naples urban area. > The vertical gradient of element concentrations in a pilot site is assessed. > Results of this survey are compared with those from a 1999 monitoring survey. - Devitalised transplants of Hypnum cupressiforme highlight current traffic impact and improvement of air quality in the urban area of Naples city.

  10. Trace elements present in airborne particulate matter-Stressors of plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Zemanová, V.; Hnilička, F.; Urbanová, V.; Száková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, May 2012 (2012), s. 101-107. ISSN 0147-6513 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/09/1150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Airborne particulate matter * Amino acids * Gas- exchange parameters Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2012

  11. Trace elements in airborne particles in internal industrial environments: spectrometric analysis of x-ray fluorescence (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence spectroscopy x-ray, is a technique of non-destructive analysis, that allows quantitative determination of the absolute concentration of chemical elements that make up a given matrix. The detected elements depend on atomic number and energy of the secondary target used for irradiation of samples. X-rays are detected and counted in a spectroscopy system based on a multichannel analyzer, that discriminates by energy and form a spectrum of independent photopeaks, whose energy identifies the element and its intensity is proportional to its concentration. The quantification requires the irradiation and counting of a set of pattern comparators, of the same elements identified in the samples. The x-ray emission shows only during the time that the selected sample is subjected to irradiation by x-ray tube. This irradiation does not change the structure nor the chemical composition of the matrix, so the sample remains unchanged, after irradiation. This condition non-destructive characterizes the fluorescence x-ray. The trace elements present in airborne particles, are determined and collected on a Nuclepore filter. The collection sites selected are: Taller de Mecanica de Precision de la Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica; Taller J. V. G. Precision, San Antonio de Coronado; Taller de Muflas, MUFLASA, Alto de Guadalupe; Industria Silvania S. A., Pavas. In addition, it is attached the service rendered to the enterprise Sellos Generales S. A. The working conditions and physical conditions of facilities were considered. An aerosol sampler with a temporal variation was used. Irradiation of samples and an evaluation of the concentrations have been made. (author)

  12. Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) canopy as interceptor of airborne trace elements and their accumulation in the litter and topsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the role of urban Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees as an airborne metal accumulators and metals' environmental fate. Analyses confirmed Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn as a main contaminants in Siena's urban environment; only Pb concentrations decreased significantly compared to earlier surveys. Additionally, we determined chemical composition of tree leaves, litter and topsoil (underneath/outside tree crown) in urban and extra-urban oak stands. Most notably, litter in urban samples collected outside the canopy had significantly lower concentrations of organic matter and higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn than litter collected underneath the canopy. There was a greater metals' accumulation in topsoil, in samples collected under the tree canopy and especially near the trunk (‘stemflow area’). Thus, in urban ecosystems the Holm Oak stands likely increase the soil capability to bind metals. -- Highlights: ► Of the main metal contaminants only leaf Pb concentrations decreased in the period 1994–2011. ► Leaf Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher in urban than in extra urban park. ► In urban park litter, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher outside than underneath the tree crown. ► Conversely, in urban park soil, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were lower outside the crown. ► Soil therefore behaves as a sink for metal contaminants such as Cu, Pb and Cd. -- Quercus ilex leaves are efficient interceptors of airborne trace elements in urban environments and we found an increased accumulation of metals in topsoil under the tree canopy

  13. Trace element composition of airborne particulate matter in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Size fractionated aerosol samples were collected at an urban site (Dhaka) in Bangladesh for a period of 17 months and at a rural site for six months. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2 μm and 2-10 μm sizes. Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy has been used to determine the concentrations of 18 elements in the range of ng/m3. The elements range from Si to Sr and include Pb. The results of analysis of 292 air particulate samples of course and fine types from the urban site are presented. The results are discussed in the context of air pollution specially that of Pb. 6 refs., 7 tables., 2 figs

  14. Characterization and source identification of trace elements in airborne particulates at urban and suburban atmospheres of Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Akbar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Taghipour, Hasan; Rafee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Zahra; Faridi, Sasan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of particulate matter (PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP)) and their elemental constituents were measured to identify the major sources of elements in urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume samplers. Concentrations of 31 elements in aerosols and crustal soil were determined by ICPMS. The most abundant detected metals in the urban sampling sites were Al (217.5-4019.9 ng m(-3)), Fe (272.5-7658.0 ng m(-3)), Pt (4.7-1994.4 ng m(-3)), and P (13.6-2054.8 ng m(-3) (for TSP and Al (217.6-3687.3 ng m(-3)), Fe (197.1-3724.9 ng m(-3)), Pt (65.9-2054.5 ng m(-3)), and P (11.0-756.6 ng m(-3)( for PM10. In the suburban sampling site, the most abundant detected metals were Al (2083.0-9664.0 ng m(-3)), Fe (360.0-7221.5 ng m(-3)), P (229.4-870.5 ng m(-3)), and Ti (137.3-849.7 ng m(-3)) for TSP and Al (218.5-4179.6 ng m(-3)), Fe (106.3-2005.1 ng m(-3)), P (251.9-908.4 ng m(-3)), and Ba (10.6-584.9 ng m(-3)) for PM10. For the crustal soil, the most abundant detected elements included Al (60,088-60,694 ppm), Fe (19,886-20,474 ppm), Ti (894-3481 ppm), and Si (365-4246 ppm). Key emission sources were identified, and the concentrations contributed from individual sources were estimated. Enrichment factor (EF) explaining a preponderance of the variance in the data was applied to the datasets. EF calculations revealed that non-crustal trace elements were more enriched in the urban than suburban sampling sites. Results of the factor analysis on the elements showed that emissions from road traffic (involving oil and fuel combustions by vehicles, platinum group elements from vehicle exhaust, and resuspension of particulate matter from polluted soil) and construction dust from nearby construction sites and electricity generation plant were the major contributors of anthropogenic metals at ambient atmosphere in Tabriz. Results of this study elucidated the need for

  15. Toxic airborne S, PAH, and trace element legacy of the superhigh-organic-sulphur Raša coal combustion: Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of soil and ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medunić, Gordana; Ahel, Marijan; Mihalić, Iva Božičević; Srček, Višnja Gaurina; Kopjar, Nevenka; Fiket, Željka; Bituh, Tomislav; Mikac, Iva

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the levels of sulphur, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and potentially toxic trace elements in soils surrounding the Plomin coal-fired power plant (Croatia). It used domestic superhigh-organic-sulphur Raša coal from 1970 until 2000. Raša coal was characterised by exceptionally high values of S, up to 14%, making the downwind southwest (SW) area surrounding the power plant a significant hotspot. The analytical results show that the SW soil locations are severely polluted with S (up to 4%), and PAHs (up to 13,535ng/g), while moderately with Se (up to 6.8mg/kg), and Cd (up to 4.7mg/kg). The composition and distribution pattern of PAHs in the polluted soils indicate that their main source could be airborne unburnt coal particles. The atmospheric dispersion processes of SO2 and ash particles have influenced the composition and distribution patterns of sulphur and potentially toxic trace elements in studied soils, respectively. A possible adverse impact of analysed soil on the local karstic environment was evaluated by cytotoxic and genotoxic methods. The cytotoxicity effects of soil and ash water extracts on the channel catfish ovary (CCO) cell line were found to be statistically significant in the case of the most polluted soil and ash samples. However, the primary DNA-damaging potential of the most polluted soil samples on the CCO cells was found to be within acceptable boundaries. PMID:27232961

  16. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    functional, exercise related and nutritional factors. Of particular considerations are calcium (Ca) status, vitamin D, fluoride, magnesium and other trace elements. Several trace elements such as zinc and copper are essential for normal development of the skeleton in humans and animals. Fluoride accumulates....... Numerous investigators have evaluated the role of medications and supplementations with minerals and trace substances to reverse the progression of this disease. Although bisphosphonates are still the drugs of choice, low-dosed fluoride and strontium salts have shown promise for the future....

  17. Seasonal and spatial variation of trace elements in multi-size airborne particulate matters of Beijing, China: Mass concentration, enrichment characteristics, source apportionment, chemical speciation and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiajia; Tian, Hezhong; Cheng, Ke; Lu, Long; Wang, Yuxuan; Wu, Ye; Zhu, Chuanyong; Liu, Kaiyun; Zhou, Junrui; Liu, Xingang; Chen, Jing; Hao, Jiming

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal and spatial variation characteristics of 19 elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Zn) in TSP/PM10/PM2.5 samples were investigated, which were collected from April 2011 to January 2012 simultaneously at an urban downtown site, a traffic roadside site, a suburban site, and a rural site in Beijing. The elevated concentrations of several toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, etc.) in particles revealed that the contamination of toxic elements in Beijing could not be neglected. Positive matrix factorization method (PMF) was applied for source apportionment of trace elements in PM, and three factors (crust related sources, combustion sources, and traffic and steel industrial related sources) were identified. Furthermore, the chemical speciation and bioavailability of various elements were identified by applying European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure. Our results showed that eight toxic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) exhibited higher mobility in PM2.5 than in PM10. Notably, elements of As, Cd, Pb and Zn were presented with higher mobility than the other elements, and these elements were lightly to release into the environment and easily available to human body. Additionally, As, Cd, Pb and Zn also accounted for higher percentages in the bound to mobile fractions at the central urban areas of Beijing. Therefore, special concerns should be paid to these toxic trace elements which had relatively high mobility in fine particles, when planning and implementing the comprehensive air pollution mitigation policies in Beijing.

  18. The distribution characteristics of trace elements in airborne particulates from an urban industrial complex area of Korea using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of about 24 elements associated with airborne particulates (PM10) that were collected in the most polluted urban region of Daejeon city, Korea from 2000 to 2002. Using the measurement data for various elements, both the extent of elemental pollution in the study area and the seasonality in their distribution characteristics were examined. Examinations of their distribution patterns indicated that most elements with crustal origin tend to exhibit seasonal peaks during spring, while most elements with anthropogenic origin tend to exhibit seasonal peaks during fall or winter. In order to explain the factors regulating their mobilization properties, the data were processed by a factor analysis. Results of the factor analysis suggested competing roles of both industrial and natural source processes, despite that the study site is located at a downwind position of the industrial complex. Based on the overall results of this study, it is concluded that the site may be strongly impacted by man-made sources but the general patterns of elemental distributions in the study area inspected over a seasonal scale are quite consistent with those typically observed from natural environment

  19. Trace element emissions. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of fossil fuels by various utilities results in the emission of trace elements to air, water and solid waste streams. Elements present in coal are released as particles or as vapours during coal combustion or gasification. Owing to the increased consumption of coal, especially for power generation, huge quantities of potentially hazardous trace elements are released into the atmosphere every year. It is necessary to evaluate the emissions of each trace element from coal-fired combustion or gasification systems, and their effects on the environment. Present research interests should be aimed at determining the sources, concentrations, and environmental impact of trace elements related with energy generation and relevant control technologies. Two of the emerging advanced coal gasification technologies, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) are presently experiencing potential difficulties due to trace element emissions. In order to control the levels of these contaminants within regulatory limits and to ensure the efficient operation of fuel cells, it is necessary to determine the type and quantity of trace elements emitted from coal gasification-based systems as a function of system, operating conditions, and type of coal. The partitioning of the trace elements is influenced by the gasification conditions. In general, the following gasification conditions are expected to influence the distribution of trace elements between various product streams. (a) reducing and oxidizing environments (b) gas phase composition, pressure and temperature. The present report was aimed at finding and identifying gaps existing in the literature on the trace element transformations during gasification. Also included in the report is the modelling of relevant transformation mechanisms of the trace elements during gasification as a function of coal type and process conditions. 7 figs., 6 tabs., 69 refs

  20. Traceds: An Experimental Trace Element Partitioning Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this project, which is part of the EARTHCHEM initiative, is to compile the existing experimental trace element partitioning data, and to develop a transparent, accessible resource for the community. The primary goal of experimental trace element partitioning studies is to create a database that can be used to develop models of how trace elements behave in natural geochemical systems. The range of approaches as to how this is accomplished and how the data are reported differs dramatically from one system to another and one investigator to another. This provides serious challenges to the creation of a coherent database - and suggests the need for a standard format for data presentation and reporting. The driving force for this compilation is to provide community access to the complete database for trace element experiments. Our new effort includes all the published analytical results from experimental determinations. In compiling the data, we have set a minimum standard for the data to be included. The threshold criteria include: Experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, device, container, time, etc.) Major element composition of the phases Trace element analyses of the phases Data sources that did not report these minimum components were not included. The rationale for not including such data is that the degree of equilibration is unknown, and more important, no rigorous approach to modeling the behavior of trace elements is possible without a knowledge of the actual concentrations or the temperature and pressure of formation. The data are stored using a schema derived from that of the Library of Experimental Phase Relations (LEPR), modified to account for additional metadata, and restructured to permit multiple analytical entries for various element/technique/standard combinations. Our ultimate goal is to produce a database together with a flexible user interface that will be useful for experimentalists to set up their work and to build

  1. Trace element speciation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicological properties associated with an element depend upon its chemical form since this will dictate the metabolic pathway that the compound follows in the body. The speciation of the element is determinant for its physiological behaviour in a living system. The complicated interactions of the different forms of trace elements in human metabolism were reviewed and the species present were categorised into seven groups. The complexity of the tasks involved in a study of trace element speciation in man was illustrated and many of the pitfalls were identified together with an example of the detective approach that must be followed to elucidate the intricacies of the associations between trace elements and biomolecular moieties

  2. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  3. Trace element analysis in flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in five kinds of flour which were made in Japan, America and Canada, have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Twelve kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place where they were made. In order to check the target preparation procedure, two types of sample preparation have been used, such as wet ashing by nitric acid in a microwave oven and making a paste by an internal standard solution. Comparisons of the results of both samples ensures that bromine was not lost during micro-wave oven heating. Analytic fitting of PIXE spectra by a personal computer and a commercial application software was successfully used. (author)

  4. Trace-elements and tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends of the past twenty years in geochemical investigation of trace elements are reflected in studies of the partial melting of mantle and also the differentiation of magma. Substantial improvements have been made in accuracy, sensitivity and convenience of trace elements analysis, mainly through improved techniques and equipment for neutron activation analysis. Models for genesis of the zonal arrangement in island arc volcanic rocks as products of partial melting and fractional crystallization have been developed. We also applied these results to discuss the tectonic development of island arcs. Dating of geological materials is on universal concern to earth scientists working on various problems. In many research situations the use of a combination of dating method and paleomagnetism or geochemistry provides the greatest tectonic results for crustal materials, such as rotation of microcontinent and cooling history of rock body. (author)

  5. Trace Element Management in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Abin Sebastian; Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling...

  6. Brain trace elements and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process

  7. In situ trace element microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of particle-track-radiography and X-ray- fluorescence techniques in the in situ measurement of trace (less than 1000 ppm) elements in single mineral phases of polished sections is surveyed, and examples of their application to ordinary, carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites are provided. Radiographic methods surveyed include fission-track radiography (for U, Th, and Pu-244), alpha radiography using nuclear reactions (for Li and B), alpha autoradiography (for Bi and Pb), and beta autoradiography (for several elements in synthetic or biological samples). Two X-ray-fluorescence methods are compared: (1) photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and (2) the potential use of synchrotron radiation. The latter is shown to allow much greater sensitivity than current PIXE technology and a much broader range of elements than particle-track radiography: the ppm analysis of 10-micron grains for all elements heavier than Na. These advantages are seen as balancing the high cost of accelerator use.

  8. Natural wetland emissions of methylated trace elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, B.; Lenz, M.; Charlet, L.; Berg, M.; Winkel, L.H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are well known for their significant methane emissions. However, trace element emissions via biomethylation and subsequent volatilization from pristine wetlands are virtually unstudied, even though wetlands constitute large reservoirs for trace elements. Here we show that the averag

  9. Airborne trace contaminants of possible interest in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavelli, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    One design goal of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) for long duration space missions is to maintain an atmosphere which is healthy for all the desirable biological species and not deleterious to any of the mechanical components in that atmosphere. CELESS design must take into account the interactions of at least six major components; (1) humans and animals, (2) higher plants, (3) microalgae, (4) bacteria and fungi, (5) the waste processing system, and (6) other mechanical systems. Each of these major components can be both a source and a target of airborne trace contaminants in a CELSS. A range of possible airborne trace contaminants is discussed within a chemical classification scheme. These contaminants are analyzed with respect to their probable sources among the six major components and their potential effects on those components. Data on airborne chemical contaminants detected in shuttle missions is presented along with this analysis. The observed concentrations of several classes of compounds, including hydrocarbons, halocarbons, halosilanes, amines and nitrogen oxides, are considered with respect to the problems which they present to CELSS.

  10. Trace Element Management in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements (TEs are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain.

  11. Trace element metabolism in man and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake, distribution, storage, excretion of different trace elements and resulting disturbances are investigated in blood and organs in animal experiments and in human diagnostics with the aid of radioisotopes. Apart from this, untritional disturbances are mentioned. Finally, future aspects of physiological trace element examinations are listed. (AJ) 891 AJ

  12. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available sev...

  13. Trace Elements in Human Tooth Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace elements are considered to play a role in the resistance of teeth to dental caries. The exact mechanism by which they act has not yet been fully established. Estimations of trace elements have been undertaken in sound human teeth. By means of activation analysis it has been possible to determine trace element concentrations in different layers of enamel in the same tooth. The concentrations of the following elements have been determined: arsenic, antimony, copper, zinc, manganese, mercury, molybdenum and vanadium. The distribution of trace elements in enamel varies from those with a narrow range, such as manganese, to those with a broad range, such as antimony. The elements present in the broad range are considered to be non-essential and their presence is thought to result from a chance incorporation into the enamel. Those in the narrow range appear to be essential trace elements and are present in amounts which do not vary unduly from other body tissues. Only manganese and zinc were found in higher concentrations in the surface layer of enamel compared with the inner layers. The importance of the concentration of trace elements on this surface layer of enamel is emphasized as this layer is the site of the first attack by the carious process. (author)

  14. Major and trace elements in human tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major elements in tears were determined by ion chromatography. The concentrations of major elements in tears (Cl, Na, K) are in the range from 600 to 4000 ppm. Minor elements in tears (Ca and Mg) were analyzed using ICP-MS and their concentration range is 10 to 80 ppm. All trace elements in tears have concentrations below the ppm range. Two techniques were applied for the determination of trace elements in tears (GFAAS and ICP-MS). The time-dependence of the concentrations of major and minor elements in tears was studied. The concentrations of major elements in tears hardly change with passage of time. However, the concentrations of minor elements (Ca, Mg, Rb) vary with time but in inconsistent manner. Some correlations are found between the concentrations of major elements (Cl and Na, Cl and Na+K) No correlations were observed between K and either Cl or Na. (author)

  15. Major and trace elements in lithogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Słojewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The process of crystallization in the urinary tract occurs when the equilibrium between promoting and inhibiting factors is broken. Many theories have been published to explain the mechanism of urinary stones formation; however, none of these theories has paid attention to trace elements. Their role in lithogenesis is still unclear and under debate. The findings of some studies may support the thesis that some major and trace elements may take part in the initiation of stone crystallization f...

  16. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  17. Trace elements determination in Himalayan lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR research program of the Italian National Research a specific task project has been initiated for the identification of trace elements in lichens in remote high altitude areas. This is to evaluate the possibility of using lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution trace elements. By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), more than 30 elements have been determined in some species of lichens collected at different altitudes (from 2000 m to 5000 m) in the region of the Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal). Samples of superficial soils surrounding the lichens were also collected and analysed to calculate the trace element enrichment factors (EF) using scandium as normalizing crust element. Lichens and soils were sampled in 7 sites distributed throughout the Khumbu valley along the way from Katmandu to the CNR Pyramid Laboratory - Observatory at 5,050 m. a.s.l. (author)

  18. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter in Bandung and Lembang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELEMENTAL QUANTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER IN BANDUNG AND LEMBANG REGION: The contaminated airborne particulates by toxic gases and elements have a potential affect to the human health. Some toxic elements related to air pollution have carcinogenic affect. The quantification of those elements is important to monitor a level of pollutant contained in the airborne particulate. The aim of this work is to analyze the air particulate sample using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other related technique. Two sampling points of Bandung and Lembang that represent and urban and rural area respectively have been chosen to collect the air particulate sample. The samplings were carried out using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler for 24 hours, and two cellulose filters of 8 μm and 0.45 μm pore size were used. Trace elements in the sample collected were determined using NAA based on a comparative method. Elemental distribution on PM2.5 and PM10 fraction of airborne particulate was analyzed, the enrichment factor was calculated using Al as reference elements, and the black carbons contents were determined using FEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer analyzed. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Uptake of trace element by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of trace element in rice paddy field ecosystem is of great significance as rice is a staple food of India particularly in Meghalaya. In general, cultivating system is an important factor for the plant uptake of trace element from soil. Rice paddy fields have a unique ecosystem from Radioecology point of view. Rice is usually planted under flood conditions in order to provide the best environment for its growth. In the present study, rice grain samples and surface paddy soil samples were collected from the fields to obtain Transfer Factor under equilibrium condition in the field existing around Uranium mineralization zone. Obtaining local soil to rice uptake is important because it depends on climate and soil properties. The objective of the present study is to generate the transfer parameter in the paddy field ecosystem to predict the behaviour of trace elements in the paddy located in the area adjoining the uranium mines in Meghalaya. (author)

  20. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  1. Trace elements and cutaneous cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral macro- and micro-elements are playing essential biological roles. Some are co-factors of enzymes or act as organizers of the molecular structures of the cell or have an important role in ionic transport while some could be even beneficial as anti-tumor agents. Their concentration in the organism is closely linked to the long-term dietary intake, the environmental exposure, (e.g. cumulative exposure to chemicals from industrial sources could increase the incidence of skin cancer) and the health profile of the concerned subject. The research objective consisted in the examination of the content levels of some micro- and macro-elements found in the tumor tissue of patients having skin cancer disease, namely basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), malignant melanoma (MM), as well as benign tumor nevi. The analytical method of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used. The skin samples were collected from 22 cancer patients, aged 32-88 years, 11 males and 11 females. Controls were health skin samples (histopathological diagnosis) from patients having skin cancer. The samples were freeze-dried and then mineralized for PIXE analysis, using nitric acid at 1200 deg C temperature. The internal standard (Yttrium) technique was used for quantitative determination. Thin targets were measured in vacuum using a 3 MeV proton beam delivered by the Van de Graaff Tandem accelerator of the Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest - Magurele. A collimated beam (of 3 mm diameter) bombarded the target oriented at an angle of 45 angle with respect to the beam direction. The beam current entering the scattering chamber was maintained at several nAs. The samples were typically irradiated for a collected charge of 10 μC. The emitted X-rays have been detected by a Canberra Ge(HP) detector with energy resolution of 180 eV / 5.9 keV placed perpendicularly to the beam direction. Data manipulation and storage were performed with a Canberra S

  2. Comparative evaluation of trace elements in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interuniversitair Reactor Instituut and the Centraal Laboratorium TNO have carried out a common investigation on neutron-activation-analytical procedures for the determination of trace elements in blood. A comparative evaluation of five methods, destructive as well as non-destructive, is given. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the procedures are discussed. By combining some of the methods it is possible, starting with 1 ml blood, to give quantitative information on 14 important trace elements: antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, cobalt, gold, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, rubidium, selenium, iron and zinc. The methods have also been applied to sodium, chromium and potassium

  3. Trace elements in glucometabolic disorders: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many trace elements, among which metals, are indispensable for proper functioning of a myriad of biochemical reactions, more particularly as enzyme cofactors. This is particularly true for the vast set of processes involved in regulation of glucose homeostasis, being it in glucose metabolism itself or in hormonal control, especially insulin. The role and importance of trace elements such as chromium, zinc, selenium, lithium and vanadium are much less evident and subjected to chronic debate. This review updates our actual knowledge concerning these five trace elements. A careful survey of the literature shows that while theoretical postulates from some key roles of these elements had led to real hopes for therapy of insulin resistance and diabetes, the limited experience based on available data indicates that beneficial effects and use of most of them are subjected to caution, given the narrow window between safe and unsafe doses. Clear therapeutic benefit in these pathologies is presently doubtful but some data indicate that these metals may have a clinical interest in patients presenting deficiencies in individual metal levels. The same holds true for an association of some trace elements such as chromium or zinc with oral antidiabetics. However, this area is essentially unexplored in adequate clinical trials, which are worth being performed.

  4. Trace element geochemistry of CR chondrite metal

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Alard, Olivier; Kearsley, Anton T; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    We report trace element analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of metal grains from 9 different CR chondrites, distinguishing grains from chondrule interior ("interior grains"), chondrule surficial shells ("margin grains") and the matrix ("isolated grains"). Save for a few anomalous grains, Ni-normalized trace element patterns are similar for all three petrographical settings, with largely unfractionated refractory siderophile elements and depleted volatile Au, Cu, Ag, S. All types of grains are interpreted to derive from a common precursor approximated by the least melted, fine-grained objects in CR chondrites. This also excludes recondensation of metal vapor as the origin of the bulk of margin grains. The metal precursors presumably formed by incomplete condensation, with evidence for high-temperature isolation of refractory platinum-group-element (PGE)-rich condensates before mixing with lower temperature PGE-depleted condensates. The rounded shape of the Ni-rich, interior ...

  5. Trace elements in wine and other beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survey of the mostly physical methods of analysis (e.g. activation analysis) for the dectection of trace elements in wine and in other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages as well as for detection of radioactivity (natural and man-made) in these beverages. (HP)

  6. Trace elements in wild growing mushrooms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jan

    New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2013, s. 368-371. ISBN 978-0-07-180140-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0484 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : mushrooms * macrofungi * metals * trace elements * bioaccumulation * hyperaccumulation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  7. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Papa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of six different trace metals [vanadium (V, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr,  lead (Pb, copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd] were determined in various fruit and vegetables [peach (Prunus persica L., plum (Prunus domestica L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., courgette or marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.] provided by diverse farms. Metal distribution was also separately evaluated, in skin and pulp, where it was possible. Their contributions to human daily intake of trace metals were investigated. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the fruit and vegetables. All traces of elements tested in peaches and tomatoes were higher in the skin than in the pulp except for Cd in the peaches; all traces of elements tested in plums and marrows were higher in the pulp than in the skin. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in lettuce were 1.3 and 2.7 times above the permissible levels, respectively. It is concluded that the regular monitoring of food trace metals is very important to prevent diseases that depend on their excessive accumulation in the human food chain.

  8. Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well.

  9. Trace elements removal from hot flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahab, M. (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Polttoainejalostustekniikan laboratorio); Mroueh, U.M. (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Kemian Lab.)

    1989-11-01

    Granular-bed filtration was investigated theoretically and experimentally with the view to its applicability to gaseous trace element removal at high temperatures. Granular-bed filters have received a great deal of attention recently as an alternative to the more conventional gas cleanup devices such as cyclones, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and bag-filters. None of these conventional devices is capable of operating efficiently at high temperatures, (800-900 deg C), typical combined-cycle power generation plants. Moreover, a sizeable proportion of the volatilised trace metals will exit from the reactor in the vapour phase and these purification devices are not generally designed to remove the gaseous species. In an atmospheric test rig, trace elements of concern were removed in a fixed granular-bed filter at 800-900 deg C temperature range using sorbent particles (such as limestone) as the unbonded filter medium. Two configurations of the experimental apparatus were employed to enable an accurate determination of the removal efficiency of various sorbent particles. The results show that volatilised trace elements can be effectively removed from hot flue gases by passing them through a fixed bed of suitably selected solid sorbents. Removal efficiencies of higher than 99% were achieved with solid sorbent particles in the 0.3-3.0 mm size range, operating at 800-900 deg C.

  10. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK)

  11. Applications of neutron activation analysis for the determination of trace elements in airborne dust and sea water. Einsatz der Neutronenaktivierungsanalyse fuer die Bestimmung von Spurenelementen in Luftstaub und in Meerwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, W.

    1986-04-28

    Within the framework of a composite programme, suspended dust collecting filters from five different sampling locations in the FRG were available for the neutron activation analysis of suspended dust. By long-term activation of 24 hours and short-term activation of 5 minutes, the following elements were analysed: As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Sb, Se, Zn, Al, V, Mn, Cu and Ti. For most of these elements, a good correspondence with other methods was achieved but there were variations in the case of As, Cr and Hg. An adjustment method was used in the case of Hg. Trace elements in sea water were enriched from great sample volumes before irradiation. This was done by complexation and adsorption or ion exchange. Oxine, dithizone and sodium diethyldithiocarbonate were used as chelating agents, activated carbon was used as adsorbent and the cellulose exchangers hyphane and DEDTC were used as ion exchangers; the optimum conditions for an enrichment were determined by means of shaking tests.

  12. Trace elements and protein in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb and some related major elements which are Ca, Cl K and total protein contents of human samples from ninety mothers were examined in this study. Samples were collected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman, from the second day of delivery up to the third month where the milk reaches a relatively stable levels. These samples representing different stages of lactation which are colostrum ( 1-3 days ), tranitional ( up to 14 days ) and mature milk. The principle aim of this study is to measure the trace elements and protein contents in relation to stage of lactation and to compare with the literature. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence were used to measure trace elements in the samples. The methods were found to be quite reliable as proved by the analysis of the standard reference material HM-1. Whereas neutron activation analysis was used for measurements of total protein. Colostrum was found to have the highest amounts of trace elements and protein. Fe mean concentration was 273 g/dm3 at colostrum stage and it decreased to 146 g/dm3 in mature milk ( 49% ). Zn decreased from 6000 g/dm3 in colostrum to 1300 g/dm3 in mature stage ( 78% ). Mn was 12g/dm3 in colostrum, and it decreased to 2.9 g/dm3 in mature milk ( 75% ). Cu decreased from 370 g/dm3 to 117 g/dm3 ( 68% ). Ni decreased from 24 g/dm3 to 8.8 g/dm3 ( 63% ) and Pb from 12 g/dm3 to 2.6 g/dm3 ( 76% ). Total protein was 37.3% of the dry milk in colostrum and it was 12.2% in mature milk. (author). 75 refs., 25 tabs., 30 figs

  13. Trace elements in a dated ice core from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol particles from both natural and anthropogenic sources are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind systems by various mechanisms. Once airborne, the particles, which contain various trace elements, accumulate on the earth's surface as either condensation nuclei or by dry fallout processes. In the polar regions, these particles are incorporated and deposited in snow layers in sequential time-unit increments. The trace analysis of elements contained in dated annual snow layers provides a measure of the elemental chemistry content of the atmosphere for the same time interval. A 164-m-deep, 10-cm-diam ice core was obtained at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in November 1989. Other physical and chemistry studies on this ice core have identified its detailed chronology in annual increments for the past 1360 yr. This study presents the results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) measurements made on 26 individually dated samples of this core, selected between the 6.43- and 118.15-m depths

  14. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Weiser, P.S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  15. Trace element kinetics in caged Mytilus galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Lepoint, Gilles; Donnay, Annick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) remain contaminants of concern because of their persistence, ability to concentrate in organisms and toxicity. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 is a relevant bioindicator of TE coastal contamination. However, little research has studied the combined influence of environmental condition changes and physiological processes on their kinetics in that species. Caged M. galloprovincialis were thus immerged in 2 contrasted pristine Corsican (Franc...

  16. Serum Trace Element Concentrations in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebari, Maryam; Ayati, Razie; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hejazi, Sepideh; Saghafi, Massoud; Saadati, Nayyereh; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a condition that is associated with oxidative stress. Serum trace elements and their related transport proteins, e.g., albumin and ceruloplasmin, play an important role in the antioxidant defense. Trace element status may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of RA or be affected by the disease activity of this chronic inflammatory condition. The study participants were 110 patients with RA and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of albumin, ceruloplasmin, selenium, zinc, copper, and zinc/copper ratio were measured in all subjects. The relationship between these parameters and disease activity score was also assessed. Lower concentrations of serum Alb, Zn, and Se were independently related to disease activity index. High concentrations of serum copper were associated with the presence of RA. Serum Cu concentrations were positively related to disease activity as assessed by the disease activity score. Low serum concentrations of Zn and Se, and high serum Cu concentrations may be associated with the presence of RA or be a consequence of this condition. Of the trace elements that were investigated in the present study, only serum Cu was positively correlated with disease activity. PMID:26450515

  17. Trace Elements in Teeth by ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeth are reported to be suitable indicators of trace element exposure from environment and nutritional status. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to compare the trace element content of children's primary teeth and adult teeth. Primary teeth are collected from 28 children and 42 adult from non-industrial City. The data are assessed statistically using t-tests. The adult teeth contained significantly greater concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ba, Pb and U and significantly less Mn, Co, As, Se, Mo and Bi than the children teeth. Additional measurements on adult teeth pulps are performed. Comparison between trace element concentrations in health and caries teeth pulps show that the mean concentrations of Na, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Bi and U are lower in caries than healthy teeth pulps. On the other hand, the mean concentrations of Mg, Cd and Pb are higher in caries samples than healthy teeth pulps

  18. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  19. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus

  20. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  1. Concentration of trace elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the quality and quantity of stable trace elements in marine environments is frequently required to analyze the radioecological behavior of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the sea. In the present work, special attention was concentrated in determination of stable Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb and Cs in marine organisms to estimate the concentration factors for these elements and corresponding radionuclides. Marine organisms (fishes, marine invertebrates and seaweeds) were collected at the seashore of Ibaragi prefecture and provided for chemical analysis after dry-ashing and wet-ashing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis were applied to determine the concentration of elements. The concentration of stable elements in fish muscle was independent on species of the fishes though slightly higher trends were observed in ''Usumebaru'', Sebastes nivosus for Cs, ''Ishimochi'', Nibea mitsukurii for Zn and Fe compared with other species. The concentration of Co, Zn and Fe in muscle of marine invertebrates was one order of magnitude higher than fish muscles especially in shellfishes for Co. Seaweeds showed peculiar species specificity for the concentration of stable trace elements and remarkable differences was observed between the species even among the same genus. (auth.)

  2. Trace element abnormalities in chronic uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, W R; Alfrey, A C; Craswell, P W; Crouch, C A; Ibels, L S; Kubo, H; Nunnelley, L L; Rudolph, H

    1982-03-01

    We studied the elemental composition of autopsy tissue samples to characterize the trace element changes induced in various human tissues by uremia. Samples from the United States and Australia, including those from 120 uremic patients who had been on dialysis, 29 uremic patients who had not been on dialysis, and 64 control subjects, were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence. Tissues analyzed were aorta, bone, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and spleen; elements measured included potassium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, bromine, rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin, and uranium. Uremic abnormalities that were statistically very significant were found, including increases of calcium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, and tin and decreases of potassium and rubidium. The distribution of iron, copper, and zinc are altered. We conclude that these abnormalities are primarily the result of the uremia and that, generally, they are neither greatly moderated nor exacerbated by the dialysis procedure. PMID:7059092

  3. Trace element ink spiking for signature authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signature authentication is a critical question in forensic document examination. Last years the evolution of personal computers made signature copying a quite easy task, so the development of new ways for signature authentication is crucial. In the present work a commercial ink was spiked with many trace elements in various concentrations. Inorganic and organometallic ink soluble compounds were used as spiking agents, whilst ink retained its initial properties. The spiked inks were used for paper writing and the documents were analyzed by a non destructive method, the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The thin target model was proved right for quantitative analysis and a very good linear relationship of the intensity (X-ray signal) against concentration was estimated for all used elements. Intensity ratios between different elements in the same ink gave very stable results, independent on the writing alterations. The impact of time both to written document and prepared inks was also investigated. (author)

  4. The trace elements selenium, copper and zinc in pediatric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Caillie-Bertrand (Micheline)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to investigate some pediatric aspects of trace element metabolism .The effects are described of 1) inadequate trace element intake , 2) trace element malabsorption mine and 4) sulphate.Within ,3) urinary losses during therapy with D-Pen

  5. Trace elements in ancient ceramics: Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last period of Tong Dynasty, Jingdezhen began its production of ceramics. During the Song Dynasty, the ceramic industry greatly developed and produced fine white ware at Hutian. In the Yuan Dynastry, Hutian became the centre of production making the world famous blue and white wares. Here are reported results of analyses of ancient porcelians of Hutian in Jiangdezhen by reactor neutron activation analysis. The results show that the patterns of eight rare earth elements are apparently different for products in different periods, indicating that methods for producing ceramics or kinds of clay used were different. The contents of some other trace elements such as hafnium, tantalum, thorium and uranium show the same regularity in difference of composition also

  6. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used

  7. Source identification of trace elements emitted into Athens atmosphere. Relation between trace elements and tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The source identification of trace elements emitted into Athens (Greece) atmospheric environment has been studied by the Enrichment Factor (EF) and by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The prevailing wind direction is related to EF data in order to identify the possible pathways of trace elements, in the Athens basin. As gas pollutants and trace elements could be emitted from the same source, the possible relation between these two groups is studied by PCA and correlation relations. According to EF data, the trace elements Fe, Sm, Th, Co, Sc, Cr and K have a crustal origin while the elements Zn, As, Sb, Ag, Br result of anthropogenic pollution. The study of the prevailing wind direction showed that the existing geophysical channel in the northern area of Athens basin could be a pathway for the entrance of Fe, La, Sm, Th, Co, Cr, Na and Ag into Athens atmosphere. On the contrary, the sea breeze could be a potential cleaner of the atmosphere from the same elements. Six source factors were resolved by PCA for all the Athens area explaining the 90% of the total variance. They could nominated as soil dust, central heating, movement of cars, car tires, car break abrasion and sea breeze. After the application of PCA and the linear regression model, the concentration of atmospheric ozone shows to have a positive significant correlation with Na and Zn and a negative significant correlation with As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Sb, Sc, Sm. A possible explanation of the mechanism for the decrease of atmospheric ozone concentration in relation to trace metals is given according to the existing literature data. (author)

  8. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B >Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions: The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  9. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan; Kandasamy Saravanakumar; Pandiyan Mullai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer). Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B>Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions:The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  10. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    In this thesis several experiments have been described on the applicability of lichens as biomonitors for trace-element air pollution. The aim of the thesis was to gain knowledge about the relationships between trace-element concentrations in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and/or depositions of trace elements on a regional and national scale, and about the processes involved in the element uptake and release by lichens. (Copyright (c) 1993 by J.E. Sloof.)

  11. Studies on Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organs and Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trace elements are important parts of human body compositions, and some of them are essential for life activities. To provide bases for parameters of the Chinese Reference Man and current data in China for research on relationship between trace elements and health, 30 trace elements in 10 kinds of organs and tissues are determined by neutron activation analysis.Neutron activation analysis is one of the most effective methods for trace elements. I and Br are determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis , and other 28 elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, Zn are determined by instrumentation neutron activation analysis. The analytical conditions are

  12. The role of neutron activation analysis for trace elements characterization, analysis and certification in atmospheric particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) owns these requirements and is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultratrace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrate by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, the application of this nuclear technique, in solving a series of different analytical problems related to trace elements in air pollution processes is reported. Examples and results are given on the following topics: characterization of urban and rural airborne particulate samples; particles size distribution in the different inhalable and respirable fractions (PM10 and PM 2.5); certification of related Standard Reference Materials for data quality assurance. (author)

  13. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  14. Vitamins, trace elements, and antioxidant status in dementia disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tabet, N.; Mantle, D; WALKER, Z.; Orrell, M.

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, have been proposed for the treatment of dementia disorders. Although other vitamins and trace elements may also have antioxidant-enhancing activities, it is not known whether the overall antioxidant status in dementia patients is associated with the intake level of these vitamins and trace elements. In this study, we assessed the levels of vitamins and trace elements in the diet of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and dem...

  15. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  16. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  17. Serum trace element levels in febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Farzin, Leila; Moassesi, Mohammad Esmail; Sajadi, Fattaneh

    2010-06-01

    Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element changes in biological fluids which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. In this study, serum selenium, zinc, and copper were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in the children with febrile convulsion (n = 30) and in the control group (n = 30). The age and sex of the subjects were registered. Selenium and zinc were found to be significantly lower in febrile convulsion cases than in the control group (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the value of copper between the two groups (p = 0.16). While selenium and zinc levels were 44.92 +/- 10.93 microg/l and 66.13 +/- 18.97 microg/dl in febrile convulsion, they were found to be 62.98 +/- 9.80 microg/l and 107.87 +/- 28.79 microg/dl in healthy children. Meanwhile, copper levels were 146.40 +/- 23.51 microg/dl in the patients and 137.63 +/- 24.19 microg/dl in the control group, respectively. This study shows that selenium and zinc play an important role in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. PMID:19669113

  18. Cognitive impairment, genomic instability and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meramat, A; Rajab, N F; Shahar, S; Sharif, R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are often related to aging and micronutrient deficiencies. Various essential micronutrients in the diet are involved in age-altered biological functions such as, zinc, copper, iron, and selenium that play pivotal roles either in maintaining and reinforcing the antioxidant performances or in affecting the complex network of genes (nutrigenomic approach) involved in encoding proteins for biological functions. Genomic stability is one of the leading causes of cognitive decline and deficiencies or excess in trace elements are two of the factors relating to it. In this review, we report and discuss the role of micronutrients in cognitive impairment in relation to genomic stability in an aging population. Telomere integrity will also be discussed in relation to aging and cognitive impairment, as well as, the micronutrients related to these events. This review will provide an understanding on how these three aspects can relate with each other and why it is important to keep a homeostasis of micronutrients in relation to healthy aging. Micronutrient deficiencies and aging process can lead to genomic instability. PMID:25560816

  19. Minor and trace elements in some meteoritic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. O., Jr.; Mason, B.

    1973-01-01

    Despite the information available (Mason, 1971) on trace elements in different types of meteorites, relatively little is known about the distribution of these elements among the individual mineral phases. The mineral phases including olivine, orthopyroxene, clinipyroxene, troilite, nickel-iron, plagioclase, chromite, and the phosphates were separated from several meteorites. The purified minerals were analyzed for trace and minor elements by spark source mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elements are classified as siderophile, lithophile, and chalcophile.

  20. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to esti

  1. The CU Airborne MAX-DOAS instrument: vertical profiling of aerosol extinction and trace gases

    OpenAIRE

    S. Baidar; Oetjen, H.; S. Coburn; Dix, B.; I. Ortega; R. Sinreich; R. Volkamer

    2013-01-01

    The University of Colorado Airborne Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument uses solar stray light to detect and quantify multiple trace gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), formaldehyde (HCHO), water vapor (H2O), nitrous acid (HONO), iodine monoxide (IO), bromine monoxide (BrO), and oxygen dimers (O4) at multiple wavelengths (absorption bands at 360, 477, 577, 632 nm) simultaneously in the open atmosphere. The instrument is uniq...

  2. Airborne Multi AXis DOAS instrument and measurements of two-dimensional tropospheric trace gas distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Heue, Klaus-Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Multi AXis DOAS instrument was developed and successfully operated during four measurement campaigns. Depending on the purpose the instrument was installed on two different aeroplanes flying either close to the tropopause or in the mixing layer. In a detailed sensitivity study the possibilities of the measurements were investigated. For a qualitatively good observation of tropospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2 and HCHO) additional information about the mixing layer height and the aer...

  3. Analysis of trace elements in chicken embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scanning proton microprobe (SPM) with high resolution and high sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements in chicken embryo forebrain neutron cell and skeletal muscle myotube cell. The absorption of the two different cells to zinc ions, correlation of elements and trace elemental distributions in the cells were studied. The results indicate that the absorptive capacity of the chicken embryo forebrain neuron cell to zinc ions is larger than that of the chicken embryo skeletal muscle myotube cell, and the concentrations of intracellular trace elements such as Cr, Fe, Ni are explicitly higher. The correlations of elements such as S and Zn or Fe and Zn are positive, but the correlations of P and Ni or Cr and Fe are negative. From the maps of cellular elemental distribution the contents of the different elements are different in the intracellular parts, for example, the contents of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, potassium in the cell membranes are higher than that in the cells

  4. Major and trace elements of selected pedons in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, R; Wilson, M A; Mays, M D; Lee, C W

    2003-01-01

    Few studies of soil geochemistry over large geographic areas exist, especially studies encompassing data from major pedogenic horizons that evaluate both native concentrations of elements and anthropogenically contaminated soils. In this study, pedons (n = 486) were analyzed for trace (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Si, Ti, Zr) elements, as well as other soil properties. The objectives were to (i) determine the concentration range of selected elements in a variety of U.S. soils with and without known anthropogenic additions, (ii) illustrate the association of elemental source and content by assessing trace elemental content for several selected pedons, and (iii) evaluate relationships among and between elements and other soil properties. Trace element concentrations in the non-anthropogenic dataset (NAD) were in the order Mn > (Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu) > (Pb, Co) > (Cd, Hg), with greatest mean total concentrations for the Andisol order. Geometric means by horizon indicate that trace elements are concentrated in surface and/or B horizons over C horizons. Median values for trace elements are significantly higher in surface horizons of the anthropogenic dataset (AD) over the NAD. Total Al, Fe, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, pH, and clay exhibit significant correlations (0.56, 0.74, 0.50, 0.31, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively) with total trace element concentrations of all horizons of the NAD. Manganese shows the best inter-element correlation (0.33) with these associated total concentrations. Total Fe has one of the strongest relationships, explaining 55 and 30% of the variation in total trace element concentrations for all horizons in the NAD and AD, respectively. PMID:14674533

  5. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  6. Chemistry of trace elements in soils and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present information about sources of processes that affect trace elements in soils and groundwater; precipitation and dissolution, surface interactions and absorption and oxidation-reduction reactions. For each element or group of elements, we provide a review of mode of occurrence, sources and ...

  7. Evaluation of trace element status of food articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food is the main source of major, minor and micro nutrients required for human beings. Food articles, due to environmental pollution may also contain some toxic elements which would adversely affect their health. In order to assess the adequacy and safety of human diet main food items were analyzed for the measurement of essential and toxic trace elements employing neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The data so obtained will serve as baseline values and will be helpful to monitor the changes in the trace element contents of these items in future. The dietary intake of essential and toxic trace elements through these items was estimated and compared with the recommended values. This study indicates that the intake of essential elements except for co is fairly adequate and that of toxic elements in well well within the permissible limits. (author)

  8. Trace elements in quartz from Li-enriched pegmatite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Svojtka, Martin; Ďurišová, Jana; Ackerman, Lukáš; Novák, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-36. ISSN 1609-0144. [Pegmatite : Österreichische Arbeitstagung /1./. Leoben, 11.04.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : trace elements * pegmatite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  9. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  10. Nutritional values of trace elements in dried desserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desserts are the most aromatic and delicious parts of meals, and also a source of nutrient trace elements for the human body. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the trace elements antimony, chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese, potassium, rubidium, scandium, sodium and zinc in creme caramel, ice-creams, jellies and mousse dried desserts from the Greek market. According to our results, their classification as nutrient trace element sources for the human body is: mousse>ice-cream> creme caramel> jelly. Among the different studied flavours, chocolate and its derivatives are the richest in nutrient trace elements. Moreover, the consumption of one portion of a chocolate mousse dessert can offer to the human body about 60% of the daily required chromium, 40% of the daily required iron, 10% of the daily required manganese and potassium and 4% of the daily required sodium. (author)

  11. Leaf trace element spectrum in woody plants in south Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón, Teodoro; Domínguez, María Teresa; Aponte, Cristina; Murillo Carpio, José Manuel; Luis V. García; Villar Montero, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Poster presentation nº 244. 6th International Symposium on Ecosystem Behaviour BIOGEOMON 2009, 29 June-3 July 2009. The University of Helsinki, Finland. Session 9: Trace element biogeochemistry and ecosystem impact.

  12. The separation and determination of trace elements in iron ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation, concentration, and determination of trace elements in iron ores are described. After the sample has been dissolved, the iron is separated by liquid-liquid extraction with a liquid cation-exchanger, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The trace elements aluminium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, potassium, sodium, vanadium, and zinc are determined in the aqueous phase by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry

  13. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  14. Uptake of trace elements in human hair by anion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of some trace elements to human hair is studied by means of radioactive tracers. Experiments with 59Fe, 64Cu, 65Zn, 72Ga and 115Cd in HCl media show a great similarity between human hair and Dowex 1-x10, indicating that the hair acts as a strongly basic anion exchanger. A corresponding similarity with strong cation exchangers is not found. Specific sorption of trace elements seems to be of little use in hair identification studies. (author)

  15. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo

    2009-07-01

    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines. PMID:19798991

  16. PIXE analysis of trace elements in northern fur seal teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in teeth of northern fur seal Collorhinus ursinus were analyzed by PIXE and micro-PIXE (μ-PIXE). Trace elements such as Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, As, Br, Sr, and Pb were detected in the teeth, which were composed of hydroxyapatite crystals. Among these elements, the concentrations of Fe and Zn were relatively higher in winter and lower in summer and also Zn varied along with growth of individuals. These elemental fluctuation seems to correspond to the life history of the northern fur seal. It suggests that the PIXE analysis will make a powerful tool to reconstruct the life history

  17. SERUM TRACE ELEMENTS IN CHILDREN ON MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Esfahani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available During dialysis some trace elements can accumulate while others may be removed from blood, leading to deficiency of some trace elements. For evaluating changes of serum trace elements in children on maintenance hemodialysis we measured copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, manganese (Mn, chromium (Cr and nickel (Ni in 3 groups of children: Group 1, children with CRF who were on regular hemodialysis; Group 2, children with CRF who were on conservative management, and Group 3, healthy children. For evaluating the impact of duration of dialysis on serum trace elements, group 1 patients were divided into two subgroups: A, patients who were on hemodialysis therapy for shorter than 18 months, and B, patients who were on hemodialysis therapy for longer than 18 months. The technique used for measurement of trace elements was PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission. Mean serum levels of Zn, Mn, and Ni in group 1 were lower than group 2 and group 3. There were not significant differences in serum levels of Zn, Mn and Ni between group 2 and 3. The differences in serum levels of Cr, Co and Cu among 3 groups were not significant. The serum levels of Zn, Mn and Ni were significantly lower in subgroup B compared to subgroup A. Correlation test showed that there were an inverse linear relation between the period of hemodialysis and serum levels of Zn, Mn and Ni. Chronic hemodialysis leads to abnormalities of some trace elements in children, and these derangements increase with duration of hemodialysis.

  18. The influence of trace elements on fluoride uptake by teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of various trace elements on fluoride uptake by teeth, the concentrations of F and other trace elements have been simultaneously determined in different regions of the teeth from children of South Australia. Teeth cross sectioned along the median plane have been used in these investigations, and their inside enamel, dentine and amelodentinal junctions investigated separately for the trace elemental composition. Fluoride has been determined by observing the 6-7 MeV gammas for the 19F(p,αγ)16O reaction, C by activation through the 12C(3He,n)14O reaction, while other trace elements have been measured by the thick target PIXE technique. Linear correlation coefficients have been calculated between the F concentrations in teeth and those of other trace elements observed. Fluoride is found to correlate best with C, Cu and Pb, poorly with Fe, Sr, Ni and Ag, while with Br and Zn it has-ve coefficients. Student's t-test has been applied to the data to examine the significance of the variation of Fand other trace elements amongst different dental tissues from healthy and diseased teeth. (orig.)

  19. Trace element composition of hair in the Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of the trace elements Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn has been evaluated in hair samples collected from five different groups of subjects in Italy. All the measurements were performed by means of non-destructive neutron activation analysis of the hair samples that were carefully washed before analysis. In most of the samples the Cs, Rb and Sc content was below the detection limit of the analytical method. Each population group was formed of about five individuals of each sex, selected to be representative of the adult population living in a well-defined community. The five groups were chosen from distinct regions with different socio-economical living habits in order to detect the variability, if any, of the trace element burden among the Italian population. The trace element hair concentration of each subject was correlated with the trace element blood concentration and daily urinary excretion in order to differentiate the trace element content due to exogenous deposition on hair from that due to endogenous absorption routes. The results obtained show that the variability of the hair content among the various groups is strongly linked to local environmental factors. The histograms of the individual values of the hair concentration are given for all trace elements measured, together with a statistical analysis of all data. (author)

  20. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Papa; Laura Cerullo; Anna Di Monaco; Giovanni Bartoli; Antonietta Fioretto

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of six different trace metals [vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr),  lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd)] were determined in various fruit and vegetables [peach (Prunus persica L.), plum (Prunus domestica L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), courgette or marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)] provided by diverse farms. Metal distribution was also separately evaluated, in skin and pulp, where it was possible. Their contributions to human daily ...

  1. Concepts of trace, determinant and inverse of Clifford algebra elements

    OpenAIRE

    Shirokov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    In our paper we consider the notion of determinant of Clifford algebra elements. We present some new formulas for determinant of Clifford algebra elements for the cases of dimension 4 and 5. Also we consider the notion of trace of Clifford algebra elements. We use the generalization of the Pauli's theorem for 2 sets of elements that satisfy the main anticommutation conditions of Clifford algebra.

  2. Trace elements in floodplain soils - effects of redox conditions on the mobility of trace elements and volatilization of mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Hindersmann, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Floodplains are characterized by periodic flooding and their soils can contain high concentrations of trace elements. The flooding events lead to varying oxygen contents in the soil. This is accompanied with varying redox conditions that are expressed by strongly fluc-tuating redox potentials. This study investigated the influence of flooding events on the mo-bilization of the trace elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, and zinc, as ...

  3. Newer trace elements measured by RNAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very recently, quite attention has been made on a few more trace elements in foodstuff as essential for animal and human health in certain ranges of concentration or intake. These traces are: aluminum, nickel, vanadium and tin. Al and Ni have been measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and the two latter ones measured by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) in few references laboratories. Here, scandium was also analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These measurements were made for the most of the Iranian diets and other participant countries' diets under the framework of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) of the IAEA during the period 1986-1994, but practically it took more years. Here in this work the daily dietary intakes of above mentioned trace elements are given and discussed while the results of 20 other nutritionally important trace elements appeared somewhere else. (author)

  4. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  5. Determination of trace elements in body fluids by XRF spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray emission spectroscopy is used for trace element analysis of body fluids. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and XRF setup are described for the analysis of blood serum and amniotic fluid samples for different gravidity stages. The comparison between the distribution of these elements in amniotic fluid and serum is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  6. Trace element analysis in silicon by accelerator SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The accelerator SIMS technique has been applied to Si samples implanted with different elements. It has been shown that concentrations of several trace elements can be analysed down to about 1 ppb in depth profiling mode. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  7. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autopsy samples from 22 clinically healthy human males between the ages of 20 to 52 were collected from Bulgaria for the investigation of possible correlations between trace elements in hair and body organs. Samples of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and hair were analyzed by neutron activation analysis to determine trace element concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data did not indicate any significant correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and internal organs, probably due to the limited number of available samples. However, lower than normal selenium concentrations were found in the organ samples, indicating possible selenium deficiency. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  8. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  9. Flotation concentration of trace elements while analyzing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review includes basic studies of the recent 10-15 years on application of the flotation methods to concentrate taces of elements (Cd, Mo, W, V, U, In, ets.) for their determination in waters. Procedures are presented which are based on the codeposition of trace elements on the inorganic and organic collectors, on their sorption on fine-disperse ion exchangers, on the process of ionic flotation. Merits and prospects of the methods for flotation concentration of element traces to analyze waters are noted

  10. A new approach for determination of soluble trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter using a dynamic extraction procedure coupled to ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The current interest in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is mainly due to its effect on human health. A fraction that is associated with several adverse health effects - including cancer - is the metallic portion. For this reason, a great deal of research has focused on the metal composition of airborne particulate matter. Until now in most studies total elemental concentrations were determined. However, toxic effects of trace metals in airborne PM are only expected if the metals are biologically available. Thus for risk assessment detailed knowledge about the solubility of the investigated metals is required since bioavailability depends thereon. Recently various extraction schemes have been developed for batch-wise fractionation of various metals in airborne particulate matter. Although these batch-wise liquid/solid extraction methods have gained widespread acceptance in literature the eco-toxicological relevance of the information provided with these techniques is questionable, since naturally occurring processes occur always under dynamic conditions. In this study a procedure for the sequential extraction of airborne particulate matter with various leaching solutions and the subsequent on-line ICP-AES measurement of selected trace metals in the derived extracts is presented. For analysis several punches of the filter substrate were packed into indigenously developed micro-columns and treated successively with the different extraction solutions. Evaluation of the derived elution profiles provided information about the kinetics of the extraction process and allowed differentiation between individual soluble fractions.

  11. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Ruth; Bertol, A. P. L.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  12. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  13. Trace Element Geochemistry of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道公; 李彬贤; 等

    1989-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rock of Shandong Province are mainly alkalic and strongly alkalic basaltic rocks.The Contents of major and trace elements including transitional,incompatible and rare-earth elements were determined.The chemical characterisitics of major and trace elements indicate that these basaltic rocks were derived from a mantle source and probably represent a primary magma,I,e.,unmodifiecd partical melts of mantle peridotite in terms of Mg values,correlatione between P2O5 and Ce,Sr,Ni and Rb concentrations,mantle xenoliths,etc.The abundances of trace elements vary systematically from west to east.The compatible transition elements such as Co,Ni,and Cr show a remarkable depletion,whereas the incompatible and rare-earth elements are abundant as viewed from the chondrite-nor-malized patterns.The chemical composition and correlation are consistent with the tectonic setting.According to the batch and fractional partial melting theory,the trace element contents of Shandong volcanic rocks can be calculated from the two-component mixing model.

  14. Trace elements distribution in bottom sediments from Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon River discharges into a dynamic marine environment where there have been many interactive processes affecting dissolved and particulate solids, either those settling on the shelf or reaching the ocean. Trace elemental concentration, especially of the rare earth elements, have been determined by neutron activation analysis in sixty bottom sediment samples of the Amazon River estuary, providing information for the spatial and temporal variation study of those elements. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Trace elements in fish for consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of toxic elements in fish may constitute a health hazard for consumers in general as well as for people with specific consumption patterns. The levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, total and inorganic arsenic and certain other, primarily essential, metals will be determined in a large number of fish species and originating from freshwater lakes, brackish water and marine waters. The results will be used to make a risk assessment of their impact on human food consumption. (abstract)

  16. Monitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ∼50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Combined radioactivation methods in determining trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have devised a method of radioactivation analysis (RAA) for determining 32 elements by NAA, proton-activation analysis (PAA), and emission spectral analysis (ESA). Here they examine element distributions in certain plants by NAA, PAA, and DAA (deuteron activation analysis) as described elsewhere. The results are compared with those from activation analysis (AA) and ESA. The authors used five species of medicinal plant: Plantago Major L, Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Alhagi Persarum, and Eremurus. They used referenced methods for preparing the samples, irradiating them in the reactor or cyclotron, and measuring the radioactivity. The γ-ray spectra for the activated samples from all the plants gave peaks representing 24Na, 42K, 56Mn, 140La, 82Br, 124Sb, 46Sc, 59Fe, 198Au, 139Ce, 153Sm, 86Rb, 65Zn, 60Co, and 147MSn. The concentrations of Fe, Sb, Sn, Zn, Rb, Co were determined when the irradiated samples have been kept for 10 days. To determine Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, Zn, and Sr, ash disks were irradiated by proton and deuteron beams in a cyclotron, where they recorded radiation from the 48Sc, 56Co, 48V, 65Zn, 67Ga, 88Y. The conclusions are that all these plants and the parts of them accumulate the elements in different ways

  18. Postpartum Depression and Role of Serum Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zarrindast

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nPostpartum depression (PPD is a major depressive disorder that most often emerges within 6 to 12 weeks of delivery, but can happen any time up to 1 year after birth. In developed countries, the incidence of postnatal depression about 10-15% in adult women depending upon the diagnostic criteria, timing of screening and screening instruments used. Mothers with depressive symptoms have been found to have more complex behavioral contacts with their children; this situation can damage family relationships, and even leads to infanticide. Various pathophysiologies are proposed for postpartum depression: Nutritional deficiencies, iron deficiency anemia, rapid decrease in the levels of reproductive hormones following delivery, alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adernocortical mechanism and alterations in neurotransmitter levels. Among pathophysiologies of postpartum depression, the role of trace elements is highlighted. The purpose of this review is to assess the role of trace elements including zinc, magnesium, iron and copper PPD. Zinc as a trace element has the second highest concentration of all transition metals in the brain, and its deficiency is associated with behavioral disturbances. Lower zinc blood concentration was found in women with postpartum depression. Another trace element, magnesium, also influences the nervous system via its actions on the release and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Various studies have focused on antidepressant-like effects of magnesium and its deficiency has been reported in depression. Depletion of magnesium stores during pregnancy is hypothesized to be the cause of postpartum depression. Iron deficiency is the most common single nutrient deficiency in the world. There is an association between anemia and depressive disorders. Copper has been recognized as an essential element for many years. Iron also plays a vital role in neurological disorders and its levels are relevant to postpartum depression

  19. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  20. Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritoli, Andrea; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bortoli, Daniele; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Kostadinov, Ivan; Oulanovsky, Alexey

    2002-09-01

    An airborne UV-visible spectrometer, the Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, airborne version (GASCOD/A4π) was successfully operated during the Airborne Polar Experiment, Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica airborne campaign from Ushuaia (54°49'S, 68°18'W), Argentina in southern spring 1999. The instrument measured scattered solar radiation through three optical windows with a narrow field of view (FOV), one from the zenith, two from the horizontal, as well as actinic fluxes through 2π FOV radiometric heads. Only a few airborne measurements of scattered solar radiation at different angles from the zenith are available in the literature. With our configuration we attempted to obtain the average line-of-sight concentrations of detectable trace gases. The retrieval method, based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy, is described and results for ozone are shown and compared with measurements from an in situ instrument as the first method of validation.

  1. Trace elements in Jamaican soils Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the analysis of approximately 100 soil samples for Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, As, Sb, Ba, La, Sm, Eu, Dy, Lu, Hf, Th, and U by neutron activation analysis in three soil horizons from four of the main agricultural parishes of Jamaica are presented. While there is some regional variation in the abundances, there are no statistically significant distributions of abundances across the horizons. The results for a few selected elements are compared with abundances in other countries. (author) 17 refs.; 4 tabs

  2. Trace elements in Jamaican soils. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the analysis of approximately 100 soil samples for Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, As, Sb, Ba, La, Sm, Eu, Dy, Lu, Hf, Th and U by neutron activation analysis, in three soil horizons from four of the main agricultural parishes of Jamaica are presented. While there is some regional variation in the abundances, there are no statistically significant distributions of abundances across the horizons. The results for a few selected elements are compared with abundances in other countries. (author)

  3. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  4. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd [Blok 18, Makmal Kimia Analisis (ACA/BAS), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul [Bangunan Sains Nuklear, Fakulti Sains & Teknologi, UKM Bangi, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  5. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  6. Possible reduction in trace element emission into the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency is assessed of trace element separation in solid particles separator facilities in a heat plant (electric separator) and in a steel making factory (textile filter). Fly ash samples were taken before and behind the separator and were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The trace element contents in different samples are tabulated. For the heat plant the levels of Sb, As, Se, Cs and Hg were the highest while for the steel plant the highest figures were found for Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu and Ni. In assessing the operation of separators, the cumulation of trace elements in the finest fraction of solid emission should be taken into consideration. (M.D.). 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs

  7. Wet deposition flux of trace elements to the Adirondack region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet deposition samples from two locations in the Adirondack region of New York were analyzed for trace elemental composition by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Annual fluxes of the measured species were determined by precipitation-weighted and linear-regression methods. Despite several episodes of high deposition fluxes, the cumulative areal wet deposition of trace elements increased fairly linearly (r2 > 0.9) over the two year sampling period at both sites. This implies that short duration sampling programs may be used to estimate long-term fluxes and cumulative wet deposition impacts. Based on the magnitude of their fluxes, the measured species have been divided into four groups: acidic anions, electroneutral balancing cations, and minor and trace elements of anthropogenic origin. (author)

  8. Identifying sources of groundwater pollution using trace element signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple receptor modeling approach has been applied to groundwater pollution studies and has shown that marker trace elements can be used effectively in source identification and apportionment. Groundwater and source materials from one coal-fired and five oil-fired power plants, and one coal-tar deposit site have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for more than 20 minor and trace elements. In one of the oil-fired power plants, trace element patterns indicated a leak from the hazardous waste surface impoundments owing to the failure of a hypolon liner. Also, the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination have been determined in a coal-tar deposit site

  9. Trace element determination in vitamin E using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce de Leon, Claudia A.; Montes Bayon, Maria; Caruso, Joseph A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Vitamin E supplements are either isolated from plants sources or prepared synthetically. Isolation from plants includes eight different tocopherol structures. Vitamin E synthesis includes seven different stereoisomers, which involves the use of several catalysts that may lead to trace element contamination in the vitamin. The use of ICP-MS is an ideal technique for detecting these trace elements. However, the oily nature of the samples requires the development of a sample preparation methodology. This study was done upon the request of synthetic vitamin E manufacturers to test the trace metal purity of their samples. In this work, the comparison of an acid microwave digestion and emulsion preparation is discussed. Cromium, nickel, tin and lead were found in the synthetic vitamin E analyzed and 200, 60, 9 and 45 ppb were the concentrations found respectively for these elements. Digesting the samples gives slightly lower detection limits compared to the emulsion preparation. (orig.)

  10. Trace elements in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis (employed as a complementary technique) have been used to determine the concentration of 11 elements in blood samples and its components erythrocytes and plasma obtained from three groups of subjects in Nigeria viz: sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects, subjects with sickle cell trait and normal control subjects. The results suggest that SCA subjects have significantly higher concentrations of Na, Cl, Ca and Cu in their whole blood and erythrocytes and a higher concentration of Cl and Cu in their plasma relative to control subjects. Furthermore, a significantly lower concentration of K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br and Rb were found in the whole blood and erythrocytes of the SCA subjects as compared to the controls while the concentration of K and Fe in the plasma of the SCA subjects were however, found to be significantly higher than that of the control group. The study also shows that there were no significant differences between the concentration of these 11 elements in the group with sickle cell trait and the normal control group. (author) 20 refs.; 4 tabs

  11. Vitamins and trace elements: practical aspects of supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mette M; Shenkin, Alan

    2006-09-01

    The role of micronutrients in parenteral nutrition include the following: (1) Whenever artificial nutrition is indicated, micronutrients, i.e., vitamins and trace elements, should be given from the first day of artificial nutritional support. (2) Testing blood levels of vitamins and trace elements in acutely ill patients is of very limited value. By using sensible clinical judgment, it is possible to manage patients with only a small amount of laboratory testing. (3) Patients with major burns or major trauma and those with acute renal failure who are on continuous renal replacement therapy or dialysis quickly develop acute deficits in some micronutrients, and immediate supplementation is essential. (4) Other groups at risk are cancer patients, but also pregnant women with hyperemesis and people with anorexia nervosa or other malnutrition or malabsorption states. (5) Clinicians need to treat severe deficits before they become clinical deficiencies. If a patient develops a micronutrient deficiency state while in care, then there has been a severe failure of care. (6) In the early acute phase of recovery from critical illness, where artificial nutrition is generally not indicated, there may still be a need to deliver micronutrients to specific categories of very sick patients. (7) Ideally, trace element preparations should provide a low-manganese product for all and a manganese-free product for certain patients with liver disease. (8) High losses through excretion should be minimized by infusing micronutrients slowly, over as long a period as possible. To avoid interactions, it would be ideal to infuse trace elements and vitamins separately: the trace elements over an initial 12-h period and the vitamins over the next 12-h period. (9) Multivitamin and trace element preparations suitable for most patients requiring parenteral nutrition are widely available, but individual patients may require additional supplements or smaller amounts of certain micronutrients

  12. Trace element geochemistry of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes research conducted during the past year under DOE Contract EY-76-S-09-0890. During this time, studies have been continued in the mid to outer continental shelf region. We have also initiated nearshore studies designed to elucidate processes influencing the fate of trace elements in estuaries and the coastal frontal zone. A smaller effort has been concerned with preliminary geochemical studies of uranium-thorium natural decay series radionuclides and with improvement, calibration, and expansion of our trace element laboratory procedures

  13. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author)

  14. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks). (orig.)

  15. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eight hair strands each of nearly circular cross-section and having approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminium frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved in nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped onto a membrane filter using a micropipette. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Trace elements distribution in the Amazon floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on aluvial soil samples from several sites on the foodplains of the Amazon River and its major tributaries for trace elements determination. The spatial and temporal variations of chemical composition of floodland sediments in the Amazon basin are discussed. No significant difference was found in trace elemental distribution in the floodland soils along the Amazon main channel, even after the source material has been progressively diluted with that from lowland draining tributaries. It was also seen that the average chemical composition of floodplain soils compares well with that of the suspended sedimets. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  18. Effect of trace elements on growth of Pinus tabulaeformis seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The stimulative effect of trace elements on seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus tabulaeformis was tested. The experiments were carried out on seed soak and topdressing with different trace elements and varied concentrat ions at the nursery of Gardens Research Institute, Harbin, in 2000-2001. The experimental results showed that soaking seed with 1% and 0.2% concentrations of Mn element produced best result for seed germination, and the germination rate was increased by 9%~19% for the seeds treated with 1% concentration and 12%~14% for the seeds treated with 0.2% concentration compared with the control group. The seeds treated with boron element had lowest germination rate. For trace element topdressing, Mn and Mo elements presented good result for seedling growth and th e treatment with low concentration was even better. The height or chlorophyll co ntent of the seedlings with spray of low-concentration Mn and Mo element was muc h higher than that of untreated ones. In the contrast to the treating method of seed soak, topdressing (application of spraying on foliage) had evident effect o n seedling growth.

  19. Problems in the diagnosis of trace element deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the metabolism of trace elements (e.g., zinc, copper and manganese) and describes the problems of diagnosing deficiencies of such elements. At the moment, the most promising and sensitive tests for these elements are the response techniques or functional tests where the animal or its serum is treated with the element under study and the response to this treatment measured. Radioisotopes have particular advantages in such tests, but in the future, the use of stable isotope techniques will become increasingly important. (author)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in Japanese hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)

  1. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection limits of 24 important minor and trace elements were studied in NBS SRM-1571 Orchard Leaves, NBS SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, Bowen's kale and IAEA H-4 Animal Muscle using ENAA method with cadmium and cadmium-boron filter. The lower detection limits have been found for elements As, Au, Ba, Br, Cd, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Sm and U by ENAA with cadmium filter and for elements As, Cd, Mo and Ni by ENAA with cadmium-boron filter, respectively, in comparison with INAA method. The results of the determination of elements studied in the above mentioned biological materials are also presented. (author)

  2. Determination of trace elements in plasma protein by SRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method for the relative concentration of trace elements in plasma protein by gel chromatography combined with SRXRF (Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence) was developed. The relative concentration of trace elements was obtained using the normalized Compton scattering intensity of protein in X-ray spectra as a function of protein mass. The male Kunming mice were treated with and without cisplatin. The relative change of elements (Pt, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Sr) contents in the fraction of the plasma proteins (>22 KD) of the mice were obtained. The determination prove that the element Pt in plasma is bound with macro-molecular protein, and that Cu and S are increased while Zn is decrease in the fraction of the protein in mice treated with cisplatin

  3. Distribution of trace elements in spinel and garnet peridotites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of trace elements in the upper mantle has been discussed on the basis of the trace element abundances in bulk rocks and constituent minerals of two spinel and garnet facies peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts from eastern China.The data presented are consistent with the suggestion that highly incompatible elements (Rb,Ba,Th,U,Sr,Nb,Ta) mainly reside in intergranular components,and to a lesser extent in fluid inclusions in minerals.The LILE composition in olivine and orthopyroxene can be seriously affected by the presence of fluid inclusions.Consequently the subsolidus partitioning of the LILE cannot be used to infer the olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt partition coefficients for these elements.There is a significant difference in (Opx/Cpx)HREE ratios for spinel and garnet peridotites,suggesting a P-T control on equilibrium partition coefficients.

  4. Distribution of trace elements in spinel and garnet peridotites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐义刚

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of trace elements in the upper mantle has been discussed on the basis of the trace element abundances in bulk rocks and constituent minerals of two spinel and garnet facies peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts from eastern China. The data presented are consistent with the suggestion that highly incompatible elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U, Sr, Nb, Ta) mainly reside in intergranular components, and to a lesser extent in fluid inclusions in minerals. The LILE composition in olivine and orthopyroxene can be seriously affected by the presence of fluid inclusions. Consequently the subsolidus partitioning of the LILE cannot be used to infer the olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt partition coefficients for these elements. There is a significant difference in (Opx/Cpx)HREE ratios for spinel and garnet peridotites, suggesting a P-T control on equilibrium partition coefficients.

  5. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  6. Trace elements analysis in healthy human hair in Tianjin city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of nine elements Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Se in the hair of 305 children under seven years of age and 248 men above eighteen years of age have been analysed by XRF method. The results are compared among the city of Tianjin, Shanghai and other foreign regions. The relations between the amount of trace elements in human hair and growth of body, infirmities of age, properties of soil and food compositions are discussed

  7. Trace element impurity determination in aspirin tablets by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess trace element concentrations in six samples of aspirin tablets acquired in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Sc and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained with published data for aspirins from foreign countries. Certified reference materials, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs were analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  8. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELECTED TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were...

  9. The EU network on trace element speciation in full swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelis, R.; Camara, C.; Ebdon, L.;

    2000-01-01

    The EC-funded thematic network 'Speciation 21' links scientists in analytical chemistry working in method development for the chemical speciation of trace elements, and potential users from industry and representatives of legislative agencies, in the field of environment, food and occupational...

  10. Trace elements in higher fungi (mushrooms) determined by activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řanda, Zdeněk; Kučera, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 259, č. 1 (2004), s. 99-107. ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : trace elements * activation analysis * mushrooms Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2004

  11. PIXE analysis of trace elements in Genus Hippophae L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in four kinds of the Genus Hippophae L pulps were analysed by PIXE. Optimization of the system performance was done by carefully selecting the absorbers. Analytical sensitivities of the PIXE system were obtained by means of 'external standard method'

  12. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of application of lichens and mosses as biomonitors of air pollution have been presented. The neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy have been used for trace element content determination in lichens and mosses taken from different regions of Europe

  13. Measurement of trace elements in liver biopsy samples from cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Zeeuw, de A.C.; Moen, A.; Counotte, G.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Serum, plasma, or urine samples are usually used for the measurement of the trace elements copper, zinc, iron, selenium, because these samples are easy to obtain; however, these samples are not always appropriate. For example, it is not possible to measure molybdenum, the major antagonist of copper,

  14. Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather; Rusk, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz occurs in a wide range of geologic environments throughout the Earth's crust. The concentration and distribution of trace elements in quartz provide information such as temperature and other physical conditions of formation. Trace element analyses with modern electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) instruments can achieve 99% confidence detection of ~100 ppm with fairly minimal effort for many elements in samples of low to moderate average atomic number such as many common oxides and silicates. However, trace element measurements below 100 ppm in many materials are limited, not only by the precision of the background measurement, but also by the accuracy with which background levels are determined. A new "blank" correction algorithm has been developed and tested on both Cameca and JEOL instruments, which applies a quantitative correction to the emitted X-ray intensities during the iteration of the sample matrix correction based on a zero level (or known trace) abundance calibration standard. This iterated blank correction, when combined with improved background fit models, and an "aggregate" intensity calculation utilizing multiple spectrometer intensities in software for greater geometric efficiency, yields a detection limit of 2 to 3 ppm for Ti and 6 to 7 ppm for Al in quartz at 99% t-test confidence with similar levels for absolute accuracy.

  15. Accumulation of trace elements by Pistia stratiotes: implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjegba, V J; Fasidi, I O

    2004-10-01

    The toxicity of eight potentially toxic trace elements (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) to Pistia stratiotes was examined to determine if this plant showed sufficient tolerance and metal accumulation to be used to phytoremediate waste water and/or natural water bodies polluted with these heavy metals. Young plants of equal size were grown hydroponically and amended with 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM of each heavy metal individually for 21 days. Root elongation as well as emergence of new roots decreased significantly with increase in metal concentrations. The plant had the lowest and the highest tolerance indices for Hg and Zn respectively. The study indicated reduction in the rate of leaf expansion relative to metal type, their concentrations and the duration of exposure. A significant reduction in biomass production was observed in metal treated plants compared with the control plants. The relative growth rate of P. stratiotes was retarded by heavy metals under study. All trace elements accumulated to higher concentrations in root tissue rather than in shoot. Trace element accumulation in tissues and the bioconcentration factors were proportional to the initial concentration of individual metals in the growth medium and the duration of exposure. In terms of trace element removal, P. stratiotes presented differential accumulation and tolerance levels for different metals at similar treatment conditions. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed. PMID:15673213

  16. Trace elements in the atmosphere over South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural sources of trace elements in the atmosphere are suspended soil particles, the evaporation of sea spray and smoke from veld fires. In urban and industrialised areas the main sources are fossil-fuel power plants, metallurgical smelters, blast furnaces, incinerators, automobiles, fossil-fueled locomotives and open fires in the Black townships. Often a source can be recognised by the relative concentrations of particular trace elements. A monitoring programme was established in 1974 by the Air Pollution Research Group of the CSIR and the Isotope and Radiation Division of the Atomic Energy Board in order to study the levels of trace elements in urban areas such as Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Durban, to measure the effects of industrialisation on trace elements levels in developing areas such as Richards Bay and Saldanha Bay and also to determine baseline values in rural areas. Extremely sensitive analytical techniques, e.g. neutron activation and atomic absorption were used for the analyses of filter samples. Methods of sampling and analysis are discussed and the preliminary results of this programme are presented

  17. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  18. Use of seaweeds for monitoring trace elements in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, R; Rossbach, M

    1996-06-01

    Concentrations of a wide range of trace elements: arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, hafnium, nickel, thorium, uranium, zinc and the rare earth elements, cerium, europium, samarium, terbium and ytterbium were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the brown alga,Fucus vesiculosus from Eckwarder Hörne, North Sea and from Rügen, Baltic Sea. Another brown alga,Sargassum filipendula from Sri Lanka, Indian ocean (representing an unpolluted control station) was similarly investigated. Cobalt, chromium and nickel concentrations were highest inF. vesiculosus from the North Sea while zinc was highest in samples from the Baltic Sea, reflecting high levels of these elements in coastal waters of the North and the Baltic sea. Cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc levels were lowest inS. filipendula from Sri Lanka, probably demonstrating lower levels of those elements in coastal waters. Concentration levels of hafnium, thorium, uranium, and the rare earth elements were highest inS. filipendula. Two years later in 1994,S. filipendula along withUlva sp. (green alga) was resampled from the same sampling site, and in addition to the above elements, six other trace elements (Ag, Ba, Br, Rb, Se and Sr) were determined.Sargassium filipendula showed a particular affinity for Ag, As, Br and Sr. For the other elements, marginal concentration differences were observed betweenS. filipendula andUlva sp., probably reflecting the regional background levels. Substantially higher concentrations of Hf, Th, U, and the rare earths were found again in the 1994Sargassum andUlva samples, reflecting the effect of a substrate rich in rare earth elements. The brown algae used in this study may be used to monitor trace elements in coastal waters. PMID:24194376

  19. Direct observation of two dimensional trace gas distributions with an airborne Imaging DOAS instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-P. Heue

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In many investigations of tropospheric chemistry information about the two dimensional distribution of trace gases on a small scale (e.g. tens to hundreds of metres is highly desirable. An airborne instrument based on imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy has been built to map the two dimensional distribution of a series of relevant trace gases including NO2, HCHO, C2H2O2, H2O, O4, SO2, and BrO on a scale of 100 m.

    Here we report on the first tests of the novel aircraft instrument over the industrialised South African Highveld, where large variations in NO2 column densities in the immediate vicinity of several sources e.g. power plants or steel works, were measured. The observed patterns in the trace gas distribution are interpreted with respect to flux estimates, and it is seen that the fine resolution of the measurements allows separate sources in close proximity to one another to be distinguished.

  20. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. PMID:26278373

  1. Investigation of some trace elements in Sudanese snuff (toombak)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toombak is a local from of snuff widely used in Sudan. Dipping snuff is a common habit in Sudanese male subject. Many reports have related the high incidence rate of oral cancer and other types of cancer in Sudanese subjects to this habit. Trace elements such as Cu, Co, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy in soil on which toombak is grown, toombak leaves ready to use and nitron. The average concentration (μ/g) of these elements in soil and toombak leaves were found to be 60.8 and 18.1 (Cu), 72.2 and 50.9 (Zn), 48.4 and 19.9 (Co), 398.6 and 211.7 (Mn), 17391.9 and 6410.7 (Fe), 16.1 and 5.3 (Cr), 27.7 and 7.9 )Pb), 7.2, and 4.8 (Cd), respectively. The concentration of trace elements in ready to use were found to be 10.77 for Cu, 35.1 for Zn, 22.9 for Co, 448.7 for Mn, 6833.97 for Fe, 4.16 for Cr, 8.8 for Pb, and 5.72 for Cd. For the nitron the average of trace elements content in nitron samples were found 1.27 for Cu, 18.5 for Zn, 2.7 for Co, 76.5 for Mn 2129.2 for Fe, 2.73 for Cr, 3.74 for Pb, and 0.57 for Cd. Sudanese soils were found to be rich in trace elements (Cu,Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Cd) and their levels are consider to be sufficient and normal for plant up take. The levels of trace elements in the toombak were higher than those reported in the literature with respect to copper and cadmium, where lead and zinc fall within the range. Soil to plant transferers factor was determined and found to be less than unity. The correlation coefficient between concentrations of trace elements in soils, and their soil- to toombak transfer factors divided the elements into two group , first group have inverse correlation while the second group is independent of their soil concentration. The correlation factor between soil and plant show strong correlation between Cu-Zn, Pb-Zn, Co-Fe and Pb-Cd. (Author)

  2. Association of trace elements with iron oxides during rock weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of trace elements with Fe oxides during the early stages of rock weathering was determined by analysis of fresh diabase and granite rocks, their associated whole and size-separated saprolites, and goethite by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence. The same elements are found to be associated with Fe oxides when the results are interpreted by analysis of correlation, by the distribution of elements in the various size fractions by the effects of removing free Fe oxides, and by direct analysis of geothite from the saprolite. The elements Co, Cr, Mn, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of diabase, and As, Co, Cr, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of granite are associated with Fe oxides. The concentrations of Mn are too low in this system to separate the effects of Mn oxides from those of Fe oxides

  3. Quantitative trace element analysis with sub-micron lateral resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years many nuclear microprobes have developed to sophisticated tools for elemental analysis with high resolutions down to about 1 μm micron. The application to trace element analysis is mainly in the field of biological and medical research. Numerous successful studies on microscopic scale structures, e.g. cells, lead to the demand for higher spatial resolution or lower detection limits. Therefore, several labs started new efforts for sub-micron resolutions, sometimes intending 100 nm. The Leipzig microprobe laboratory LIPSION has recently improved its analytical capabilities. We are now able to perform quantitative trace element analysis with sub-micron spatial resolution (beam diameter 0.5 μm at 120 pA). As an example we give the trace element distribution in neuromelanin (intracellular pigment of neurons). Furthermore, when the scan size is reduced from cellular level, i.e. about 50 μm, to sub-cellular level of about 10 μm, the beam diameter can further be reduced by choosing smaller object diaphragms. The unavoidable reduction in beam current will not affect the mapping sensitivity unless the accumulated charge per spatial resolution is not decreased. The smallest beam diameter with analytical capabilities for elemental analysis we achieved thus far was about 300 nm in diameter. It enables an outstanding microPIXE resolution. However, some difficulties appeared in high-resolution work, which limited the acquisition time to less than 30 min

  4. Quantitative trace element analysis with sub-micron lateral resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, Tilo [Nukleare Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: reinert@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Spemann, Daniel [Nukleare Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Morawski, Markus [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Arendt, Thomas [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    In recent years many nuclear microprobes have developed to sophisticated tools for elemental analysis with high resolutions down to about 1 {mu}m micron. The application to trace element analysis is mainly in the field of biological and medical research. Numerous successful studies on microscopic scale structures, e.g. cells, lead to the demand for higher spatial resolution or lower detection limits. Therefore, several labs started new efforts for sub-micron resolutions, sometimes intending 100 nm. The Leipzig microprobe laboratory LIPSION has recently improved its analytical capabilities. We are now able to perform quantitative trace element analysis with sub-micron spatial resolution (beam diameter 0.5 {mu}m at 120 pA). As an example we give the trace element distribution in neuromelanin (intracellular pigment of neurons). Furthermore, when the scan size is reduced from cellular level, i.e. about 50 {mu}m, to sub-cellular level of about 10 {mu}m, the beam diameter can further be reduced by choosing smaller object diaphragms. The unavoidable reduction in beam current will not affect the mapping sensitivity unless the accumulated charge per spatial resolution is not decreased. The smallest beam diameter with analytical capabilities for elemental analysis we achieved thus far was about 300 nm in diameter. It enables an outstanding microPIXE resolution. However, some difficulties appeared in high-resolution work, which limited the acquisition time to less than 30 min.

  5. Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis - A PIXE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, P.; Raychaudhuri, S. [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Genetics, Calcutta University, 92 APC Road, Kolkata, 700009 West Bengal (India); Mishra, D.; Chakraborty, A. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, 700098 West Bengal (India); Sudarshan, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, 700098 West Bengal (India)], E-mail: sude@alpha.iuc.res.in

    2008-03-15

    Proton induced X-ray emission was used to study the trace elemental profiles of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of an important cash crop of India -Plantago ovata. Somatic embryogenesis, a well-known process for plant regeneration and crop improvement is modulated by various factors such as ionizing radiation and micro nutrients in the growth media. The present work reports the trace element variation in normal and irradiated callus tissue of P. ovata. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues were exposed to gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co gamma source. The absorbed dose ranged from 10 to 100 Gy. Subsequent experiments showed significant dose dependent alterations in K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. The precise involvement of these elements has been discussed in light of somatic embryogenesis of the selected medicinal plant.

  6. Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis - A PIXE study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray emission was used to study the trace elemental profiles of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of an important cash crop of India -Plantago ovata. Somatic embryogenesis, a well-known process for plant regeneration and crop improvement is modulated by various factors such as ionizing radiation and micro nutrients in the growth media. The present work reports the trace element variation in normal and irradiated callus tissue of P. ovata. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues were exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co gamma source. The absorbed dose ranged from 10 to 100 Gy. Subsequent experiments showed significant dose dependent alterations in K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. The precise involvement of these elements has been discussed in light of somatic embryogenesis of the selected medicinal plant

  7. Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis A PIXE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Mishra, D.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.

    2008-03-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission was used to study the trace elemental profiles of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of an important cash crop of India - Plantago ovata. Somatic embryogenesis, a well-known process for plant regeneration and crop improvement is modulated by various factors such as ionizing radiation and micro nutrients in the growth media. The present work reports the trace element variation in normal and irradiated callus tissue of P. ovata. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues were exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co gamma source. The absorbed dose ranged from 10 to 100 Gy. Subsequent experiments showed significant dose dependent alterations in K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. The precise involvement of these elements has been discussed in light of somatic embryogenesis of the selected medicinal plant.

  8. A review of radiologically important trace elements in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature for minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. Various aspects of elemental composition, analytical methodologies, quality assurance and quality control methods for hard tissue analysis were evaluated. Important data on selected radiologically important elements (Cs, Pu, Ra, Sr, Th and U) in calcified tissue from various countries are discussed. The results of this compilation study suggest a need for new reference materials with matrix properties similar to bones including one with separated cortical and trabecular segments

  9. Sources of trace elements in total diet. A statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen total diet samples have been collected from two socioeconomic groups in Turkey by duplicate portion techniques. Samples were homogenized with titanium-blade homogenizer, freeze dried and analyzed for their minor and trace elements mostly by neutron activation analysis. Bread and flour samples were also collected from the same regions and analyzed similarly by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Concentrations of more than 25 elements in total diets, bread and flour, and fiber and phytate in total diets have been determined. Daily dietary intakes of these population groups, probable source of elements through correlation coefficients, and enrichment factor calculations have been determined. (author)

  10. Trace element analysis of human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE technique was used to analyse the elemental composition of human hair. The PIXE experimental facility used in the Institute of High Energy Physics was described. The methods of sample preparation and elemental quantitative analysis were introduced in detail. The intercomparison material taken for trace element studies form human hair was analysed and the results were in good agreement with the other well established traditional methods. The hair from patients with hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson's disease) was also analysed and compared with that from normal persons. The apparent abnormality of calcium and copper contents in the patient's hair were not observed

  11. Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution: Principles, possibilities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses the biomonitoring of trace element air pollution. Much attention is given to both lichens and mosses as the dominant plant species used in biomonitoring surveys. Biomonitoring is regarded as a means to assess trace element concentrations in aerosols and deposition. This implies that the monitor should concentrate the elements of interest and quantitatively reflect its elemental ambient conditions. Environmental impact on the biomonitor's behaviour is viewed as resulting in changes in the dose-response relationships. The current literature is briefly reviewed, for plant's behaviour modelling, for laboratory studies on physiological processes responsible for accumulation, retention, and release, and for fieldwork on quantification of dose-response relationships. Monitoring of elemental atmospheric availability is presented as deriving its relevance from presumed impact on both ecosystem performance and human health; source apportionment is regarded as an important parallel result for purposes of emission regulatory management. For source apportionment, the paper argues in favour of multi-elemental determinations, supplemented by information on organic compounds and elemental chemical forms. Furthermore, the discussion points towards more explicit coupling of biomonitoring data to knowledge and databases on emission registration, ecosystem performance, and human health. This means that multidisciplinary programs should be set up, which accommodate expert inputs from biomonitoring, emission control programs, analytical chemistry, ecology, and epidemiology. (author)

  12. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  13. Sorption Behaviour of Trace Elements in Human Hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has already been shown by different investigators that the trace element concentrations of human hair, as determined by neutron activation analysis, can easily be influenced by external factors such as washing liquids, sweat etc, This is important when considering the proposed use of trace element concentrations in hair as a means of distinguishing between individuals. In this paper adsorption and desorption experiments are described by which it was possible to obtain more quantitative data about mass transport into and out of the hair. In these experiments use was made of tracer techniques as well as neutron activation analysis. The overall change in the concentration of trace elements in hair can be described mathematically as a rapid adjustment of an adsorption equilibrium at the hair surface followed by a slow diffusion through the cylindrical hair. Diffusion constants for a number of ions were found to lie between 10-13 and 10-18 m2/s. Moreover, the maximum uptake of elements can vary over several orders of magnitude. Some consequences of these findings in crime detection will be discussed. (author)

  14. Radioactivity and trace element contents of commercial chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive elements uranium, thorium and their daughters are present ubiquitously in the environment and are transferred to man through various pathways. Both, U and Th can cause radiological and toxic hazards. The ingestion dose pathway calculations involve analysis of all kinds of food or edible materials. A large population in India and Asian subcontinent are addicted to commercially available chewing tobacco. This practice is reported to have lead to increased consequences of cancer. Trace elements (Fe, Co, Mn, Zn etc.) are essential but may also prove to be toxic if present in excess. Besides these the hazards of heavy elements like Pb and Cd have also increased in the current polluted environment. In this study most of the commercially available brands of gutkha and chewing tobacco were collected. The radioactive elements U and Th were analyzed in them by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Trace elements Fe, Co, Mn, Zn, and toxic heavy elements Pb, Cd, Ni etc. were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Th and U were in the range 0.02-0.11 mg/g and 0.02-0.08 mg/g respectively. The cancer risk due to U, Th, Pb and Cd were calculated and are found to be low. (author)

  15. Trace elements and carcinogenicity: a subject in review

    OpenAIRE

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is known to be a multi-step process, which involves different stages including initiation, promotion, progression and metastasis. Chemical carcinogens including most trace elements can change any of these processes to induce their carcinogenic effects. Various studies confirm that cancer arises from the accumulation of irreversible DNA damage, which results from multiple mutations in critical genes in the body organ. Chemical carcinogens most often directly or after xenobiotic metaboli...

  16. Safety of food crops on land contaminated with trace elements

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, B. R.; Gupta, S K; Azaizeh, H; Shilev, S; Sudre, D; Song, W. Y.; Martinoia, E; Mench, M.

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of agricultural soils with trace elements (TEs) through municipal and industrial wastes, atmospheric deposition and fertilisers is a matter of great global concern. Since TE accumulation in edible plant parts depends on soil characteristics, plant genotype and agricultural practices, those soil- and plant-specific options that restrict the entry of harmful TEs into the food chain to protect human and animal health are reviewed. Soil options such as in situ stabilisation of TEs i...

  17. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  18. Monitoring of trace element in groundwater by DGT

    OpenAIRE

    Ghestem, Jean Philippe; Laurioux, Thierry; Capdeville, Robin

    2011-01-01

    DGT passive samplers, are often used for the monitoring of trace elements in inland or marine surface waters. In these contexts, they offer significant advantages over spot sampling by their performance in terms of preconcentration and integration of changes in concentration over time. At the opposite, there is little application of these tools for underground water context. The needs for underground water monitoring are not the same as surface water. However it seems interesting to test the ...

  19. Psychostimulant and nootropic effect of major and trace element composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, O G; Suslov, N I; Shilova, I V

    2012-12-01

    We studied the effect of a composition of major and trace elements including calcium chloride, sodium chloride, iron (II) sulfate, zinc sulfate, chromium (III) chloride, and potassium bromide on orientation and exploratory behavior and conditioned response of animals in the open field test and conditioned drinking response in a multiple T-maze with three junctions. The test compound exhibited psychostimulant and nootropic activities. PMID:23330131

  20. Uptake and distribution of trace elements in growing cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multitracer technique was used to study the uptake and distribution of some relatively long half-life radionuclides Be, Na, Mn, Co, Sc to growing cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) with two different treatments. In Hoagland solution, only 54Mn and 60Co accumulated in the every part of plants. 54Mn, 60Co and other radionuclides were absorbed in distilled water. The results indicate that there were major differences in the accumulation of trace elements between the two different treatments. (author)

  1. Trace element analysis of human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE was used to analyze trace elements in human hair. Using an external beam, hair from workers exposed to GaAs was examined. The results are in fairly food agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the PIXE technique in vacuum hair from mentally defective children was analyzed and compared with the hair of normal children. In a similar way, hair from 3200 year old preserved mummy was studied. (orig.)

  2. TRACE ELEMENTS SORPTION BY THE CHITOSAN-BASED MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Pogorielov M. V.; Gusak Ye.V.; Babich I.M.; Kalinkevich O. V.; Kalinkevich A. N.; Somokhvalov I.I.; Danilchenko S.N.; Skliar A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The most important function of enterosorbents is their ability to bind toxins both of exogenous and endogenous origin. Wide range of commercial sorbents applies in various intoxications, poisonings or infections, pathology of liver, pancreas or kidney with chronic renal failure. The toxic trace elements are determined among the most spread toxins. They get into the organism in different ways, including nutritional. Majority of the known sorbents exhibit high absorption properties for this typ...

  3. Trace element evaluation of rice and husk by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was used to study the prevailing levels of certain inorganic trace elements in different varieties of rice in Pakistan. The results were compared with those of other countries. The elemental ratios within rice and rice to husk were computed to evaluate indirectly the impact of soil and environment on the rice crops. The dietary spectrum for the inhabitants of Rawalpindi/Islamabad areas was evaluated by estimating the daily intake and comparing with allowances suggested in the literature. (author) 35 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  4. Trace element composition in sediments of the Amazonian Lake Cristalino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake Cristalino is a small lake adjacent to the Negro River near Manaus and not far from the Amazonas River, in the central Amazon basin. The lake is fed seasonally by waters of the Negro River, a blackwater river with low levels of nutrients and suspended solids (7 g m-3). However, some investigations have established that Lake Cristalino has a high sedimentation rate (0.4-0.5 cm year-l) similar to those in the alluvial floodplain lakes of the Amazonas River (suspended solids 200-300 g m-3). Sediment cores were taken during the low-water period and the trace-element composition and the natural radioactivity in the lake were examined. The results show a core (31 cm length) relatively uniform in concentrations of trace elements (Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb and Zn), and the presence of 137Cs in the first half. Concentrations of trace elements in Lake Cristalino sediments were not correlated with concentrations in the sediments of its parent river, the Negro River, or with concentrations in soils of the local area. However, significant correlation was found between the sediments of the lake and those of the Amazonas River. On the basis of these results, and water-level data at Manaus port, it is concluded that the lake occasionally receives variable amounts of sediment from the Amazonas River. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Molybdenite Mineral Evolution: A Study Of Trace Elements Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, M. M.; Downs, R. T.; Stein, H. J.; Zimmerman, A.; Beitscher, B. A.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Papineau, D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Hazen, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral evolution explores changes through time in Earth’s near-surface mineralogy, including diversity of species, relative abundances of species, and compositional ranges of major, minor and trace elements. Such studies elucidate the co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere. Accordingly, we investigated trace and minor elements in molybdenite (MoS2) with known ages from 3 billion years to recent. Molybdenite, the commonest mineral of Mo, may prove to be a useful case study as a consequence of its presence in Earth’s early history, the effects of oxidation on Mo mobility, and the possible role of Mo mineral coevolution with biology via its role in the nitrogen fixation enzyme nitrogenase. We employed ICPMS, SEM and electron microprobe analyses to detect trace and minor elements. We detected significant amounts of Mn and Cu (~100 ppm) and greater amounts of Fe, W, and Re (to ~4000 ppm). Molybdenites commonly contain micro inclusions, resulting in local concentrations in otherwise homogeneous samples. Inhomogeneities in Fe, Zn and Sn concentrations, for example, point to the presence of pyrite, sphalerite and cassiterite inclusions, respectively. Analyses examined as a function of time reveal that samples containing significant concentrations (>200 ppm, compared to average values < 100 ppm) of W and Re formed primarily within the last billion years. These trends may reflect changes in the mobility of W and Re in oxic hydrothermal fluids at shallow crustal conditions following the Great Oxidation Event.

  6. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  7. Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19F(p,ag)16O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues, enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction

  8. Characteristics and environmental mobility of trace elements in urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, U M; Balasubramanian, R

    2010-06-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of various trace elements in water and suspended solids in urban runoff from residential and industrial sites was studied. 240 sequential urban runoff samples from 39 rain/storm events were collected, processed and analyzed for 13 elements (12 metals - Al, Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, Ti, V, and Zn, and one metalloid--As). The experimental protocol used in this study was validated using standard reference material (NIST 1648, urban particulate matter) and certified rain water samples. Good agreement was obtained between the certified and measured values. Al, Fe and Zn were found to be abundant in both residential and industrial runoffs. Some of the metals demonstrated first flush phenomena. Investigation of dissolved fraction, environmentally mobile fraction and total concentration for the 13 elements revealed that trace elements in industrial runoff were highly enriched as compared to those in the residential runoff. The environmentally mobile fraction was quite significant for most of the trace elements. Statistical correlations among the metals were studied, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used for identification of the major sources of the metals/metalloid in both residential and industrial runoffs. Crustal leaching, paints from building walls, and atmospheric deposition were found to be the main sources of metals/metalloid in runoff from the residential site while emissions from petrochemical and semiconductor industries, metal corrosion and vehicular emissions were the main sources of metals/metalloid in runoff from the industrial site. These results are presented and discussed in this paper. PMID:20444492

  9. Determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in various environmental samples by spark source mass spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical concentration-mass spectrographic procedure was described for the determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in various environmental samples: airborne particulate matter, dustfall, soil and so forth. A 0.5 to 1 gram of sample material was decomposed by fusion with sodium carbonate. The silica dehydrated in the usual way was filtered off and the filtrate from the silica was then treated with ammonium hydroxide to precipitate the rare earth elements. After ignition of the precipitate, two ml of internal standard solution containing 20 μg/ml of silver were added and the mixture was then evaporated to dryness. The residue was mixed with an equal amount of graphite powder and then pressed into electrodes. Relative sensitivity coefficients (Ag=1.0) were determined by using Spex Mix and U. S. Geological Survey rock standard G-2. U. S. Geological Survey rock standard GSP-1 and N.B.S. coal fly ash SRM 1633 were analysed to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. Comparison of the mass spectral values with literature ones indicated a good agreement. The coefficient of variation obtained by replicate analysis of SRM 1633 was better than 25%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of rare earth elements in airborne particulate matter and dustfall collected on polystyrene filter and in dustjars, respectively. Results for the rare earth elements in the blank of glass fiber filter which was widely used for the collection of airborne particulate matter were also presented. (auth.)

  10. Trace elements in the aquatic bird food chain at the North Ponds, Texaco Refinery, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to determine nesting success of aquatic birds, trace element concentrations in the aquatic food chain, and whether trace elements...

  11. Impact of trace elements on biocompatibility of titanium scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A titanium oxide scaffold has recently been reported with high compressive strength (>2 MPa) which may allow its use in bone. However, would it be possible to enhance the scaffolds' performance by selecting a titanium oxide raw material without elemental contamination? Elements in implant surfaces have been reported to provoke implant failure. Thus, this study aims to compare different commercial titanium dioxide powders in order to choose the appropriate powder for scaffold making. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis identified the trace elements, mainly Al, Si, C, Ca and P. Cellular response was measured by cytotoxic effect, cell growth and cytokine secretion from murine preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) in vitro. The XPS data showed that traces of carbon-based molecules, silicon, nitrogen and aluminium in the powder were greatly reduced after cleaning in 1 M NaOH. As a result, reduction in cytotoxicity and inflammatory response was observed. Carbon contamination seemed to have a minor effect on the cellular response. Strong correlations were found between Al and Si contamination levels and the inflammatory response and cytotoxic effect. Thus, it is suggested that the concentration of these elements should be reduced in order to enhance the scaffolds' biocompatibility.

  12. Transfer of trace elements in the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon basin is the world's largest system both in terms of drainage area, 7x106 km2, and sediment discharge, about 1.3x109 tons of solid suspended material each year. It is located at northern South America in the equatorial zone, extending through nine countries, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guyana, and Brazil, where is the majority (70%) of the total area. The Amazon basin is geologically limited in the west by the Andes Cordillera, in the south by the Brazilian altiplain, in the north by the Guyana mountains and in the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the most fabulous natural ecosystem of the world, remaining in a perfect state of equilibrium, not yet deeply studied. The development of mathematic models describing its dynamics is very important for its comprehension and preservation. Trace elements, in special the rare earth elements, can be useful to elaborate such models. Several processes in rivers and estuaries have been investigated through the use of REEs as tracers, addressing the riverine input of elements to the oceans from continents. Trace elements were also used to elaborate a model for chemical exchange from the water to the sediments and the subsequent release from the sediments into the water. (5 refs., 6 figs.)

  13. Determination of elemental composition of airborne dust and dust suspended in rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the magnitude of wash-out effect of rain on the elemental composition of airborne dust and the possible origin of the dust, the dust samples were collected with a high-volume air sampler at the JAERI-Tokai. The dust suspended in rain was also collected from rain by filtration. Up to 20 elements in both types of the dust were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was found that the elements determined could be classified into 3 groups from the elemental composition and the elemental correlation in both types of the dust samples. (author)

  14. PIXE analysis for bioaccumulation studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation by micro-alga in the ocean was simulated in nutritive seawater containing known amounts of trace metals, and the concentration factors for Fe, Zn and Cd were measured by PIXE. Trace transition metals in nearshore seawater were removed by Chelex-100. Then a culture solution was prepared by adding known amounts of trace metals and nutritive salts to the purified seawater. Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., and Phaeodactylum sp.,) were purely cultured in the culture solution. An interested metal ion was added to the culture solution (0.01-5.0 mg/l). Alga in 10 ml of the culture solution was collected on a polycarbonate filter (pore size: 1.0 ) by suction filtration and subjected to 2.9 MeV proton bombardment. Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cd were simultaneously determined. PIXE multi-element analysis was possible using less than 1 mg of analytical sample. The quantity of the metal in the alga was increased in proportion to the concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factors for Zn, Fe and Cd were measured, e.g., 10200 ± 300 ml/g to Zn for Phaeodactylum. The trend of the affinity for the trace metals in the case of Nannochloropsis was Fe3+ > Zn2+ > Pb2+ > Cd2+. (author)

  15. Determination of Trace Elements in the Sakumo Wetland Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laar Cynthia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the current pollution status of the Sakumo wetland with the aim of identifying factors affecting the long-term integrity of the wetland ecosystem. Sediment samples from the Sakumo wetland were analysed for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA coupled with the conventional counting system. The sediment materials exhibited higher concentrations of trace elements Cd (maximum; 0.041 mg/kg, Co (maximum; 0.64 mg/kg, Cr (maximum; 30.73 mg/kg, Cu (maximum; 22.89 mg/kg, Ni (maximum; 11.69 mg/kg and Zn (maximum; 6.52 mg/kg. In some of the lagoon sediments compared with their levels in world average soils, the average concentrations of the trace elements in general are below or within levels in world average soils/uncontaminated soils. Concentrations of Ni showed positive correlation with Cr whilst Co correlated positively with Cr and Zn. However, lack of correlation between Fe and Cd, suggests that the influence of these parameters on the distribution of trace metals is not important.

  16. Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, P. L.; Weisend, R.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Trace element cycling in marine particles is influenced by atmospheric deposition, vertical export, biological uptake and remineralization, scavenging, and lateral transport processes. To investigate the cycling of lithogenic particles in the central North Pacific Ocean, surface and vertical profile samples of marine suspended particulate matter (SPM) were collected July-August 2012 during the HOE-DYLAN cruises at Station ALOHA. In the late summer, atmospheric dust inputs from the Gobi desert (which peak during the spring, April-May) were sparse, as indicated by low surface particulate Ti (pTi) concentrations. In contrast, surface pAl concentrations did not follow pTi trends as expected, but appear to be dominated by scavenging/uptake of dissolved Al during diatom blooms. Surface pMn concentrations were low, but vertical profiles of pMn and pMn/pTi reveal a strong sedimentary source at 200 m, originating from the Hawaiian continental shelf through a combination of redox mobilization and resuspension processes. The redox active elements Ce and Co can have chemistries similar to that of Mn, but in these samples the pCe and pCo distributions were distinct from Mn and each other in both surface trends and vertical profiles. Surface pREE (e.g., La, Ce, Pr) were highest during the earliest sampling events and quickly decreased to consistently low concentrations, while vertical distributions were characterized by scavenging onto biotic particles and mid-depth inputs. The surface particulate Co trend is similar to those of pAl and pP, while the pCo vertical profiles reflect surface enrichment but low concentrations and little variability at depth. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the biological influence over particulate trace element cycling (Weisend et al., "Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA").

  17. Geochemical Peculiarities of the Distribution of Trace Elements in Caustobioliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punanova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    This research covers the latest data on the quantitative and qualitative contents of trace elements (TE) in naphtides. This work is based on the analysis and generalization of the large volume of scientific literature as well as on the author's analytical research covering oils and organic matter of rocks of different fascial composition and thermal maturity, collected from the wide range of depths in the fields of Volgo-Ural, Western Siberia, Timan-Pechiora, South Caspian, North Caucasian-Mangyshlak, and other oil and gas-bearing basins (OGB). Analysis of TE contents of oils, coals, oil-and-black shales - caustobioliths of the single genetic series - has been undertaken. The scientific and practical interest in the information on shale formations is connected with the prospects that they offer for extraction and industrial utilization of the trace elements. It is shown that the ontogenesis of naphtides is accompanied by the functional transformation of both the organic components (hydrocarbons) and non-organic components (various metal and non-metal compositions). Possible origins of accumulation of trace elements in oils were evaluated. Classification of oils of oil-and-gas bearing basins of different tectonic structure based on their physical and chemical properties as well as the contents and ratios of their "biogenesis" elements (V, Ni, Fe) were performed. It was shown that the differentiation of naphtides is due to lithophascial conditions of deposition of the original organic matter and also due to diagenic, cathagenic and hypergenic processes of the evolution of the hydrocarbons. The most significant redistribution in the concentrations of some of the metals occur during the hypergenic transformations of oils. Existence of oils with different metallogeny is related to the contents of the original organic matter and the processes of the transformation of hydrocarbon fluids during the course of geological development of the OGB.

  18. Temporal and spatial trends studied by lichen analysis: atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspiazu, J.; Cervantes, L.; Ramirez, J.; Lopez, J.; Villasenor, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ramos, R.; Munoz, R. [Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Gestion Ambiental del Aire, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Ball moss on Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, was transplanted to thirteen bio-monitoring sites in the downtown and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (which cover a surface of 9,560 km{sup 2}) during the periods August 2002 - January 2003 and July 2003 - October 2003. A total of 52 lichens (weighing 300 g) were transplanted to each place. Two were analysed as zero or reference, El Chico National Park, a location 100 Km upwind from the city and the remaining 26 were hung in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplanted tree month, out of every season over a one-year period. The concentrations were measured by the quantitative PIXE method based on an extemal beam facility. The atmospheric deposition for trace elements was inferred by its concentration in lichen samples collected in 2002 from 13 sites in Mexico and compared with data from a similar survey in 2003. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and other elements was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after a geostatistical estimate of the metal concentration in the sample was made. Maps were drawn for all elements with the estimated values. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals, reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. The deposition patterns of V, As, Se, Cd and Pb are substantially influenced by long-range transport from other parts of Mexico City. For Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, the deposition patterns are largely determined by contribution from point sources within Mexico and in the metropolitan area. The lichen data for Br and, in part, Se reflect an airborne supply from the environment. Contributions to trace element concentrations in lichen sources other than atmospheric deposition are identified and discussed. The Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (Author)

  19. A study on some trace elements in Chilean seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of essential and toxic trace elements in six marine species greatly in demand in the international market (canned pink clams, razor clams, clams, king crab, sardines, and frozen albacore tuna fish) were studied. A special laboratory adequately equipped for handling and preparing biological materials, is described. The elements As, Br, Na, Se, Hg, Cr, Fe, Zn and Rb were determined by INAA, while copper and cadmium content were determined using RNAA. Significant differences were found on comparing the contents of some toxic elements in mollusk and other samples of marine food. Various certified reference materials (CRMs) of the IAEA, NIST and NIES were analyzed for quality assurance purposes. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  20. Trace elements retained in washed nuclear fuel reprocessing solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of purified TBP extractant from solvent extraction processes at Savannah River Plant showed several stable elements and several long-lived radioisotopes. Stable elements Al, Na, Br, Ce, Hg, and Sm are found in trace quantities in the solvent. The only stable metallic element consistently found in the solvent was Al, with a concentration which varies from about 30 ppM to about 10 ppM. The halogens Br and Cl appear to be found in the solvent systems as organo halides. Radionuclides found were principally 106Ru, 129I, 3H, 235U, and 239Pu. The 129I concentration was about 1 ppM in the first solvent extraction cycle of each facility. In the other cycles, 129I concentration varied from about 0.1 to 0.5 ppM. Both 129I and 3H appear to be in the organic solvent as a result of exchange with hydrogen

  1. Trace element correlations with age and sex in human fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 17 elements in fingernails of 92 control individuals with ages ranging from 4 months to 93 years living in a relatively non-industrial environment were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Statistical analysis demonstrated several different patterns of trace element correlation with age and sex. Bromine, Co, Cr, Fe, Na and Sb were found to be negatively correlated (p.<0.05) with age, while Zn was positively correlated (p.<0.05). Silver, Au, Se, and Zn concentrations were found to be higher in females than in males. Males had higher concentrations of Na and K than females. Significant interelement correlations were also observed. The age and sex variations observed should prove to be useful in proper interpretation of elemental imbalances associated with degenerative neurological diseases, especially in view of recent reports that markers for AD have been detected in external tissue. (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Investigation of Trace Elements in Zircon by Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen samples of Zircon from 4 locations, i.e., Nong Bawn, Namyun, Phrae and Cambodia, were studied by x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis techniques. The result shows that the major elements are Zr and Si while Hf is the minor element. By neutron activation analysis, the trace elements found in every sample were Al. Sc, Y, La, Dy, Yb, Au, Th and U. For samples from Phrae, Tb and Er were also found and the concentration of Al, Dy, Th and U were higher than any other area. It is also found that the color of Zircon samples that contain Tb and Er became darker after irradiation and the present of Al, Sc, , La, Dy, Yb, Au, Th and U might cause the Zircon opaque

  3. Elemental composition of airborne dust in the shale shaker house during an offshore drilling operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.B.; Larsen, E.; Hansen, L.V.;

    1991-01-01

    chrome lignosulphonate and chrome lignite, was circulated between the borehole and the Shale Shaker House. The concentration of airborne dust in the atmosphere was determined and the elemental composition of the particles analysed by both PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) and ICP-MS (inductively...

  4. Some Chemical Group Separations of Radioactive Trace Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a pretreatment for gamma spectrometric analysis methods have been developed for the chemical separation of traces of P, Sc, Ge, As, Se, Br, Zr, Nb, Ru, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Hf, Ta, Re, Os, Au and Hg into 9 different groups. By combining the present methods with already existing chemical group separation methods for traces of Na, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, In, Fe, Cs, Ba, L.a, the rare earths, W and Ir, a complete separation scheme comprising 15 groups of elements has been worked out. The chemical 15-group separation method has been advantageously used in gamma spectrometric routine analysis of biological materials

  5. IAEA quality control studies on determining trace elements in bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty laboratories from 17 countries around the world participated in two analytical quality control exercises, coded NAT-5 and NAT-6, on determining trace and minor elements in plant bioindicator samples. 1398 laboratory mean values for 51 elements were submitted for two lichen and two moss materials. The submitted measurement results were evaluated as interlaboratory comparison (IC) exercises and as proficiency tests (PT) following standard procedures developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The evaluations confirmed good performance of the participating laboratories for many elements. Furthermore, the laboratories performance based on IC criteria improved from the first exercise to the second one. Subsequent NAT-5 evaluation revealed systematic differences between the analytical values obtained non-destructively or after the total sample dissolution and the measurements following nitric acid sample dissolution (without the use of hydrofluoric acid) for some elements. The most critical elements for this kind of discrepancies appeared to be Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na, Ni, and Pb. After changing analytical methodologies in the concerned laboratories, more consistent values for those elements were obtained in NAT-6. (author)

  6. Prospecting for hyperaccumulators of trace elements: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzciuk, Karina; Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Specific plant species that can take up and accumulate abnormally high concentrations of elements in their aboveground tissues are referred to as "hyperaccumulators". The use of this term is justified in the case of enormous element-binding capacity of plants growing in their natural habitats and showing no toxicity symptoms. An increasing interest in the study of hyperaccumulators results from their potential applications in environmental biotechnology (phytoremediation, phytomining) and their emerging role in nanotechnology. The highest number of plant species with confirmed hyperaccumulative properties has been reported for hyperaccumulators of nickel, cadmium, zinc, manganese, arsenic and selenium. More limited data exist for plants accumulating other elements, including common pollutants (chromium, lead and boron) or elements of commercial value, such as copper, gold and rare earth elements. Different approaches have been used for the study of hyperaccumulators - geobotanical, chemical, biochemical and genetic. The chemical approach is the most important in screening for new hyperaccumulators. This article presents and critically reviews current trends in new hyperaccumulator research, emphasizing analytical methodology that is applied in identification of new hyperaccumulators of trace elements and its future perspectives. PMID:24938121

  7. Study on trace elements in gangue in Huainan mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, F.; Liu, Z.; Lin, B.; Li, W.; Lu, Z. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-08-15

    46 samples were gathered from coal seams and rocks of various lithological types. In these samples, trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IAP-MS)and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA). Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (KVASS), F by ion-selective electrode (IS) and major elements by chemical methods. Eleven trace elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, Mn, As, Cr, Pb, Zn, F) were selected for study, and five of them, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, were above the background soil level (B.L.) of Huainan City, China and world averages. Respectively: Cd is 40 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Cu is about 2 and 1.5 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Ni is 8 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Sn is 3 and 2 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; and Hg is 3,602 and 1,381 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world. Their hazards caused to the environment of the mining area are explored primarily. It is thought that their hazards may be cumulative. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Characterization of trace metals in airborne carbonaceous aerosols by single-particle EDX – Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrodangelo A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fine and ultrafine metal particles has been evidenced in size segregated airborne carbonaceous aerosols collected at one industrial and two background (urban and rural sites during an extended field campaign in Central Italy. Analysis of the backscattered electrons (BSE by SEM – EDX demonstrated an effective potential in evidencing main structural features of the metal content in identified carbon aerosols. Many observed ultrafine metal particles appear embedded in the skeleton of carbonaceous individual particles and aggregates in the coarse fraction, while the same is not evident in the case of mixed carbon-sulphates aerosol that has been detected in the submicron size. These carbon-sulphates formations include indeed nano-sized metal particles that appear physically combined but not embedded. Also, larger metal particles (ranging around 1 μm physical size were observed close to carbon materials, but not included in their structure. Main compositional differences of metal particles with size segregation could be evidenced by energy – dispersive X ray spectrometry (EDX. Larger particles are mainly rich in Fe, frequently in presence of Mn, Cu, Cr and Zn in variable proportions; either oxidized or elemental metals were detected. On the other hand, ultrafine particles associated with carbon–sulphates aerosol are enriched in Pb and Zn, although the presence of other trace elements not detectable by SEM – EDX technique cannot be excluded. Moreover, Ce-enriched ultrafine particles were clearly determined in cenospheres. Conversely, inclusion of fine and ultrafine metal particles was rarely or not observed in soot aggregates.

  9. TRACE ELEMENTS SORPTION BY THE CHITOSAN-BASED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorielov M.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important function of enterosorbents is their ability to bind toxins both of exogenous and endogenous origin. Wide range of commercial sorbents applies in various intoxications, poisonings or infections, pathology of liver, pancreas or kidney with chronic renal failure. The toxic trace elements are determined among the most spread toxins. They get into the organism in different ways, including nutritional. Majority of the known sorbents exhibit high absorption properties for this type of toxicants, however development and research of new enterosorbents are relevant biomedical problem. Chitosan – a biologically active heteropolysaccharide consisting of N-glucosamine and N-aceto-glucosamine obtained by deacetylation of chitin, one of the most common natural polymers. Chitosan high sorption activity observed in several studies: so the active centers in sorption processes are amino groups, which form complexes with trace elements’ ions. Furthermore, a certain contribution is OH group (particularly the C3-position. Adsorption – chelation (ion substitution – is also discussed as possible mechanisms for the formation of complexes, wherein the interaction depends on the type of solution composition, pH, and the ion types. When cleaning the environment from pollutants, it is important to have not only an effective sorbent, but the sorbent in a convenient form. Powders are hard to remove; films and gels are not applicable for all cases. The most convenient form for sorption, are obviously porous beads or granules. In this regard, the aim of our research was to study the sorption activity of chitosan-apatite complex and lyophilized chitosan against toxic trace elements. Beads were obtained from a 2% solution of chitosan (200 kDa, 82 % deacetylation rates by dropping the solution through a 2 mm diameter needle in a 5 % sodium hydroxide solution under continuous mixing. The beads were kept in the alkali solution overnight, permanently washed

  10. Intakes of radiologically important trace elements from Iranian daily diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cesium content and some more radiologically important trace elements were measured by nuclear and non-nuclear analytical methods in Iranian daily diets.This work carried out along with many more nutritionally important trace elements in a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) headed by IAEA. The study of Cesium could be important since it may include natural and artificial Cesium and a few more similar functioning elements such as Sr,Rb,I,K and Ca. In particular,since the diets have been prepared almost simultaneously by many investigators from various countries in different part of the world, therefore a comparable basis will be provided. The other importance of this work was the concurrence of execution of this study in 1986-1994 with the Chernobyl accident when the fall out of this nuclear accident enhanced the fission products on the earth .This is while at the same time, the diets were under preparation by participants in different countries. Though the 137Cs and other radionuclides were not measured in these diets under planned regular investigation by the most of participant countries but in compare with some other background, the contribution of 137Cs in these daily diets/ total mixed diets may be estimated either by their concentrations or by the amount of intakes per person per day.Nevertheless the protection role of these trace metals in human organs is the main issue of this assessment. The matter regarding the origin of natural Cesium and radioactive fall out, as well as its effect on the foodstuff depend upon direct exposure or via the mineral and organic status of the soil, to transfer to nutritive species is to be discussed. (author)

  11. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment. PMID:27438794

  12. The CU Airborne MAX-DOAS instrument: ground based validation, and vertical profiling of aerosol extinction and trace gases

    OpenAIRE

    S. Baidar; Oetjen, H.; S. Coburn; Dix, B.; I. Ortega; R. Sinreich; R. Volkamer

    2012-01-01

    The University of Colorado Airborne Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument uses solar stray light remote sensing to detect and quantify multiple trace gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), formaldehyde (HCHO), water vapor (H2O), nitrous acid (HONO), iodine monoxide (IO), bromine monoxide (BrO), and oxygen dimers (O4) at multiple wavelengths (360 nm, 477 nm, 5...

  13. High spatial resolution imaging of methane and other trace gases with the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES)

    OpenAIRE

    G. C. Hulley; Duren, R. M.; F. M. Hopkins; Hook, S. J.; Vance, N.; Guillevic, P.; Johnson, W. R.; Eng, B. T.; Mihaly, J. M.; V. M. JOVANOVIC; Chazanoff, S. L.; Staniszewski, Z. K.; Kuai, Le; Worden, John; Frankenberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Currently large uncertainties exist associated with the attribution and quantification of fugitive emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases such as methane across large regions and key economic sectors. In this study, data from the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) have been used to develop robust and reliable techniques for the detection and wide-area mapping of emission plumes of methane and other atmospheric trace gas species over challenging and div...

  14. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG).

  15. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG)

  16. A coordination chemistry approach for modeling trace element adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional distribution coefficient, Kd, is highly dependent on the water chemistry and the surface properties of the geological system being studied and is therefore quite inappropriate for use in predictive models. Adsorption, one of the many processes included in Kd values, is described here using a coordination chemistry approach. The concept of adsorption of cationic trace elements by solid hydrous oxides can be applied to natural solids. The adsorption process is thus understood in terms of a classical complexation leading to the formation of surface (heterogeneous) ligands. Applications of this concept to some freshwater, estuarine and marine environments are discussed. (author)

  17. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khuder Ali; Bakir Mohammad Adel; Hasan Reem; Mohammad Ali; Habil Khozama

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs) in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in al...

  18. Trace elements describe the genesis of mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of extending our knowledge on the potential amount of raw materials reserves and to explore known deposits as fully and cheaply as possible is a socioeconomic problem in its widest sense. In the future, the industrialized countries will be increasingly forced to explore deposits of less value. To deal with this situation as effectively as possible, it is necessary among other measures to establish valid genetic concepts for exploration strategies. Using the example of rare earth fractionation in Ca minerals of different genesis, determined by activation analysis, the article describes model assumptions on the distribution of trace elements during the genetic processes of deposit formation. (orig./RB)

  19. Volatile/mobile trace elements in Karoonda /C4/ chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matza, S. D.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of ten volatile/mobile trace elements and of nonvolatile Co in the Karoonda (C4) meteorite were determined, and the atomic abundances relative to C1 are compared with values for the Murchison (C2) and Allende (C3) meteorites. Empirical Bi, In, and Tl data for Karoonda and heated Allende and Murchison are compared with theoretical curves for condensation from a gas of cosmic composition at low pressures. It is suggested that Karoonda might derive from low-temperature open-system metamorphism of pristine C3-like material.

  20. Polarization spectroscopy for elemental analysis at trace concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the use of polarization spectroscopy for trace elemental analysis in atomic flames. Improvements in polarization rotation detection and excellent suppression of flame background noise through polarization modulation enable this method to achieve detection limits of 30 ppt (trillion) sodium and 37 ppb barium, while taking advantage of the convenient and fast analyte introduction of analytical flames. Furthermore, since it provides Doppler-free information, the spectral resolution is suitable for isotope ratio analysis, providing excellent selectivity and minimizing spectral interference. 29 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  1. Trace elements in farmed and wild gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we sought to determine the concentration of several trace elements (total and organic mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, arsenic, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium and zinc) in muscle tissue of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), an edible finfish species that is widely cultured in the Mediterranean area. The phenomenon of bioaccumulation and bioamplification (especially of mercury) was investigated by comparing farmed fish with wild specimens of the same species. Farmed specimens showed mercury and arsenic concentrations significantly lower than wild specimens, and no relationship was found between mercury concentration and body size. The lower level of methylmercury in farmed fish has important implications for consumer health.

  2. The determination of trace elements in Syrian tobacco by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-six samples of different varieties of Syrian tobacco were collected and classified according to type and height of the leaves on the plant. Soil samples were also collected from the planting fields. INAA by short and long irradiation was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in tobacco and soil samples. Short irradiation (1 min.) and long irradiation (7 hrs.) were carried out. Bowen's Kale and IAEA soil 7 were used as a reference materials. Results were compared with published data for tobacco. (author). 11 refs., 5 tabs

  3. Investigation of trace elements in Guangxi ancient pottery by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region is an original place for manufacture of ancient pottery in China since Zenpiyan site, dated 9240-10370 years ago, was excavated. Contents of trace elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, U, Th, Sc, Ta, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr and Zr in 44 pottery shards from Guangxi sites, dated from 1450 B.C. to 200 A.D., were determined by INAA and XRF. The provenances of the 44 samples are postulated by the analyses of geochemical parameters

  4. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations

  5. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: calli@culture.nl; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G

    1999-04-02

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations.

  6. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1999-04-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.

  7. Investigation of trace elements in Guangxi ancient pottery by INAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengZi-Cheng; Yun-Lan; 等

    1997-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region is an original place for manufacture of ancient pottery in China since Zenpiyan site.dated 9240-10370 years ago,was excavated.Contents of trace elements La,Ce,Nd,Sm,Eu,Tb,Yb,Lu,U,Th,Sc,Ta,Ba,Cs,Rb,Sr and Zr in 44 porttery shards from Guangxi sites,dated from 1450B.C. to 200A.D.,were dtermined by INAA and XRF.The proveniences of the 44 samples are postulated by the analyses of geochemical parameters.

  8. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Darren M.; Keith H Nislow; Celia Y. Chen; Folt, Carol L

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled ~120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-gro...

  9. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Inorganic arsenic and trace elements in Ghanaian grain staples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 549 samples of rice, maize, wheat, sorghum and millet were obtained from markets in Ghana, the EU, US and Asia. Analysis of the samples, originating from 21 countries in 5 continents, helped to establish global mean trace element concentrations in grains; thus placing the Ghanaian data within a global context. Ghanaian rice was generally low in potentially toxic elements, but high in essential nutrient elements. Arsenic concentrations in rice from US (0.22 mg/kg) and Thailand (0.15 mg/kg) were higher than in Ghanaian rice (0.11 mg/kg). Percentage inorganic arsenic content of the latter (83%) was, however, higher than for US (42%) and Thai rice (67%). Total arsenic concentration in Ghanaian maize, sorghum and millet samples (0.01 mg/kg) was an order of magnitude lower than in Ghanaian rice, indicating that a shift from rice-centric to multigrain diets could help reduce health risks posed by dietary exposure to inorganic As. - Highlights: → Arsenic content of Ghanaian rice is higher than in other Ghanaian grain staples. → Compared to global mean values, Ghanaian rice and maize have low As and Cd content. → Most rice imports to Ghana have lower Co, Cu, Mn and Zn content than Ghanaian rice. → Cancer risk posed by Thai rice is slightly higher than for Ghanaian and US rice. → A shift to multigrain diets would reduce health risks due to dietary As exposure. - Ghanaian rice is generally low in potentially toxic trace elements and is of higher nutritional quality than rice imported into the country.

  11. Trace elements in lake sediments measured by the PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakes are ecosystems where there is a great potential of metal accumulation in sediments due to their depositional characteristics. Total concentration of trace elements was measured on a 50 cm long sediment core from the Infernao Lake, that is an oxbow lake of the Moji-Guacu River basin, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dating of the core shows up to 180 yrs old sediment layers. The use of the PIXE technique for elemental analysis avoids the traditional acid digestion procedure common in other techniques. The multielemental characteristic of PIXE allows a simultaneous determination of about 20 elements in the sediment samples, such as, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, and Pb. Average values for the elemental composition were found to be similar to the bulk crustal composition. The lake flooding pattern strongly influences the time series of the elemental profiles. Factor analysis of the elemental variability shows five factors. Two of the factors represent the mineralogical matrix, and others represent the organic component, a factor with lead, and another loaded with chromium. The mineralogical component consists of elements such as, Fe, Al, V, Ti, Mn, Ni, K, Zr, Sr, Cu and Zn. The variability of Si is explained by two distinct factors, because it is influenced by two different sources, aluminum-silicates and quartz, and the effect of inundation are different for each other. The organic matter is strongly associated with calcium, and also bounded with S, Zn, Cu and P. Lead and chromium appears as separated factors, although it is not clear the evidences for their anthropogenic origin. The techniques developed for sample preparation and PIXE analysis was proven as advantageous and provided very good reproducibility and accuracy

  12. Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation of fine particles of coal dust contributes significantly to the occurrence of the disease, pneumoconiosis, prevailing in coal mining community. It is not presently known whether only the coal dust or specific chemical compounds or synergistic effects of several compounds associated with respirable coal dust is responsible for the disease, pneumoconiosis. The present paper describes the quantitative determination of ten minor and trace elements in respirable coal dust particles by atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The respirable coal dust samples are collected at the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal scams by using Messrs. Casella's Hexlet apparatus specially designed and fitted with horizontal elutriator to collect the respirable coal dust fraction simulating as near as possible to the lung's retention of the coal miners. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off clay and silica, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures. The results show that the trace metals are more acute in lower range of size spectrum. Correlation coefficient, enrichment factor and linear regression values and their inverse relationship between the slope and EF values suggest that, in general, the trace metals in respirable particulates are likely to be from coal derived source if their concentrations are likewise high in the coal. The trace metal analytical data of respirable particulates fitted well to the linear regressive equation. The results of the studies are of importance as it may throw some light on the respirable lung disease 'pneumoconiosis' which are predominant in coal mining community. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  13. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  14. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflicts 2 of every 100,000 people in the United States each year. A well-known example of ALS today is Stephen Hawking. He is a theoretical physicist, the author of A Brief History of Time, and is virtually immobilized by ALS. Diseases that cause progressive paralysis because of motor neuron degeneration in the central nervous system are termed motor neuron disorders (MND). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a common form of MND. Pain-free, progressive muscular weakness is the most common clinical symptom. There is chronic weakness with atrophy of the affected muscles by the time the disease is diagnosed. Atrophy eventually results in wheelchair confinement and then only bed without the ability to speak or swallow. Death often occurs as a result of respiratory problems. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in ALS the patient`s bladder and bowel control, eye movement, and mental faculties are preserved. The question today is whether or not certain trace elements are involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of ALS. A collaborative study was undertaken by the University of Kentucky and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to study trace element concentrations in ALS patients fingernails to determine if there existed statistically significant imbalances.

  15. Determination of Trace Elements in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrim, Saribal; Can, Akyolcu Mehmet; Birsen, Aydemir

    2007-04-01

    Many trace elements have activatory or inhibitory roles in enzyme activities and changes in hemorehology and relation of them with defense system molecules in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: While, 25 male COPD patients (during acute attack) were taken as a Patient Group, another healthy 25 male taken as Control Group. Serum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-680 Shimadzu). Results: While decreased Fe (100.00 +/- 36.98; 123.26 +/- 37.58 μg/dL) (M+/-SD) and Zn (96.31+/-31.92 116.12+/-28.17 μg/dL) (M+/-SD), while increased Cu (117.92+/- 25.02; 101.27+/-8.29 μg/dL) (M+/-SD) concentrations were determined in patient samples than that of control group values (p<0.05), (p<0.01). Conclusion: According to findings of present study it may be said that: In organism while trace elements perform their activities on biomaterials they also possible carry out competition against others.

  16. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas

  17. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  18. Dynamic coupling of bulk chemistry, trace elements and mantle flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. H.; Heck, H. V.; Nowacki, A.; Wookey, J. M.; Elliott, T.; Porcelli, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fully dynamical models that not only track the evolution of chemical heterogeneities through the mantle, but also incorporate the effect of chemical heterogeneities on the dynamics of mantle convection are now emerging. Since in general analytical solutions to these complex problems are lacking, careful testing and investigations of the effect and usefulness of these models is needed. We extend our existing numerical mantle convection code that can track fluid flow in 3D spherical geometry and tracks both bulk chemical components (basal fraction) and different trace elements. The chemical components fractionate upon melting when and where the solidus is crossed. Now, the chemical information will effect the flow of the fluid in the following ways: The bulk composition will link to density and the (radioactive) trace element abundance to heat production. Results will be reported of the effect of different density structures; either starting with a primordial dense layer at the base of the mantle, having all density variation originate from melting (basalt production), or a combination between these two end-member scenarios. In particular we will focus on the connection between large scale bulk chemical structures in the (deep) mantle and the evolution of the distribution of noble gasses (He and Ar). The distribution of noble gasses depend upon 1) assumptions on the initial distributions in the mantle, 2) the mantle flow, 3) radioactive production and, 4) outgassing to the atmosphere upon melting close to the surface.

  19. Medical and health-related trace element analysis by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages offered with TXRF analysis by direct irradiation with monochromatic X-rays of tissue homogenates and body fluids make the technique appropriate for a number of medical and health related applications. The ability to detect low levels of toxic heavy elements is being used as an aid in accidental poisoning diagnosis and treatment, in treatment-induced toxicity control and as an accessory in medical and health research. Thus lead-in-whole-blood analysis is used in confirmation of diagnosis of victims of poisoning, or monitoring the evolution and efficiency of the clinical treatment. Measurement and control of plasma platinum levels of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with Pt-containing drugs includes: establishment of the drug level-tumor remission response, measurement of Pt plasma level curves and establishment of optimum dosage to minimize the nephrotoxicity of platinum, and bioequivalence comparisons of different commercially available platinum containing anticancer drugs. Analysis as an aid in clinical research applications includes: trace element determination of amniotic fluid in fetus malformation studies; analysis of brain specimens and cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of central nervous system disorders; the influence of trace elements in cataract genesis and the influence of heavy elements in semen quality in human reproduction studies. Human body samples require the use of monochromatized beams of x-rays in order to derive the special advantage of its use: i) The reduction in the spectrum background allowing direct irradiation of organic matter specimens. Hence human tissue and body fluids are prepared by simple procedures involving dilution, homogenization and standard addition avoiding the need for specimen digestion. This results in faster, cheaper methods that decrease sample contamination problems. ii) The presence of a large Compton scattered signal in the spectrum and its use as an internal standard reference allows further

  20. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition of Hawaiian hotspot zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Bindeman, I. N.; Shamberger, P. J.; Hammer, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The trace element and isotopic compositions of zircon are increasingly used to delimit the provenance of detrital minerals in sedimentary rocks, as well as the dynamics and timescales of magmagenesis and metamorphism. Numerous studies document the characteristics of zircon hosted by continental and MORB-related rocks, but the characteristics of zircon generated in magmas from oceanic hotspots are relatively unknown. We present the trace element and O-isotope compositions of Hawaiian zircon from gabbroic and dioritic xenoliths sampled by Holocene basalts at Hualalai volcano. The plutonic zircon yield U-Pb and 238U-230Th ages of ca. 250 ka and 40 ka and grew from intrusions of highly fractionated alkalic magma lodged at >10 km depths (Shamberger & Hammer, 2006; Vazquez et al., 2007). Individual Hualalai zircon are euhedral to anhedral with inclusions of feldspars, pyroxenes, and trachytic glass. Zoning apparent in cathodoluminescence images is generally indistinct, but a significant minority of crystals has rims with relatively high luminescence. Ion microprobe analyses of individual zircon crystals reveal trace element zoning that generally correlates with luminescence. Up to 20-fold variation in HREE concentrations, with overall positive correlation between Eu/Eu* and Ti and inverse correlation between Hf and Ti, characterize Hualalai zircon. These relations are similar to those reported for zircon from some felsic suites related by cooling-induced fractionation. Luminescent rims have relatively low REE, Hf, and Y, but have Ti concentrations like their corresponding interiors. Ti-in-zircon thermometry yields temperatures between 800-1000°C after adjustments for sub-unity TiO2 and SiO2 activities using silicate-oxide equilibria. These temperatures are generally consistent with temperatures derived from two-feldspar and glass-pyroxene pairs included by single zircon crystals. Despite compositional differences, zircon interiors and luminescent rims yield 238U-230Th

  1. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. PMID:27312081

  2. [Supplementation of trace elements in the general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    Trace elements are the essential nutrients. Now, 9 elements, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, Go, Cr, Mn, Mo, are recognized as essential trace elements. Serum concentration of Fe, Zn and Cu are about 100 μg/dL, and have important physiological roles. Zinc needs special care because over 300 enzymes contain Zn, and zin deficiency cause various disorders. In advancing age serum Zn concentration decrease. Although the daily requirement of zinc is 10-15 mg in adults, it is necessary to supply much more zinc than adult, by the reason of low intake and low absorption in the elderly. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, many zinc deficient patients suffered from decubitus ulcers, dermatitis, alopecia, taste disorders etc. A 86 y.o. female with deep sacral decubitus ulcer was shown in this report. Her decubitus ulcer was completely recovered after daily administration of polaprezinc containing 34 mg Zn for 18 months, A 76 y.o. female brought about severe hypocupuremia. Serum Cu concentration decreased from 112 μg/dL to 7 μg/dL after 5 months daily administration of 34 mg Zn. Serum Zn concentration elevated from 47 μg/dL to 117 μg/dL, and Cu/Zn ratio decreased 2.38 to 0.06. After stopped zinc supplementation, serum Cu rapidly increased in a 2 month period. At the same time, serum Zn decreased quickly. It was the interesting fact that anemia improved associated with the increase of serum Cu. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, it is necessary to supply zinc in order to prevent respiratory infections such as pneumonia. PMID:27455795

  3. Prediction of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M.G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Minerals and trace elements play essential roles in numerous biochemical and physiological processes in animals and man. A deficiency, an overdose or imbalances between minerals or trace elements will exert a negative effect on health. Generally, it is not the ingested dose of minerals and trace ele

  4. An airborne spectrometer with three infrared lasers for trace gas measurements applied to convection case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, V.; Krysztofiak, G.; Robert, C.; Chartier, M.

    2012-12-01

    An infrared absorption spectrometer named SPIRIT (SPectromètre InfraRouge In situ Toute altitude) has been built for airborne simultaneous online measurements of trace gases. SPIRIT is based on two recent technological advances, leading to optimal performances and miniaturization: continuous wave quantum cascade lasers (CW-QCL) operating near room temperature coupled to a new, patented, multipass optical cell (Robert, Appl. Optics, 2007). An essential electronic development allows the sequential use of three QCLs with the same single cell. With judicious selected spectral micro-windows, this potentially leads to the measurements of at least four species at 0.7 Hz frequency. The first deployment of SPIRIT was made onboard the DLR Falcon-20 aircraft during the campaign associated to the EU SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project in Nov.-Dec. 2011 over Malaysia. In the present paper, the flight of 19 Nov. is presented in detail as an example of the SPIRIT performances, with CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O as measured species. The aircraft crossed four times the anvil of a severe thunderstorm from 11.3 km to 12.8 km altitude corresponding to a large convective system near Borneo island (6.0°N-115.5°E). During the crossing, carbon monoxide mixing ratios increase by 5 to 10 ppbv from the ambient cloud free environment to the anvil cloud correlated with an increase of CH4 mixing ratio. Using these observations, the fraction of boundary layer air contained in fresh convective outflow has been calculated. Other convection cases were detected, allowing for other fractions to be calculated, with results ranging between 0.15 and 0.55 and showing the variability of the mixing taking place during convective transport.

  5. Airborne measurements of different trace gases during the AROMAT-2 campaign with an Avantes spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösch, Tim; Meier, Andreas; Schönhardt, Anja; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a well-known, versatile, and frequently used technique for the analysis of trace gases within the atmosphere. Although DOAS has been used for several decades, airborne DOAS has become more popular during the last years because of the possibility of measuring in high lateral resolutions with the help of imaging instruments. Here, we present results of the AROMAT-2 campaign in Romania in summer 2015. The introduced measurements were taken using a nadir viewing Avantes spectrometer on board of a Cessna aircraft which flew over Bucharest and the Turceni power plant in Romania. The instrument covers the wavelength region of 287 - 551nm at a spectral resolution of 0.13nm and has a temporal resolution of 0.5s, translating to about 450m in flight direction at 3000m flight attitude. The field of view of the instrument was set to 8.1 degrees, resulting in a pixel size across track of about 420m. Compared to the imaging DOAS instrument AirMAP which was also operated from the aircraft, the signal to noise ratio of the simple nadir viewing spectrometer is slightly better, which allows an analysis of less abundant species and interesting spectral features. The results show a day-to-day variation of NO2 over the city of Bucharest as well as spectral features over lakes in the city, which can be attributed to algae. Furthermore, we were able to measure large emission plumes of NO2 and SO2 over the Turceni power plant, which could be observed over long spatial distances. In addition, the results from the Avantes instrument were used for comparison with measurements of the imaging spectrometer AirMAP and good agreement was found, providing independent verification of the imager data.

  6. The CU Airborne MAX-DOAS instrument: vertical profiling of aerosol extinction and trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baidar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The University of Colorado Airborne Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS instrument uses solar stray light to detect and quantify multiple trace gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2, glyoxal (CHOCHO, formaldehyde (HCHO, water vapor (H2O, nitrous acid (HONO, iodine monoxide (IO, bromine monoxide (BrO, and oxygen dimers (O4 at multiple wavelengths (absorption bands at 360, 477, 577, 632 nm simultaneously in the open atmosphere. The instrument is unique as it (1 features a motion compensation system that decouples the telescope field of view from aircraft movements in real time ( The instrument is described, and data from flights over California during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change and CARES (Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study air quality field campaigns is presented. Horizontal distributions of NO2 VCD (below the aircraft maps are sampled with typically 1 km resolution, and show good agreement with two ground-based MAX-DOAS instruments (slope = 0.95 ± 0.09, R2 = 0.86. As a case study vertical profiles of NO2, CHOCHO, HCHO, and H2O concentrations and aerosol extinction coefficients, ε, at 477 nm calculated from O4 measurements from a low approach at Brackett airfield inside the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB are presented. These profiles contain ~12 degrees of freedom (DOF over a 3.5 km altitude range, an independent information approximately every 250 m. The boundary layer NO2 concentration, and the integral aerosol extinction over height (aerosol optical depth, AOD agrees well with nearby ground-based in situ NO2 measurement, and AERONET station. The detection limits of NO2, CHOCHO, HCHO, H2O442, ϵ360, ϵ477 for 30 s integration time spectra recorded forward of the plane are 5 ppt, 3 ppt, 100 ppt, 42 ppm, 0.004 km−1, 0.002 km−1 in the free troposphere (FT, and 30 ppt, 16 ppt, 540 ppt, 252 ppm, 0.012 km−1, 0.006 km−1

  7. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  8. Changes in trace elements of cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and effects of trace elements on vasospasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, N.; Kuroda, K.; Suzuki, M.; Ogawa, A.; Sera, K

    1999-04-02

    Various causal factors have been proposed for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), such as serotonin, acetylcholine, angiotensin, thrombin and thromboxane A2. However, none of them explain the whole pathomechanism of vasospasm. To evaluate the role of trace elements on vasospasm, we have examined these sequential changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after SAH by PIXE, and have investigated the relation between trace elements and vasospasm. We obtained the CSF samples from cisternal drainage in patients with SAH who underwent radical surgery within 48 h from the onset. The drainage was placed into basal cisterns at the end of the operation. Three sampling times (3-5, 7-9 and 12-14 days from the onset) has been scheduled because vasospasm is likely to occur from day 4 to day 14 after the onset. In this study, we focused on the levels of Mg, Ca, Mn, Al, Zn, P, Pb, Sr, Br, Co, Cu, Si, Ti, Mn,Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Mo and Pb, and we found a significantly lower level of Mg in the CSF of patients with vasospasm on days 7-9 after the onset. These results suggest that Mg in the CSF may ameliorate vasoconstriction due to Ca in the pathomechanism of vasospasm.

  9. Trace and toxic elements in foodstuffs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of trace elements in several foodstuffs collected in Japan were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and anodic striping voltametry (ASV). The elements analyzed were as follows: Zn, Se, As, Hg, Cs, Cr, Co, Fe, Rb, Br and K by NAA; Mn, Ba, Sr, Mg, Ca, P, K, Zn, Cu and Fe by ICP-AES; and Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by ASV. Because of the high consumption of rice in Japan, the focus of analysis was on this foodstuff. Concentrations of K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn in different polished rice samples were similar, whereas those of Br, Co, Cs, Rb and Se varied. Levels of toxic elements in polished rice were generally lower than those in other foodstuffs. The highest concentrations of As, Hg, Se and Zn were found in marine products, i.e.. Hijiki-algae (As: 59 mg/kg, dry), tuna (Hg: 1.1 mg/kg, dry), bonito (Se: 4.5 mg/kg, dry) and oysters (Zn: 350 mg/kg, dry). Dietary intakes of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Se and Zn by Japanese were estimated by using these analytical results and published food consumption data in Japan. We have also identified the major sources of the elements in dietary intakes as follows: (a) about 90% of the As was derived from marine products (fish and seaweed); (b) about 70% of the Hg was derived from fish; (c) about 40-60% of the Cd and the Mn and 20-40% of the Zn, Cu and Mg was derived from rice; (d) selenium was mostly derived from fish, meat and eggs; (e) more than 20% of the Ca was derived from milk and milk products; (f) elements such as Fe, K, P and Pb was derived from different sorts of foodstuffs. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  10. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  11. Non-destructive determination of trace elements. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of this project we have successfully designed, built, and tested the first neutron beam facility dedicated to routine multielement neutron capture prompt-γ activation analysis (PGAA). This technique is capable of accurately measuring concentrations of up to 20 elements in a number of sample types, and is an extremely valuable complement to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and other analytical methods. We have found PGAA to have some major advantages over INAA: (1) the sample is subjected to neutron fluxes about five orders of magnitude less than in PGAA, with essentially no radiation or heating damage; (2) as the data are taken during sample irradiation, analyses can be performed immediately instead of waiting up to four weeks as in INAA; (3) it is capable of measuring all major elements, except oxygen, in many samples, including H, C, N, and Si, which cannot be done by INAA; and (4) it is especially sensitive for the trace elements B, Cd, Sm and Gd. In addition, we have characterized the overall capabilities of PGAA and the corrections necessary to make it an extremely accurate technique. We have applied PGAA in a number of studies in which it has proved to be extremely valuable and, at times, even providing crucial information that other techniques were incapable of supplying. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  12. Trace and minor element characterization of diesel soot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 20 trace and minor components, such as metals, nitrogen and sulphur, were determined in representative diesel soot samples corresponding to various driving patterns of an old and a new type of Mercedes-Benz diesel engine for passenger cars. The samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, and after decomposition, by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of sulphur was determined by a method based on the formation of hydrogen sulphide and precipitation micro-titrimetry. The concentrations of the elements Au, La, Sb, Sc and V were at the sub-μg/g level; As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni and Se were at the lower μg/g level; and Ca, Cu, Fe, N, Na, Pb, S, and Zn ranged from the upper μg/g to lower percent levels. The emission of several elements was likely the result of different factors such as utilization of organometallic additives (Ca, Na, Zn) in diesel fuel or lubrication oil, contamination of diesel fuel by alkyllead compounds, wear and corrosion of the engine and exhaust system parts. The concentration of elemental components in diesel soot, generally, varied with operating conditions, which affected fuel and oil consumption, combustion efficiency (soot production), and mechanical strain. (orig.)

  13. Amazon estuary - assessment of trace elements in seabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactive processes operating on the continental shelf to the river mouth control the amount and the characteristics of the Amazon discharge reaching the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the distribution of trace elemental concentrations, with emphasis to the rare-earth elements, in sediment cores collected at several stations from the Amazon continental shelf during the falling water period was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Cores from the terrigenous and blue water zones have relatively uniform REE concentrations throughout the profile. Cerium anomalies for samples of the upper section of the eight stations are consistently positive and of high values (normally > 2). Similar variation in the elemental concentration ratios between the seabed sediments and Amazon River suspended sediments was seen for stations located in the biogenic and blue water zones, with an enrichment for Ce, Sm, Fe, Th, and Sc and a depletion for the La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Ta, and Zn. The shale-normalized REE patterns from shelf sediments are enriched in LREE relative to HREE, with enrichment factors varying from 1.5 for stations near the river mouth (terrigenous zone) to 1.9 for station located far in the blue water zone. Published data for the Amazon River suspended sediment agree remarkably well with this observation of LREE-enrichment. (author)

  14. Nutrient and other trace elements in instant soups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instant soups are a new group of dried foods and will play an important role in the nutrition of people because they fulfill present and future social consumer requirements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied in this work to determine the trace elements cesium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, strontium, silver and zinc in instant and long-time soups from the Greek market. According to our results, instant soups have the same iron content as those reported in the literature for bovine muscle, rice, legumes, porcine muscle and some meat products. Instant soup zinc content is the same as those reported for avian muscle, onions, rice, potatoes and sausages. Moreover the consumption of one plateful of instant soup offers to the human body about 8% of the daily required iron and about 2% of the daily required zinc. (author) 15 refs.; 4 tabs

  15. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques

  16. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  17. Trace elements influence on bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To compare trace elements (TE levels according to bone mineral density (BMD in elderly women. 27 elderly women (65.7 ± 3.96 years were evaluated. They were classified in two groups: high BMD (group 1 and low BMD (group 2. BMD was measured in DXA and TE were evaluated from hair sample. Higher levels of Ca, K, Na, Mo, B, Cu e Mg were found in group 1 (high BMD while Se and Pb were higher concentrated in group 2 (low BMD. The results suggest that the imbalance in the homeostasis of ET may be a risk factor for reduced BMD and higher Pb and Se concentrations can mark bone mass loss.

  18. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the obtained classifier was measured by ten-fold cross validation. The results show that the proposed method is useful to identify an easy-to-use expert system that is able to determine the origin of the clinker based on its trace element content.

    En el presente trabajo se describe el procedimiento de identificación cualitativa de clínkeres españoles con el objeto de determinar su origen (fábrica. Esa clasificación de los clínkeres se basa en el contenido de sus elementos traza. Se analizaron 15 clínkeres diferentes procedentes de 11 fábricas de cemento españolas, determinándose los contenidos en Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn y V. Se ha diseñado un sistema experto mediante un árbol de decisión binario basado en los datos recogidos. La clasificación obtenida fue examinada mediante la validación cruzada de 10 valores. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el modelo propuesto es válido para identificar, de manera fácil, un sistema experto capaz de determinar el origen de un clínker basándose en el contenido de sus elementos traza.

  19. The CU Airborne MAX-DOAS instrument: vertical profiling of aerosol extinction and trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidar, S.; Oetjen, H.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2013-03-01

    The University of Colorado Airborne Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument uses solar stray light to detect and quantify multiple trace gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), formaldehyde (HCHO), water vapor (H2O), nitrous acid (HONO), iodine monoxide (IO), bromine monoxide (BrO), and oxygen dimers (O4) at multiple wavelengths (absorption bands at 360, 477, 577, 632 nm) simultaneously in the open atmosphere. The instrument is unique as it (1) features a motion compensation system that decouples the telescope field of view from aircraft movements in real time (detector system. Sets of solar stray light spectra collected from nadir to zenith scans provide some vertical profile information within 2 km above and below the aircraft altitude, and the vertical column density (VCD) below the aircraft is measured in nadir view. Maximum information about vertical profiles is derived simultaneously for trace gas concentrations and aerosol extinction coefficients over similar spatial scales and with a vertical resolution of typically 250 m during aircraft ascent/descent. The instrument is described, and data from flights over California during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and CARES (Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study) air quality field campaigns is presented. Horizontal distributions of NO2 VCD (below the aircraft) maps are sampled with typically 1 km resolution, and show good agreement with two ground-based MAX-DOAS instruments (slope = 0.95 ± 0.09, R2 = 0.86). As a case study vertical profiles of NO2, CHOCHO, HCHO, and H2O concentrations and aerosol extinction coefficients, ɛ, at 477 nm calculated from O4 measurements from a low approach at Brackett airfield inside the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) are presented. These profiles contain ~12 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 3.5 km altitude range, an independent information approximately every 250 m

  20. Trace element concentrations of wild saltwater crocodile eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) accumulate trace elements from the environment into their flesh and bones (Jeffree et al., 2001a). Elevated levels of metals (e.g. Hg, Zn, Pb), organochlorines (e.g. DDT) and radionuclides (e.g. radiocesium) have been recorded in blood, tissues and eggs of several crocodilian species (Manolis et al., this volume). In this study the concentrations of various elements (including metals) were measured in the yolk of C. porosus eggs collected from the Finniss River and two other distant nesting sites (Melacca Swamp, a spring-fed freshwater swamp; Adelaide River, a tidal river) during the 2000- 01 nesting season. Infertile eggs from 30 clutches (Adelaide 12, Melacca 8, Finniss 10) were opened and the yolk contents removed (after Webb et al., 1987) and frozen. Samples of yolk were then oven-dried, digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The digest solutions were then analysed for 20 elements (see Table 1) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Similarities between the elemental composition of eggs from the three areas suggests that downstream contamination from Rum Jungle Mine is not apparent in C. porosus nesting in the Finniss River. These nesting areas are some 60 km downstream of the mine site, and contaminants are probably greatly diluted during the wet season. C. porosus were also intensively hunted in the Finniss River area during the 1950s and 1960s, until their protection in 1971 (Webb et al. 1984). Some females would have been recruited into the population after the period of mining. Long-term effects of the mine may be apparent in areas with Australian freshwater crocodiles (C. johnstoni), mainly upstream of C. porosus nesting areas and up to the mine. Examination of tissues and eggs of C. johnstoni may provide more information on the historical effects of the mine

  1. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  2. Size distributions and health risks of particulate trace elements in rural areas in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Chen, Xin; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the airborne trace elements (Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Th and U) in rural areas in northeastern China, size-resolved aerosols were collected bi-weekly from March 2013 to February 2014 at two farmland sites in Shenyang (SHY) and Hailun (HLZ), a grassland site in Tongyu (TYU) and a forest site in the Changbai Mountain (CBS). The results showed that most trace elements (TEs) exhibited significantly higher concentrations at SHY than those at HLZ, TYU and CBS. All of the sites exhibited higher values in spring/winter than those in summer/autumn. Industrial imprints on the concentrations and size distributions of Pb and Cd were found at SHY, as supported by an air-mass backward-trajectory analysis and the abundance of sulfate and heavy metals. Due to the frequent influence of sand dust, the size distributions of Ca and Ba at the grassland site near Inner Mongolia had dominant peaks at 5.8-9 μm, in contrast to the other agricultural and forest sites, which peaked at 4.7-5.8 μm. In addition, the concentrations and the enrichment factors (EFs) of the TEs in this study increased as the size range decreased from coarse to fine particles, resulting in the highest carcinogenic (e.g., Pb) and non-carcinogenic (e.g., Mn) risks at 1.1-2.1 μm. Overall, the results highlight the severe pollution of heavy metals in northeastern China, particularly in agricultural regions that are subject to anthropogenic influences. Mitigating atmospheric TEs in the studied region, an important commodity grain base in China, is urgently needed to protect the environment and human health from toxic metals.

  3. Determination of trace and ultra-trace elements in Dergaon meteorite by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a detailed methodology for high precision measurement of several trace and ultra-trace elements including REE and PGE have been presented using effective sample preparation techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Discussion is focussed on aspects, such as total dissolution and recovery of all elements, minimization of oxide and doubly-charged and other polyatomic ion interferences, calibration by matrix matching standards, accuracy and precision

  4. Impacts of trace element supplementation on the performance of anaerobic digestion process: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Yee Yaw; Norli, Ismail; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Yhaya, Mohd Firdaus

    2016-06-01

    This paper critically reviews the impacts of supplementing trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance. The in-depth knowledge of trace elements as micronutrients and metalloenzyme components justifies trace element supplementation into the anaerobic digestion system. Most of the earlier studies reported that trace elements addition at (sub)optimum dosages had positive impacts mainly longer term on digester stability with greater organic matter degradation, low volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and higher biogas production. However, these positive impacts and element requirements are not fully understood, they are explained on a case to case basis because of the great variance of the anaerobic digestion operation. Iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are the most studied and desirable elements. The right combination of multi-elements supplementation can have greater positive impact. This measure is highly recommended, especially for the mono-digestion of micronutrient-deficient substrates. The future research should consider the aspect of trace element bioavailability. PMID:27005788

  5. Trace elements determination in piratininga lagoon samples Using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suspicion metals presence in the Piratininga Lagoon ecosystem that is subject to the several environmental contaminations (urban and industrial garbage) has been provoking preoccupation on the population that uses the resources of this lagoon like survival form. The district public government has been interested to verify the contamination conditions for heavy metals in this lagoon. The heavy metals are one of the environmental pollution more noxious forms, because they aren't degradable and can carry to an ecological phenomenon of its accumulation in the substances of food chain. It occurs by the individuals' contamination and accumulation by the consumption of others animal and already contaminated plants. In general, in the final of this food chain is the man. The x-ray fluorescence technique allows result quali-quantitative based in the wavelength measure or in the energies and intensities of the characteristic x- rays emitted by the elements that constitute the sample. It can obtain the information about important chemical elements in the environmental contamination, among them Cr, Ni and Pb. The equipment that we are using is an experimental setup with a x- rays tube of 30 kV and 1 mA, a Si(Li) detector, data acquisition and analysis microcomputer and programs. The results of analysis had shown some traces of contaminations with Br, Pb, Ni and Cr in the water, plants and sediments samples

  6. Trace elements in particles of motor vehicle exhaust in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analyticalsensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements, especially lead, in vehicle exhaust ofShanghai city. The result shows that the chemical composition and its correspondingx-ray relative intensity are different among different vehicle exhausts. There arc manykinds of metal elements in particles of vehicle exhaust, most are harnful to people,such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Pb, etc. We found that the lead concentration was 6820μg/g andthe bromine concentration was 5300 μg/g in the exhaust from Santana using leadedgasoline (SULG), which is higher than any other kinds of vehicle exhausts. We havealso detected the minimum lead in the particles of unleaded gasoline and its contentvaries from one to another. Its mean concentration was 450 μg/g and the highestreached 6210 μg/g. The unleaded gasoline's Pb existed in the whole particle while theleaded gasoline's enriched in the surface of the particle and was more harmful to thehuman beings.

  7. Spectrochemical determination of eight trace elements in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the spectrochemical determination of Al, Pb, Sn, V, Nb, Cu, Co and Ti at trace levels in stainless steel. One hundred milligrammes of the stainless steel sample (in the form of turnings, filings, etc. ) are disolved in aqua regia. The solution is evaporated to dryness and then ignited over Bunsen flame to get a dark brown powder. The powder thus obtained is ground thoroughly with Specpure conducting graphite powder in the ratio 1:1 by weight and then with 2% NaF. Fifteen miligrammes of this mixture is taken in the cavity of a graphite electrode and excited in d.c. arc at 10 amps. The spectra of the sample and synthetic standards are recorded on a JACO 3.4 meter plane grating spectrograph, using a 1200 grooves/mm grating in the first order. The elements, Al, Pb, Sn, and V are estimated in the range 250-2500 ppm, by choosing suitable lines for internsity measurement. Iron is used as the internal standard element. (auth.)

  8. Chondrule trace element geochemistry at the mineral scale

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    We report trace element analyses from mineral phases in chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites (Vigarano, Renazzo and Acfer 187), carried out by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results are similar in all three meteorites. Mesostasis has Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations of 10-20 x CI. Low-Ca pyroxene has light REE (LREE) concentrations near 0.1 x CI and heavy REE (HREE) near 1 x CI respectively. Olivine has HREE concentrations at 0.1-1 x CI and LREE around 10-2 x CI. The coarsest olivine crystals tend to have the most fractionated REE patterns, indicative of equilibrium partitioning. Low-Ca pyroxene in the most pyroxene-rich chondrules tends to have the lowest REE concentrations. Type I chondrules seem to have undergone a significant degree of batch crystallization (as opposed to fractional crystallization), which requires cooling rates slower than 1-100 K/h. This would fill the gap between igneous CAIs and type II chondrules. The anticorrelation between REE abundances and ...

  9. Spectrochemical determination of trace elements in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the spectrochemical determination of Al, Pb, Sn, V, Nb, Cu and Ti at trace levels in stainless steel is reported. One hundred milligrammes of the stainless steel sample (in the form of turnings, filings, etc). were dissolved in aqua regia. The solution is evaporated to dryness and then ignited over Bunsen flame to get a dark brown powder. The powder thus obtained was ground thoroughly with specpure conducting graphite powder in the ratio 1:1 by weight and with 2% NaF. Fifteen milligrammes of this mixture were taken in the cavity of a graphite electrode and dc arc at 10 As. The spectra of the sample and synthetic standards were recorded on a JACO 3.4 on plane grating spectrograph, using 1200 grooves/mm grating in the first order. The elements, Al, Pb, Sn and V are estimated in the concentration range 50-500 ppm and Nb, Cu, Co and Ti in the range 250-2500 ppm, by choosing suitable lines for intensity measurement. Iron was used as the internal standards element. (auth.)

  10. Zinc: A precious trace element for oral health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Tayyaba; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Lin, Chai Wen; Qamar, Zeeshan

    2016-08-01

    This review will discuss the importance of Zinc in the maintenance of oral health. Zinc (Zn) is a trace element of valuable importance. In the oral cavity, it is naturally present at various sites such as dental plaque, dental hard tissues and saliva. It is proven to be effective against common prevalent oral health problems such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and malodour. It is being used in various oral health care products to control the formation of dental plaque and inhibiting the formation of dental calculus. It has the potential to sustain and maintain its elevated concentrations for a longer time particularly in the dental plaque and saliva on delivery from the mouth rinses and toothpastes. It has been reported that low concentrations of zinc have the capability to reduce dissolution and promote remineralization under caries simulating conditions. Most importantly low Zn2+ levels in the serum are useful as a tumour marker. Thus taking a note of its potentials, it can be concluded that zinc is a precious element for the maintenance of oral health. PMID:27524540

  11. Spectrographic determination of trace elements in aluminium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrographic method for the determination of twenty trace elements in aluminum metal by the carrier distillation tecnique has been developed. The following elements were considered: B, Cd, Bi, Cu, Fe, Mg, Cr, Mn, Pb, Si, Zn, Sn, Ti, Ca, Na, Ga, Ni, Sb, V and Ag. AgCl, In2O3, NaF, Ga2O3, GeO2 and CuF2 were tested as carriers. Better results were obtained by using 2% In2O3 and 6% AgCl on an alumina base. Several aluminum oxide samples with the same chemical composition but preparared by thermal decomposition of aluminum sulfate and nitrate according to a temperature program were submitted to spectrochemical analysis. The standards were prepared in two different ways: dry-mixing technique and thermal decomposition of aluminum nitrate at 8000C. Some considerations on matrix effect and the extent it affects the accuracy of the method are presented. The precision of the method varies from + - 5% to + - 27%. The accuracy was examined with the aid of X-ray fluorescence technique. (Author)

  12. X-ray trace element analysis with positive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new trace element analysis having the advantage that many elements may be detected in a single measurement, based on positive charged particle induced X-ray florescence and on the production of X-rays by heavy ions, is described. Because of the large cross-sections for the production of discrete X-ray and the low yield of continuum radiation, positive charged particle X-ray florescence is a competitive, fast, analytic tool. In the experiment a beam of positive charged particles from an accelerator was directed toward a target. X-rays induced by the bombardment were detected by a Si(Li) detector the ouput from which was amplified and sorted in a multichannel analyzer. For rapid data handling and analysis, the multichannel analyzer or ADC unit was connected to an on-line computer. A large variety of targets prepared in collaboration with the oceanographers have been studied and spectra obtained for different particles having the same velocity are presented to show that the yield of discrete X-rays increases at least as rapidly as Z2. While protons of several MeV appear to be already competitive further advantage may be gained by heavy ions at lower energies since the continuum is reduced while the peak ''signals'' retain strength due to the Z2 dependence. (S.B.)

  13. Trace Elements in Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Manns Braden; Field Catherine; Klarenbach Scott; Hemmelgarn Brenda; Wiebe Natasha; Tonelli Marcello; Thadhani Ravi; Gill John

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which can affect health. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing literature on trace element status in hemodialysis patients. Methods All studies which reported relevant data for chronic hemodialysis patients and a healthy control population were eligible, regardless of language or publication status. We included studies which measured at ...

  14. Application of hair as an indicator for trace element exposure in man. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a comprehensive summary of what is known from the literature on the use of hair as a bioindicator for trace elements. It is split into two parts: The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body and the contribution of studies in animals to the application of hair as an indicator for metals and trace elements in man. A separate abstract is prepared for each part. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Priyanka [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Calcutta, 92, APC Road, 700009 Kolkata (India); Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Calcutta, 92, APC Road, 700009 Kolkata (India)], E-mail: sarmistha_rc@rediffmail.com; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal [UGC-DAE consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, Radiation Biology Division, 3/LB Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, 700098 Kolkata (India)

    2010-03-15

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  16. Possible use of neutron activation analysis in studying trace elements in senile cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of certain life parameters (age, sex, place of residence) on the occurrence of trace elements in turpid human lens (senile cataract) was studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained suggest the dependence of some trace elements deposition in cataracts on age, sex and residence. The work was motivated by the aim to search for possible correlation between the environment and trace elements deposition in eye cataracts. (author)

  17. Prediction of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolters, M.G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Minerals and trace elements play essential roles in numerous biochemical and physiological processes in animals and man. A deficiency, an overdose or imbalances between minerals or trace elements will exert a negative effect on health. Generally, it is not the ingested dose of minerals and trace elements that is important to maintain balance, but rather the amount that is bioavailable (available for biological and biochemical processes in the organism). Several food components are able to for...

  18. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  19. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-03-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations. PMID:20047839

  20. Mathematical considerations regarding the stability of the trace element systems by linear regressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a mathematical model that would describe the stability and instability conditions, respectively of the organs of human body assumed as a living cybernetic system with feedback. We tested the theoretical model on the following trace elements: Mn, Zn and As. The trace elements were determined from the nose-pharyngeal carcinoma. We utilise the linear approximation to describe the dependencies between the trace elements determined in the hair of the patient. We present the results graphically. (authors)

  1. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair for long-lived people, hypertensives and healthy students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The XRF method was used to analyse nine kinds of trace elements in hair samples for three groups of people. While the information on long-lived people is used to explore the secret of long life, the work on hypertensives helps understand the effect of some trace elements on the disease. The normal values of trace elements for university students have been also set up

  2. Fertiliser characterisation: Major, trace and rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, N. [Departament de Cristal lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: notero@ub.edu; Vitoria, L. [Departament de Cristal lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A. [Departament de Cristal lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Canals, A. [Departament de Cristal lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding the chemical impact of agricultural activities on the environment so it is necessary to identify contaminants, and/or characterise the sources of contamination. In this study, a comprehensive chemical characterisation of 27 fertilisers of different types used in Spain has been conducted; major, minor and trace elements were determined, including rare earth elements. Results show that compound fertilisers used for fertigation or foliar application have low content of heavy metals, whereas fertilisers used for basal and top dressing have the highest content of both REE and other heavy metals. REE patterns of fertilisers have been determined in order for them to be used as tracers of fertilisers in future environmental studies. Furthermore in this work REE patterns of fertilisers are used as tracers of the source of phosphate in compound fertilisers, distinguishing between phosphorite and carbonatite derived fertilisers. Fertilisers from carbonatites have higher contents of REE, Sr, Ba and Th whereas fertilisers from phosphorites have higher contents of metals of environmental concern, such as Cd, U and As; and the sum of the heavy metals is higher. Some of the analysed fertilisers have Cd concentrations that exceed maximum values established in some countries and can be expected to produce long-term soil accumulation. Furthermore, other elements such as U, As and Cr are 10-50 times higher in concentration than those of Cd, but there is no legislation regarding them, therefore it is necessary to regulate fertiliser compositions in order to achieve environmental protection of soils and waters.

  3. Behavior of trace elements during magmatic processes - A summary of theoretical models and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arth, Joseph G.

    1976-01-01

    Progress in understanding the behavior of trace elements during the processes that produce igneous rocks has been made possible by the parallel development of theoretical models to describe that behavior and analytical techniques that permit precise measurement of trace-element concentrations in igneous rocks and minerals. The result of this progress is that trace-element studies may now be used to place strong limits on both the degree of partial melting or fractional crystallization involved in the production of a given magma and the identity and quantity of the residual phases. A summary of quantitative trace-element theory and partition coefficient data for igneous rocks is presented.

  4. Outlier Rejection in Massive Trace Element Data for Geographical Origin Identification System of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Sato

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As the result of establishment of brands for some farming districts in Japan, it is a big social issue that agricultural products of which geographical origins are camouflaged. To solve this problem, we have proposed a distributed system that identifies cultivated places of vegetables by using their trace element content as coresearch with agricultural chemists. This system records trace element content of vegetables when shipping from farms into databases which located in various farming districts. In case of a vegetable of which geographical origin is doubtful was found in markets, this system estimates real geographical origin by comparison between its trace element content and trace element content stored in databases. This system requires to measure and store trace element content in short time. Because amount of trace element data is relatively numerous, commitment of humans’ works should be avoided as possible as. On the other hand, since a lot of outliers are contained in trace element data, it is important that not to store trace element data which contains outliers to realize correct geographical origin identification in this system. In this paper, we describe a method for our geographical origin identification system to find and reject outliers in massive quantity of trace element content data.

  5. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  6. Influence of trace elements in human tissue in low-energy photon brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to determine the dosimetric impact of trace elements in human tissues for low-energy photon sources used in brachytherapy. Monte Carlo dose calculations were used to investigate the dosimetric effect of trace elements present in normal or cancerous human tissues. The effect of individual traces (atomic number Z = 11–30) was studied in soft tissue irradiated by low-energy brachytherapy sources. Three other tissue types (prostate, adipose and mammary gland) were also simulated with varying trace concentrations to quantify the contribution of each trace to the dose distribution. The dose differences between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues were calculated in single- and multi-source geometries. The presence of traces in a tissue produces a difference in the dose distribution that is dependent on Z and the concentration of the trace. Low-Z traces (Na) have a negligible effect (3%). There is a potentially significant difference in the dose distribution between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues (4%) and even larger if compared to the trace-free composition (15%) in both single- and multi-sourced geometries. Trace elements have a non-negligible (up to 8% in prostate D90) effect on the dose in tissues irradiated with low-energy photon sources. This study underlines the need for further investigation into accurate determination of the trace composition of tissues associated with low-energy brachytherapy. Alternatively, trace elements could be incorporated as a source of uncertainty in dose calculations. (paper)

  7. A study of trace elements in some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty one medicinal plants (herbal) have been investigated for major, minor and trace elements using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The samples were collected from the local market in Dhaka city and they were analysed by the thick-target external beam technique of the PIXE method. The samples were exposed to the proton beam as 1-mm thick pellet 0 f 7 mm dia. and irradiated with 2.0 MeV proton having 10 nA beam intensity. for 10-20 μC irradiation, the concentration of 15 elements,K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb were measured by comparison with calibration factors obtained from a curve constructed on the basis of the NBS orchard leaf standard (SRM-1571) irradiated under identical experimental condition. The concentration of K and Ca observed in the samples were in the range of 0.34-5.96% and .11-3.98% respectively. For Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, As and Pb the concentration ranges were 4.1-1100, 60-7600, 1.1-276, 7-164, 1.2-48, 1.1-31, and 3.1-128 mg/kg respectively. Ti, Br, Rb, Sr and Zr were also determined with variable accuracy. The validity of the procedure was established by analysing a NIST standard (tomato leaf). The results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. 17 refs.,3 tables, 3 figs

  8. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuder Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α 0.70 in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA. The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.

  9. The separation of trace elements in manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separations from manganese are discribed for (a)Al(III), Mo(VI), V(V), and Ti(IV), and (b)trace elements in general. In the first separation, a combined anion-cation exchange, the oxalate complexes are absorbed onto the anionic BIO.RAD 1-X8 resin. V(V) and Al(III) are then eluted into a cation-exchange column from which they are eluted successively, Mo(VI) and Ti(IV) then being eluted from the anionic resin. In the second separation, up to 2g of manganese is absorbed onto BIO.RAD AG 50W-X8 resin, from which V(V) is eluted with dilute hydrochloric acid prior to the elution of Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), As(III), Sb(III), Mo(VI), W(VI), and Sn(II) with a mixture of 1 M hydrochloric acid, 80 per cent acetone, and 0,1 per cent hydrogen peroxide. Mn(11) is eluted next with a mixture of 0,75M hydrochloric acid and 90 per cent acetone, after which the remaining cations are eluted with 4M hydrochloric acid. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 0,8 to 60 mg/l were obtained for 18 of the 21 elements tested. After concentration by evaporation, final measurements were made by the use of atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, or direct-reading spectrometry with excitation from an inductively coupled plasma source. Comparative results were obtained with atomic-absorption procedures where the manganese was not separated. However, the separation procedure can reduce the time required for analysis by the direct method because it limits the number of dilutions necessary and eliminates the need for the use of the method of additions to compensate for interferences from manganese

  10. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  11. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  12. Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo S.C. da; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas

    2013-07-01

    The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

  13. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 1012 n x cm-2 x s-1 and 1.4 x 1011 n x cm-2 x s-1, respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  14. Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

  15. Certified reference materials of trace elements in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Agrawal

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of trace elements is playing a vital role in industries and various sectors of science and technology including semiconductors, food, health and environmental sectors. In most of the cases a small error in measurement can vitiate all the measures taken for quality control and management. Many decisions regarding the suitability of material/products are based on the analysis. To reduce or eliminate the rejection rate of the products, accurate and reliable measurements are needed which can be achieved by the use of certified reference materials (CRMs). Their use in calibration of analytical equipments and validation of test methods ensures high quality in measurements and it provides traceability to the measurement data with national/international measurement systems (SI unit) also. In the present scenario of globalization of economy, use of certified reference materials (CRMs) in measurements is essential for global acceptance of products and test reports. Their use fulfil a mandatory requirement of international quality systems (ISO 9000, ISO/IEC standard 17025) including our national accreditation body, National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL), World Trade Organization (WTO) etc. International manufacturers of CRMs are meeting most of the requirement of CRMs of the country. To meet the demand of CRMs indigenously, the National Physical Laboratory, India initiated a national programme on preparation and dissemination of certified reference materials.

  16. [Analysis of trace elements in limestone for archeological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A. [Lab. de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, Champs-sur-Marne (France); Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows one to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  17. Aerosol, Cloud and Trace Gas Observations Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. Dunagan et al. [2013] present results establishing the performance of the instrument, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and preliminary scientific field data. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft (Shinozuka et al., 2013), and acquired a wealth of data in support of mission objectives on all SEAC4RS and TCAP research flights. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2; Segal-Rosenheimer et al., 2014), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In addition, 4STAR measured zenith radiances underneath cloud decks for retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective diameter. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new

  18. Trace Elements in Apple Fruits of Several Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of macro elements and trace elements in apple fruits was carried out by ICP-AES method. Apples were picked up fresh in December 2005. Seven different types of apples from different parts of the country were selected. Apples were sliced into large pieces, dried, and after grinding were dissolved in nitric acid (HNO3) and hydroperoxide (H2O2). After digestion, multi-element analysis was carried out. Data obtained were compared to published values for trace elements in apples in other regions of the world. Data obtained indicated that the concentration of trace elements in apples were within the values and data in other regions of the world. (Author)

  19. The determination, by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, of trace elements in sulphide concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation, concentration, and determination of trace elements in base-metal and sulphide concentrates are described. After the sample has been dissolved, the trace elements that form insoluble hydroxides are precipitated with lanthanum as the coprecipitant and are separated from those elements that form soluble amines with ammonia. The precipitate is dissolved, and the trace elements selenium, tellurium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and aluminium are determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. Coefficients of variation between 1 and 10 per cent, depending on the amount of the element, were obtained, with limits of determination ranging from 0,1 to 50 p.p.m

  20. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  1. An investigation of trace and radioactive elements in Elgash area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study an evaluation of nutrients and other trace elements content in soil, plants and water samples in addition to radionuclides levels were conducted in Elgash area-eastern Sudan. An area which is located between latitude 15.3-16.5 degree and longitude 36-37degree. Investigated area during the winter season january 1995 extends from (Al-lafa) to (Wager) at the flood season september-october 1996. Analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry for soil and plant samples collectedd during winter season, in addition to the water, and x-ray fluorescence for soil and plant samples collected in both seasons. During the flood season, it is foundd that no considerable difference of elemental content in soil and correspondingly in the same types of plants. Macronutrients (potassium, calcium and iron) contents in soil samples during the flood season were found to range from 2.50% to 5.42%. While micronutrients (zinc, copper and cobalt) contents ranged between 40 and 206 ppm. For different plant types, macronutrients concentration such as (potassium and calcium) ranged from 0.18 to 5.11%, where as micronutrients and other minor elements (iron, zinc, copper, bromine and strontium) ranged between 04 and 2742 ppm. Average values of potassium and calcium for most samples of soil and plant were differed within the seasons, in soil the average concentration of potassium during the winter and flood season was found to be 1.53 and 3.47%, and calcium was 1.58 and 2.98% where as in plant samples the average concentration of the elements during the winter season was 1.46, 0.97% and 2.76, 1.11% during the flood season, respectively. The results of the study showed that no markedd differences in the concentrations of individual elements, in water samples due to the seasonal and geographical variations, with exception to iron which is altered in the flood season from 2.5 ppm to 13 ppm, with 400% relative to the winter season. Results also showed that water of

  2. Assessment of Elemental Content in Airborne Particulate Matter in Bratislava Atmosphere using INAA and AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.

    2007-11-01

    The wide range concentration of elements including heavy metals, halogens and rare earths in airborne particulate matter were investigated. Sixteen samples were collected on filters in Meteorological station, Comenius University Bratislava (Slovak Republic) in different seasons. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the concentrations of 29 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined. The concentrations of other 6 elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The obtained results allow us to better understand the dynamic processes in the atmosphere and to quantify the air pollution and its trends.

  3. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  4. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in DGG standard glass I (soda-lime-silica glass)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace element content of DGG standard glass I was determined with a view to comparisons with antique glasses. Furthermore, this glass will be used in further investigation as a standard for trace element analysis of soda-lime glasses. (orig.)

  5. Comparative Trace Elemental Analysis in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissues Using PIXE

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Juma Mulware

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high or low levels of trace metals in human tissues has been studied widely. There have been detectable significant variations in the concentrations of trace metals in normal and cancerous tissues suggesting that these variations could be a causative factor to various cancers. Even though essential trace metals play an important role such as stabilizers, enzyme cofactors, elements of structure, and essential elements for normal hormonal functions, their imbalanced toxic effects ...

  6. Elemental composition of airborne dust in the shale shaker house during an offshore drilling operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.B.; Larsen, E.; Hansen, L.V.; Lyngsaae, M.; Kunze, H.

    1991-01-01

    During 2 days of an offshore drilling operation in the North Sea, 16 airborne dust samples from the atmosphere of the Shale Shaker House were collected onto filters. During this operation, drilling mud composed of a water slurry of barite (BaSO4) together with minor amounts of additives, among th...... coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). The total amount of dust collected varied from 0.04 to 1.41 mg m-3 with barium (Ba) as the single most abundant element. The open shale shakers turned out to be the major cause of generation of dust from the solid components of the drilling mud....

  7. Risk assessment of bioaccessible trace elements in smoke haze aerosols versus urban aerosols using simulated lung fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Betha, Raghu; Tan, Li Yun; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Smoke-haze episodes, caused by uncontrolled peat and forest fires, occur almost every year in the South-East Asian region with increased concentrations of PM2.5 (airborne particulate matter (PM) with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm). Particulate-bound trace elements (TrElems), especially carcinogenic and toxic elements, were measured during smoke haze as well as non-haze periods in 2014 as they are considered to be indicators of potential health effects. The bioaccessibilities of 13 TrElems were investigated using two types of simulated lung fluids (SLFs), Gamble's solution and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF), instead of the commonly used leaching agent (water). The dissolution kinetics was also examined for these TrElems. Many TrElems showed higher solubility in SLFs, and were more soluble in ALF compared to the Gamble's solution. Cu, Mn and Cd were observed to be the most soluble trace elements in ALF, while in Gamble's solution the most soluble trace elements were Cu, Mn and Zn. The dissolution rates were highly variable among the elements. Health risk assessment was conducted based on the measured concentrations of TrElems and their corresponding toxicities for three possible scenarios involving interactions between carcinogenic and toxic TrElems and SLFs, using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health risk assessment model. The cumulative cancer risks exceeded the acceptable level (1 in a million i.e. 1 × 10-6). However, the estimation of health quotient (HQ) indicated no significant chronic toxic health effects. The risk assessment results revealed that the assessment of bioaccessibility of particulate-bound TrElems using water as the leaching agent may underestimate the health risk.

  8. Variation in Macro and Trace Elements in Progression of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements.

  9. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  10. Short length trace element fluctuations in hair as measured by NAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since hair receives trace elements through different routes in and outside the follicle an investigation was carried out concerning trace element distributions in various parts of the hair with an emphasis on the route bulb. Microbeam PIXE scans over cross sections and additional overall analyses were made by DNAA and PIXE. It seems that trace elements can be divided into three groups, i.e. those introduced by blood in the initial stage of hair formation (Cu and Zn), those also introduced from blood in a later stage (K, Ca, Fe) and those introduced from sebum or sweat (Pb, As, Se). Consequences for the use of hair as a monitor for the trace element status of a person are discussed. Furthermore, attention is paid to the need for new techniques which provide information on trace elements distributions in biomedical tissues besides or instead of overall analysis methods like NAA. (author)

  11. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M.

    2016-02-01

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal-plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials.

  12. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal-plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials. PMID:26868040

  13. Examination of Environmental Trends in Hawaii Based on the Trace Element Distributions in Cores of the Kiawe tree (Prosopis pallida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Y. S.; de Carlo, E. H.; Spengler, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    Annual growth rings of trees have the potential for providing a chronology of bioavailable contaminants extant in the environment in which the trees grow. Recent studies have documented a significant correlation between concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate matter and those observed in surface and groundwater. The Kiawe (Prosopis pallida), a hardwood tree commonly found in Hawaii, represents a potential environmental tape recorder because of its life span on the order of multiple decades. Because the Kiawe is phreatophytic and has high transpiration rates, it may be ideally suited to examine past (temporal) and current (spatial) variability in the quality of groundwater where these trees grow. Because of the potential correlation between airborne and groundwater pollution we hypothesize that growth rings of Kiawe may yield clues to help unravel recent (50-100 yrs) changes in contamination patterns in Hawaii. We will present concentrations of trace elements (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sb, and Pb) in cores of Kiawe trees growing on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Oahu, the locus of more than 80 percent of the population of the State of Hawaii, is heavily urbanized, but other land uses include agriculture, conservation (rainforest), and military reservations, where live-fire military training activities over the past 60 years have raised public concern about potential contamination of natural resources. Preliminary analyses indicate that trace element concentrations in Kiawe wood range from a less than one to tens of micrograms per kilogram, depending on the element and the provenance of the tree.

  14. Elemental Composition In Airborne Particulate Sample Of Bandung and Lembang Region In 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of airborne particulate of Bandung higher than that of Lembang. The PM2.5 fraction was in the range of 4,3 μg/m3 to 21,1 μg/m3 for Bandung area, and 2,9 μg/m3 to 19,2 μg/m3 for Lembang area for 24 hours sampling time. The PM10 fraction of Bandung area was in the range of 12,1 μg/m3 to 44, 1 μg/m3, where a s the PM10 fraction of Lembang area was in the range of 5,2 μg/m3 to 30,6 μg/m3. The data much lower than that of National ambient air quality standard for 24 hours, 65 μg/m3 and 150 μg/m3 for PM2.5 fraction and PM10 fraction respectively. No clear correlation either concentration of fine or coarse particulate to rainfall. For teen elements, which were Al, Br, Ca, Ce, CI, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V and Zn, were detected. The elements of Br, Ce, CI, Cr, I, Sb and Zn were enriched in fine and coarse of Bandung and Lembang samples, where as AI, Ca, Mn, Na and V were not enriched. The special element of Fe was enriched in fine particulate of Lembang, where as in particulate of Bandung was not enriched. Analysis of coarse particulate samples indicated the similar results to fine particulate except for Ce. The results of analysis explained that pollutant source of Bandung and Lembang were the same. Some elements such as Br, CI and I possibly come from organic material burning; Br and CI could be from motor vehicle; Cr, and Zn could be from paint factory; Zn and Sb could be from refuse incineration; while Ce could be from electronic factory. The calculation results indicated that enrichment factor of elements in fine particulate higher than that of coarse particulate. Furthermore the enrichment factor of element in airborne particulate of Bandung area was higher than that of airborne particulate of Lembang

  15. Trace elements in human milk. Part of a coordinated programme on comparative methods for the study of trace elements in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New analytical methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis were developed for the determination of Sn, V, I and Se at nanogram levels in biological materials, particularly in milk and other foodstuffs. By the application of these and similar methods, results for trace elements in human and cow's milk were collected from which the normal concentration ranges of up to 12 trace elements were established. Significant data on vanadium levels were also collected allowing assessment of the dietary intake and body pool of this element and a reappraisal of its significance in nutrition. Similar data on a smaller scale were also collected for tin. Results were also obtained for several different trace elements in a range of biological reference materials

  16. Trace element analysis of blood samples from mentally challenged children by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator based ion beam analysis method of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used for analysing up to 14 elements in the blood serum of patients, collected from rehabilitation centres for the mentally retarded and from Medical College Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The experimental subjects of the different groups displayed significant variations in their levels of certain trace elements such as zinc, iron, copper, phosphorus, chlorine, and rubidium. The results are compared with those of healthy control subjects and are discussed in detail in this paper. Hence, PIXE as a method of trace element analysis can be used to determine trace element content in mentally challenged patients

  17. Trace elements in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manns Braden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which can affect health. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing literature on trace element status in hemodialysis patients. Methods All studies which reported relevant data for chronic hemodialysis patients and a healthy control population were eligible, regardless of language or publication status. We included studies which measured at least one of the following elements in whole blood, serum, or plasma: antimony, arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. We calculated differences between hemodialysis patients and controls using the differences in mean trace element level, divided by the pooled standard deviation. Results We identified 128 eligible studies. Available data suggested that levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and vanadium were higher and that levels of selenium, zinc and manganese were lower in hemodialysis patients, compared with controls. Pooled standard mean differences exceeded 0.8 standard deviation units (a large difference higher than controls for cadmium, chromium, vanadium, and lower than controls for selenium, zinc, and manganese. No studies reported data on antimony, iodine, tellurium, and thallium concentrations. Conclusion Average blood levels of biologically important trace elements were substantially different in hemodialysis patients, compared with healthy controls. Since both deficiency and excess of trace elements are potentially harmful yet amenable to therapy, the hypothesis that trace element status influences the risk of adverse clinical outcomes is worthy of investigation.

  18. Trace element transformations and partitioning during the roasting of pyrite ores in the sulfuric acid industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yongheng; Peng, Ping'an; Li, Chao; Chang, Xiangyang; Wu, Yingjuan

    2009-08-15

    Total concentrations combined with chemical partitioning of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn) in raw pyrite ore and solid roasting wastes were investigated in order to elucidate their transformations and partitioning during the roasting of raw pyrite ores in sulfuric acid production. In order to better understand the behavior of these elements during roasting, mineral transformations accompanying roasting were also investigated by using microscopy. Results indicated that the mode of occurrence of trace elements in raw pyrite ore and the thermostability of trace element-bearing species formed during roasting played major roles in the transformations of the selected trace elements. Silicate- and amorphous iron (hydr)oxide-bound elements (Cr and Pb) were stable and mainly retained in their original phases. However, acid-exchangeable and sulfide-bound elements tended to transform into other forms via different pathways: elements that tend to form low thermostable species (Cd, Pb and Tl) were significantly vaporized, whereas elements that tend to form high thermostable species (Co, Mn and Ni) mainly reacted with iron oxides or silicates, which then remained in the solid residues. The volatility of trace elements during the roasting has a significant effect on their subsequent partitioning in roasting wastes. Nonvolatile element (Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) partitioning was determined by settling of the particulate in which they are bound, whereas the partitioning of (semi)volatile elements (Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was controlled by the adsorption of their gaseous species on the particulate. PMID:19261379

  19. Trace element transformations and partitioning during the roasting of pyrite ores in the sulfuric acid industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total concentrations combined with chemical partitioning of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn) in raw pyrite ore and solid roasting wastes were investigated in order to elucidate their transformations and partitioning during the roasting of raw pyrite ores in sulfuric acid production. In order to better understand the behavior of these elements during roasting, mineral transformations accompanying roasting were also investigated by using microscopy. Results indicated that the mode of occurrence of trace elements in raw pyrite ore and the thermostability of trace element-bearing species formed during roasting played major roles in the transformations of the selected trace elements. Silicate- and amorphous iron (hydr)oxide-bound elements (Cr and Pb) were stable and mainly retained in their original phases. However, acid-exchangeable and sulfide-bound elements tended to transform into other forms via different pathways: elements that tend to form low thermostable species (Cd, Pb and Tl) were significantly vaporized, whereas elements that tend to form high thermostable species (Co, Mn and Ni) mainly reacted with iron oxides or silicates, which then remained in the solid residues. The volatility of trace elements during the roasting has a significant effect on their subsequent partitioning in roasting wastes. Nonvolatile element (Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) partitioning was determined by settling of the particulate in which they are bound, whereas the partitioning of (semi)volatile elements (Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was controlled by the adsorption of their gaseous species on the particulate.

  20. Quality of trace element contaminated soils amended with compost under fast growing tree Paulownia fortunei plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Madejón, Paula; Xiong, Jian; Cabrera, Francisco; Madejón, Engracia

    2014-01-01

    The use of fast growing trees could be an alternative in trace element contaminated soils to stabilize these elements and improve soil quality. In this study we investigate the effect of Paulownia fortunei growth on trace element contaminated soils amended with two organic composts under semi-field conditions for a period of 18 months. The experiment was carried out in containers filled with tree different soils, two contaminated soils (neutral AZ and acid V) and a non contaminated soil, NC. ...

  1. Report on intercomparison A-13 of the determination of trace elements in freeze dried animal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document deals with the comparative evaluation of the analytical data on the trace elements in beef blood obtained by 38 laboratories in 23 countries. The evaluations were based on 799 laboratory mean values of concentration of 41 elements. It was one of the series of IAEA intercomparisons on the determination of trace elements in animal materials. It was organized for the purpose of assisting the participating laboratories to check the accuracy of their work and to prepare a new reference material

  2. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H. W.; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radia...

  3. PIXE analysis of trace elements in teeth of northern fur seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of trace elements in calcified tissues of marine organisms have a good relation with environmental variables. The trace elements in teeth of northern fur seals Collorhinus ursinus were analyzed by PIXE to investigate impacts of regime shifts such as drastic change of seawater temperature. Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Br, Sr, Zn, As, Ni, Co and Zr were detected in the teeth. Among them, concentration of eight elements seemed to correspond to the regime shifts. (author)

  4. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  5. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihwa Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01. Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05. A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05. Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  6. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqun Zu; Laurent Bock; Christian Schvartz; Gilles Colinet; Yuan Lit

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Cbenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 rog/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil)of Pb and Zn ≥1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu ≤1.0). Subsoil trace element content was related to relief, stoniness,soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu.Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M >L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  7. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory. PMID:18479045

  8. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA F...

  9. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    from the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by......Apparatus for treating raw water in a biofilter The present invention relates to an apparatus in which raw water is treated through microbial activity where microbial activity is controlled by nutrients and other parameters. Some of the nutrients controlling the microbial activity are trace...... elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...

  10. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k0-standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  11. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element composition and their distribution in minerals of mantle peridotite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton microprobe and the quantitative micro-PIXE analysis technique are used to determine trace element composition and distribution in minerals of mantle peridotite, therefore, additional useful information is provided on the study of upper mantle mineral phase transformation. An example reported here is the study on the geochemical behavior of trace elements in minerals of Suoluoshu mantle peridotite from Shandong province, which was in the process of mineral phase transformation from spinel to garnet. The study shows that trace element composition and distribution display obvious change in minerals while the mineral phase is transformed from spinel to garnet. Most of the trace elements analyzed reside in clinopyroxene and spinel. However, garnet is nearly poor in all of these elements. This phenomenon is associated with the infiltration of solution and the existence of micrograined inclusions in minerals in the process of mantle metasomatism

  12. Role of nuclear analytical probe techniques in biological trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many biomedical experiments require the qualitative and quantitative localization of trace elements with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. The feasibility of measuring the chemical form of the elements, the time course of trace elements metabolism, and of conducting experiments in living biological systems are also important requirements for biological trace element research. Nuclear analytical techniques that employ ion or photon beams have grown in importance in the past decade and have led to several new experimental approaches. Some of the important features of these methods are reviewed here along with their role in trace element research, and examples of their use are given to illustrate potential for new research directions. It is emphasized that the effective application of these methods necessitates a closely integrated multidisciplinary scientific team. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. An experimental study on the behaviour of copper and other trace elements in magmatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Were, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    1. Distribution of trace elements between biotite and hydrous granitic melt. The synthetic system haplogranite-anorthite-biotite-H2O, doped with a suite of trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, Mo, W, Nb, Ta, REE, Pb and Zr) was experimentally investigated over the temperature interval of 700-800°C at 200 MPa (H2O) to study the distribution of trace elements between biotite and coexisting hydrous melt. The starting materials were a series of volatile-free synthetic glasse...

  14. A review of trace element emissions from the combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of cocombusting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal on stack emissions of trace elements in the ash stream were reviewed. The large number of variables and uncertainties involved precluded drawing definitive conclusions regarding many of the trace elements. However, it is evident that cocombustion resulted in increased emissions of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. Emissions of As and Ni tended to decrease when RDF was fired with coal. Modeling studies indicated that ambient levels of trace elements during cocombustion should be within acceptable limits. However, periodic monitoring of Cd, Hg, and Pb may be warranted in some instances

  15. Trace element levels in hair of a population group living in a small coastal town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury and other trace elements were measured in hair samples collected from subjects of a population group having an average annual fish consumption significantly higher than that for the italian population. The determination of the trace elements was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that the levels of trace elements in the hair of this population group are higher than those reported for italian population. In particular the high values of mercury concentration found samples indicate that some subjects may exceed the mercury PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake)

  16. Trace elements in indigenous medicinal plants (rhyzya stricta, vinca rosea and fagonia cretica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three indigenous medicinal plants reported to be anticancer have been selected for study of trace elements and their possible role in human health. Twelve trace elements (Al, Ag, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, and Zn) have been detected and estimated in ash of various parts (leaves, shoots, flowers, seeds and roots) of the Rhazya stricta, Vinca rosea and Fagonia cretica plants. It is imperative to analyse the plants for their trace elements content, which have healing power for mankind in numerous ailments and disorders. The data of present work will be useful in this regard. (orig./A.B.)

  17. Assessment of trace element levels in Rhododendron honeys of Black Sea Region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhododendron and multi-flower honeys obtained from Black Sea Region of Turkey (12 Rhododendron and 8 multi-flower honeys) were studied to determine the presence of the 14 trace elements such as Cu, Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, Al, Se, Zn, Mn, Fe, K, Ca and Mg. Trace element determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion. The results revealed that Rhododendron honeys exhibited higher concentrations of Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Se, Zn, Ca and Mg but lower concentrations of Al, Mn, Fe and K than in the multi-flower honeys. Trace element levels in analyzed honey samples were generally lower than literature values

  18. A study for determining trace elements in rock samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A XRF method for the determination of trace elements Nb, Zr, Y, Rb, Sr, U, Cu and Zn in rock samples using pressed rock powder pellets is described. The compton scattering of Rh X-Ray tube is used as matrix correction and background deduction. The method has following advantages: pressed pellets preparation is simple and rapid; background deduction and matrix correction are easy and accurate; detection limits for these trace elements are less than 2 ppm, so that, this method offers the possibility of rapid and accurate determination for trace elements in rock materials

  19. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  20. Trace elements in animal nutrition: Can a great potential be realized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few of the advances in trace element research have found universal application to practical problems of animal nutrition in the field. Environmental or man-made imbalances of trace elements can result in significant reduction of animal performance resulting in substantial economic loss and, indirectly, in a poorer nutritional status of human populations. Extrapolation of existing data suggests that wide areas of the world will be found to have considerable problems of animal trace element nutrition. Once diagnosed, correction of existing imbalances is feasible and inexpensive, with a resulting improvement of animal productivity and of human health. (author)

  1. Trace elements in the water cycle of the Salek Valley, Slovenia, using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three watersheds were studied by sampling bulk precipitation deposition, seepage water at 50 cm soil depth and spring water. As the main analytical method for determination of trace elements and heavy metals in water samples, the k0-based method of INAA was used. The results showed an increased content and concentration range of trace elements in precipitation, soil water and spring water in the vicinity of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant. We demonstrated that the k0-based method of INAA as a multielement nondestructive technique is a highly suitable approach to determining some toxic trace elements in environmental studies of the water cycle. (author). 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Study on trace element of Yue ware unearthed at different kiln sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽; 李家治; 郭景坤; 徐锴; 陈宝林

    1999-01-01

    The contents of trace element of Yue ware excavated in Shaoxing, Shanglinhu, Shangyu kiln sites and Hangzhou palace were analyzed by NAA technique. The data of trace element compositions were treated by statistical analysis. It is found that the sources of raw materials used in Shaoxing, Shanglinhu, Shangyu kiln sites are different and stable. Especially the discriminant function predicted for porcelain bodies provides high discriminatory power according to production site. It shows that Yue ware specimens excavated in Hangzhou palace were fired in Shanglinhu. It indicates the special function of trace element in the studies on site identification.

  3. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  4. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ya-ji; JIN Bao-sheng; ZHONG Zhao-ping; XIAO Rui; TANG Zhi-yong; REN Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and flyash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements wereinvestigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. Onecoefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. Theseelements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile.Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be locatedbetween groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, themore relative enrichment of trace elements( except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms oftrace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of traceelements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not alwaysimprove the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Traceelements should be classified in accordance with factors.

  5. Determination of trace elements in sedimentary phosphorites with ultraviolet laser ablation ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Analyses of trace elements in sedimentary phosphorites used in fertiliser production are important because many trace elements that are enriched in these rocks can be further enriched during fertiliser production and then transferred to plants and animals. Few detailed studies of trace metals in potential phosphate ores have been published and most published studies involve few samples or present data for a limited range of trace elements. This study uses UV laser ablation ICP-MS with 3mm line burns and calibration against NIST glass standards to provide rapid multi-element analyses of an extensive phosphorite specimen collection from around the world. Because there are no published reports using UV laser ablation to examine phosphorites, no limitations were placed on element combinations during initial multi-element analyses. Selection of up to 30 elements produced unreliable results for a single nodular phosphorite sample compared to data from several other analytical techniques. Results from PIXE analyses were then used for cross-calibration of several major and trace elements determined using UV laser ablation and it was found that three groups of elements need to be analysed separately. Although elements, whether as major or trace elements, within any one group can be determined in any number or combination, elements from other groups cannot be reliably determined at the same time. Group 1 includes any element not in Period 4 of the Periodic Table, the other two groups consist of particular elements from Period 4. Membership of groups is probably related to one or more of the following: 1) saturation of various mass numbers in Period 4 that coincide with argon isotopes, 2) interference from argyles and doubly charged ions that form during analysis from phosphorus, calcium and other light elements in the phosphorites, and 3) the effect of the high energy/frequency UV laser. Raw data are adjusted using results from analytical techniques such as PIXE

  6. An evaluation of atmospheric deposition of trace elements into the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegalski, S; Landsberger, S

    1999-01-01

    High-volume air samplers were used to collect aerosol samples on Whatman 41 air filters at the Canadian air sampling stations Burnt Island, Egbert, and Point Petre. Once collected, the samples were analyzed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis. Air concentrations of over 30 trace elements were determined. A special focus was made to utilize Compton suppression gamma-ray spectroscopy and epithermal irradiations to enhance the detection limits of neutron activation analysis. These techniques allowed for the determination of trace elements at very low levels. Results of the study of the trace-metal dry deposition into Lakes Huron and Ontario indicated that the majority of the total deposition resulted from crustal materials. However, dry deposition is also a significant pathway for many toxic anthropogenic trace metals into the Great Lakes. PMID:10676498

  7. Airborne measurements of NO{sub y} and impact of this trace gas on atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perros, P.E.; Marion, T. [Paris-12 et 7 Univ., Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1999-05-01

    Nitrogen compounds play a key role in the ozone production processes. The airborne measurement of individual species is difficult compared to their global measurement. This can be done by the conversion of all the species (NO{sub y}) in NO followed by a subsequent analysis by chemiluminescence. Laboratory tests allow up to determine the main characteristics of such conversion. NO{sub y} measurements associated with NO{sub x} concentrations allow a quantitative and qualitative study of ozone production processes. In particular it is possible to determine the ozone production potential of an air mass, the ozone production efficiency and to specify the chemical regimes. (authors) 13 refs.

  8. Trace element characterization of Indian vegetarian diet and its constituents by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritive trace elements have been determined in a typical vegetarian diet and its various components. A hospital diet, pulses and vegetables have been characterised for 18 elements. Daily intake of elements have been compared with the International diet standards. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  9. Trace elements in flue gas desulfurization environments and their effect on corrosion of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature survey has been performed to determine what trace elements are prevalent in the environments of various flue gas desulfurization (FGD) components. The potential effect of these elements on the corrosion of alloys is discussed. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrated that certain elements in the flue gas can complex fluoride, thereby inhibiting corrosion significantly

  10. Primitive elements in finite fields with arbitrary trace

    OpenAIRE

    Çoban, Mustafa; Coban, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    Arithmetic of finite fields is not only important for other branches of mathematics but also widely used in applications such as coding and cryptography. A primitive element of a finite field is of particular interest since it enables one to represent all other elements of the field. Therefore an extensive research has been done on primitive elements, especially those satisfying extra conditions. We are interested in the existence of primitive elements in extensions of finite fields with pres...

  11. Trace Element Analysis of Human Lung Tissue by Neutron Activation and Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of trace elements in tissues in the ppm to pp109 range requires very careful and specialized techniques both in the sample acquisition and in subsequent analysis. Many of the trace elements which are present in human tissues are at lower concentrations than those in super-pure chemical reagents; also, an acid rinse of typical laboratory glassware may contain as much of some trace elements as the tissue sample being studied. An analytical technique based on neutron activation for the measurement of trace elements in tissues has been developed which requires a minimum of pre-irradiation handling followed by the direct measurement of the activation products on a multidimensional or a solid-state gammaray spectrometer. This technique has been applied to a study of trace elements in human lung tissue. Lung tissue contains not only the tissue-bound elements but also those which have been deposited in the cells of the pulmonary alveoli through inhalation. The method permits the direct measurement of 15 trace elements. The analysis of lung tissues thus provides information on the integrated trace element deposition resulting during the life of an individual. The concentrations of several of these including Fe, Br, P, Se, Ag, Zn, Cs, Co, Sc, U and Sb have been measured in several autopsy and biopsy samples of both normal and diseased tissues from several subjects with known case histories. The variations in the observed trace element compositions are presented and considered in terms of the occupational and medical history of the subject. (author)

  12. The role of high-energy synchrotron radiation in biomedical trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will present the results of an investigation of the distribution of essential elements in the normal hepatic lobule. the liver is the organ responsible for metabolism and storage of most trace elements. Although parenchymal hepatocytes are rather uniform histologically, morphometry, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and microdissection with microchemical investigations have revealed marked heterogeneity on a functional and biochemical level. Hepatocytes from the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver parrenchyma differ in oxidative energy metabolism, glucose uptake and output, unreagenesis, biotransformation, bile acid secretion, and palsma protein synthesis and secretion. Although trace elements are intimately involved in the regulation and maintenance of these functions, little is known regarding the heterogeneity of trace element localization of the liver parenchyma. Histochemical techniques for trace elements generally give high spatial resolution, but lack specificity and stoichiometry. Microdissection has been of marginal usefulness for trace element analyses due to the very small size of the dissected parenchyma. The characteristics of the high-energy x-ray microscope provide an effective approach for elucidating the trace element content of these small biological structures or regions. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Responses of trace elements to aerobic maximal exercise in elite sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otag, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otag, Ilhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, Ilyas

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  14. Identification and Determination of Trace Elements in Rice Seeds by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rice seeds, the high activities of 42K, 38Cl and other radioisotopes induced by neutron irradiation make it impossible to identify most of the trace elements directly by gamma-ray spectrometry. To overcome this difficulty, fast and selective radiochemical group-separation methods have been developed which allow the identification of various trace elements such as Ba, Sr, As, Sb, Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd. Neutron activation analysis has also been used to determine six elements existing in quantities of the order of milligrams or traces. In these cases, after the addition of appropriate carrier elements, the radioisotopes were separated individually by standard radiochemical procedures, and chemical yields were determined. The experimental procedures are described. Amongst the seeds analysed, four varieties, Spanish and Korean, were included that were selected by the Institutes of Agricultural Research of Spain and Korea, and were of known origin. Wide differences in trace-element concentrations were observed. Measurements on whole seeds and seeds without cortex showed that the trace element contents of the former are two or three times those of the latter. This suggests an enrichment of trace elements in the seed cortex. The concentration ranges observed were: 6 to 50 ppm for Mn, 1 to 4 ppm for Cu, 7 to 45 ppm for Na, 0.2 to 1 ppm for Br, 1000 to 4800 ppm for K and 200 to 2500 ppm for CI. (author)

  15. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Schäuble, D.; Jeßberger, P.; Ziereis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of climate-sensitive trace gas variabilities in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region (UTLS) and their impact on its radiative budget requires accurate measurements. The composition of the UTLS is governed by transport and chemistry of stratospheric and tropospheric constituents, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide and sulphur components. The Airborne chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer AIMS has been developed to accurately measure a set of these constituents on aircraft by means of chemical ionization. Here we present a setup using chemical ionization with SF5- reagent ions for the simultaneous measurement of trace gas concentrations in the pptv to ppmv (10-12 to 10-6 mol mol-1) range of HCl, HNO3 and SO2 with in-flight and online calibration called AIMS-TG. Part 1 of this paper (Kaufmann et al., 2015) reports on the UTLS water vapour measurements with the AIMS-H2O configuration. The instrument can be flexibly switched between two configurations depending on the scientific objective of the mission. For AIMS-TG, a custom-made gas discharge ion source has been developed generating a characteristic ionization scheme. HNO3 and HCl are routinely calibrated in-flight using permeation devices, SO2 is permanently calibrated during flight adding an isotopically labelled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5-. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low ten pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement in the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO. Exemplarily, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal mission with HALO in 2012 are presented, focusing on a classification of tropospheric and stratospheric influences in the UTLS region. Comparison of AIMS measurements with other measurement techniques allow to draw a comprehensive

  16. Determination of trace elements in cockle Anadara Granosa L. using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study determines the trace metal content in Anadara Granosa L., a popular seafood amongst South-East-Asians. Using the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) identification has been made of the presence of 17 trace metals including elements which are classified as toxic (As, Br, Cs) and those which are rare-earths (Eu, Ce, Lu, Tb, Yb). (author)

  17. Contamination of the Marine Environment by trace metals: old and emergent elements, case studies and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gobert, Sylvie; Richir, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of 18 trace elements (old: Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Fe ; emergent: Be, Al, V, Mn, Sb, As, Bi, Se, Mo, Ag, Sn studied in the laboratory of Oceanology. Study cases in the Mediterranaen Sea (Seagrass, mussel, seaurchin).

  18. Sources and pathways of trace elements in urban environments: A multielemental qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel García, Eduardo de; Llamas Borrajo, Juan F.; Chacón Oreja, Enrique; Mazadiego Martínez, Luis Felipe

    1999-01-01

    A geochemical model of an urban environment is presented in which multielemental tracers are used to characterise the circulation of trace elements in particulate matter_atmospheric aerosol, street dust and urban soil, within a city.

  19. PIXE, a new technique for the trace element analysis of high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used for the first time for the analysis of trace elements in high explosives. Characteristic X-ray spectra were collected from samples of PE4 during irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons. These spectra were examined with the specific aim of investigating whether trace elements could be used as a 'fingerprint' for the year of manufacture of the explosive. Analysis has shown that the levels of trace elements in PE4 explosive was significantly lower in batches manufactured after 1985. Similar analyses were also performed on the ash residues of the explosives, revealing increased trace element concentrations, and therefore a greater sensitivity, and confirmed that post-1985 PE4 was of higher purity

  20. Trace element content of vegetables grown in the victorian goldfields: characterization of a potential hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants take-up trace elements essential to healthy growth, but if metal accumulation is excessive, harmful effects are noted in the plant and potentially in the organisms that feed on them. Central Victoria has a rich gold mining heritage, and as such, much of the landscape has been disturbed by the addition of mine waste material, providing an abundant source of metals in a mobile environment. A biogeochemical survey was conducted to evaluate the trace element content of backyard vegetable gardens in the gold field region and the trace element accumulation in commonly grown vegetables. Vegetable (n150) and soil (n59) samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results indicate that vegetables grown in the central Victorian goldfields have only slightly elevated trace element content. Some exceptions exist, specifically for silverbeet, but the hazard potential is minimal

  1. Quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental details are given of the quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry. The effects of interfering species, and corrections that can be applied, are discussed. (U.K.)

  2. The Role of Trace Elements in the Malignant-Benign Differentation of Pleural Effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Demirpence Demirpence

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It has been speculated that trace elements may play a role in some type of cancers. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic utility of trace elements in pleural fluid with pleural effusions. Material and Method: This study consisted of 38 patients diagnosed with malignant and benign pleural effusions. Chrome, nickel, selenium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results: No significant difference was found between malignant and benign effusions with respect to Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn concentrations in samples. Discussion: Trace elements have function as the component of many enzymes and the catalyst of some chemical reactions. There have been studies demonstrating the association of the deficiency or surplus of trace elements (TEs with various type of cancers. In our study, the role of TEs measured in the pleural effusions in the differential diagnosis in the effusion etiology could not be demonstrated.

  3. Trace elements deficiencies in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome in the mature newborn calf

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Aliaoui, Hamani; Rollin, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    In Belgium, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal death in the mature hypermuscled Belgian Blue calf (BB) but also occurs in other cattle breeds. Major clinical signs (tachypnea, tachycardia and sometimes depression) develop in the first hours after birth and are due to insufficiency of functional surfactant. Knowing that trace elements deficiencies can slow pulmonary maturation, the aim of this study was to investigate trace elements stat...

  4. Trace Elements Affect Methanogenic Activity and Diversity in Enrichments from Subsurface Coal Bed Produced Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ünal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effe...

  5. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water

    OpenAIRE

    KlausNüsslein; BurcuÜnal

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effe...

  6. A search for losses of chromium and other trace elements during lyophilization of human liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human liver tissues were investigated for possible trace-element losses during lyophilization by comparison of concentrations of lyophilized and untreated (wet) samples. When destructive neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) was used, no significant losses were observed for As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, and Zn. The advantages of n.a.a. over radio-tracer techniques for studies of trace-element volatility are discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Trace elements in speleothems. A short review of the state of the art.

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyden Sophie

    2004-01-01

    A state of the art of the research on trace elements of speleothems is given. First studies focussed on problems such as the colour of speleothems and the aragonite problem. Insitu studies and studies oriented towards a better understanding of vadose hydrology brought new insights in the controls on trace elemental composition of speleothems. Recent studies deal with microscale analyses and annual and intra-annual chemistry changes. Further in-situ studies should be performed to further diffe...

  8. Use of organic and inorganic amendments to enhance phytostabilization of trace element polluted soils

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Francisco; Madejón, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Madejón, Engracia

    2010-01-01

    The application of immobilizing agents to contaminated soils is a remediation technique that reduces both mobility and bioavailability of trace elements (Vangronsveld et al., 1998). Stabilization can be achieved by adding amendments (lime, apatite, zeolites, materials with high organic matter content, manganese - Mn and iron - Fe oxides) that are able to absorb, complex or (co)precipitate trace elements (Bolan et al., 2003). Incorporation of lowcost, widely available materials, in...

  9. Phytostabilization of amended soils polluted with trace elements using the Mediterranean shrub: Rosmarinus officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Madejón, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco; Madejón, Engracia

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the mid-term effects of two amendments and the establishment of R. officinalis on chemical and biochemical properties in a trace element contaminated soil by a mine spill and the possible use of this plant for stabilization purposes. The experiment was carried out using containers filled with trace element polluted soil, where four treatments were established: organic treatment (biosolid compost, OAR), inorganic treatment (sugar beet lime, IAR), control with plant (NAR) and contro...

  10. Particle induced X-ray emission for quantitative trace-element analysis using the Eindhoven cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a multi-elemental trace analysis technique using PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), was started almost five years ago at the Eindhoven University of Technology, in the Cyclotron Applications Group of the Physics Department. The aim of the work presented is to improve the quantitative aspects of trace-element analysis with PIXE, as well as versatility, speed and simplicity. (Auth.)

  11. Trace elements in end-stage renal disease – unfamiliar territory to be revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Gusbeth-Tatomir Paul; Covic Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although associated with unfavorable outcomes in the general population, abnormal blood levels of various trace elements have not been consistently studied in the end-stage renal disease population (with the notable exception of aluminum). This is surprising, as the uremic patient treated by chronic dialysis loses one major route of trace element excretion and is exposed systematically to a foreign environment (the dialysis fluid) possibly contaminated with significant amounts of pot...

  12. PIXE analysis of trace elements in hair and their correlation with acute cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) technique has been used to analyze trace elements in more than 200 human hair samples from 60 patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases and 28 normal controls. Trace element differences in hair between the patients and the normal controls have been observed. A Van de Graaff accelerator and a Si(Li) semiconductor at Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology of Sichuan University were used. (author)

  13. Investigation of flour by X-ray fluorescence trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the trace element content of some kinds of flour by X-ray fluorescence analysis is described. The samples are burned to ashes at 700 deg C then calibration standards are added to them. The X-ray spectra are evaluated by computer. The optimal thickness of samples for achieving suitable accuracy and short measuring time is investigated. The trace element content of some species of Hungarian wheat is determined and compared. (D.Gy.)

  14. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KlausNüsslein

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After seven days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2=0.95. Metabolically-active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of coal bed methane production and alter the composition of the active

  15. Separation of trace elemental impurities from plutonium oxide matrics by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium oxide and uranium oxide are the main products of the PUREX process. Plutonium oxide and uranium oxide are the source materials used in the manufacture of ceramic grade oxide fuels for nuclear reactors. Among the various chemical specifications for plutonium oxide, trace elemental impurities are one of them. Presently, in the PREFRE laboratory, trace elemental assay in PuO2 by ICP-AES is carried out using this Pu-matrix separation method

  16. Change in field turbidity and trace element concentrations during well purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, J.; Szabo, Z.; Ivahnenko, T.; Wilde, F.D.

    2000-01-01

    Various physical and chemical properties were monitored sequentially in the field during well purging as indicators of stabilization of the composition of the water in the well. Turbidity was monitored on site during purging of oxic water from three wells with screened intervals open to an unconfined aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of southern New Jersey to determine if stabilization of turbidity is a reliable indicator of the optimum purge time required to collect unbiased trace element samples. Concurrent split (one filtered, one unfiltered) samples collected during purging of the wells were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements so that the relationships between trace element concentrations and turbidity could be compared. Turbidity correlated with the whole water recoverable (WWR) concentration of trace element species, such as iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) in the oxic ground water. Turbidity appeared to be independent of other field-measured characteristics of water such as conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The WWR concentrations of lead and copper, considered to be hydrophobic, correlated significantly with the sum of the WWR concentration of Fe, Al, and Mn. High values of field-measured turbidity were a key indicator of an overestimate of ambient hydrophobic trace element WWR concentrations. Stabilization of turbidity was a better indicator of stable, unfiltered trace element concentrations than were the other commonly measured field characteristics. At one well, turbidity was a better indicator of stable, filtered trace element concentrations than the other commonly measured field characteristics. As analytical methods for trace elements improve resulting in smaller MRLs (method reporting levels) and better precision, turbidity of ground water at values of less than 10 NTU (nepheiometric turbidity units) will become important in interpreting the significance of both unfiltered and filtered sample results.

  17. Use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic facts about the use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric trace element deposition are reviewed, and advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed, largely on the basis of experience from regular use of this technique in Norway over the last 20 years. Topics discussed include different versions of the moss technique, mechanisms and efficiencies of trace element uptake, conversion of concentrations in moss to bulk deposition rates, and contribution from sources other than air pollution to the elemental composition of different elements. Suggestions are presented for further work in order to extend the use of mosses as biomonitors. (author)

  18. Retention supports and geochemical interactions of Trace Elements in two soils irrigated by sewage (Meknes, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein OULD ARBY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ourzirha area located in the north-western of the Meknes City is an important agricultural region. This region is one of the principal suppliers of agricultural products to the Meknes citizens. However, the cultivated areas in the Ourzirha region are irrigated by a raw wastewater in major part. To explain and to predict the principal supports of the Trace Elements retention in these soils, two profiles subject to a sewage spreading are taken, a calcareous soil and a vertisol. Based on the vertical evolution of different studied parameters and the selective affinities of Trace Elements to the active soil fractions present in our profiles, we are tried to determine the various interactions between the considered Trace Elements and the clay, calcite and organic matter contents in studied profiles. The results of this study showed the importance of clay and organic matter as a dominant supports of these pollutants, especially in surface soil. In the calcareous soil, the calcite content influences strongly the distribution of Trace Elements along this profile. The mechanisms of the Trace Elements retention on studied profiles are considered as a selective adsorption on organic matter, clay and on calcite essentially. In fact, the possibility of a weak co-precipitation with calcite and organic matter in the calcareous soil isn't excluding. Also, in the vertisol probably, the Trace Elements contents are strongly influenced by the particular entering, favoured by a macro-porosity of this profile.

  19. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield. PMID:25812806

  20. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. ► Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. ► Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. ► Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19–6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20–30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352–450 mL CH4/g VSadded) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  1. Trace elements in end-stage renal disease – unfamiliar territory to be revealed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusbeth-Tatomir Paul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although associated with unfavorable outcomes in the general population, abnormal blood levels of various trace elements have not been consistently studied in the end-stage renal disease population (with the notable exception of aluminum. This is surprising, as the uremic patient treated by chronic dialysis loses one major route of trace element excretion and is exposed systematically to a foreign environment (the dialysis fluid possibly contaminated with significant amounts of potential deleterious trace elements. Moreover, some biological important trace elements may be lost through the dialysis membrane. Most studies to date demonstrated significantly altered blood levels of trace elements in ESRD patients compared to healthy controls. However, the biological impact of these abnormalities in renal disease is largely unknown and should be clarified by future studies. A further step would be the design of well-controlled randomized interventional studies, examining the potential therapeutic benefit of supplementing one or more trace elements in ESRD patients, a population characterized by an impressive mortality due to cardiovascular, infectious and neoplasic disease.

  2. Toxic effects of trace elements on newborns and their birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Xu, Chenye; Lin, Nan; Yin, Shanshan; Zhang, Yongli; Yu, Xinwei; Liu, Weiping

    2016-04-15

    Some trace elements are essential for newborns, their deficiency may cause abnormal biological functions, whereas excessive intakes due to environmental contamination may create adverse health effects. This study was conducted to measure the levels of selected trace elements in Chinese fish consumers by assessing their essentiality and toxicity via colostrum intake in newborns, and evaluated the effects of these trace elements on birth outcomes. Trace elements in umbilical cord serum and colostrum of the studied population were relatively high compared with other populations. The geometric means (GM) of estimated daily intake (EDI, mgday(-1)) of the trace elements were in the safe ranges for infant Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) recommended by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). When using total dietary intake (TDI, mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)), zinc (Zn) (0.880mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)) and selenium (Se) (6.39×10(-3)mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)) were above the Reference Doses (RfD), set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that Se was negatively correlated with birth outcomes. Our findings suggested that overloading of trace elements due to environmental contamination may contribute to negative birth outcomes. PMID:26803687

  3. Interaction of chemical species with biological regulation of the metabolism of essential trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, W. [Center of Life and Food Sciences, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Variations in the chemical speciation of dietary trace elements can result in the provision of different amounts of these micronutrients to the organism and might thus induce interactions with trace-element metabolism. The chemical species of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn can interact with other components of the diet even before reaching the site of absorption, e.g. by formation of poorly soluble complexes with phytic acid. This might considerably modify the amount of metabolically available trace elements; differences between absorptive capacity per se toward dietary species seems to be less important. Homeostasis usually limits the quantities of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn transported from the gut into the organism, and differences between dietary species are largely eliminated at this step. There is no homeostatic control of absorption of Se and I, and organisms seem to be passively exposed to influx of these micronutrients irrespective of dietary speciation. Inside the organism the trace elements are usually converted into a metabolically recognizable form, channeled into their biological functions, or submitted to homeostatically controlled excretion. Some dietary species can, however, be absorbed as intact compounds. As long as the respective quantities of trace elements are not released from their carriers, they are not recognized properly by trace element metabolism and might induce tissue accumulation, irrespective of homeostatic control. (orig.)

  4. Elemental analysis of airborne particulate by using thermal and epithermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis was used to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na, V, and Ti concentrations, whereas epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to determine Cu, I and Si concentrations. Counting by Compton suppression both in thermal neutron activation and epithermal neutron activation analysis showed the significantly different on detection limit of element compare with normal counting system. It revealed counting by Compton suppression gave better result. The enrichment factor of elements indicated that V and Mn were enriched in several fine particulate samples. Ca, Si and Na were not enriched, whereas Br, I and Cl were enriched in fine airborne particulate or in coarse one. It was found that Cl and Na did not have correlation, while Br and I showed the same enrichment the same enrichment trend and high correlation (0,9). It means that Br and I were from the same pollutant source. It could concluded that the thermal neutron and epithermal neutron activations analysis combined with counting by Compton suppression could enhance sensitivity of analysis of elemental air bone particulate that was very useful in air pollution study. Key words : activation analysis, thermal neutron, epithermal neutron, Compton

  5. Trace element concentrations from Sao Francisco River PR analyzed with PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of trace elemental concentration in the water of the Sao Francisco River located in the western part of the Brazilian state, Parana has been carried out using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The main objective of this work was to characterize and to monitor trace elements in the water of the Sao Francisco River, as well as to provide valuable information about the levels of metallic ion pollutants. Due to the detection limits of the PIXE analysis, up to 10 elements were quantified. Present work is a first attempt to identify trace elements of the Sao Francisco River. The highest total concentrations of Cr, As, Cu and Zn, detected in the river water are above the limits recommended by the Brazilian Environmental Legislation. The occurrence of these elements above the prescribed limits indicates the necessity of using improved techniques for industrial waste treatment. (author)

  6. Trace elements determination in Algerian wheat by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Algeria, bread is the staple food, produced in different kinds from local and imported wheat. Most of it is not subjected to micro-elemental analysis. The objective of this study is to determine quantitatively the traces elements in samples wheat grains produced locally from different cultivated provinces in Algeria. Trace elements (Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se and Zr) were determined using neutron activation analysis. The results show that the contents of the traces elements in the studied samples were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by WHO/FAO except for cobalt in El Harrach province. The analytical results showed that chromium was undetectable in all samples except for Constantine, Ain Mlila and Setif provinces. However zirconium content in a few samples exceeded the permissible level. (author)

  7. Bejing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and its applications on trace element study of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, Beijing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and experimental method were described. The minimum detection limits of some elements were tested by using several kinds of standard reference materials. The feasibility of using TXRF in biomedical field is discussed. With this technique small intestine cells of both normal and radiated white mice were analyzed, and the elemental average contents of each single cell are also given. The results indicated that the contents of some trace elements for normal and radiated white mice are greatly different, which may be used to provide valuable reference for clinic medicine. On the other hand, the trace elements of cells of lung and cervix cancer before and after apoptosis were determined by SRTXRF and the changes of trace elements in these cells were discussed. (author)

  8. An elementary analysis on the data quality of trace element determination in hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data quality of trace element determination in human hair by PIXC is fairly improved, when three measures are adopted: 1), The sample is thin homogeneous and smooth, especially the sample thickness is controlled in about 0.1-0.2 mg/cm2 2), A multi function computer program is used for the analysis of compelx X-ray spectra (PAXMF). The PAXMF program not only gives out the net areas of characteristic peaks but also can calculate the concentration of elements in the sample, can subtract the interferences contributed by impurities in 'blank sample' and can provide practical detection limits for the users. 3), System error is corrected by means of determination of trace elements in human hair standard material. 16 trace elements are analysed in human hair sample by PIXE as an intercomprarision. The values of 7 elements (Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb) are in good agreement with the recommended values

  9. Report on intercomparison IAEA/soil-7 of the determination of trace elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison of the determination of concentration of trace elements in a sample of soil organized by IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service. 56 laboratories in 25 countries returned results based on 999 laboratory mean values of 59 elements. The aim of this exercise was to enable the participating laboratories to check their analytical performance and to establish the concentration level of as many trace elements as possible for certification purposes. The analytical methods of activation analysis, atomic absorption, X-ray fluorescence and atomic emission were predominantly used for element determination. The number of outlying results was moderate (12%). The analytical results have enabled to certify the concentration of 28 trace elements in the soil material

  10. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides

  11. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: perezdemora@gmail.com [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  12. Report on the intercomparison run Soil-5 for the determination of trace elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    he knowledge of the elemental composition of soil, and especially its trace element content is of interest to many investigators active in various fields of research. Among these concerned are not only agricultural chemists and soil scientists, but also biochemists, environmentalists, nutritionists and others. The increased recognition of the essentially on one hand and toxicity on the other, of certain trace elements towards animals and man, has led to intensified studies of the pathways of trace elements in nature, particularly in the environmental research. Not only atmosphere, hydrosphere and biological tissues, but also soil is examined. Essential and toxic trace elements may pass from soil to plants (by which they are sometimes effectively concentrated) and further through food chains to Man. The interest in the analysis of soil for the content of many trace and also some major elements is therefore rapidly increasing. Hence, there seems to be an obvious need for a reference material with established 'recommended values' of as many elements as possible which could be used for checking the quality of analytical work of the laboratories engaged in soil analyses. At the same time well-characterized soil, containing high levels of minerals can be also of interest for geochemists as a complement to already existing geochemical reference samples

  13. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents' material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  14. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  15. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  16. Trace element determinations in human cortical and trabecular bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib bones of Brazilian people were analyzed by neutron activation analysis to evaluate element composition. Freeze-dried cortical and trabecular tissues, separately, and calcinated total rib tissues were analyzed. The concentrations of the Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sr, and Zn elements were determined. Comparisons between the results obtained in cortical and trabecular bones indicated significant differences in the concentration for several elements. Results obtained in cortical and trabecular bones were also compared with literature values. (author)

  17. High spatial resolution imaging of methane and other trace gases with the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Duren, Riley M.; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Hook, Simon J.; Vance, Nick; Guillevic, Pierre; Johnson, William R.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Mihaly, Jonathan M.; Jovanovic, Veljko M.; Chazanoff, Seth L.; Staniszewski, Zak K.; Kuai, Le; Worden, John; Frankenberg, Christian; Rivera, Gerardo; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Miller, Charles E.; Malakar, Nabin K.; Sánchez Tomás, Juan M.; Holmes, Kendall T.

    2016-06-01

    Currently large uncertainties exist associated with the attribution and quantification of fugitive emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases such as methane across large regions and key economic sectors. In this study, data from the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) have been used to develop robust and reliable techniques for the detection and wide-area mapping of emission plumes of methane and other atmospheric trace gas species over challenging and diverse environmental conditions with high spatial resolution that permits direct attribution to sources. HyTES is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer with high spectral resolution (256 bands from 7.5 to 12 µm), wide swath (1-2 km), and high spatial resolution (˜ 2 m at 1 km altitude) that incorporates new thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing technologies. In this study we introduce a hybrid clutter matched filter (CMF) and plume dilation algorithm applied to HyTES observations to efficiently detect and characterize the spatial structures of individual plumes of CH4, H2S, NH3, NO2, and SO2 emitters. The sensitivity and field of regard of HyTES allows rapid and frequent airborne surveys of large areas including facilities not readily accessible from the surface. The HyTES CMF algorithm produces plume intensity images of methane and other gases from strong emission sources. The combination of high spatial resolution and multi-species imaging capability provides source attribution in complex environments. The CMF-based detection of strong emission sources over large areas is a fast and powerful tool needed to focus on more computationally intensive retrieval algorithms to quantify emissions with error estimates, and is useful for expediting mitigation efforts and addressing critical science questions.

  18. Size fractionation of trace elements in the surface water and groundwater of the Ganjiang River and Xiushui River basins, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, E. A.; Guseva, N. V.; Sun, Z.; Mazurova, I. S.

    2015-11-01

    The research of trace element behaviour and size fractionation is significant to understand the processes in the water-rock system. Moreover, the aqueous speciation of trace elements is strongly related to their distribution and toxicity. In this research, trace elements behaviour and their size fractionation are investigated in the natural water (the surface water and shallow groundwater) of the Ganjiang River and Xiushui River basins. Trace element concentrations were measured by ICP-MS. The authors estimated the size fractionation of the trace elements between suspended forms (>0.45μm) and dissolved fractions, which included truly dissolved (1 kDa) and colloidal particles (0.45μm-1 kDa)), after filtration through a 0.45 μm acetate cellulose membrane filter. The distinct features of the trace element size fractionation were identified. The size fractionation of the trace elements under different conditions (in the surface water and shallow groundwater) was studied.

  19. Airborne particulate matter, platinum group elements and human health: a review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Zereini, Fathi

    2009-04-01

    Environmental concentrations of the platinum group elements (PGE) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) have been on the rise, due largely to the use of automobile catalytic converters which employ these metals as exhaust catalysts. It has generally been assumed that the health risks associated with environmental exposures to PGE are minimal. More recent studies on PGE toxicity, environmental bioavailability and concentrations in biologically relevant media indicate however that environmental exposures to these metals may indeed pose a health risk, especially at a chronic, subclinical level. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent evidence and provide an up-to-date assessment of the risks related to environmental exposures of PGE, particularly in airborne particulate matter (PM). This review concludes that these metals may pose a greater health risk than once thought for several reasons. First, emitted PGE may be easily mobilised and solubilised by various compounds commonly present in the environment, thereby enhancing their bioavailability. Second, PGE may be transformed into more toxic species upon uptake by organisms. The presence of chloride in lung fluids, for instance, may lead to the formation of halogenated PGE complexes that have a greater potential to induce cellular damage. Third, a significant proportion of PGE found in airborne PM is present in the fine fraction that been found to be associated with increases in morbidity and mortality. PGE are also a concern to the extent that they contribute to the suite of metals found in fine PM suspected of eliciting a variety of health effects, especially in vulnerable populations. All these factors highlight the need to monitor environmental levels of PGE and continue research on their bioavailability, behaviour, speciation and associated toxicity to enable us to better assess their potential to elicit health effects in humans. PMID:19181366

  20. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements in Ombrotrophic Peat as a Result of Anthropic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio Lourençato, Lucio; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    Ombrotrophic peat can be defined as a soil rich in organic matter, formed from the partial decomposition of vegetable organic material in a humid and anoxic environment, where the accumulation of material is necessarily faster than the decomposition. From the physical-chemical point of view, it is a porous and highly polar material with high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. The high ability of trace elements to undergo complexation by humic substances happens due to the presence of large amounts of oxygenated functional groups in these substances. Since the beginning of industrialization human activities have scattered a large amount of trace elements in the environment. Soil contamination by atmospheric deposition can be expressed as a sum of site contamination by past/present human activities and atmospheric long-range transport of trace elements. Ombrotrophic peat records can provide valuable information about the entries of trace metals into the atmosphere and that are subsequently deposited on the soil. These trace elements are toxic, non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain, even in relatively low quantities. Thus studies on the increase of trace elements in the environment due to human activities are necessary, particularly in the southern hemisphere, where these data are scarce. The aims of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of mercury in ombrotrophic peat altomontanas coming from atmospheric deposition. The study is conducted in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazilian conservation unit, situated between the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. An ombrotrophic peat core is being sampled in altitude (1980m), to measure the trace elements concentrations of this material. As it is conservation area, the trace elements found in the samples is mainly from atmospheric deposition, since in Brazil don't exist significant lithology of trace elements. The samples are characterized by organic matter content which

  1. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases.

  2. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Hussain, Mohsina

    2016-01-01

    Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases. PMID:27433374

  3. Determination of trace elements in ground water by two preconcentration methods using atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a comparative study between two different methods of preconcentration done to separate the trace elements cadmium, nickel. chromium, manganese, copper, zinc, and lead in drinking (ground) water samples taken from different locations in Gezira State, central Sudan (the map); these methods are (coprecipitation) with aluminium hydroxide and by Ammonium Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (APDC) using Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) as an organic solvent; and subsequent analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) for both methods. The result of comparison showed the superiority of the (APDC) coprecipitation method over the aluminium hydroxide coprecipitation method in the total percentage recoveries of the studied trace elements in drinking (ground) water samples, such results confirm previous studies. This study also involves direct analysis of these water samples by atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the concentrations of trace elements Cadmium, Nickel, Chromium, Manganese, Copper, Zinc and Lead and compare it to the corresponding guide line values described by the World Health Organization and the maximum concentrations of trace elements in drinking water permitted by the Sudanese Standards and Metrology Organizations (SSMO), where the concentrations of some elements in some samples were found to be different than the described values by both of the organizations. The study includes a trial to throw light on the effect of the proximity of the water samples sources to the Blue Nile river on its trace elements concentrations; no relation was proved to exist in that respect.(Author)

  4. Trace Elements in Stormflow, Ash, and Burned Soil following the 2009 Station Fire in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Baumberger, Katherine L.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life. PMID:27144270

  5. Trace metallic elements in Helix aspersa terrestrial snails of a semiarid ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of some major elements and traces in soil samples and of Helix aspersa eatable terrestrial snails were analysed at the Radioactive Wastes Storage Center (CADER) and in other reference sites. The methodology includes the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an X-ray fluorescence equipment and an Icp-mass spectroscope. The concentrations of some toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and V) in the soft tissue of the snails were greater than the toxic levels reported in the literature for such trace elements. The snails compared with another wild eatable foods present transfer coefficients soil-snail high relatively. (Author)

  6. Changes in serum trace elemental content of uterine cervix cancer patients using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of trace elements in blood sera of uterine cervix cancer patients, analyze their alteration with respect to healthy controls and identify the best predictors amongst these for disease occurrence and progression. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used in this work to identify and quantify trace elements Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br in the blood sera of uterine cervix cancer subjects and healthy control subjects. The observed alterations are discussed with respect to the possible mechanisms by which these elements might influence the carcinogenic process. (author)

  7. Trace element analysis of placentas of alcoholics and controls with external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External beam PIXE analysis with a proton beam of 2.4 MeV was used to study trace element concentrations in human placentas. The aim was to check the suitability of PIXE analysis regarding soft tissue samples. The elements of interest (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and Sr) were easily detected. A comparison was made with placental samples of alcoholics and controls to determine whether trace element concentrations in the placenta play a role in the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol syndrome. (author)

  8. Spectrographic determination of some non-rare-earth trace elements in allanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An emission spectrographic method for estimating traces of Be, Pb, Sn, Ga, Mn, Nb, Ti, Mo, V, Zr, Cu and Sc in allanite, a complex rare earth mineral, is described. Using 3.4 m Jarrell-Ash grating spectrograph, the spectra of standards and samples mixed with specpure graphite-internal standard mixture, are photographed in the spectral region 2275-3525 A in first order. Silicon and palladium are used as internal standard elements, for the estimation of these elements. Most of the trace elements are determined in the range of their natural abundance in allanites. The mean standard deviation of the method is found to be +- 14%. (author)

  9. Combining analytical techniques for trace elements in Uranium Oxide (U3O8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally XRF is used to analyse the major elements in a solid high purity product and ICP to analyse the trace elements in the dissolved solid, hence different sample preparation techniques are required Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) as a technique can be used in parallel with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) with the same analytical methodology Trace elements present in U3O8 are investigated using LA-ICP-MS as these are below detection limits of XRF instruments A certified reference material and an in-house processed yellow cake were investigated using the two techniques

  10. Sample validity in biological trace element and organic nutrient research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the art of the biological trace element investigations is overviewed. Questions of biological validity, such as the influence of the 'status of sampling' of human subjects on the concentrations of selected elements are studied. Analytical validity problems, e.g. stability of Cd, Hg and Pb concentration in selected specimens, stability of selected organic nutrients in NBS SRMs, etc. are also discussed. Finally, it is concluded that the development of new biological reference materials should take into account the multidisciplinary demands of biological trace element investigations. (author) 20 refs.; 6 tables

  11. Internationally harmonised approach to biomonitoring trace element atmospheric deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting work on airborne particulate matter since 1992 through various co-ordinated research and technical co-operation projects. In 1997, biomonitoring air pollution using plants, became officially a part of the IAEA project on environmental pollution monitoring and research. Based on: (1) positive experience in using biomonitors, especially lower plants such as mosses and lichens in several developed countries; (2) the continuous use of biomonitors in several Member States; and (3) the fact that nuclear and related analytical techniques have been shown to be particularly appropriate for the analysis of air pollution biomonitors, such studies are now being supported by the IAEA in 14 countries within a co-ordinated research project. The main emphasis of this project is on (1) identification of suitable biomonitors of atmospheric pollution for local and/or regional application, and (2) their validation for general environmental monitoring, whenever possible. Although the participants are using different plants as biomonitors in their research in geographically and climatically diverse parts of the world, they are harmonising sampling approaches and analytical procedures. In this paper, an overview of these activities is given, along with the details, where possible. In all of these activities, proficiency testing and analytical quality assurance are important issue, which merits special attention. To this end, a variety of analytical quality control materials have been used in intercomparison exercises and proficiency testing. Within the scope of the NAT-5 intercomparison exercise, two lichen materials were distributed among 15 participating laboratories and a proficiency test was organised. The results obtained proved satisfactory performance for most participating laboratories. (author)

  12. Determination of atmospheric trace elements by INAA: An application of receptor modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of twenty-eight elements in samples of airborne particulates from Ankara or a nearby area were determined by neutron activation analysis. It is hoped to use the data to provide information on the sources of the pollution in the city and to test emission inventory and dispersion models that will be developed in the course of the study. 14 refs, 6 tabs, figs

  13. Accurate determination of trace elements in sediment CRMs by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of new sediment Reference Materials (RM) have recently been produced. An estuarine Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1646a was recently developed by the (U.S.) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and has been certified for elemental content. In addition to the above SRM, the National Research Council of Canada has recently produced two sediments, the HISS-1 and PACS-2 Marine Sediments. My recent participation in certification analyses for these two CRMs provided different challenges due to their high sodium and chlorine contents. For the Estuarine Sediment, SRM 1646a, INAA was used to determine four elements (Al, Fe, Na, and Ti) at the percent concentration level, ranging from 0.45 to 2.3 % by weight. Six elements (Co, Cr, Mn, Sb, V, and Zn) were determined by INAA at the mg/kg concentration level, ranging from 0.31 to 235 mg/kg. Results from the other sediments were comparable. The overall INAA analytical uncertainties for the four elements at the percent level (P=0.05) was 1.94 %. For five of the other six elements by INAA the average uncertainty (again at P=0.05) was 2.63 %. One element (Sb) had two values at 325 % and 195 % of the average from the other 10 values, suggesting a possible homogeneity problem for antimony in that material. The final paper will include all INAA analytical values along with the control values, and will compare these to results from other techniques and with the final certified values, if available. Particular reference will be made to the potential errors and interferences noted during these analyses

  14. Trace element finger printing of emeralds by PIXE and PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 18 major- and minor-elements in 12 Emeralds from different mines and two synthetic ones are measured with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and γ-ray emission (PIGE). The concentration and distribution of 18 elements are used to establish the characteristic finger print pattern of each Emerald. With the help of cluster analysis of SYSTAT statistical package for IBMPC, these finger prints are analysed, from which a quantitative description of the dissimilarities between Emeralds can be given

  15. Mass-spectrometric determination of trace elements in aqueous media without preconcentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foss, G. O.

    1981-10-01

    Feasibility of using a low pressure glow discharge as an ion source for the mass spectrometric determination of trace elements in aqueous media was investigated. A cryogenically cooled hollow cathode ion source was developed to analyze aqueous samples without external preconcentration. Aqueous solutions containing seventy elements were analyzed and the detection limits, sensitivity factors, and linear regression correlation coefficients were determined. A standard test solution of trace elements in water was analyzed and the concentrations of trace elements were calculated using the sensitivity factors determined previously. The results compared favorably within the error limits predicted by the semiquantitative survey methods used. Tap water and natural lake water samples were examined and minimal interference effects due to organic compounds and biological compounds were noted. A research ion optical system (RIOS) was developed as a flexible mass analyzer for the development of new ion sources. The RIOS is a double focussing mass analyzer designed utilizing the Mattauch-Herzog geometry with externally adjustable slit assemblies.

  16. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  17. Determination of trace elements in the human substantia nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The gain in brain is mainly in the stain' was long time a key sentence for research in neurodegenerative disease. However, for a quantification of the element concentrations (especially iron) in brain tissue, standard staining methods are insufficient. Advanced physical methods allow a quantitative elemental analysis of brain tissue. The sophisticated ion beam analysis provides a quantitative determination of elemental concentrations with a subcellular spatial resolution using a scanning proton beam focussed down to below 1 μm that induces characteristic X-rays in the specimen (PIXE - particle induced X-ray emission). Histochemical and biochemical determinations of total iron content in brain regions from idiopathic Parkinson's disease have demonstrated an increase of iron in parkinsonian substantia nigra pars compacta but not in the pars reticulata, however without a clear cellular classification. For the first time, we have differentially investigated the intra- and extraneuronal elemental concentrations (especially iron) of the human substantia nigra pars compacta versus pars reticulata with detection limits in the range of 50 μmol/l. Thus, we could compare the neuronal iron concentration in human brain sections of healthy and parkinsonian brain tissue. Clear differences in the iron concentration and distribution could be disclosed. Additionally, we could show in situ that the increased intraneuronal iron content is linked to neuromelanin

  18. Determination of trace elements in the human substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: morm@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Meinecke, Ch. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Doerffel, A.C. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Riederer, P. [Klin. Neurochemie, Abt. Psychiatrie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    'The gain in brain is mainly in the stain' was long time a key sentence for research in neurodegenerative disease. However, for a quantification of the element concentrations (especially iron) in brain tissue, standard staining methods are insufficient. Advanced physical methods allow a quantitative elemental analysis of brain tissue. The sophisticated ion beam analysis provides a quantitative determination of elemental concentrations with a subcellular spatial resolution using a scanning proton beam focussed down to below 1 {mu}m that induces characteristic X-rays in the specimen (PIXE - particle induced X-ray emission). Histochemical and biochemical determinations of total iron content in brain regions from idiopathic Parkinson's disease have demonstrated an increase of iron in parkinsonian substantia nigra pars compacta but not in the pars reticulata, however without a clear cellular classification. For the first time, we have differentially investigated the intra- and extraneuronal elemental concentrations (especially iron) of the human substantia nigra pars compacta versus pars reticulata with detection limits in the range of 50 {mu}mol/l. Thus, we could compare the neuronal iron concentration in human brain sections of healthy and parkinsonian brain tissue. Clear differences in the iron concentration and distribution could be disclosed. Additionally, we could show in situ that the increased intraneuronal iron content is linked to neuromelanin.

  19. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ehmann, W.D. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-02-01

    ORNL`s High Flux Isotope Reactor was used in a neutron activation analysis experiment to determine selected elemental composition of fingernails from patients afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AL). While no statistical difference were found in aluminium a suggestive difference was observed for copper concentrations.

  20. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor was used in a neutron activation analysis experiment to determine selected elemental composition of fingernails from patients afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AL). While no statistical difference were found in aluminium a suggestive difference was observed for copper concentrations

  1. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  2. Trace elements in digestive cancer tissue by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental composition study of digestive cancer tissue with different localizations (esophagus, stomach, colon), by using PIXE analysis, is presented. A number of 20 tumors and normal (control) tissue samples was analyzed. Thin targets were prepared by mineralization with nitric acid of the lyophilized tissue and dropping on 2 μm Mylar foil. The measurements were carried out in vacuum using 3 MeV protons delivered by the Tandem Accelerator in Bucharest, Romania. The following elements were determined: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Although the results show relatively large variations from a sample to another, there were obtained mean ratios of tumor/normal concentrations which are significantly greater than one, in the limit of the standard deviation, for the following elements: K(1.45 ± 0.28), Ca(1.30 ± 0.21), Cr(2.33 ± 0.56), and Zn(1.18 ± 0.15). For other elements determined, no significant difference between the tumor and normal tissues , in the limit of the present standard deviation, was found. (authors)

  3. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RADA) values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 - 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement (author)

  4. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  5. Geochemical study of main elements and trace elements in soils of three profiles in the state of Santa Catarina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total concentrations of the main components (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn, Ti, Na and K) and of nine trace elements (Ba, Co, Cu, La, Li, Mo, Ni, V and Zn are measured. The elements are determined by several atomic absorption and emission spectroscopic methods. Some properties such as granulometry, mineralogy of the clay fraction, organic matter, etc, are studied. (M.J.C.)

  6. Elemental composition of airborne particulate matter from Santiago City, Chile, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendez, M.; Ortiz, J.L.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1984-01-01

    In Chile, the State Public Health Office (Ministerio de Salud Publica) is responsible for pollution control and for air quality. This office has been monitoring only toxic gases and total suspended particulate matter. The present work is the first study in Chile designed to determine trace elements and their concentrations in particulate matter in the air. By use of enrichment factors, 25 trace elements were classified according to natural or anthropogenic origin. There were two sampling periods: July (winter) and September (spring) 1976. Four sites were studied, located about 6 km north, south, west and east of downtown Santiago. The south, north and west sites are urban and 55 m above sea level. The east site is suburban and approximately 270 m higher than the others. Twenty-four-hour samples were collected on Whatman-41 cellulose filter paper, in a modified stainless steel Buchner funnel. Approximately 10 m/sup 3/ were used at the urban sites and 200 m/sup 3/ at the suburban site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used as the analytical technique.

  7. Knudsen cell: Investigations about the uptake of important traces gases on ambient airborne mineral dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sabrina; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Mineral dust constitutes one of the largest mass fractions of natural aerosol. Its emission is estimated between 800 - 2000 Tg/a]. The dust is emitted through sand and dust storms in the arid regions of our planet, in particular by the great desserts such as the Sahara. The complex chemical composition of mineral dust is similar to crust material, because the dust is produced by soil erosion. The main components of mineral dust are SiO2 and Al2O3, whereas the active oxides (Fe2O3, TiO2) show some variety in content due to the dust source region. Mineral dust particles can be transported over several 1000 km and during its transport the surface can be changed by the uptake of water vapor and trace gases. On such modified surfaces homo- and heterogeneous reactions can occur. Trace gas uptakes play an important role in atmospheric chemistry as sinks or sources for several gaseous species. Hence, it is necessary to study these reactions. Among several experimental setups, the Knudsen cell is one of the promising tools to study reactive uptakes from the gas phase and the release of products formed by dust surface-mediated reactions. The Knudsen cell, implemented by Golden et al. in 1975, is a high vacuum flow reactor operating under molecular flow conditions, i.e., gas-wall collisions are highly preferred over gas-gas collisions. Despite several Knudsen cell studies examining the reaction between different traces gases and model dust surfaces constituted of not more than a few components, no measurements utilizing collected ambient mineral dust are done so far. For a better understanding of the chemistry on mineral dust surfaces gas uptake measurements will be done with a Knudsen cell. The first measurements are done with isopropanol on TiO2. Afterwards there are studies with different substrates like, Al2O3 (α- and γ-phase), FeO2, Arizona test dust, air collected mineral dust from the Cap Verde islands. In the beginning SO2, NO2 and HNO3 will be used.

  8. Trace element emissions from spontaneous combustion of gob piles in coal mines, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ge, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements from spontaneous combustion of gob piles from coal mining in Shanxi Province, China, have been studied. More than ninety samples of solid waste from gob piles in Shanxi were collected and the contents of twenty potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, F, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U) in these samples were determined. Trace element contents in solid waste samples showed wide ranges. As compared with the upper continental crust, the solid waste samples are significantly enriched in Se (20x) and Tl (12x) and are moderately enriched in F, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Hg, Th, and U (2-5x). The solid waste samples are depleted in V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The solid waste samples are enriched in F, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Th, and U as compared with the Shanxi coals. Most trace elements are higher in the clinker than in the unburnt solid waste except F, Sn, and Hg. Trace element abundances are related to the ash content and composition of the samples. The content of F is negatively correlated with the ash content, while Pb is positively correlated with the ash. The concentrations of As, Mn, Zn, and Cd are highly positively correlated with Fe2O3 in the solid waste. The As content increases with increasing sulfur content in the solid waste. The trace element emissions are calculated for mass balance. The emission factors of trace elements during the spontaneous combustion of the gobs are determined and the trace element concentrations in the flue gas from the spontaneous combustion of solid waste are calculated. More than a half of F, Se, Hg and Pb are released to the atmosphere during spontaneous combustion. Some trace element concentrations in flue gas are higher than the national emission standards. Thus, gob piles from coal mining pose a serious environmental problem. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-elemental determination of trace elements in deep seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with resin preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniaturized column (ca. 3 mm i.d., 40 mm length), packed with a chelating resin (0.2 g) with iminodiacetic acid groups (Muromac A-1), was tested for the preconcentration of trace elements in seawater. After preconcentration, the column was washed with ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and water to remove the major elements, such as Ca and Mg, and was then eluted with 4 ml of 2 mol l-1 nitric acid. Twenty-six trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The necessary volume of the seawater sample was only 200 ml. The recoveries for most of the elements tested were over 90%, although those for Al, V and Th were around 70%. The trueness and precision were evaluated by analyzing a standard reference material of seawater (NASS-4, NRC Canada). The observed values obtained with the present method showed good agreement with the certified values. The present method was also applied to deep seawater samples collected at Muroto, Japan. A difference in the rare earth element pattern, especially the Ce anomaly, between the deep seawater sample and the surface seawater sample was observed, as well as the differences of the concentrations of many trace elements. (author)

  10. Residual and trace element effects on the high-temperature creep strength of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat-to-heat variation in the creep strength and ductility of austenitic stainless steels was reviewed from the viewpoint of residual and trace element effects. Based on data reported in the literature the creep strength of unstabilized alloys such as types 304 and 316 stainless steel increased with residual element and trace element content. Niobium appeared to be the most potent strengthener. There was no direct evidence that trace elements such as sulfur and phosphorus had a deleterious effect on either strength and ductility. It was assumed that the creep strength and ductility of the unstabilized grades of austenitic stainless steels are controlled by the precipitate characteristics. It follows from this that thermomechanical treatment or residual element additions that affect the precipitate characteristics influence subsequent time dependent mechanical properties. This view is consistant with most of the information in the literature. It was concluded that more systematic studies of trace and residual element effects would be beneficial to the improvement of steels. Incorporated into the studies should be quantitative characterization of evolving precipitate morphology and composition as they are in fluenced by residual elements. This information should be incorporated into modeling studies of nonequilibrium segregation. Ultimately, optimum elevated-temperature strength could be developed based on a materials science approach

  11. Use of trace elements as indicators for underground fluid circulations in karstic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemical study of the trace element behaviour in karstic groundwaters has been carried out over the experimental site of Lamalou (Herault, France). Routine measurements of the physico-chemical parameters and of the dissolved elements concentrations have been achieved during two hydrological cycles. Radon has been monitored by passive detectors and by automatic electronic probes. Trace elements (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Th, U) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The first part of this work presents the methodologies employed with in particular the improvement of the analytical performances of ICP-MS for water samples analysis. The detection limit for each considered element has been determined. The short and long term reproducibility for the samples analysis has also been tested. The second part of this study presents the treatment and interpretation of the results. This analysis has pointed our the influence of the aquifer structure on the chemical elements distribution. The trace and major elements concentrations are effectively related to the fracturing state of the reservoir and allow to individualize the high transmissivity zones from zones with a lower transmissivity in this mono-lithological context, trace elements appear to be particularly efficient tracers for determining the water origin and circulation their spatial and temporal behaviour leads to identify three different origins for the water mineralization over the studied area: limestones, clays and external sources (rainfalls and occasional pollutions). (author)

  12. Airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases on CARIBIC long-distance flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dix

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was implemented and operated onboard a long-distance passenger aircraft within the framework of the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container. The instrument was designed to keep weight, size and power consumption low and to comply with civil aviation regulations. It records spectra of scattered light from three viewing directions (nadir, 10° above and below horizon using a miniaturized telescope system. The telescopes are integrated in the main pylon of the inlet system which is mounted at the belly of the aircraft. Fibre bundles transmit light from the telescopes to spectrograph-detector units inside the DOAS container instrument. The latter is part of the removable CARIBIC instrument container, which is installed monthly on the aircraft for a series of measurement flights.

    During 30 flight operations within three years, measurements of HCHO, HONO, NO2, BrO, O3 and the oxygen dimer O4 were conducted. All of these trace gases except BrO could be analysed with a 30 s time resolution. HONO was detected for the first time in a deep convective cloud over central Asia, while BrO, NO2 and O3 could be observed in tropopause fold regions. Biomass burning signatures over South America could be seen and measurements during ascent and descent provided information on boundary layer trace gas profiles (e.g. NO2 or HCHO.

  13. Airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases on CARIBIC long-distance flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dix

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was implemented and operated onboard a long-distance passenger aircraft within the framework of the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container. The instrument was designed to keep weight, size and power consumption low and to comply with civil aviation regulations. It records spectra of scattered light from three viewing directions (nadir, 10° above and below horizon using a miniaturized telescope system. The telescopes are integrated in the main pylon of the inlet system which is mounted at the belly of the aircraft. Fibre bundles transmit light from the telescopes to spectrograph-detector units inside the DOAS container instrument. The latter is part of the removable CARIBIC instrument container, which is installed monthly on the aircraft for a series of measurement flights.

    During 30 flight operations within three years, measurements of HCHO, HONO, NO2, BrO, O3 and the oxygen dimer O4 were conducted. All of these trace gases except BrO could be analysed with a 30 s time resolution. HONO was detected for the first time in a deep convective cloud over central Asia. BrO, NO2 and O3 could be observed in tropopause fold regions, biomass burning signatures over South America could be seen and measurements during ascent and descent provided information on boundary layer trace gas profiles (e.g. NO2 or HCHO.

  14. Carbon black vs. black carbon and other airborne materials containing elemental carbon: Physical and chemical distinctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particles containing elemental carbon (EC) are currently at the forefront of scientific and regulatory scrutiny, including black carbon, carbon black, and engineered carbon-based nanomaterials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene. Scientists and regulators sometimes group these EC-containing particles together, for example, interchangeably using the terms carbon black and black carbon despite one being a manufactured product with well-controlled properties and the other being an undesired, incomplete-combustion byproduct with diverse properties. In this critical review, we synthesize information on the contrasting properties of EC-containing particles in order to highlight significant differences that can affect hazard potential. We demonstrate why carbon black should not be considered a model particle representative of either combustion soots or engineered carbon-based nanomaterials. Overall, scientific studies need to distinguish these highly different EC-containing particles with care and precision so as to forestall unwarranted extrapolation of properties, hazard potential, and study conclusions from one material to another. -- Highlights: •Major classes of elemental carbon-containing particles have distinct properties. •Despite similar names, carbon black should not be confused with black carbon. •Carbon black is distinguished by a high EC content and well-controlled properties. •Black carbon particles are characterized by their heterogenous properties. •Carbon black is not a model particle representative of engineered nanomaterials. -- This review demonstrates the significant physical and chemical distinctions between elemental carbon-containing particles e.g., carbon black, black carbon, and engineered nanomaterials

  15. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  16. Discrimination of trait-based characteristics by trace element bioaccumulation in riverine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, T.M.; DeWeese, L.R.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between tissue trace element concentrations and species traits were examined for 45 fish species to determine the extent to which trait-based characteristics accounted for relative differences among species in trace element bioaccumulation. Percentages of fish species correctly classified by discriminant analysis according to traits predicted by tissue trace element concentrations ranged from 72% to 87%. Tissue concentrations of copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc appeared to have the greatest overall influence on differentiating species according to trait characteristics. Discrimination of trait characteristics did not appear to be strongly influenced by local sources of trace elements in the streambed sediment. Bioaccumulation was greatest for those species classified as primarily detritivores, having relatively large adult body size, considered nonmigratory with respect to reproductive strategy, occurring mostly in large or variable size streams and rivers, preferring depositional areas within the stream channel, and preferring benthic rather than open-water habitats. Our findings provide evidence of the strong relationship between bioaccumulation of environmental trace elements and trait-based factors that influence contaminant exposure. ?? 2008 NRC.

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Trace Element Content of the Leaves and Roots of Three Plantago Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Suliburska, Joanna; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Regula, Julita; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of the trace element content of the leaves and roots of three Plantago species (P. maxima Juss. ex Jacq., P. major L., and P. lanceolata L.). Trace element levels were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data indicate that the leaves of P. lanceolata are characterized by the highest Co, Cr, and Se content, whereas P. maxima leaves contained the greatest levels of Si and Zn. In contrast, the highest concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Si, and V were detected in the roots of P. major. Zn content was also higher in P. maxima roots than in the other species analyzed. The toxic trace elements were differentially distributed across the studied species. In particular, P. lanceolata leaves contained significantly higher Al, As, Li, Ni, Pb, and Sr levels, whereas the B and Cd content was elevated in P. major as compared to the other species. Surprisingly, the leaf Hg level was the lowest in P. major, whose levels of Al, As, B, Cd, Ni, Li, and Sr were significantly higher than the other two species. The data indicate that the concentration of most of the essential trace elements was higher in the leaves and roots of P. major and P. lanceolata than in P. maxima, while P. maxima had less toxic metals. The obtained data on trace elements content in Plantago tissues may be taken into account while using plant preparations in practical medicine. PMID:26811105

  18. Effect of Calcined Temperature on the Solubility of Trace Elements from Manifanshi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Hanlie; TIE Liyun; BIAN Qiujuan; ZHOU Yong

    2006-01-01

    A medical stone manifanshi were researched by using polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) methods. The XRD pattern of the raw Manifanshi indicates that it is dominantly composed of plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz, and that of the calcined Manifanshi at 1000 ℃ shows that the distortion of crystal structure in both plagioclase and orthoclase takes place at the calcined temperature. The polarized light microscopy observation suggests that the Manifanshi is naturally weathered monzo-granite porphyry. Chemical analyses reveal that the Manifanshi contains a number of healthful trace elements and rare toxic trace elements, therefore, it is a high quality Manifanshi. The solubility of trace elements was determined by measuring the concentration of trace elements from Manifanshi calcined under varying temperature conditions by ICP method, the results suggest that the calcined product at 1000 ℃ shows the ideal result in ionic concentrations and dissolution rate of trace elements in water, which is contributed to the distortion of the crystal structure of feldspar at the calcined temperature.

  19. Trophodynamics of mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic food chain from the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) and 13 other trace elements (Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were measured in phytoplankton, zooplankton, mysis and herring in order to examine the trophodynamics in a well-studied pelagic food chain in the Baltic Sea. The fractionation of nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) was used to evaluate food web structure and to estimate the extent of trophic biomagnification of the various trace elements. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for each trace element were determined from the slope of the regression between trace element concentrations and δ15N. Calculated TMFs showed fundamental differences in the trophodynamics of the trace elements in the pelagic food chain studied. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd showed statistically significant decreases (TMF 1) in concentration with trophic level i.e. Hg biomagnifies in this Baltic food chain. The estimated TMF for Hg in this food chain was comparable to TMFs observed elsewhere for diverse food chains and locations.

  20. MESOLITHIC HUMAN BONES FROM THE UPPER VOLGA BASIN: RADIOCARBON AND TRACE ELEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrovskiy, A. L.; Alexandrovskaya, E. I.; Zhilin, M. I.; Van der Plicht, J

    2009-01-01

    Human bones from 3 Mesolithic sites in the Upper Volga basin were analyzed for trace elements, and dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The radiocarbon dates of the bones correspond to the Mesolithic era. However, some dates differ from those obtained for the enclosing deposits and for the worked wood fragments in the cultural layer. The elemental composition of the bones is interpreted in terms of increased concentrations of some elements and their impact on human health and behavior.

  1. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  3. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  4. Biomonitoring trace element atmospheric deposition using lichens in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 34 elements, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Ru, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Tm, U, W, Yb, and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in the early preserved epiphytic lichens (Parmotrema recticulata) from the remote Southwestern China area in 1960s, 1980s, and 1990s. The concentrations of Ag, As, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Nd, Ni, Sc, Se, Sm, Tb, U, Yb, and Zn were dropped down by the temporal prolonation. The elemental concentration levels obtained from the organisms indicate that the extent of heavy metal atmospheric deposition among the sampling sites was declining during the past decades. (author)

  5. Geochemical study of trace elements in micrograin minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yoshitsugu; Imai, Shiho; Baba, Naoho; Machii, Tami; Shimada, Mitsuo; Hasebe, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Abstract of five papers are contained in this paper. 1. Neutron activation analysis of iridium in Japan P/T boundary layer sample. Iridium of Permian/Triassic (P/T) boundary layer samples in Japan are determined. A collision of materials outside of the earth was not proved. 2. Adsorbability of rare earth elements by biogenic phosphate salt particles. Phosphate minerals are very strong adsorbent of rare earth elements, so that they can use as the removal materials of them in radioactive waste. 3. Analysis of undecomposed minerals and irresoluble compounds in acid decomposed residue. In order to investigate the past global changes, a micro wave heat method was studied and good results were obtained. 4. Determination of iridium in tsunami deposits in Cuba. Very small amount of iridium was discovered in the samples. 5. Activation analysis of iridium in the sample of 300 m core of Baikal lake. (Plan). (S.Y.)

  6. Neutron activation analysis of traces of metallic elements in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of neutron activation analysis is examined for the elements iron, nickel, chromium and cobalt which are constituents of the aqueous corrosion products of stainless steels and which are present in very low concentrations in the water used in the heat transfer systems of nuclear reactors. The best results were obtained by slow evaporation of the water sample in a quartz ampoule in an oven followed by irradiation of the dry sample in the same ampoule. The problems of blanks, of losses during concentration, and of conservation of solutions at very low concentrations were studied. Good agreement was found between the theoretical quantities and experimental results with standard samples containing 50ppb of each of the studied elements. There was also excellent agreement between neutron activation and spectrophotometric methods in the case of determinations of iron in solution

  7. Trace element analysis of Cretan wines and wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galani-Nikolakaki, S; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N; Katsanos, A A

    2002-02-21

    The object of this research is to investigate the ways and the degree of contamination of Cretan grapes from the area of Chania and their alcoholic products, with the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Fifteen samples of grapes were collected and used for the production of experimental wines from rinsed and unrinsed grapes. A microwave furnace was used for the digestion and dissolution of the experimental wines, the precipitates that originated in these wines, as well as the wines of the corresponding producers. The analyses of all mentioned samples as well as 34 local alcoholic distillates were performed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations for all the elements that were determined were almost in all cases, well below the maximum permissible levels by the Greek and the European Union legislation. PMID:11874038

  8. The Heidelberg Airborne Imaging DOAS Instrument (HAIDI) – a novel imaging DOAS device for 2-D and 3-D imaging of trace gases and aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    S. General; D. Pöhler; H. Sihler; N. Bobrowski; Frieß, U.; J. Zielcke; M. Horbanski; P. B. Shepson; Stirm, B. H.; Simpson, W. R.; Weber, K; C. Fischer; U. Platt

    2014-01-01

    Many relevant processes in tropospheric chemistry take place on rather small scales (e.g., tens to hundreds of meters) but often influence areas of several square kilometer. Thus, measurements of the involved trace gases with high spatial resolution are of great scientific interest. In order to identify individual sources and sinks and ultimately to improve chemical transport models, we developed a new airborne instrument, which is based on the well established Differential ...

  9. Trace and minor elements in four commercial honey brands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of 24 elements in four honey brands commercially available in Austin, Texas (USA). The measured elements (and concentration) were: As, (<30 ng/g); Ba, (<2 μg/g); Br, (0.24-0.49 μg/g); Ce, (<20 ng/g); Co, (9-180 ng/g); Cr, (37-64 ng/g); Cs, (<3-45 ng/g); Fe, (<4-15.9 μg/g); Hf, (<3 ng/g); Hg, (1 ng/g); K, (91-230 μg/g); La, (<4 ng/g); Na, (20.3-25.3 μg/g); Ni, (0.39-0.77 μg/g); Rb, (68-340 ng/g); Sb, (13-61 ng/g); Sc, (<0.3-200 ng/g); Se, (<20 ng/g); Sm, (<9 ng/g); Sr, (<2 ng/g); Th, (<4 ng/g); U, (<30 ng/g); Zn, (3.36-4.61 μg/g); and Zr, (<0.5-0.84 μg/g). The results obtained were compared to the concentration of the same elements in honey produced or commercially available in Turkey, Mexico, El-Salvador, China, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  10. 137Cs, trace and toxic elements distribution in Austrian mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various mushroom species have been analyzed for their elemental composition (i.e., Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr and Zn) by means of ICP-AES. The accuracy of the measurements was confirmed by analyzing a series of the same samples by short time activation analysis. The data were evaluated statistically including the values of 137Cs. The results denote that the distribution of these elements and their correlation coefficients are highly distinctive for each mushroom species. K, Na and P were found to correlate negatively with 137Cs in most species. Suillus grevillei and Cantharellus cibarius show high Be values (0.27 and 0.30 μg g-1, respectively), while Pb was high in Suillus grevillei (16.3 μg g-1) and Amanita rubescens (9.3 μg g-1). Higher levels of Cd were found in Rozites caperata and Russula vesca with a mean of 9.2 and 16.1 μg g-1, respectively. Cluster analysis was applied to classify these samples according to their botanical species using their elemental composition . The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Na and 137Cs have no influence on the classification of these samples. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Chronic exposure of ecosystems and public to elements in trace contributions; L'exposition chronique des ecosystemes et du public aux elements en traces contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The needs in radiation protection come towards the question of chronic contaminations by trace elements or radioactive compounds. The chronicity induces to take into account a whole of redistribution mechanisms more important than the only ways of the most direct transfer. In the case of environment, that is going to become one of the way of public contamination is a target to protect, the important work is to link the contamination situation to eventual consequences on the ecosystems situation. (N.C.)0.

  12. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Dustfall Trace Elements During Winter in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Chen, Fan-tao; Shu, Tong-tong; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Wen-hui

    2015-08-01

    The dustfall content is one of the evaluation indexes of atmospheric pollution. Trace elements especially heavy metals in dustfall can lead to risks to ecological environment and human health. In order to study the distribution characteristics of trace elements, heavy metals pollution and their sources in winter atmospheric dust, 49 dustfall samples were collected in Beijing City and nearby during November 2013 to March 2014. Then the contents (mass percentages) of 40 trace elements were measured by Elan DRC It type inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS). Test results showed that more than half of the trace elements in the dust were less than 10 mg x kg(-1); about a quarter were between 10-100 mg x kg-1); while 7 elements (Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr and Ba) were more than 100 mg x kg(-1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Bi, Cd and Mo of winter dustfall in Beijing city.were respectively 4.18, 4.66, 5.35, 6.31, 6.62, and 8.62 times as high as those of corresponding elements in the surface soil in the same period, which went beyond the soil background values by more than 300% . The contribution of human activities to dustfall trace heavy metals content in Beijing city was larger than that in the surrounding region. Then sources analysis of dustfall and its 20 main trace elements (Cd, Mo, Nb, Ga, Co, Y, Nd, Li, La, Ni, Rb, V, Ce, Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba) was conducted through a multi-method analysis, including Pearson correlation analysis, Kendall correlation coefficient analysis and principal component analysis. Research results indicated that sources of winter dustfall in Beijing city were mainly composed of the earth's crust sources (including road dust, construction dust and remote transmission of dust) and the burning of fossil fuels (vehicle emissions, coal combustion, biomass combustion and industrial processes). PMID:26591998

  13. An X-ray fluorescence system for measuring trace element concentrations in breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence is being used as a technique for measuring concentrations of trace elements in breast tissue samples, both healthy and pathological. The aim is to establish the levels of some trace elements in normal tissue and subsequently compare with those in cancerous, as there are indications that there is a correlation between elevated concentrations of some elements in breast tissue and development of cancer. As a first step of these pilot studies we are investigating four such elements, Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu, but we plan to expand the study to include Se and Rb. The tissue samples are kept at -85 deg C and are stored in thin walled polypropylene tubes of 8 mm diameter, which can be unsealed from one end so that the samples can be exposed to the beam. The experimental set-up consists of a high output tungsten target X-ray source, a secondary target from which characteristic X-rays of an appropriate energy are produced, a sample holder and a Si detector. The geometry is highly collimated in order to promote a high signal to noise ratio for the fluorescence X-rays from the sample. The measurements will be compared to reference solutions of various concentrations of the elements of interest. The aim is to establish a calibration curve for each element, from which the correlation between fluorescence yield and element concentration can be extracted, leading to actual trace element levels in tissue. We hope to prove the feasibility of monitoring elements in levels normally found in breast tissue, using this XRF technique. We plan to show results referring both to normal and neoplastic tissue, stating levels of as many trace elements as possible. We should also be able to present minimum detectable levels regarding every element investigated with this system, as well as have propositions for further optimising the performance of the technique. (author)

  14. Trace elemental distribution in the scalp hair of bipolars using PIXE technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A S; Naga Raju, G J; Sattar, S Abdul; Sarita, P; Prasada Rao, A Durga; Ray, Dinesh Kumar; Reddy, B Seetharami; Reddy, S Bhuloka

    2014-04-01

    Trace metals play a significant role in neurological disorders. There is very limited information available on the role of macro and trace elements in bipolar disorders. The objective of this investigation was to identification, quantification of essential trace elements in the scalp hair samples of the patients and compare with those of normal subjects. We made a hypothesis about the role played by essential trace metals whose concentrations are significantly different to those of normals in the disease process. The analysis was carried out in the scalp hair samples of 26 male and 26 female patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) by Particle Induced X-ray Emission Technique (PIXE). The concentration of Cu (p < 0.002) was found to be higher in the hair samples of male bipolar disorder patients while the concentrations of Mn (p < 0.001), Fe (p < 0.005), Zn (p < 0.0001) and Se (p < 0.005) were found to be lower than those in normal subjects. The concentration of Cu (p < 0.0001) was higher in the hair samples of female bipolar patients but depressed levels of Fe (p < 0.005), Ni (p < 0.05), Zn (p < 0.00001) and Se (p < 0.05) were observed compared to controls. Cu/Zn ratio was found to be higher in the hair samples of male and female patients compared with normals. While the imbalance of certain trace elements leads to generation of more free radicals, the imbalance of some other trace elements causes changes in dopamine (neurotransmitter) activity. It is essential to monitor before and periodically during treatment the levels of essential trace elements for effective treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:24548755

  15. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals

  16. Atmospheric wet deposition of trace elements to a suburban environment, Reston, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conko, K.M.; Rice, K.C.; Kennedy, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Wet deposition from a suburban area in Reston, Virginia was collected during 1998 and analyzed to assess the anion and trace-element concentrations and depositions. Suburban Reston, approximately 26km west of Washington, DC, is densely populated and heavily developed. Wet deposition was collected bi-weekly in an automated collector using trace-element clean sampling and analytical techniques. The annual volume-weighted concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb were similar to those previously reported for a remote site on Catoctin Mt., Maryland (70km northwest), which indicated a regional signal for these elements. The concentrations and depositions of Cu and Zn at the suburban site were nearly double those at remote sites because of the influence of local vehicular traffic. The 1998 average annual wet deposition (??gm-2yr -1) was calculated for Al (52,000), As (94), Cd (54), Cr (160), Cu (700), Fe (23,000), Mn (2000), Ni (240), Pb (440), V (430), and Zn (4100). The average annual wet deposition (meqm-2yr-1) was calculated for H+ (74), Cl- (8.5), NO3- (33), and SO42- (70). Analysis of digested total trace-element concentrations in a subset of samples showed that the refractory elements in suburban precipitation comprised a larger portion of the total deposition of trace elements than in remote areas. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Determination Of Trace Element Levels In Diet By Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element levels in foodstuff are normally low. Although the levels are low, certain trace elements which are called essential trace elements have an important role in metabolism process. Deficiency or intoxication of essential trace elements may lead to abnormal health. In this study the levels of Zn, Fe, AI, Mn, and Co in diet samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, and then the daily intakes of these elements were estimated. The samples were prepared by duplicate diet method, representing those that were consumed by population from West, Central and East Java. Following the collection the respective samples were blended, then were freeze dried at-54oc. The elemental quantification were performed by neutron activation analysis. The traceability of the determination was ensured using standard reference material NIST-SRM-1548a. The results show that the daily intake for Zn were 2.8-22.8 mg/day (reference value were 5- 40 mg/day), Fe were 3.1-26.5 mg/day (reference value were 6-40 mg/day), AI were 4,2-32.9 mg/day (reference value were 2-45 mg/day), Mn were 1.0-5,6 mg/day (reference value were 0.4-10,0 mg/day), and Co were 0,005-0,074 mg/day (reference value were 0.005 -1.8 mg/day

  18. The relationship between trace elements in fish otoliths of wild carp and hydrochemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling; Ren, Dongni; Qiao, Li; Li, Shengrong

    2010-03-01

    The trace element composition of the fish otolith is an indicator of biomineralization. In contrast to other skeletal tissue, the otolith retains its entire original structure and does not absorb any elements after the fish dies. Because otoliths in carp degrade very slowly in the dead body, the information it provides on the environment is retained, even in fossil form. Here, we report our analysis of the trace elements in otoliths of carp and of the water in Donghu Lake and Longhupao Lake, Heilongjiang province, China, where the fish lived. The results revealed that the trace elements found in the carp otoliths were clearly correlated with those found in these water bodies. There were high concentrations of Au, Ba, K, Sr and Zn in both the water and otoliths; in contrast there were high levels of As, Na and Se in water, but low concentrations in otoliths. These results indicate that an analysis of the otoliths of carps provides an accurate procedure for studying the surrounding hydrochemistry conditions. The interaction of the elements during deposition was also studied. The correlation coefficients of 13 trace elements identified in the otoliths in both lakes were calculated. PMID:19093220

  19. Studies of trace element imbalances in Alzheimer's disease using sequential NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence has accumulated in the literature that trace elements may be implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other age-related neurological diseases. Even if elemental imbalances do not prove to be causative factors, observed perturbations may be markers that could aid in diagnosis, or help elucidate pathological processes. In this paper the authors present new data for trace element levels in three areas of the human brain most severely affected by AD (hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus basalis) and in AD hair and nail samples. In some cases the specific imbalances seen previously in the bulk brain analyses are amplified in these regions. Elevated bromine levels seen in AD brain are also observed in AD hair and nail. Significant alkali metal and mercury imbalances with respect to controls occur in AD nail samples. The role of these trace element alterations in the etiology of AD has still not been determined. However, some possible physiological effects include: membrane dysfunction (alkali metals), enzyme inhibition (mercury and bromine), and interference with neurotransmitter functions (mercury, bromine, and alkali metals). The simultaneous multielement capability of this sequential NAA procedure also permits interelement correlation studies. Elemental associations may help identify potential environmental factors that could contribute to the observed trace element imbalances

  20. Trace Element Uptake in Marine Bivalve Shells Constraints from Field- and Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klünder, M.; Hippler, D.; Witbaard, R.; Frei, D.; Immenhauser, A.

    2006-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of the trace element signatures recorded in calcium carbonate skeletons of marine organisms as archives of past and present environmental conditions, such as temperature, salinity or nutrition level. Because of their global occurrence in the modern and ancient oceans, the trace element chemistry of bivalve shells might be used as a potential proxy for present and past environmental conditions. If the composition of bivalve shells, for instance, can be shown to represent the environment in which they lived, then shells can be used to investigate conditions in the lifetime of the animal. And as the shell material is sequentially deposited, an understanding of the internal shell structure will enable time- resolution of the analyses. Therefore, the trace element signature of bivalve shells may provide an important record of climate changes and global geochemical cycles. One of the difficulties of using the trace element signatures of bivalve shells as proxies for environmental conditions is that little is known about the mechanisms by which the trace elements are incorporated into the shells. There has been quite an amount of research into the use of bivalve shell chemistry as proxy for one or more environmental parameters, but there are relatively few datasets in which both bivalve shells and the water in which the animals lived have been analysed. It is as yet not clear to what extent the trace element incorporation into bivalve shells is governed by biological processes, like growth rate and metabolism of the animals, or by physical and crystal chemical parameters. An added difficulty is that the existing data do suggest that trace element uptake in bivalve shells may be species specific. Therefore, studies that investigate the relationships between the content of these elements in the shells and the ambient water and the possible incorporation mechanisms are needed if the potential that bivalve shells offer as

  1. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky: II. Redistribution of minor and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During weathering, elements enriched in black shale are dispersed in the environment by aqueous and mechanical transport. Here a unique evaluation of the differential release, transport, and fate of Fe and 15 trace elements during progressive weathering of the Devonian New Albany Shale in Kentucky is presented. Results of chemical analyses along a weathering profile (unweathered through progressively weathered shale to soil) describe the chemically distinct pathways of the trace elements and the rate that elements are transferred into the broader, local environment. Trace elements enriched in the unweathered shale are in massive or framboidal pyrite, minor sphalerite, CuS and NiS phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These phases are subject to varying degrees and rates of alteration along the profile. Cadmium, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn are removed from weathered shale during sulfide-mineral oxidation and transported primarily in aqueous solution. The aqueous fluxes for these trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Cd) to 44 g/ha/a (Mn). When hydrologic and climatic conditions are favorable, solutions seep to surface exposures, evaporate, and form Fe-sulfate efflorescent salts rich in these elements. Elements that remain dissolved in the low pH (<4) streams and groundwater draining New Albany Shale watersheds become fixed by reactions that increase pH. Neutralization of the weathering solution in local streams results in elements being adsorbed and precipitated onto sediment surfaces, resulting in trace element anomalies. Other elements are strongly adsorbed or structurally bound to solid phases during weathering. Copper and U initially are concentrated in weathering solutions, but become fixed to modern plant litter in soil formed on New Albany Shale. Molybdenum, Pb, Sb, and Se are released from sulfide minerals and organic matter by oxidation and accumulate in Fe-oxyhydroxide clay coatings that concentrate in surface soil during illuviation. Chromium, Ti, and V are

  2. Comparison of serum trace element levels in patients with or without pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In developing countries, nutritional deficiency of essential trace elements is a common health problem, particularly among pregnant women because of increased requirements of various nutrients. Accordingly, this study was initiated to compare trace elements status in women with or without pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: In this study, serum trace elements including zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 60 patients and 60 healthy subjects. Results: There was no significant difference in the values of Cu between two groups (P > 0.05. A significant difference in Zn, Se, Ca and Mg levels were observed between patients with pre-eclampsia and control group (P 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the levels of Zn, Se, Ca and Mg are significantly altered in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. This research shows that these deficiencies can not due to hemodilution.

  3. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  4. Study of trace-element metabolism during the formation of rat's cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cataract in the lenses of Wistar rats was induced by injecting Na2SeO3; they exibited various kinds of cataract between 8 and 28 days. The trace element analyses of samples of different kinds of lenses were carried out by PIXE method. The ratio of their concentrations relative to the control values concerning the formation time of cataract was studied. It was found that the metabolites of most trace elements in the control lenses are stable, but in various kinds of cataractous lenses they display certain changes. S, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn appeared to accumulate relative to the controls, while P, K and Rb showed deficiency. The functions of trace element metabolism during the formation of cataract are also discussed. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density, BMD, of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last RCM in San Diego, CA, October 7-10,1996. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone. To this end, bone mineral density measurements, trace element studies, neutron activation analysis, fluoride analysis and atomic absorption analysis were undertaken and resulting data were analysed

  6. Contents of trace elements in blood of healthy old people assayed by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the levels of 11 trace elements in serum of healthy old people to provide scientific basis for prevention and treatment of geriatric diseases, the serum were separated from blood samples according to standard procedure. The serum samples were underwent digestion, elimination of nitric acid, volume fixation and then assayed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that the contents of Al in elderly people's serum is higher than those in young people (P<0.01), while the contents of V, Cr, Cu and Se in elderly people's serum were lower than those in young people (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in other trace elements between two groups. The contents of some trace elements in elderly people's serum changed significantly. (authors)

  7. Study of trace elements in coal and mining wastes and its significance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); CHE Yao(车遥); TANG Xiu-yi(唐修义)

    2003-01-01

    In the world energy about 26% of all was derived from coal combustion. Nearly 80% of the electricity produced in China is generated from coal. Coal will play the most important role in the coming 50 years as the past century in China. However one consequentially of the mining and combustion of coal is the mobilization of trace elements, especially trace metals, which have environmental and human health significance. Information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal, and information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the relations of the minerals in coal can help to predict the behavior of the potentially toxic trace metals during cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching.

  8. Nanometer-sized materials for solid-phase extraction of trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei

    2015-04-01

    This review presents a comprehensive update on the state-of-the-art of nanometer-sized materials in solid-phase extraction (SPE) of trace elements followed by atomic-spectrometry detection. Zero-dimensional nanomaterials (fullerene), one-dimensional nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, inorganic nanotubes, and nanowires), two-dimensional nanomaterials (nanofibers), and three-dimensional nanomaterials (nanoparticles, mesoporous nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, and dendrimers) for SPE are discussed, with their application for trace-element analysis and their speciation in different matrices. A variety of other novel SPE sorbents, including restricted-access sorbents, ion-imprinted polymers, and metal-organic frameworks, are also discussed, although their applications in trace-element analysis are relatively scarce so far. PMID:25577358

  9. Nuclear-based methods for the analysis of trace element pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the implementation of an IAEA-coordinated international research programme on the use of nuclear methods (i.e. thermal neutron activation analysis, photon activation analysis, heavy particle induced X-ray emission analysis) for detecting trace element pollutants in hair, valuable data have been obtained for various population groups both on normal levels of trace elements and on increased levels caused by pollution. In the article 41 papers are reviewed, together with recommendations on the different procedures and the treatment of raw data. In comparing the data interesting observations were made relating to trace element concentrations. The review was presented at the Second Meeting on Nuclear Analytical Procedures, Dresden (GDR), 19-23 March 1979. (Sz.J.)

  10. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia

  11. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element concentrations of natural rubies from different locations in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. L.; Osipowicz, T.; Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.; Win, T. T.

    1997-07-01

    The trace element concentrations found in geological samples can shed light on the formation process. In the case of gemstones, which might be of artificial or natural origin, there is also considerable interest in the development of methods that provide identification of the origin of a sample. For rubies, trace element concentrations present in natural samples were shown previously to be significant indicators of the region of origin [S.M. Tang et al., Appl. Spectr. 42 (1988) 44, and 43 (1989) 219]. Here we report the results of micro-PIXE analyses of trace element (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ga) concentrations of a large set ( n = 130) of natural rough rubies from nine locations in Myanmar (Burma). The resulting concentrations are subjected to statistical analysis. Six of the nine groups form clusters when the data base is evaluated using tree clustering and principal component analysis.

  12. Study on the correlation of trace elements in human scalp hair with esophageal cancer by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of trace elements in human scalp hair samples of patients with esophageal cancer, marked hyperplasia of esophageal epithelium (MHEE) and normal groups were analyzed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). An imbalance of trace elements was found in the cancer group and in the MHEE group. The evident imbalance in the contents of some trace elements in hair from persons with MHEE has occurred prior to the canceration in esophagus. The Mahalanobis distance discriminant method was used in the statistical analysis. The combination of PIXE measurements for hair samples and statistical analysis is promising for the early diagnosis of esophageal cancer and for forewarning the persons with high risks. (orig.)

  13. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  14. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  15. Trace elements in fish for consumption. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish is a major food in many countries. Certain population groups may have specific consumption patterns due to geographical conditions or may be at risk at specific times, e.g. during pregnancy. It is thus of major importance that fish and fish products are safe for consumption. Contamination of fish by toxic elements may be caused by effluent from populated areas, or industrial activities from which waste water may contaminate local waters. Mining activities are also known to contaminate local waters with an array of elements, including Pb, Cd and Zn. Another problem is the acidification of freshwater lakes making e.g. Al and Hg more mobile. The level of As is invariably higher in marine fish, than in the same species from fresh or brackish waters. Large predatory species from marine waters, e.g. sharks and tuna, may have high levels of Cd and Hg in the muscle tissue. Several international bodies, e.g. the European Union (EU) and Codex Alimentarius have an interest in setting maximum residue limits (MRL) for Pb, Cd, Hg and As in certain foods, in order to protect the population from overexposure to these toxic metals. Much of the background data for these MRLs are old and have not been produced using today's analytical quality assurance (AQA) demands

  16. Distribution of trace elements between clays and zeolites and aqueous solutions similar to sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of solid-solution partitioning during mineral crystallization in sea water have been investigated for Rb, Cs, Co, Sr, U, Th and lanthanides as trace elements, and Fe, Mg-chlorite/smectites and Na-zeolites as solid phases. These minerals have been synthesized by alteration at 40oC in saline solutions of silicate glasses of appropriate compositions. The variation of the distribution coefficients (D) with the concentration of the elements as well as competition mechanisms between elements of analogous crystallochemical properties have been studied. The ''trapping'' of trace elements is shown to be governed by two mechanisms, according to D values or to water-rock ratios. At low values of D the incorporation of elements is controlled only by D, whereas at high values it is controlled by the number of available crystallochemical sites. (Author)

  17. Determination of trace elements in coffee beans and instant coffee of various origins by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive use of coffee, by one-third of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in it. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 20 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in four samples of coffee beans of various origins and two instant coffee brands most commonly consumed in Pakistan. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in coffee are provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through coffee was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  18. Analysis of trace elements in RSSR and its original juice by PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has analyzed trace element contents in the flesh of fruit and its original juice of RSSR growing in Gansu province by PIXE method. The analysis data show that RSSR contains the sufficient trace elements, the most past of which are necessary for the human body, for example, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, Mn, Rb, Zn and Sr etc. elements have higher contents, among them, the contents of both K and Ca are quite rich, in total amount of the 13 elements; only their content sum account for above 95% the contents of toxic elements of Pb, As are lower than the level of permit dose. So, the drinks made with RSSR are benefit to the human health

  19. Study on trace element determination in human head hair using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element determination in human hair has become increasingly popular for monitoring environmental exposure, assessing nutritional status, evaluating intoxication and diagnosing diseases. However, there are controversies of this use due to the difficulty in the removal of only exogenous origin elements from the hair, the small correlation data between elements contents in the hair and other tissues and the poor quality of analytical results for certain elements. In this study, adequate experimental conditions have been established for human scalp hair analysis in order to obtain further reliable reference value ranges. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for the determination of fourteen trace elements. Irradiations were performed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Aliquots of samples from three individuals were analyzed and the results presented good reproducibility, indicating the sample homogeneity. The quality control of the results was assessed analyzing certified materials. The relative errors lower than 8% and relative standard deviations varying from 1.2 to 15% were obtained for most of elements in the reference materials analysis. Hair samples from voluntary donors from Sao Paulo State, aged from 15 to 60 years were studied and the results obtained indicate that As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se are present in the hair at a low level of 7g kg-1 and the elements Br, Ca, Fe, K, Na and Zn, at μg kg-1 level. There is a necessity of obtaining reliable reference values or intervals for hair trace elements for a defined healthy population. (author)

  20. Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisend, R.; Morton, P. L.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton in oligotrophic marine deserts depend on remote sources to supply trace nutrients. To examine these sources, marine particulate matter samples from the central North Pacific (Station ALOHA) were collected during the July-August 2012 HOE-DYLAN cruises and analyzed for a suite of trace (e.g., Fe, Mn) and major (e.g. Al, P) elements. Daily surface SPM samples were examined for evidence of atmospheric deposition and biological uptake, while five vertical profiles were examined for evidence of surface vertical export and subsurface horizontal transport from nearby sources (e.g., margin sediments, hydrothermal plumes). Maxima in surface particulate P (a biological tracer) corresponded with a diatom bloom, and surprisingly also coincided with maxima in particulate Al (typically a tracer for lithogenic inputs). The surface particulate Al distributions likely result from the adsorption of dissolved Al onto diatom silica frustules, not from atmospheric dust deposition. In addition, a subsurface maximum in particulate Al and P was observed four days later at 75m, possibly resulting from vertical export of the surface diatom bloom. The distributions of other bioactive trace elements (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu) will be presented in the context of the diatom bloom and other biological, chemical and physical features. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the cycling of trace elements in lithogenic particles (Morton et al., "Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA").

  1. Trace element intake and status of Italian subjects living in the Gubbi area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily intakes of certain trace elements (Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg, and Cr) were assessed using dietary history and weighed record methods and concurrent chemical analysis (CA) of duplicate portions, along with blood levels, in a group (21 M, 23 F) of inhabitants of the Gubbio area (Belvedere, Biscina Scritto). The evaluation of only intake of trace elements was accomplished in 40 subjects (20 M, 20 F) 1 year later. In both surveys, trace element intakes were generally lower than the potential tolerable weekly intake. However, daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg, and Cr were higher in men compared to women in both surveys (P<0.05). In fact, intakes at the 50th percentile were greater in men by approximately 75% for Pb, 91% for Cd, 20% for Ni, 45% fo Hg, and 29% for Cr in the first survey. In the second survey, percentage differences for Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr were about 12%, 28%, 26%, and 26%, respectively. Blood trace element levels were slightly higher in men in th first survey. Interestingly, no correlation was observed between the intake of trace elements and corresponding blood values. Food basket and total diet which were computed from the weighed record method for 2 days, showe relevant disagreements with CA of duplicate portion. Moreover, the comparison in content of Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr obtained by CA of cooked dishes or by calculation using values of raw foods showed significant difference (P<0.05). It was concluded that trace element intake should be assessed by CA of duplicate portion

  2. Near-real-time trace element measurements in a rural, traffic-influenced environment with some fireworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furger, Markus; Slowik, Jay G.; Cruz Minguillón, María; Hueglin, Christoph; Koch, Chris; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol-bound trace elements can affect the environment in significant ways especially when they are toxic. Characterizing the trace element spatial and temporal variability is a prerequisite for human exposure studies. The requirement for high time resolution and consequently the low sample masses asked for analysis methods not easily accessible, such as synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). In recent years, instrumentation that samples and analyzes airborne particulate matter with time resolutions of less than an hour in near real time has entered the market. We present the results of a three-week campaign in a rural environment close to a freeway. The measurement period included the fireworks of the Swiss National Day. The XRF instrument was set up at the monitoring station Härkingen of the Swiss Monitoring Network for Air Pollution (NABEL). It was configured to sample and analyze ambient PM10 aerosols in 1-hour intervals. Sample analysis with XRF was performed by the instrument immediately after collection, i.e. during the next sampling interval. 24 elements were analyzed and quantified (Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pt, Hg, Pb, Bi). The element concentrations obtained by the XRF instrument were compared to those determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in PM10 samples collected by NABEL high volume samplers. The results demonstrate the capability of the instrument to measure over a wide range of concentrations, from a few ng m‑3 to μg m‑3, under ambient conditions. The time resolution allows for the characterization of diurnal variations of element concentrations, which provides information on the contribution of emission sources, such as road traffic, soil, or fireworks. Some elements (V, Co, As, Pt) were below their detection limit during most of the time, but As could be quantified during the fireworks. Transition metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn could be attributed to freeway traffic

  3. Determination of trace elements in plant samples using XRF, PIXE and ICP-OES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine trace element concentration (Ca, Cu, Cr, K,Fe, Mn,Sr, and Za) in some sudanese wild plants namely, Ziziphus Abyssinica and Grewia Tenax. X-ray fluorescence ( X RF), particle-induced x-ray emission ( PIXE) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques were used for element determination. A series of plants standard references materials were used to check the reliability of the different employed techniques as well as to estimate possible factors for correcting the concentration of some elements that deviated significantly from their actual concentration. The results showed that, X RF, PIXE and ICP-OES are equally competitive methods for measuring Ca,K, Fe, Sr and Zn elements. Unlikely to ICP-OES seems to be superior techniques tend to be appropriate methods for Cu determination in plant samples however, for Mn element PIXE and ICP-OES are advisable techniques for measuring this element rather than X RF method. On the other hand, ICP-OES seems to be the superior techniques over PIXE and X RF methods for Cr and Ni determination in plant samples. The effect of geographical location on trace elements concentration in plants has been examined through determination of element in different species of Grewia Tenax than collected from different location. Most of measured elements showed similarity indicating there is no significant impact of locations on the difference of element contents. In addition, two plants with different genetic families namely, Ziziphus Spina Christi and Ziziphus Abyssinica were collected from the same location and screened for their trace element content. It was found that there were no difference between the two plants for Ca, K, Cu, Fe, and Sr element. However, significant variations were observed for Mn and Zn concentrations implying the possibility of using of those two elements for plant taxonomy purposes.(Author)

  4. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to detection of trace elements, heavy metals and radioisotopes in scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element analysis of human hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during the growth period. It was evaluated that the potential of human hair to indicate exposure or nutritional status over time by analysing trace element profiles in single strands of human hair. By using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry it has been achieved that profiles of 43 elements in single strands of human hair. It was shown that trace element analysis along single strands of human hair can yield information about essential and toxic elements and for some elements, can be correlated with seasonal changes in diet and exposure. The information obtained from the trace element profiles of human hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a bio marker

  5. Leaching of trace elements from coal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work leaching of ash from coal-fired power plants is described and the elemental analysis of coal, ash and leachates has been performed by neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and ion chromatography. The research concerns precipitator ash from powder-coal fired utilities, desulfurization ash from a dry-scrubbing process and fabric filter ash from a fluidized-bed boiler. Reproducibility of shake tests and column leaching has been studied. In the shake tests a wide range of solid to liquid ratios is applied, which allows extrapolation to column conditions. Column experiments carried out in upflow at a fixed flow-rate of approximately 1 cm per day showed good column performance and proved that equilibrium is reached fairly rapidly. A classification of precipitator ashes with respect to leaching behaviour is given, which allows an estimate of leaching characteristics beforehand. In relation to this variability in coal and ash compositions has been studied. (Auth.)

  6. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research work is currently going on to determine the suitability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The study areas being investigated are the gold-mining areas situated in the Moist Evergreen and Semi-Deciduous forests in Ghana. The nuclear analytical techniques being used in this work are instrumental neutron activation analysis and tube-excited x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The present report covers results of quality control exercise carried out to validate the quantitative methods being used. This includes our participation in an intercomparison exercise carried out among participants of the IAEA coordinated research project. The samples analyzed were two lichen samples from two completely different areas using neutron activation analysis. Only short- and medium-lived irradiations were carried out. Satisfactory results were obtained for most of the elements identified and quantified. (author)

  7. A report on the trace element investigations in relation to cardio-vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc, copper and molybdenum has both beneficial and harmful effects to the health of an individual. It has been found that zinc has a protective action against hypertension, while copper maintains the elasticity of the blood vessels, and at the same time, an increase in copper can also enhance atherogenesis. In this investigation, amounts of the said trace elements have been determined in ten normal male subjects who met accidental death. The normal values obtained in these subjects were compared to the mean values of their trace elements obtained from patients who died of ischaemic heart diseases

  8. Trace element analysis in liquids by proton induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) from liquid has been developed for quantitative and simultaneous analysis of trace elements. Liquid drops and trickles are bombarded at atmospheric pressure, x-rays are detected in a non dispersive Si(Li) solid state detector. Absolute determinations are made by comparison with standard solutions. Detection limits in a 5 minutes run are in the ppm range for a single drop (0.05 ml). The application of this technique to the determination of trace elements in biological liquids is investigated (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, in plant extracts, haemocyanine, albumins...). (author)

  9. Fuzzy cluster analysis on trace elements of Hangzhou Jiaotan Guan Porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty samples of South Song 'Jiaotan Guankiln' are analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The 36 trace element contents in every sample are determined. This trace elements are analyzed by fuzzy cluster method. The result shows that the source of glaze raw material of South Song Guan porcelain is clearly different from that of the body raw material. For Guan kiln of South Song dynasty there was a very stable and lasting source of raw material of glaze and body. The archaeological problems are clarified. The glaze material and body material of modern Guan porcelain are different from those of the ancient Guan Porcelain

  10. Trace Element Abundance Relationships in the Multi—stage Comagmatic Fractional Crystallization and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪云亮; 李巨初

    1993-01-01

    In this study a mathematical expression of trace element abundance relationship for the mul-ti-stage comagmatic fractional crystallization has been established ,based on geochemical studies of the Emeishan basalt-trachyte series and adjacent mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, as well as on the avail-able data for basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite series in southern Andes,Chile ,which have been well documented.It is demonstrated that the abundance constant (R) for a given trace element at dif-ferent stages of fractional crystallization of a parental magma is highly variable,which can be used as a criterion to divide fractional crystallization stages.

  11. Trace element content of Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale due to industrial emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element concentrations of the lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata, were determined by neutron activation analysis before and after stringent particulate controls were employed in an industrialized section of the Ohio River Valley. Initial studies in 1973 showed elevated concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, iron, vanadium, and titanium in lichens collected near coal-fire power plants. Elevated values for cerium, chromium, and lanthanum were found in samples near a ferro-alloys foundry. A repeat study in 1987 demonstrated that lichen trace element concentrations were much lower after improved particulate controls were installed on the power plants and ferro-alloys foundry

  12. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured...... soil ingestion, vegetable consumption, measured trace element concentrations and tolerable intake levels. The HQs for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn do not indicate a health risk through urban gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable...

  13. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density (BMD) of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last two Research Coordinated Meetings, in San Diego, CA, October 1996 and Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 1998. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone

  14. Trace Element Geochemistry of Hannuoba Ultramafic Inclusion—bearing Alkali Basalts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支霞臣

    1990-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the trace element abundances of 16 samples of Hannuoba ultramafic inclusion-bearing aldali basalts,which were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.The Petrogenesis of the alkali basalt suite has been modeled by batch partial melting and and Rayleigh fractional crystallization processes,The geochemical characteristics of the mantle source from where alkali basalts were derived are described in terms of variations in trace element abundances of the alkali basalt suite.

  15. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.Q.; Cheng, H.S. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Xia, H.N.; Jiang, J.C.; Gao, M.H.; Yang, F.J

    2002-05-01

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries.

  16. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries

  17. Role of mineralogical structure of sediments in accumulation of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Similar distributions for 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 238,239,240Pu, 137Cs and trace elements were obtained in sediment samples collected along the Romanian sector of the Danube River and the Black Sea coast during 1994. The radionuclide and trace element accumulation in the investigated samples is discussed with respect to their geochemical behavior and the mineralogical structure of the samples. The latter, investigated by X-ray diffraction and cation exchange capacity of the same samples, proves to be an important factor in the selection of sampling sites for monitoring the pollution of river basins and the sea. (author)

  18. Trace element exposure in man by instrumental neutron activation analysis of hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation technique was used to analyze human hair samples collected from people living in metropolitan and rural areas in Korea. Samples were also collected from factory workers and cancer patients. Hair from metropolitan area residents contain higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Br,Mn, I and S than rural area residents. Concentrations of I and S from cancer patients, Mg, Zn, Al, Na, Mn and As from glassware workers were relatively higher. The results show that the trace element concentrations of the hair are possibly related to the trace element concentrations in the body. (author)

  19. PIXE analysis of trace elements in serum and hair of patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors determined trace elements in serum and hair of patients with brain tumors by the PIXE method in order to seek out the interrelation between trace elements and brain tumors and have got good results. The contents of Fe, Sr and Zn in serum of patients are lower than those of healthy people, the notable difference exits (p<0.05 and p<0.01) between patients and the healthy. Also, the contents of the Cu, Zn, Sr and Ca in hair of patients are lower, the difference is significant (p<0.01)

  20. Effects of salinity on trace elements in otoliths of Masu salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in otoliths of Masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou masou to examine relationship between trace elements and environmental salinity. The otoliths were removed from salmon juveniles reared in four values of salinity and wild ones. The otolith Sr concentrations of reared individuals are positively related to salinity and there is significant difference between freshwater and seawater. The otoliths of smolts contain more Sr than those of parrs. It seems that the Sr concentrations in otoliths of Masu salmon reflect salinity where they had stayed and show the migration pattern. (author)