Sample records for airborne remote sensing

  1. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.


    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  2. A Web-Based Airborne Remote Sensing Telemetry Server Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Web-based Airborne Remote Sensing Telemetry Server (WARSTS) is proposed to integrate UAV telemetry and web-technology into an innovative communication, command,...

  3. Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response (United States)

    Kroutil, Robert T.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.; Miller, David P.; Cardarelli, John; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy; Kudaraskus, Paul


    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75 missions that included over 250 hours of flight operation. ASPECT's initial mission responsibility was to provide air quality monitoring (i.e., identification of vapor species) during various oil burning operations. The ASPECT airborne wide-area infrared remote sensing spectral data was used to evaluate the hazard potential of vapors being produced from open water oil burns near the Deepwater Horizon rig site. Other significant remote sensing data products and innovations included the development of an advanced capability to correctly identify, locate, characterize, and quantify surface oil that could reach beaches and wetland areas. This advanced identification product provided the Incident Command an improved capability to locate surface oil in order to improve the effectiveness of oil skimmer vessel recovery efforts directed by the US Coast Guard. This paper discusses the application of infrared spectroscopy and multispectral infrared imagery to address significant issues associated with this national crisis. More specifically, this paper addresses the airborne remote sensing capabilities, technology, and data analysis products developed specifically to optimize the resources and capabilities of the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command structure personnel and their remediation efforts.

  4. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.


    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  5. Application of airborne remote sensing to the ancient Pompeii site (United States)

    Vitiello, Fausto; Giordano, Antonio; Borfecchia, Flavio; Martini, Sandro; De Cecco, Luigi


    The ancient Pompeii site is in the Sarno Valley, an area of about 400 km2 in the South of Italy near Naples, that was utilized by man since old time (thousands of years ago). Actually the valley is under critical environmental conditions because of the relevant industrial development. ENEA is conducting various studies and research in the valley. ENEA is employing historical research, ground campaigns, cartography and up-to-date airborne multispectral remote sensing technologies to make a geographical information system. Airborne remote sensing technologies are very suitable for situations as that of the Sarno Valley. The paper describes the archaeological application of the research in progress as regarding the ancient site of Pompeii and its fluvial port.

  6. Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.


    Samples from soil and leaf litter were obtained at a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza; 25.0°S, 31.5°E) and their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) were measured using the out-of-plane scatterometer located in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Diffuser Calibration Facility (DCaF). BRDF was measured using P and S incident polarized light over a range of incident and scatter angles. A monochromator-based broadband light source was used in the ultraviolet (uv) and visible (vis) spectral ranges. The diffuse scattered light was collected using an uv-enhanced silicon photodiode detector with output fed to a computer-controlled lock-in amplifier. Typical measurement uncertainties of the reported laboratory BRDF measurements are found to be less than 1% (k=1). These laboratory results were compared with airborne measurements of BRDF from NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) instrument over the same general site where the samples were obtained. This study presents preliminary results of the comparison between these laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements and identifies areas for future laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements. This paper presents initial results in a study to try to understand BRDF measurements from laboratory, airborne, and satellite measurements in an attempt to improve the consistency of remote sensing models.

  7. Airborne remote sensing of estuarine intertidal radionuclide concentrations

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    Rainey, M.P


    The ability to map industrial discharges through remote sensing provides a powerful tool in environmental monitoring. Radionuclide effluents have been discharged, under authorization, into the Irish Sea from BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Pic.) sites at Sellafield and Springfields since 1952. The quantitative mapping of this anthropogenic radioactivity in estuarine intertidal zones is crucial for absolute interpretations of radionuclide transport. The spatial resolutions of traditional approaches e.g. point sampling and airborne gamma surveys are insufficient to support geomorphic interpretations of the fate of radionuclides in estuaries. The research presented in this thesis develops the use of airborne remote sensing to derive high-resolution synoptic data on the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the intertidal areas of the Ribble Estuary, Lancashire, UK. From multidate surface sediment samples a significant relationship was identified between the Sellafield-derived {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am and clay content (r{sup 2} = 0.93 and 0.84 respectively). Detailed in situ, and laboratory, reflectance (0.4-2.5{mu}m) experiments demonstrated that significant relationships exist between Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) simulated reflectance and intertidal sediment grain-size. The spectral influence of moisture on the reflectance characteristics of the intertidal area is also evident. This had substantial implications for the timing of airborne image acquisition. Low-tide Daedalus ATM imagery (Natural Environmental Research Council) was collected of the Ribble Estuary on May 30th 1997. Preprocessing and linear unmixing of the imagery allowed accurate sub-pixel determinations of sediment clay content distributions (r{sup 2} = 0.81). Subsequently, the established relationships between {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am and sediment grain-size enabled the radionuclide activity distributions across the entire intertidal area (92 km{sup 2}) to be mapped at a geomorphic scale

  8. Design and performance of a multiwavelength airborne polarimetric lidar for vegetation remote sensing. (United States)

    Tan, Songxin; Narayanan, Ram M


    The University of Nebraska has developed a multiwavelength airborne polarimetric lidar (MAPL) system to support its Airborne Remote Sensing Program for vegetation remote sensing. The MAPL design and instrumentation are described in detail. Characteristics of the MAPL system include lidar waveform capture and polarimetric measurement capabilities, which provide enhanced opportunities for vegetation remote sensing compared with current sensors. Field tests were conducted to calibrate the range measurement. Polarimetric calibration of the system is also discussed. Backscattered polarimetric returns, as well as the cross-polarization ratios, were obtained from a small forested area to validate the system's ability for vegetation canopy detection. The system has been packaged to fly abroad a Piper Saratoga aircraft for airborne vegetation remote sensing applications.

  9. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring

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    Duk-jin Kim


    Full Text Available Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge.

  10. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.


    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  11. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing (United States)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  12. Airborne Dial Remote Sensing of the Arctic Ozone Layer (United States)

    Wirth, Martin; Renger, Wolfgang; Ehret, Gerhard


    A combined ozone and aerosol LIDAR was developed at the Institute of Physics of the Atmosphere at the DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen. It is an airborne version, that, based on the DIAL-principle, permits the recording of two-dimensional ozone profiles. This presentation will focus on the ozone-part; the aerosol subsection will be treated later.

  13. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

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    Riccardo Valentini


    Full Text Available Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented.

  14. Application of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing for the retrieval of forest inventory parameters (United States)

    Dmitriev, Yegor V.; Kozoderov, Vladimir V.; Sokolov, Anton A.


    Collecting and updating forest inventory data play an important part in the forest management. The data can be obtained directly by using exact enough but low efficient ground based methods as well as from the remote sensing measurements. We present applications of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing for the retrieval of such important inventory parameters as the forest species and age composition. The hyperspectral images of the test region were obtained from the airplane equipped by the produced in Russia light-weight airborne video-spectrometer of visible and near infrared spectral range and high resolution photo-camera on the same gyro-stabilized platform. The quality of the thematic processing depends on many factors such as the atmospheric conditions, characteristics of measuring instruments, corrections and preprocessing methods, etc. An important role plays the construction of the classifier together with methods of the reduction of the feature space. The performance of different spectral classification methods is analyzed for the problem of hyperspectral remote sensing of soil and vegetation. For the reduction of the feature space we used the earlier proposed stable feature selection method. The results of the classification of hyperspectral airborne images by using the Multiclass Support Vector Machine method with Gaussian kernel and the parametric Bayesian classifier based on the Gaussian mixture model and their comparative analysis are demonstrated.

  15. Aerosol Remote Sensing Applications for Airborne Multiangle, Multispectral Shortwave Radiometers (United States)

    von Bismarck, Jonas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Starace, Marco; Hollstein, André; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen


    Aerosol particles have an important impact on the surface net radiation budget by direct scattering and absorption (direct aerosol effect) of solar radiation, and also by influencing cloud formation processes (semi-direct and indirect aerosol effects). To study the former, a number of multispectral sky- and sunphotometers have been developed at the Institute for Space Sciences of the Free University of Berlin in the past two decades. The latest operational developments were the multispectral aureole- and sunphotometer FUBISS-ASA2, the zenith radiometer FUBISS-ZENITH, and the nadir polarimeter AMSSP-EM, all designed for a flexible use on moving platforms like aircraft or ships. Currently the multiangle, multispectral radiometer URMS/AMSSP (Universal Radiation Measurement System/ Airborne Multispectral Sunphotometer and Polarimeter) is under construction for a Wing-Pod of the high altitude research aircraft HALO operated by DLR. The system is expected to have its first mission on HALO in 2011. The algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol and trace gas properties from the recorded multidirectional, multispectral radiation measurements allow more than deriving standard products, as for instance the aerosol optical depth and the Angstrom exponent. The radiation measured in the solar aureole contains information about the aerosol phasefunction and therefore allows conclusions about the particle type. Furthermore, airborne instrument operation allows vertically resolved measurements. An inversion algorithm, based on radiative transfer simulations and additionally including measured vertical zenith-radiance profiles, allows conclusions about the aerosol single scattering albedo and the relative soot fraction in aerosol layers. Ozone column retrieval is performed evaluating measurements from pixels in the Chappuis absorption band. A retrieval algorithm to derive the water-vapor column from the sunphotometer measurements is currently under development. Of the various airborne

  16. Hawaii-Hyperspectral Airborne Remote Environmental Sensing (HIHARES󈧍) Experiment (United States)


    Common Name Description Cyphastrea ocellina ocellated coral Small encrustation’s or mushroom - shaped clumps; light reddish brown. Fungia scutaria... Mushroom coral Solitary coral on large (4-28 cm), free, elliptical plates; green to dark brown. Montipora verrucosa rice coral Highly variable...Gleason, D. D. R. Kohler, R. A. Leathers , E. M. Lochard, M. J. Montes, R. P. Reid, L. K. Sundman, 2005. “Interpretation of hyperspectral remote


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers


    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers


    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The third six-month technical report contains a summary of the progress made towards finalizing the design and assembling the airborne, remote methane and ethane sensor. The vendor has been chosen and is on contract to develop the light source with the appropriate linewidth and spectral shape to best utilize the Ophir gas correlation software. Ophir has expanded upon the target reflectance testing begun in the previous performance period by replacing the experimental receiving optics with the proposed airborne large aperture telescope, which is theoretically capable of capturing many times more signal return. The data gathered from these tests has shown the importance of optimizing the fiber optic receiving fiber to the receiving optic and has helped Ophir to optimize the design of the gas cells and narrowband optical filters. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  19. High resolution NO2 remote sensing from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX imaging spectrometer

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    B. Buchmann


    Full Text Available We present and evaluate the retrieval of high spatial resolution maps of NO2 vertical column densities (VCD from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX imaging spectrometer. APEX is a novel instrument providing airborne measurements of unique spectral and spatial resolution and coverage as well as high signal stability. In this study, we use spectrometer data acquired over Zurich, Switzerland, in the morning and late afternoon during a flight campaign on a cloud-free summer day in June 2010. NO2 VCD are derived with a two-step approach usually applied to satellite NO2 retrievals, i.e. a DOAS analysis followed by air mass factor calculations based on radiative transfer computations. Our analysis demonstrates that APEX is clearly sensitive to NO2 VCD above typical European tropospheric background abundances (>1 × 1015 molec cm−2. The two-dimensional maps of NO2 VCD reveal a very plausible spatial distribution with strong gradients around major NOx sources (e.g. Zurich airport, waste incinerator, motorways and low NO2 in remote areas. The morning overflights resulted in generally higher NO2 VCD and a more distinct pattern than the afternoon overflights which can be attributed to the meteorological conditions prevailing during that day (development of the boundary layer and increased wind speed in the afternoon as well as to photochemical loss of NO2. The remotely sensed NO2 VCD are also highly correlated with ground-based in-situ measurements from local and national air quality networks (R=0.73. Airborne NO2 remote sensing using APEX will be valuable to detect NO2 emission sources, to provide input for NO2 emission modeling, and to establish links between in-situ measurements, air quality models, and satellite NO2 products.

  20. An Airborne Multispectral Imaging System Based on Two Consumer-Grade Cameras for Agricultural Remote Sensing

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    Chenghai Yang


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One camera captures normal color images, while the other is modified to obtain near-infrared (NIR images. The color camera is also equipped with a GPS receiver to allow geotagged images. A remote control is used to trigger both cameras simultaneously. Images are stored in 14-bit RAW and 8-bit JPEG files in CompactFlash cards. The second-order transformation was used to align the color and NIR images to achieve subpixel alignment in four-band images. The imaging system was tested under various flight and land cover conditions and optimal camera settings were determined for airborne image acquisition. Images were captured at altitudes of 305–3050 m (1000–10,000 ft and pixel sizes of 0.1–1.0 m were achieved. Four practical application examples are presented to illustrate how the imaging system was used to estimate cotton canopy cover, detect cotton root rot, and map henbit and giant reed infestations. Preliminary analysis of example images has shown that this system has potential for crop condition assessment, pest detection, and other agricultural applications.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers


    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  2. The research of a gyro-stabilized platform and POS application technology in airborne remote sensing (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Du, Qi


    The distortion of the collected images usually takes place since the attitude changes along with the flying aerocraft on airborne remote sensing. In order to get original images without distortion, it is necessary to use professional gyro-stabilized platform. In addition to this, another solution of correcting the original image distortion is to utilize later geometric rectification using position & orientation system ( POS ) data. The third way is to utilize medium-accuracy stabilized platform to control the distortion at a tolerant range, and then make use of the data obtained by high-solution posture measure system to correct the low-quality remote sensing images. The third way which takes advantage of both techniques is better than using only one of the two other ways. This paper introduces several kinds of structural forms of gyro-stabilized platforms, and POS acquiring instruments respectively. Then, the essay will make some analysis of their advantages and disadvantages, key technologies and the application experiment of the third method. After the analysis, the thesis discusses the design of the gyro-stabilized platform. The thesis provides crucial information not only for the application technology of gyro-stabilized platform and POS but also for future development.

  3. Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing for Estimation of Groundwater Discharge to a River. (United States)

    Liu, Chuankun; Liu, Jie; Hu, Yue; Wang, Heshun; Zheng, Chunmiao


    Traditional methods for studying surface water and groundwater interactions have usually been limited to point measurements, such as geochemical sampling and seepage measurement. A new methodology is presented for quantifying groundwater discharge to a river, by using river surface temperature data obtained from airborne thermal infrared remote sensing technology. The Hot Spot Analysis toolkit in ArcGIS was used to calculate the percentage of groundwater discharge to a river relative to the total flow of the river. This methodology was evaluated in the midstream of the Heihe River in the arid and semiarid northwest China. The results show that the percentage of groundwater discharge relative to the total streamflow was as high as 28%, which is in good agreement with the results from previous geochemical studies. The data analysis methodology used in this study is based on the assumption that the river water is fully mixed except in the areas of extremely low flow velocity, which could lead to underestimation of the amount of groundwater discharge. Despite this limitation, this remote sensing-based approach provides an efficient means of quantifying the surface water and groundwater interactions on a regional scale.

  4. Sensor Performance Requirements for the Retrieval of Atmospheric Aerosols by Airborne Optical Remote Sensing

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    Klaus I. Itten


    Full Text Available This study explores performance requirements for the retrieval of the atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD by airborne optical remote sensing instruments. Independent of any retrieval techniques, the calculated AOD retrieval requirements are compared with the expected performance parameters of the upcoming hyperspectral sensor APEX at the reference wavelength of 550nm. The AOD accuracy requirements are defined to be capable of resolving transmittance differences of 0.01 to 0.04 according to the demands of atmospheric corrections for remote sensing applications. For the purposes of this analysis, the signal at the sensor level is simulated by radiation transfer equations. The resulting radiances are translated into the AOD retrieval sensitivity (Δτλaer and compared to the available measuring sensitivity of the sensor (NE ΔLλsensor. This is done for multiple signal-to-noise ratios (SNR and surface reflectance values. It is shown that an SNR of 100 is adequate for AOD retrieval at 550nm under typical remote sensing conditions and a surface reflectance of 10% or less. Such dark surfaces require the lowest SNR values and therefore offer the best sensitivity for measuring AOD. Brighter surfaces with up to 30% reflectance require an SNR of around 300. It is shown that AOD retrieval for targets above 50% surface reflectance is more problematic with the current sensor performance as it may require an SNR larger than 1000. In general, feasibility is proven for the analyzed cases under simulated conditions.

  5. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F


    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  6. Data processing of remotely sensed airborne hyperspectral data using the Airborne Processing Library (APL): Geocorrection algorithm descriptions and spatial accuracy assessment (United States)

    Warren, Mark A.; Taylor, Benjamin H.; Grant, Michael G.; Shutler, Jamie D.


    Remote sensing airborne hyperspectral data are routinely used for applications including algorithm development for satellite sensors, environmental monitoring and atmospheric studies. Single flight lines of airborne hyperspectral data are often in the region of tens of gigabytes in size. This means that a single aircraft can collect terabytes of remotely sensed hyperspectral data during a single year. Before these data can be used for scientific analyses, they need to be radiometrically calibrated, synchronised with the aircraft's position and attitude and then geocorrected. To enable efficient processing of these large datasets the UK Airborne Research and Survey Facility has recently developed a software suite, the Airborne Processing Library (APL), for processing airborne hyperspectral data acquired from the Specim AISA Eagle and Hawk instruments. The APL toolbox allows users to radiometrically calibrate, geocorrect, reproject and resample airborne data. Each stage of the toolbox outputs data in the common Band Interleaved Lines (BILs) format, which allows its integration with other standard remote sensing software packages. APL was developed to be user-friendly and suitable for use on a workstation PC as well as for the automated processing of the facility; to this end APL can be used under both Windows and Linux environments on a single desktop machine or through a Grid engine. A graphical user interface also exists. In this paper we describe the Airborne Processing Library software, its algorithms and approach. We present example results from using APL with an AISA Eagle sensor and we assess its spatial accuracy using data from multiple flight lines collected during a campaign in 2008 together with in situ surveyed ground control points.

  7. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    the drawback of expensive conventional surveying methods. An airborne remote sensing system used for monitoring and surveillance of oil comprises different sensors such as side-looking airborne radar, synthetic aperture radar, infrared/ultraviolet line scanner...

  8. Influences of Atmospheric Turbulence on Image Resolution of Airborne and Space-Borne Optical Remote Sensing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-fang; YU Xin; YAN Ji-xiang


    A new way is proposed to evaluate the influence of atmospheric turbulence on image resolution of airborne and space-borne optical remote sensing system, which is called as arrival angle-method. Applying this method, some engineering examples are selected to analyze the turbulence influences on image resolution based on three different atmospheric turbulence models quantificationally, for the air borne remote sensing system, the resolution errors caused by the atmospheric turbulence are less than 1cm, and for the space-borne remote sensing system, the errors are around 1cm. The results are similar to that obtained by the previous Fried-method. Compared with the Fried-method, the arrival angle-method is rather simple and can be easily used in engineering fields.

  9. Spatial distribution of soil water content from airborne thermal and optical remote sensing data (United States)

    Richter, Katja; Palladino, Mario; Vuolo, Francesco; Dini, Luigi; D'Urso, Guido


    Spatial and temporal information of soil water content is of essential importance for modelling of land surface processes in hydrological studies and applications for operative systems of irrigation management. In the last decades, several remote sensing domains have been considered in the context of soil water content monitoring, ranging from active and passive microwave to optical and thermal spectral bands. In the framework of an experimental campaign in Southern Italy in 2007, two innovative methodologies to retrieve soil water content information from airborne earth observation (E.O.) data were exploited: a) analyses of the dependence of surface temperature of vegetation with soil water content using thermal infrared radiometer (TIR), and b) estimation of superficial soil moisture content using reflectance in the visible and near infrared regions acquired from optical sensors. The first method (a) is applicable especially at surfaces completely covered with vegetation, whereas the second method is preferably applicable at surfaces without or with sparse vegetation. The synergy of both methods allows the establishment of maps of spatially distributed soil water content. Results of the analyses are presented and discussed, in particular in view of an operative context in irrigation studies.

  10. Supporting relief efforts of the 2010 Haitian earthquake using an airborne multimodal remote sensing platform (United States)

    Faulring, Jason W.; McKeown, Donald M.; van Aardt, Jan; Casterline, May V.; Bartlett, Brent D.; Raqueno, Nina


    The small island nation of Haiti was devastated in early 2010 following a massive 7.0 earthquake that brought about widespread destruction of infrastructure, many deaths and large-scale displacement of the population in the nation's major cities. The World Bank and ImageCat, Inc tasked the Rochester Institute of Technology's (RIT) Wildfire Airborne Sensor Platform (WASP) to gather a multi-spectral and multi-modal assessment of the disaster over a seven-day period to be used for relief and reconstruction efforts. Traditionally, private sector aerial remote sensing platforms work on processing and product delivery timelines measured in days, a scenario that has the potential to reduce the value of the data in time-sensitive situations such as those found in responding to a disaster. This paper will describe the methodologies and practices used by RIT to deliver an open set of products typically within a twenty-four hour period from when they were initially collected. Response to the Haiti disaster can be broken down into four major sections: 1) data collection and logistics, 2) transmission of raw data from a remote location to a central processing and dissemination location, 3) rapid image processing of a massive amount of raw data, and 4) dissemination of processed data to global organizations utilizing it to provide the maximum benefit. Each section required it's own major effort to ensure the success of the overall mission. A discussion of each section will be provided along with an analysis of methods that could be implemented in future exercises to increase efficiency and effectiveness.

  11. Remote Sensing. (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott


    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  12. Quantification of methane emission rates from coal mine ventilation shafts using airborne remote sensing data

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    T. Krings


    Full Text Available The quantification of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane is essential for attributing the roles of anthropogenic activity and natural phenomena in global climate change. Our current measurement systems and networks, whilst having improved during the last decades, are deficient in many respects. For example, the emissions from localised and point sources such as landfills or fossil fuel exploration sites are not readily assessed. A tool developed to better understand point sources of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane is the optical remote sensing instrument MAMAP (Methane airborne MAPper, operated from aircraft. After a recent instrument modification, retrievals of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions for methane XCH4 (or for carbon dioxide XCO2 derived from MAMAP data have a precision of about 0.4% or better and thus can be used to infer emission rate estimates using an optimal estimation inverse Gaussian plume model or a simple integral approach.

    CH4 emissions from two coal mine ventilation shafts in western Germany surveyed during the AIRMETH 2011 measurement campaign are used as examples to demonstrate and assess the value of MAMAP data for quantifying CH4 from point sources. While the knowledge of the wind is an important input parameter in the retrieval of emissions from point sources and is generally extracted from models, additional information from a turbulence probe operated on-board the same aircraft was utilised to enhance the quality of the emission estimates. Although flight patterns were optimised for remote sensing measurements, data from an in situ analyser for CH4 were found to be in good agreement with retrieved dry columns of CH4 from MAMAP and could be used to investigate and refine underlying assumptions for the inversion procedures.

    With respect to the total emissions of the mine at the time of the

  13. Using High-Resolution Airborne Remote Sensing to Study Aerosol Near Clouds (United States)

    Levy, Robert; Munchak, Leigh; Mattoo, Shana; Marshak, Alexander; Wilcox, Eric; Gao, Lan; Yorks, John; Platnick, Steven


    The horizontal space in between clear and cloudy air is very complex. This so-called twilight zone includes activated aerosols that are not quite clouds, thin cloud fragments that are not easily observable, and dying clouds that have not quite disappeared. This is a huge challenge for satellite remote sensing, specifically for retrieval of aerosol properties. Identifying what is cloud versus what is not cloud is critically important for attributing radiative effects and forcings to aerosols. At the same time, the radiative interactions between clouds and the surrounding media (molecules, surface and aerosols themselves) will contaminate retrieval of aerosol properties, even in clear skies. Most studies on aerosol cloud interactions are relevant to moderate resolution imagery (e.g. 500 m) from sensors such as MODIS. Since standard aerosol retrieval algorithms tend to keep a distance (e.g. 1 km) from the nearest detected cloud, it is impossible to evaluate what happens closer to the cloud. During Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS), the NASA ER-2 flew with the enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS), providing MODIS-like spectral observations at high (50 m) spatial resolution. We have applied MODIS-like aerosol retrieval for the eMAS data, providing new detail to characterization of aerosol near clouds. Interpretation and evaluation of these eMAS aerosol retrievals is aided by independent MODIS-like cloud retrievals, as well as profiles from the co-flying Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Understanding aerosolcloud retrieval at high resolution will lead to better characterization and interpretation of long-term, global products from lower resolution (e.g.MODIS) satellite retrievals.

  14. Quantification of point-source emissions of CO2 and CH4 using airborne absorption spectroscopic remote sensing (United States)

    Bovensmann, H.; Gerilowski, K.; Krings, T.; Buchwitz, M.; Sachs, T.; Erzinger, J.; Burrows, J. P.


    Many natural and anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and CH4 occure on small to point scales. Examples are the CO2 release by volcanoes, power plants, steel and cement production, as well as CH4 release by mud volcanoes, large seeps, land fills or open coal mines and coal mine venting. Quantifying and verifying these emissions by independent, non-intrusive (here remote sensing) techniques is required in the context of a better understanding and management these sources. The data of airborne absorption spectrometer covering the relevant spectral absorptions of CO2 and CH4 has the potential to contribute to this research and application area. Recent achievements using the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) sensor - developed by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam - show that CO2 as well as CH4 point source emissions can be derived from column averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from airborne passive nadir remote sensing measurements. The developed techniques are also relevant in the context of future CO2 and CH4 satellite missions like OCO-2 and CarbonSat. The paper will present first results of two campaigns performed in 2011 covering anthropogenic as well as geologic point sources of CO2 and CH4. The potential and limitations for future applications will be discussed.

  15. Greenhouse gas emission rate estimates from airborne remote sensing in the short-wave infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Thomas


    % compared to the reported CH{sub 4} emissions (50 ktCO{sub 2} yr{sup -1}) with an uncertainty of approximately ±13.5 %. In cases where no elevated CO{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} is observed, MAMAP data are useful to provide upper limit constraints as was shown for a marine gas seep. The inversion techniques developed in this work have the potential to provide the basis for quantification and independent validation of anthropogenic and natural point source emission rates. These concepts are not restricted to airborne applications and are of particular value also for future satellite remote sensing missions.

  16. Preprocessing of airborne remote sensing data. Part 1: the present situation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.


    Studies on microwave surface scattering in The Netherlands have indicated the need of accurate radar systems for applications in remote sensing. A SLAR system with digital recording was developed and is now being used for several programs. This system was designed with special attention for speckle

  17. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Allison


    Full Text Available For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites. Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context.

  18. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring (United States)

    Allison, Robert S.; Johnston, Joshua M.; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion


    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  19. Application of hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing: data taken in the Baixianishan region of Gansu Province as an example (United States)

    Yu, Sun; Zhao, Yingjun; Zhang, Donghui; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng


    Hyperspectral remote sensing, featured by integrated images and spectra, is now a frontier of the remote sensing. Using meticulous spectra, hyperspectral remote sensing technology can depict spectral features of objects in detail and are capable of identifying objects rather than simply discriminating them. This study took the Baixianishan region in Gansu Province as an example, and CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data were utilized to extract and map alteration minerals by MTMF mapping method. Six hydrothermal alteration minerals were mapped, which contained limonite, sericite and epidote. In addition, we analyzed the types, combinations and distribution of the alteration minerals and divided three stages of hydrothermal activity. It is considered that the favorable ore-forming elements for gold deposits are middle Hercynian porphyraceous granite, fracture and veined distribution of sericite and limonite. The application of CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data in the Baixianishan area has achieved ideal results, indicative of their wide application potential in the geological research.

  20. Evaluation of an Airborne Remote Sensing Platform Consisting of Two Consumer-Grade Cameras for Crop Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang


    Full Text Available Remote sensing systems based on consumer-grade cameras have been increasingly used in scientific research and remote sensing applications because of their low cost and ease of use. However, the performance of consumer-grade cameras for practical applications has not been well documented in related studies. The objective of this research was to apply three commonly-used classification methods (unsupervised, supervised, and object-based to three-band imagery with RGB (red, green, and blue bands and four-band imagery with RGB and near-infrared (NIR bands to evaluate the performance of a dual-camera imaging system for crop identification. Airborne images were acquired from a cropping area in Texas and mosaicked and georeferenced. The mosaicked imagery was classified using the three classification methods to assess the usefulness of NIR imagery for crop identification and to evaluate performance differences between the object-based and pixel-based methods. Image classification and accuracy assessment showed that the additional NIR band imagery improved crop classification accuracy over the RGB imagery and that the object-based method achieved better results with additional non-spectral image features. The results from this study indicate that the airborne imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras used in this study can be useful for crop identification and other agricultural applications.

  1. Airborne Geophysics and Remote Sensing Applied to Study Greenland Ice Dynamics (United States)

    Csatho, Beata M.


    Overview of project: we combined and jointly analysed geophysical, remote sensing and glaciological data for investigating the temporal changes in ice flow and the role of geologic control on glacial drainage. The project included two different studies, the investigation of recent changes of the Kangerlussuaq glacier and the study of geologic control of ice flow in NW Greenland, around the Humboldt, Petermann and Ryder glaciers.

  2. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics in the assessment of natural aggregate resources (United States)

    Knepper, D.H.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.H.


    Natural aggregate made from crushed stone and deposits of sand and gravel is a vital element of the construction industry in the United States. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is relatively abundant, new sources of aggregate are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transporation costs, and environmental concerns, especially in urban growth centers where much of the aggregate is used. As the demand for natural aggregate increases in response to urban growth and the repair and expansion of the national infrastructure, new sources of natural aggregate will be required. The USGS has recognized the necessity of developing the capability to assess the potential for natural aggregate sources on Federal lands; at present, no methodology exists for systematically describing and evaluating potential sources of natural aggregate. Because remote sensing and airborne geophysics can detect surface and nearsurface phenomena, these tools may useful for detecting and mapping potential sources of natural aggregate; however, before a methodology for applying these tools can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits, as well as the problems that will be encountered in assessing their potential value. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel that may be used directly or crushed and sized to meet specifications. In any particular area, the availability of bedrock suitable for crushing is a function of the geologic history of the area - the processes that formed, deformed, eroded and exposed the bedrock. Deposits of sand and gravel are primarily surficial deposits formed by the erosion, transportation by water and ice

  3. Remote sensing Extraction model of redtide biomass by airborne hyperspectral technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yi; ZHANG Jie; CUI Ting-wei


    Our work is based on the known research results of inherent optical quality of ocean color constituents.According to optimized parameters and induced fluorescence term of chlorophyll, this paper puts forward a remote sensing reflectance model of sea water, which is fitted in Liaodong Bay of Bohai. An inverse model that can evaluate redtide biomass according to chlorophyll retrieval is provided by inducing a functional extreme problem. The calculation example of the model indicates that the inversion model has explicit mathematic and physical meaning, but its practicability needs to be verified.

  4. The Monitoring of Red Tides Based on Modular Neural Networks Using Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Guangrong; SUN Jie; ZHAO Wencang; ZHANG Hande


    This paper proposes a red tide monitoring method based on clustering and modular neural networks. To obtain the features of red tide from a mass of aerial remote sensing hyperspectral data, first the Log Residual Correction (LRC) is used to normalize the data, and then clustering analysis is adopted to select and form the training samples for the neural networks. For rapid monitoring, the discriminator is composed of modular neural networks, whose structure and learning parameters are determined by an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA). The experiments showed that this method can monitor red tide rapidly and effectively.

  5. A spectroradiometer for airborne remote sensing. [for geological, vegetation and hydrological mapping (United States)

    Chiu, H.-Y.; Collins, W.


    A remote sensing system for use in light aircraft is discussed with attention to its applications in measuring geologic zones of alteration, vegetation canopies, and the spectral properties of water bodies. A parallel electro-optical input spectroradiometer configuration with 500 channels operating in the 400-1100 nm region is described. A resolution of 18 meters square from an altitude of 600 m at 200 kmh is obtained with 4-digit spectral radiance data at 2.5 spectra/sec on a 9-track tape in computer compatible format.

  6. Airborne Shortwave Infrared Spectral Remote Sensing as a Direct Prospecting Method for Oil and Gas Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The spectral characters of hydrocarbons in some oil-bearing strata and soil layers ouer oil and gas reservoirs in the Junggar Basin and northern Tarim Basin in Xinjng are compared with those of chemically pure hydrocarbons.The hydrocarbons are characterized by the bi-absorption at 2310nm and 2350nm.Hydrocarbon and radioactive anomalies in oil and gas terrains are found much more widespread than carbonate alterations.Based on the spectra of heavy hydrocarbons related to oil between 2270nm and 2460nm and refined data treatme nt, remote sensing may hold encouraging promise as a directly prospecting technique for oil and gas resources.

  7. Using Airborne Remote Sensing to Increase Situational Awareness in Civil Protection and Humanitarian Relief - the Importance of User Involvement (United States)

    Römer, H.; Kiefl, R.; Henkel, F.; Wenxi, C.; Nippold, R.; Kurz, F.; Kippnich, U.


    Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT) civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR's 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management) and product dissemination (editable web services). Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user's requirements.

  8. Toward automatic estimation of urban green volume using airborne LiDAR data and high resolution Remote Sensing images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HUANG; Bailang YU; Jianhua ZHOU; Chunlin HU; Wenqi TAN; Zhiming HU; Jianping WU


    Urban green volume is an important indicator for analyzing urban vegetation structure,ecological evaluation,and green-economic estimation,This paper proposes an object-based method for automated estimation of urban green volume combining three-dimensional (3D)information from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and vegetation information from high resolution remotely sensed images through a case study of the Lujiazui region,Shanghai,China.High resolution airborne near-infrared photographs are used for identifying the urban vegetation distribution.Airborne LiDAR data offer the possibility to extract individual trees and to measure the attributes of trees,such as tree height and crown diameter.In this study,individual trees and grassland are identified as the independent objects of urban vegetation,and the urban green volume is computed as the sum of two broad portions:individual trees volume and grassland volume.The method consists of following steps:generating and filtering the normalized digital surface model (nDSM),extracting the nDSM of urban vegetation based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI),locating the local maxima points,segmenting the vegetation objects of individual tree crowns and grassland,and calculating the urban green volume of each vegetation object.The results show the quantity and distribution characteristics of urban green volume in the Lujiazui region,and provide valuable parameters for urban green planning and management.It is also concluded from this paper that the integrated application of LiDAR data and image data presents an effective way to estimate urban green volume.

  9. Quantification of methane emission rates from coal mine ventilation shafts using airborne remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krings


    Full Text Available The quantification of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane is essential for attributing the roles of anthropogenic activity and natural phenomena in global climate change. Our current measurement systems and networks whilst having improved during the last decades, are deficient in many respects. For example, the emissions from localised and point sources such as landfills or fossil fuel exploration sites are not readily assessed. A tool developed to better understand point sources of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane is the optical remote sensing instrument MAMAP, operated from aircraft. After a recent instrument modification, retrievals of the column averaged dry air mole fractions for methane XCH4 (or for carbon dioxide XCO2 derived from MAMAP data, have a precision of about 0.4% or better and thus can be used to infer emission rate estimates using an optimal estimation inverse Gaussian plume model or a simple integral approach.

    CH4 emissions from two coal mine ventilation shafts in Western Germany surveyed during the AIRMETH 2011 measurement campaign are used as examples to demonstrate and assess the value of MAMAP data for quantifying CH4 from point sources. While the knowledge of the wind is an important input parameter in the retrieval of emissions from point sources and is generally extracted from models, additional information from a turbulence probe operated on-board the same aircraft was utilised to enhance the quality of the emission estimates. Although flight patterns were optimised for remote sensing measurements, data from an in-situ analyser for CH4 were found to be in good agreement with retrieved dry columns of CH4 from MAMAP and could be used to investigate and refine underlying assumptions for the inversion procedures.

    With respect to the total emissions of the mine at the time of the overflight, the inferred

  10. Visibility through the gaseous smoke in airborne remote sensing using a DSLR camera (United States)

    Chabok, Mirahmad; Millington, Andrew; Hacker, Jorg M.; McGrath, Andrew J.


    Visibility and clarity of remotely sensed images acquired by consumer grade DSLR cameras, mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle or a manned aircraft, are critical factors in obtaining accurate and detailed information from any area of interest. The presence of substantial haze, fog or gaseous smoke particles; caused, for example, by an active bushfire at the time of data capture, will dramatically reduce image visibility and quality. Although most modern hyperspectral imaging sensors are capable of capturing a large number of narrow range bands of the shortwave and thermal infrared spectral range, which have the potential to penetrate smoke and haze, the resulting images do not contain sufficient spatial detail to enable locating important objects or assist search and rescue or similar applications which require high resolution information. We introduce a new method for penetrating gaseous smoke without compromising spatial resolution using a single modified DSLR camera in conjunction with image processing techniques which effectively improves the visibility of objects in the captured images. This is achieved by modifying a DSLR camera and adding a custom optical filter to enable it to capture wavelengths from 480-1200nm (R, G and Near Infrared) instead of the standard RGB bands (400-700nm). With this modified camera mounted on an aircraft, images were acquired over an area polluted by gaseous smoke from an active bushfire. Processed data using our proposed method shows significant visibility improvements compared with other existing solutions.

  11. Analysis of Vegetation Within A Semi-Arid Urban Environment Using High Spatial Resolution Airborne Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Ridd, Merrill K.


    High spatial resolution (5 m) remote sensing data obtained using the airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) sensor for daytime and nighttime have been used to measure thermal energy responses for 2 broad classes and 10 subclasses of vegetation typical of the Salt Lake City, Utah urban landscape. Polygons representing discrete areas corresponding to the 10 subclasses of vegetation types have been delineated from the remote sensing data and are used for analysis of upwelling thermal energy for day, night, and the change in response between day and night or flux, as measured by the TIMS. These data have been used to produce three-dimensional graphs of energy responses in W/ sq m for day, night, and flux, for each urban vegetation land cover as measured by each of the six channels of the TIMS sensor. Analysis of these graphs provides a unique perspective for both viewing and understanding thermal responses, as recorded by the TIMS, for selected vegetation types common to Salt Lake City. A descriptive interpretation is given for each of the day, night, and flux graphs along with an analysis of what the patterns mean in reference to the thermal properties of the vegetation types surveyed in this study. From analyses of these graphs, it is apparent that thermal responses for vegetation can be highly varied as a function of the biophysical properties of the vegetation itself, as well as other factors. Moreover, it is also seen where vegetation, particularly trees, has a significant influence on damping or mitigating the amount of thermal radiation upwelling into the atmosphere across the Salt Lake City urban landscape. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Remote sensing of land scenarios with an airborne 94-GHz synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Essen, Helmut; Makaruschka, R.; Baars, E. Peter


    The scattering process of electromagnetic waves is dominated by the match between wavelength and the geometric dimensions of surface structures. With respect to the microwave radar bands millimeter-waves are better matched to small surface features of terrain. Therefore this frequency band is able to gain additional information on the terrain of interest. For high resolution imaging SAR is the favorite solution also for millimeter-wave frequencies. Compared to more classical radar bands millimeter-waves offer advantages in the SAR processing, because due to the higher primary resolution at a given antenna aperture sources of image distortions such as range migration or depth of focus can be neglected at these frequencies. Moreover the inherently short aperture time for a given resolution improves the relation to the time constant of flight instabilities and makes motion compensation a simple process. A coherent, polarimetric, high range resolution radar, operating at a nominal frequency of 94 GHz, has been installed onboard an aircraft to allow remote sensing measurements in a side looking synthetic aperture approach. The radar-raw-data were registered together with time code and inertial data of the aircraft and later on evaluated by an off-line SAR-processor. The resulting images then had to undergo an automatic recognition process to extract certain complex targets using a knowledge based production system. The paper describes the measurement system and discusses the evaluation procedures with emphasis on the applied SAR algorithm. Examples of radar images at 94 GHz are shown and samples of pattern recognition derived from the SAR images are shown.

  13. Mapping of Ice in the Odden by Satellite and Airborne Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Hansen, K.Q.; Valeur, H.;


    A detailed analysis of the ice conditions in the Odden area of the Greenland Sea was carried out using data from active and passive microwave sensors, supplemented by airborne data. The study focuses on the 1992-1993 winter season, the only winter during the period 1993-1995 in which an Odden...

  14. Evaluation of an airborne remote sensing platform consisting of two consumer-grade cameras for crop identification (United States)

    Remote sensing systems based on consumer-grade cameras have been increasingly used in scientific research and remote sensing applications because of their low cost and ease of use. However, the performance of consumer-grade cameras for practical applications have not been well documented in related ...

  15. Estimating sediment and caesium-137 fluxes in the Ribble Estuary through time-series airborne remote sensing. (United States)

    Wakefield, R; Tyler, A N; McDonald, P; Atkin, P A; Gleizon, P; Gilvear, D


    High spatial and temporal resolution airborne imagery were acquired for the Ribble Estuary, North West England in 1997 and 2003, to assess the application of time-series airborne remote sensing to quantify total suspended sediment and radionuclide fluxes during a flood and ebb tide sequence. Concomitant measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and water column turbidity were obtained during the time-series image acquisition for the flood and ebb tide sequence on the 17th July 2003 to verify the assumption of a vertically well mixed estuary and thus justifying the vertical extrapolation of spatially integrated estimate of surface SPM. The ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations were calculated from a relatively stable relationship between SPM and ¹³⁷Cs for the Ribble Estuary. Total estuary wide budgets of sediment and ¹³⁷Cs were obtained by combining the image-derived estimates of surface SPM and ¹³⁷Cs with estimates of water volume from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (VERSE) developed for the Ribble Estuary. These indicate that around 10,000 tons of sediment and 2.72 GBq of ¹³⁷Cs were deposited over the tidal sequence monitored in July 2003. This compared favourably with bed height elevation change estimated from field work. An uncertainty analysis on the total sediment and ¹³⁷Cs flux yielded a total budget of the order of 40% on the final estimate. The results represent a novel approach to providing a spatially integrated estimate of the total net sediment and radionuclide flux in an intertidal environment over a flood and ebb tide sequence.

  16. Land cover classification based on object-oriented with airborne lidar and high spectral resolution remote sensing image (United States)

    Li, Fangfang; Liu, Zhengjun; Xu, Qiangqiang; Ren, Haicheng; Zhou, Xingyu; Yuan, Yonghua


    In order to improve land cover classification accuracy of the coastal tidal wetland area in Dafeng, this paper take advantage of hyper-spectral remote sensing image with high spatial resolution airborne Lidar data. The introduction of feature extraction, band selection and nDSM models to reduce the dimension of the original image. After segmentation process that combining FNEA segmentation with spectral differences segmentation method, the paper finalize the study area through the establishment of the rule set classification of land cover classification. The results show that the proposed classification for land cover classification accuracy has improved significantly, including housing, shadow, water, vegetation classification of high precision. That is to say that the method can meet the needs of land cover classification of the coastal tidal wetland area in Dafeng. This innovation is the introduction of principal component analysis, and the use of characteristic index, shape and characteristics of various types of data extraction nDSM feature to improve the accuracy and speed of land cover classification.

  17. Airborne in situ vertical profiling of HDO / H216O in the subtropical troposphere during the MUSICA remote sensing validation campaign (United States)

    Dyroff, C.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Zahn, A.; Balzer, M.; Bouquet, H.; McManus, J. B.; Gonzalez-Ramos, Y.; Schneider, M.


    Vertical profiles of water vapor (H2O) and its isotope ratio D / H expressed as δD(H2O) were measured in situ by the ISOWAT II diode-laser spectrometer during the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA) airborne campaign. We present recent modifications of the instrument design. The instrument calibration on the ground as well as in flight is described. Based on the calibration measurements, the humidity-dependent uncertainty of our airborne data is determined. For the majority of the airborne data we achieved an accuracy (uncertainty of the mean) of Δ(δD) ≈10‰. Vertical profiles between 150 and ~7000 m were obtained during 7 days in July and August 2013 over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean near Tenerife. The flights were coordinated with ground-based (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, NDACC) and space-based (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, IASI) FTIR remote sensing measurements of δD(H2O) as a means to validate the remote sensing humidity and δD(H2O) data products. The results of the validation are presented in detail in a separate paper (Schneider et al., 2014). The profiles were obtained with a high vertical resolution of around 3 m. By analyzing humidity and δD(H2O) correlations we were able to identify different layers of air masses with specific isotopic signatures. The results are discussed.

  18. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX (United States)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich


    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  19. Spatially explicit modelling of forest structure and function using airborne lidar and hyperspectral remote sensing data combined with micrometeorological measurements (United States)

    Thomas, Valerie Anne

    This research models canopy-scale photosynthesis at the Groundhog River Flux Site through the integration of high-resolution airborne remote sensing data and micrometeorological measurements collected from a flux tower. Light detection and ranging (lidar) data are analysed to derive models of tree structure, including: canopy height, basal area, crown closure, and average aboveground biomass. Lidar and hyperspectral remote sensing data are used to model canopy chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid concentrations (known to be good indicators of photosynthesis). The integration of lidar and hyperspectral data is applied to derive spatially explicit models of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) absorbed by the canopy as well as a species classification for the site. These products are integrated with flux tower meteorological measurements (i.e., air temperature and global solar radiation) collected on a continuous basis over 2004 to apply the C-Fix model of carbon exchange to the site. Results demonstrate that high resolution lidar and lidar-hyperspectral integration techniques perform well in the boreal mixedwood environment. Lidar models are well correlated with forest structure, despite the complexities introduced in the mixedwood case (e.g., r2=0.84, 0.89, 0.60, and 0.91, for mean dominant height, basal area, crown closure, and average aboveground biomass). Strong relationships are also shown for canopy scale chlorophyll/carotenoid concentration analysis using integrated lidar-hyperspectral techniques (e.g., r2=0.84, 0.84, and 0.82 for Chl(a), Chl(a+b), and Chl(b)). Examination of the spatially explicit models of fPAR reveal distinct spatial patterns which become increasingly apparent throughout the season due to the variation in species groupings (and canopy chlorophyll concentration) within the 1 km radius surrounding the flux tower. Comparison of results from the modified local-scale version of the C-Fix model to tower gross ecosystem

  20. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing (United States)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.


    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal

  1. Identification and Atmospheric Transport of Microcystin Around Southern California Using Airborne Remote Sensing (United States)

    Conlin, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Broughton, J.


    Microcystin, a hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacteria Microcystis, has been known to contaminate fresh water sources around southern California. Ingesting this toxin can cause death in animals and illnesses in humans, which has promoted the World Health Organization (WHO) and California to establish preliminary guidelines for microcystin concentrations in the water (1 μg/L in drinking water and 0.8 μg/L for recreational exposure respectively). However, very few studies have been done to assess the effects of this toxin when aerosolized, even though Fitzgeorge et al. (1994) describes the toxin as potentially 12x more deadly if inhaled rather than swallowed. This project aimed to identify areas with the potential for high microcystin concentrations using airborne data and then model the potential atmospheric transport of the toxin. After applying the Master Scattering Line Height (MSLH) and Aphanizomenon-Microcystis Index (AMI) algorithms to Airborne Visible/ Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), multiple water bodies were identified as having the potential for Microcystis, although many of the observed water bodies had AMI values indicating the presence of Aphanizomenon-- a non-toxic cyanobacteria that is usually present before Microcystis. A relationship between toxins and biomass was developed and used to estimate the amount of phycocyanin and dissolved microcystin in the water. Brevetoxin, common in the Florida 'red tides', was used as a proxy to estimate the amount of microcystin that becomes aerosolized given a known water concentration (Kirkpatrick et al, 2010). These amounts were then run and averaged with the HYSPLIT dispersion model for 4 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The final results show that most areas are exposed to less than 0.1 ng/m^3 after 4 hours. As a worst case scenario, one final model was run to show the exposure amount when Pinto Lake was observed to have the maximum amount of microcystin recorded in 2007. The results show that after 4

  2. Novel compact airborne platform for remote sensing applications using the Hyper-Cam infrared hyperspectral imager (United States)

    Turcotte, Caroline S.; Puckrin, Eldon; Aube, Françoys; Farley, Vincent; Savary, Simon; Chamberland, Martin


    High resolution broad-band imagery in the visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, which leads to an additional means of detecting and identifying targets based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology, which yields high spectral resolution and enables a high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently integrated and flown on a novel airborne gyro-stabilized platform inside a fixed-wing aircraft. The new platform, more compact and more advanced than its predecessor, is described in this paper. The first results of target detection and identification are also presented.

  3. Point source emission rate estimates from MAMAP airborne remote sensing total column observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 (United States)

    Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Buchwitz, Michael; Hartmann, Jörg; Sachs, Torsten; Erzinger, Jörg; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich


    Large parts of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of CO2 and CH4 are released from localised and point sources such as power plants or as fugitive emissions from fossil fuel mining and production sites. These emissions, however, are often not readily assessed by current measurement systems and networks. A tool developed to better understand point sources of CO2 and CH4 is the optical remote sensing instrument MAMAP (Methane Airborne MAPer), operated from aircraft. After a recent instrument modification, retrievals of the column averaged dry air mole fractions for methane XCH4 (or for carbon dioxide XCO2) derived from MAMAP observations in the short-wave infrared, have a precision of about 0.4% significantly improving data quality. MAMAP total column data also serve as a testbed for inversion concepts for greenhouse gas emissions from point sources using total column atmospheric concentration measurements. As information on wind speed is an important input parameter for the inference of emission rates using MAMAP data, recent measurement campaigns comprised an in-situ wind probe operated onboard the same aircraft. Incorporation of these wind measurements in combination with model data leads to a large reduction of uncertainties on the inversion result. Using the examples of two coal mine ventilation shafts in Western Germany as well as other anthropogenic targets, the value of high resolution total column data to obtain emission rate estimates is demonstrated. MAMAP has also been tested in sunglint geometry over the ocean and has therefore the potential for application also to offshore emission sites.

  4. Fusion of full waveform Laserscanning and airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data for the characterization of forest stands (United States)

    Buddenbaum, Henning


    Hyperspectral data offer the maximum spectral reflectance information available from remote sensing. A continuous spectrum of narrow bands with near-laboratory quality is recorded for each pixel. This data can be used for difficult classification tasks or detailed quantitative analyses, e.g. determination of chlorophyll or water content in leaves. But in forested areas, discerning between different age classes of the same tree species is still error-prone. Airborne Laserscanning measures the three-dimensional position of every reflecting object and can be used to map tree heights and crown volumes. These are highly correlated with tree age and timber volume. In addition, Laserscanner data can be used to differentiate between coniferous and deciduous trees either by analysing crown shapes that lead to different surface roughness or by exploiting the intensity information of laser echoes from the crowns. But a more detailed determination of tree species is not possible using Laserscanning alone. The combination of hyperspectral and Laserscanning data promises the possibility to map both tree species and age classes. We used a HyMap data set with 122 bands recorded in 2003 and a full waveform Laserscanning recorded in 2005 in the same area, Idarwald Forest in South-western Germany. To combine both datasets, we defined voxels above the HyMap pixels, containing the mean laser intensity in slices of 50 cm height. These voxels form a second hyperspectral dataset of 76 bands with the same geometry as the HyMap image, so that they could be fused into a 198 band image. The joined image performed better in a classification of tree species and age classes than each of the single images and also better than a dataset consisting of the hyperspectral image and a tree height map. Apart from classification, it can also be used to derive tree heights and crown base heights and to estimate biomass, leaf area index and timber volume and to characterize the vertical forest structure.

  5. Measuring landscape-scale spread and persistence of an invaded submerged plant community from airborne remote sensing. (United States)

    Santos, Maria J; Khanna, Shruti; Hestir, Erin L; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Ustin, Susan L


    Processes of spread and patterns of persistence of invasive species affect species and communities in the new environment. Predicting future rates of spread is of great interest for timely management decisions, but this depends on models that rely on understanding the processes of invasion and historic observations of spread and persistence. Unfortunately, the rates of spread and patterns of persistence are difficult to model or directly observe, especially when multiple rates of spread and diverse persistence patterns may be co-occurring over the geographic distribution of the invaded ecosystem. Remote sensing systematically acquires data over large areas at fine spatial and spectral resolutions over multiple time periods that can be used to quantify spread processes and persistence patterns. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy data acquired once a year for 5 years from 2004 to 2008 to map an invaded submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) community across 2220 km(2) of waterways in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, and measured its spread rate and its persistence. Submerged aquatic vegetation covered 13-23 km(2) of the waterways (6-11%) every year. Yearly new growth accounted for 40-60% of the SAV area, ~50% of which survived to following year. Spread rates were overall negative and persistence decreased with time. From this dataset, we were able to identify both radial and saltatorial spread of the invaded SAV in the entire extent of the Delta over time. With both decreasing spread rate and persistence, it is possible that over time the invasion of this SAV community could decrease its ecological impact. A landscape-scale approach allows measurements of all invasion fronts and the spatial anisotropies associated with spread processes and persistence patterns, without spatial interpolation, at locations both proximate and distant to the focus of invasion at multiple points in time.

  6. A Decade Remote Sensing River Bathymetry with the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (United States)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Legleiter, C. J.; Nelson, J. M.; Skinner, K.


    Since 2002, the first generation of the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL-A) sensor has been deployed for mapping rivers and streams. We present and summarize the results of comparisons between ground truth surveys and bathymetry collected by the EAARL-A sensor in a suite of rivers across the United States. These comparisons include reaches on the Platte River (NE), Boise and Deadwood Rivers (ID), Blue and Colorado Rivers (CO), Klamath and Trinity Rivers (CA), and the Shenandoah River (VA). In addition to diverse channel morphologies (braided, single thread, and meandering) these rivers possess a variety of substrates (sand, gravel, and bedrock) and a wide range of optical characteristics which influence the attenuation and scattering of laser energy through the water column. Root mean square errors between ground truth elevations and those measured by the EAARL-A ranged from 0.15-m in rivers with relatively low turbidity and highly reflective sandy bottoms to over 0.5-m in turbid rivers with less reflective substrates. Mapping accuracy with the EAARL-A has proved challenging in pools where bottom returns are either absent in waveforms or are of such low intensity that they are treated as noise by waveform processing algorithms. Resolving bathymetry in shallow depths where near surface and bottom returns are typically convolved also presents difficulties for waveform processing routines. The results of these evaluations provide an empirical framework to discuss the capabilities and limitations of the EAARL-A sensor as well as previous generations of post-processing software for extracting bathymetry from complex waveforms. These experiences and field studies not only provide benchmarks for the evaluation of the next generation of bathymetric LiDARs for use in river mapping, but also highlight the importance of developing and standardizing more rigorous methods to characterize substrate reflectance and in-situ optical properties at study sites

  7. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques (United States)

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  8. Quantifying geomorphic and riparian land cover changes either side of a large flood event using airborne remote sensing: River Tay, Scotland (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Gilvear, David J.


    The potential of high resolution multi-spectral airborne remote sensing to detect and quantify changes in channel morphology and riparian land cover are illustrated. The River Tay is a partially embanked wandering gravel bed river, and Airborne Thematic Mapper data, which collect reflectance in the visible, near, mid and thermal infrared, were acquired in 1992 and 1994 either side of a 1:65 recurrence-interval flood event. Imagery was radiometrically, atmospherically and geometrically corrected in order to minimise atmospheric and geometric changes between the 1992 and 1994 scenes. A maximum likelihood classifier was then used on each image and change was quantitatively mapped using a classification comparison approach. Bathymetric mapping was undertaken by applying a Lyzenga algorithm to ATM bands 5, 6 and 8 to account for an exponential decrease in electromagnetic radiation penetration through the water column with depth. Despite the magnitude of the flood event, no major changes in channel position or form occurred but the change detection algorithms revealed subtle changes not observed in the field. Bar head accretion, bar tail formation and extension, bar dissection, localised bank erosion and the overriding of low level vegetated islands by gravel lobes were the main forms of change. On the floodplain, flood embankment failures resulted in fans of sands and gravels on agricultural land. More generally, the study reveals the potential for using airborne remote sensing to detect change in fluvial systems and as a mutually complementary tool to field survey.

  9. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology. (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman


    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  10. Mapping Weathering and Alteration Minerals in the Comstock and Geiger Grade Areas using Visible to Thermal Infrared Airborne Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Vaughan, Greg R.; Calvin, Wendy M.


    To support research into both precious metal exploration and environmental site characterization a combination of high spatial/spectral resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data were acquired to remotely map hydrothermal alteration minerals around the Geiger Grade and Comstock alteration regions, and map the mineral by-products of weathered mine dumps in Virginia City. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopy. The resulting mineral maps show the spatial distribution of several important alteration minerals around each study area including alunite, quartz, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. In the Comstock region the mineral maps show acid-sulfate alteration, widespread propylitic alteration and extensive faulting that offsets the acid-sulfate areas, in contrast to the larger, dominantly acid-sulfate alteration exposed along Geiger Grade. Also, different mineral zones within the intense acid-sulfate areas were mapped. In the Virginia City historic mining district the important weathering minerals mapped include hematite, goethite, jarosite and hydrous sulfate minerals (hexahydrite, alunogen and gypsum) located on mine dumps. Sulfate minerals indicate acidic water forming in the mine dump environment. While there is not an immediate threat to the community, there are clearly sources of

  11. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P


    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  12. High fidelity remote sensing of snow properties from MODIS and the Airborne Snow Observatory: Snowflakes to Terabytes (United States)

    Painter, T.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Bryant, A. C.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Rittger, K. E.; Seidel, F. C.; Zimdars, P. A.


    The response of the cryosphere to climate forcings largely determines Earth's climate sensitivity. However, our understanding of the strength of the simulated snow albedo feedback varies by a factor of three in the GCMs used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, mainly caused by uncertainties in snow extent and the albedo of snow-covered areas from imprecise remote sensing retrievals. Additionally, the Western US and other regions of the globe depend predominantly on snowmelt for their water supply to agriculture, industry and cities, hydroelectric power, and recreation, against rising demand from increasing population. In the mountains of the Upper Colorado River Basin, dust radiative forcing in snow shortens snow cover duration by 3-7 weeks. Extended to the entire upper basin, the 5-fold increase in dust load since the late-1800s results in a 3-week earlier peak runoff and a 5% annual loss of total runoff. The remotely sensed dynamics of snow cover duration and melt however have not been factored into hydrological modeling, operational forecasting, and policymaking. To address these deficiencies in our understanding of snow properties, we have developed and validated a suite of MODIS snow products that provide accurate fractional snow covered area and radiative forcing of dust and carbonaceous aerosols in snow. The MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) algorithms, developed and transferred from imaging spectroscopy techniques, leverage the complete MODIS surface reflectance spectrum. The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. We have created the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete

  13. Advances in soil mapping: Mapping quartz content of soil surface using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing in the longwave-infrared region (United States)

    Weksler, Shahar; Notesco, Gila; Ben-Dor, Eyal


    Hyperspectral remote sensing in the longwave-infrared (LWIR) spectral region has proven to be a new and efficient tool for mineral mapping (Adar et al. 2013). Minerals which are featureless in the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared regions, e.g., quartz, have a unique fingerprint in the LWIR region (8-12 μm). This spectral region adds to the optical region in which several important minerals can be characterized with significant features (e.g., clay). Accordingly, using airborne hyperspectral remote-sensing data in the LWIR region is an important and practical means of classifying and quantifying minerals. Day and night airborne data, acquired by the AisaOWL sensor over Nitzana National Park in Israel, were used to demonstrate how LWIR region data can be used to map quartz content on the soil surface in a pixel-by-pixel process. The LWIR radiance image is composed of the surface emissivity (and hence the surface's chemical and physical properties), the radiant temperature (according to the Plank equation) and the atmospheric attenuation (which is different during the day and at night). In this work, we show that it is possible to separate surface emissivity, temperature and atmospheric attenuation by using the radiance measured from a vicarious calibration site which was found to be distinctive for the atmospheric contribution. Applying the spectrum of this area as a gain factor to each pixel in the image reduced the atmospheric effects while emphasizing the mineralogical features. Based on this finding and using the same vicarious calibration site used by Notesco et al. (2015), we further studied the possibility of mapping quartz in an area outside the vicarious calibration site. The resulting emissivity image of Nitzana soils (100 km away from the vicarious calibration site) enabled quantifying the quartz in each pixel and mapping its abundance. The day and night images showed a similar quartz distribution, thereby validating the methodology and

  14. Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing (United States)


    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17 . LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report...R ad ia nc e (W /m 2 * st er *µ m ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 TRANSITIONS The Ocean PHILLS data will be shared with the CoBOP participants. When

  15. The Combined Use of Airborne Remote Sensing Techniques within a GIS Environment for the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Urban Areas: An Operational Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costanzo


    Full Text Available The knowledge of the topographic features, the building properties, and the road infrastructure settings are relevant operational tasks for managing post-crisis events, restoration activities, and for supporting search and rescue operations. Within such a framework, airborne remote sensing tools have demonstrated to be powerful instruments, whose joint use can provide meaningful analyses to support the risk assessment of urban environments. Based on this rationale, in this study, the operational benefits obtained by combining airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral measurements are shown. Terrain and surface digital models are gathered by using LiDAR data. Information about roads and roof materials are provided through the supervised classification of hyperspectral images. The objective is to combine such products within a geographic information system (GIS providing value-added maps to be used for the seismic vulnerability assessment of urban environments. Experimental results are gathered for the city of Cosenza, Italy.

  16. Evaluation of Surface Energy Balance models for mapping evapotranspiration using very high resolution airborne remote sensing data (United States)

    Paul, George

    Agriculture is the largest (90%) consumer of all fresh water in the world. The consumptive use of water by vegetation represented by the process evapotranspiration (ET) has a vital role in the dynamics of water, carbon and energy fluxes of the biosphere. Consequently, mapping ET is essential for making water a sustainable resource and also for monitoring ecosystem response to water stress and changing climate. Over the past three decades, numerous thermal remote sensing based ET mapping algorithms were developed and these have brought a significant theoretical and technical advancement in the spatial modeling of ET. Though these algorithms provided a robust, economical, and efficient tool for ET estimations at field and regional scales, yet the uncertainties in flux estimations were large, making evaluation a difficult task. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and improve the performance of widely used remote sensing based energy balance models, namely: the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Data used in this study was collected as part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional field campaign BEAREX (Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment) that was conducted during 2007 and 2008 summer cropping seasons at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, Texas. Seventeen high resolution remote sensing images taken from multispectral sensors onboard aircraft and field measurements of the agro-meteorological variables from the campaign were used for model evaluation and improvement. Overall relative error measured in terms of mean absolute percent difference (MAPD) for instantaneous ET (mm h -1) were 22.7%, 23.2%, and 12.6% for SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS, respectively. SEBAL and METRIC performances for irrigated fields representing higher ET


    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  18. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn


    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  19. An overview of GNSS remote sensing (United States)

    Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus


    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.

  20. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  1. Development of a low altitude airborne remote sensing system for supporting the processing of satellite remotely sensed data intended for archaeological investigations (United States)

    Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Georgopoulos, Andreas; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Alexakis, Dimitris D.; Papadavid, George


    Earth observation techniques intended for archaeological research, such as satellite images and ground geophysical surveys are well established in the literature. In contrast, low altitude airborne systems for supporting archaeological research are still very limited. The "ICAROS" project, funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, aims to develop an airborne system for archaeological investigations. The system will incorporate both a GER 1500 field spectroradiometer and NIR camera in a balloon system operated from the ground. The GER 1500 field spectroradiometer has the capability to record reflectance values from 400 nm up to 1050 nm (blue/green/red and NIR band). The Field of View (FOV) of the instrument is 4o while a calibrated spectralon panel will be used in order to minimize illumination errors during the data collection. Existing atmospheric conditions will be monitored using sun-photometer and meteorological station. The overall methodology of the project and the preliminary results from different cases studies in Cyprus are presented and discussed in this paper. Some practical problems are also discussed and the overall results are compared with satellite and ground measurements. Spectroradiometric measurements and NIR images will be taken from different heights from the balloon system. The results will be compared with different satellite images.

  2. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Michael


    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications that builds on the principles of material spectroscopy, radiative transfer, imaging spectrometry, and hyperspectral data processing. This book provides a holistic treatment that captures its multidisciplinary nature, emphasizing the physical principles of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  3. Integration of TerraSAR-X, RapidEye and airborne lidar for remote sensing of intertidal bedforms on the upper flats of Norderney (German Wadden Sea) (United States)

    Adolph, Winny; Jung, Richard; Schmidt, Alena; Ehlers, Manfred; Heipke, Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Farke, Hubert


    The Wadden Sea is a large coastal transition area adjoining the southern North Sea uniting ecological key functions with an important role in coastal protection. The region is strictly protected by EU directives and national law and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, requiring frequent quality assessments and regular monitoring. In 2014 an intertidal bedform area characterised by alternating crests and water-covered troughs on the tidal flats of the island of Norderney (German Wadden Sea sector) was chosen to test different remote sensing methods for habitat mapping: airborne lidar, satellite-based radar (TerraSAR-X) and electro-optical sensors (RapidEye). The results revealed that, although sensitive to different surface qualities, all sensors were able to image the bedforms. A digital terrain model generated from the lidar data shows crests and slopes of the bedforms with high geometric accuracy in the centimetre range, but high costs limit the operation area. TerraSAR-X data enabled identifying the positions of the bedforms reflecting the residual water in the troughs also with a high resolution of up to 1.1 m, but with larger footprints and much higher temporal availability. RapidEye data are sensitive to differences in sediment moisture employed to identify crest areas, slopes and troughs, with high spatial coverage but the lowest resolution (6.5 m). Monitoring concepts may differ in their remote sensing requirements regarding areal coverage, spatial and temporal resolution, sensitivity and geometric accuracy. Also financial budgets limit the selection of sensors. Thus, combining differing assets into an integrated concept of remote sensing contributes to solving these issues.

  4. Integration of TerraSAR-X, RapidEye and airborne lidar for remote sensing of intertidal bedforms on the upper flats of Norderney (German Wadden Sea) (United States)

    Adolph, Winny; Jung, Richard; Schmidt, Alena; Ehlers, Manfred; Heipke, Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Farke, Hubert


    The Wadden Sea is a large coastal transition area adjoining the southern North Sea uniting ecological key functions with an important role in coastal protection. The region is strictly protected by EU directives and national law and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, requiring frequent quality assessments and regular monitoring. In 2014 an intertidal bedform area characterised by alternating crests and water-covered troughs on the tidal flats of the island of Norderney (German Wadden Sea sector) was chosen to test different remote sensing methods for habitat mapping: airborne lidar, satellite-based radar (TerraSAR-X) and electro-optical sensors (RapidEye). The results revealed that, although sensitive to different surface qualities, all sensors were able to image the bedforms. A digital terrain model generated from the lidar data shows crests and slopes of the bedforms with high geometric accuracy in the centimetre range, but high costs limit the operation area. TerraSAR-X data enabled identifying the positions of the bedforms reflecting the residual water in the troughs also with a high resolution of up to 1.1 m, but with larger footprints and much higher temporal availability. RapidEye data are sensitive to differences in sediment moisture employed to identify crest areas, slopes and troughs, with high spatial coverage but the lowest resolution (6.5 m). Monitoring concepts may differ in their remote sensing requirements regarding areal coverage, spatial and temporal resolution, sensitivity and geometric accuracy. Also financial budgets limit the selection of sensors. Thus, combining differing assets into an integrated concept of remote sensing contributes to solving these issues.

  5. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.


    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  6. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds by combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations during VERDI, RACEPAC and ACLOUD (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Borrmann, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Herber, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Jourdan, Olivier; Krämer, Martina; Lüpkes, Christof; Mertes, Stephan; Neuber, Roland; Petzold, Andreas; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred


    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds a series of airborne research campaigns has been initiated by a collaboration of German research institutes. Clouds in areas dominated by a close sea-ice cover were observed during the research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) which both were based in Inuvik, Canada. The aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany did cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort with in total 149 flight hours (62h during VERDI, 87h during RACEPAC). For May/June 2017 a third campaign ACLOUD (Arctic Clouds - Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes) with base in Svalbard is planned within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 to investigate Arctic clouds in the transition zone between open ocean and sea ice. The aim of all campaigns is to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft subsequently, for RACEPAC and ACLOUD two identical aircraft are coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The campaign showed that in this way radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably and remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of the projects including the progress in instrumentation. Differences in the general synoptic and sea ice situation and related changes in cloud properties at the different locations and seasons will be

  7. Using airborne HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) to evaluate model and remote sensing estimates of atmospheric carbon dioxide (United States)

    Frankenberg, Christian; Kulawik, Susan S.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Chevallier, Frédéric; Daube, Bruce; Kort, Eric A.; O'Dell, Christopher; Olsen, Edward T.; Osterman, Gregory


    In recent years, space-borne observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasingly used in global carbon-cycle studies. In order to obtain added value from space-borne measurements, they have to suffice stringent accuracy and precision requirements, with the latter being less crucial as it can be reduced by just enhanced sample size. Validation of CO2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions (XCO2) heavily relies on measurements of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Owing to the sparseness of the network and the requirements imposed on space-based measurements, independent additional validation is highly valuable. Here, we use observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flights from 01/2009 through 09/2011 to validate CO2 measurements from satellites (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite - GOSAT, Thermal Emission Sounder - TES, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder - AIRS) and atmospheric inversion models (CarbonTracker CT2013B, Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) v13r1). We find that the atmospheric models capture the XCO2 variability observed in HIPPO flights very well, with correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.93 and 0.95 for CT2013B and MACC, respectively. Some larger discrepancies can be observed in profile comparisons at higher latitudes, in particular at 300 hPa during the peaks of either carbon uptake or release. These deviations can be up to 4 ppm and hint at misrepresentation of vertical transport. Comparisons with the GOSAT satellite are of comparable quality, with an r2 of 0.85, a mean bias μ of -0.06 ppm, and a standard deviation σ of 0.45 ppm. TES exhibits an r2 of 0.75, μ of 0.34 ppm, and σ of 1.13 ppm. For AIRS, we find an r2 of 0.37, μ of 1.11 ppm, and σ of 1.46 ppm, with latitude-dependent biases. For these comparisons at least 6, 20, and 50 atmospheric soundings have been averaged for GOSAT, TES, and AIRS

  8. Comparison of Airborne LiDAR and Satellite Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Estimate Vascular Plant Richness in Deciduous Mediterranean Forests of Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ceballos


    Full Text Available The Andes foothills of central Chile are characterized by high levels of floristic diversity in a scenario, which offers little protection by public protected areas. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this diversity must be gained in order to aid in conservation management. Heterogeneous environmental conditions involve an important number of niches closely related to species richness. Remote sensing information derived from satellite hyperspectral and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data can be used as proxies to generate a spatial prediction of vascular plant richness. This study aimed to estimate the spatial distribution of plant species richness using remote sensing in the Andes foothills of the Maule Region, Chile. This region has a secondary deciduous forest dominated by Nothofagus obliqua mixed with sclerophyll species. Floristic measurements were performed using a nested plot design with 60 plots of 225 m2 each. Multiple predictors were evaluated: 30 topographical and vegetation structure indexes from LiDAR data, and 32 spectral indexes and band transformations from the EO1-Hyperion sensor. A random forest algorithm was used to identify relevant variables in richness prediction, and these variables were used in turn to obtain a final multiple linear regression predictive model (Adjusted R2 = 0.651; RSE = 3.69. An independent validation survey was performed with significant results (Adjusted R2 = 0.571, RMSE = 5.05. Selected variables were statistically significant: catchment slope, altitude, standard deviation of slope, average slope, Multiresolution Ridge Top Flatness index (MrRTF and Digital Crown Height Model (DCM. The information provided by LiDAR delivered the best predictors, whereas hyperspectral data were discarded due to their low predictive power.

  9. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea


    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  10. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, James B


    A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces widely used forms of remote sensing imagery and their applications in plant sciences, hydrology, earth sciences, and land use analysis. The text provides comprehensive coverage of principal topics and serves as a framework for organizing the vast amount of remote sensing information available on the Web. Including case studies and review questions, the book's four sections and 21 chapters are carefully designed as independent units that instructors can select from as needed for their courses. Illustrations in

  11. Hyperspectral remote sensing for light pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marcoionni


    Full Text Available industries. In this paper we introduce the results from a remote sensing campaign performed in September 2001 at night time. For the first time nocturnal light pollution was measured at high spatial and spectral resolution using two airborne hyperspectral sensors, namely the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS and the Visible InfraRed Scanner (VIRS-200. These imagers, generally employed for day-time Earth remote sensing, were flown over the Tuscany coast (Italy on board of a Casa 212/200 airplane from an altitude of 1.5-2.0 km. We describe the experimental activities which preceded the remote sensing campaign, the optimization of sensor configuration, and the images as far acquired. The obtained results point out the novelty of the performed measurements and highlight the need to employ advanced remote sensing techniques as a spectroscopic tool for light pollution monitoring.

  12. Wind Predictability and Remote Sensing Techniques, (United States)

    The report presents the unclassified findings from the Investigation of Airborne Wind Sensing Systems conducted under AIRTASK A30303/323/70F17311002. Included is a summary of the current accuracy of wind speed and direction forecasts, a list of possible methods for remote sensing meteorological data, a list of areas of application of the given methods and a list of contacts made for information relevant to this evaluation. (Author)


    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...


    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  15. Remote sensing observation used in offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Christiansen, Merete Bruun


    Remote sensing observations used in offshore wind energy are described in three parts: ground-based techniques and applications, airborne techniques and applications, and satellite-based techniques and applications. Ground-based remote sensing of winds is relevant, in particular, for new large wind...

  16. Predicting the aquatic stage sustainability of a restored backwater channel combining in-situ and airborne remotely sensed bathymetric models. (United States)

    Jérôme, Lejot; Jérémie, Riquier; Hervé, Piégay


    As other large river floodplain worldwide, the floodplain of the Rhône has been deeply altered by human activities and infrastructures over the last centuries both in term of structure and functioning. An ambitious restoration plan of selected by-passed reaches has been implemented since 1999, in order to improve their ecological conditions. One of the main action aimed to increase the aquatic areas in floodplain channels (i.e. secondary channels, backwaters, …). In practice, fine and/or coarse alluvium were dredged, either locally or over the entire cut-off channel length. Sometimes the upstream or downstream alluvial plugs were also removed to reconnect the restored feature to the main channel. Such operation aims to restore forms and associated habitats of biotic communities, which are no more created or maintained by the river itself. In this context, assessing the sustainability of such restoration actions is a major issue. In this study, we focus on 1 of the 24 floodplain channels which have been restored along the Rhône River since 1999, the Malourdie channel (Chautagne reach, France). A monitoring of the geomorphologic evolution of the channel has been conducted during a decade to assess the aquatic stage sustainability of this former fully isolated channel, which has been restored as a backwater in 2004. Two main types of measures were performed: (a) water depth and fine sediment thickness were surveyed with an auger every 10 m along the channel centerline in average every year and a half allowing to establish an exponential decay model of terrestrialization rates through time; (b) three airborne campaigns (2006, 2007, 2012) by Ultra Aerial Vehicle (UAV) provided images from which bathymetry were inferred in combination with observed field measures. Coupling field and airborne models allows us to simulate different states of terrestrialization at the scale of the whole restore feature (e.g. 2020/2030/2050). Raw results indicate that terrestrialization

  17. Modeling of mean radiant temperature based on comparison of airborne remote sensing data with surface measured data (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yu; Matzarakis, Andreas; Liu, Jin-King; Lin, Tzu-Ping


    Assessment of outdoor thermal comfort is becoming increasingly important due to the urban heat island effect, which strongly affects the urban thermal environment. The mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) quantifies the effect of the radiation environment on humans, but it can only be estimated based on influencing parameters and factors. Knowledge of Tmrt is important for quantifying the heat load on human beings, especially during heat waves. This study estimates Tmrt using several methods, which are based on climatic data from a traditional weather station, microscale ground surface measurements, land surface temperature (LST) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data measured using airborne devices. Analytical results reveal that the best means of estimating Tmrt combines information about LST and surface elevation information with meteorological data from the closest weather station. The application in this method can eliminate the inconvenience of executing a wide range ground surface measurement, the insufficient resolution of satellite data and the incomplete data of current urban built environments. This method can be used to map a whole city to identify hot spots, and can be contributed to understanding human biometeorological conditions quickly and accurately.

  18. The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI: a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Diner


    Full Text Available The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI is an eight-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm pushbroom camera, measuring polarization in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, mounted on a gimbal to acquire multiangular observations over a ± 67° along-track range. The instrument has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft since October 2010. AirMSPI employs a photoelastic modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to enable accurate measurements of the degree and angle of linear polarization in addition to spectral intensity. A description of the AirMSPI instrument and ground data processing approach is presented. Example images of clear, hazy, and cloudy scenes over the Pacific Ocean and California land targets obtained during flights between 2010 and 2012 are shown, and quantitative interpretations of the data using vector radiative transfer theory and scene models are provided to highlight the instrument's capabilities for determining aerosol and cloud microphysical properties and cloud 3-D spatial distributions. Sensitivity to parameters such as aerosol particle size distribution, ocean surface wind speed and direction, cloud-top and cloud-base height, and cloud droplet size is discussed. AirMSPI represents a major step toward realization of the type of imaging polarimeter envisioned to fly on NASA's Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE mission in the next decade.

  19. Vertical mass impact and features of Saharan dust intrusions derived from ground-based remote sensing in synergy with airborne in-situ measurements (United States)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Andrey-Andrés, Javier; Gómez, Laura; Adame, José Antonio; Sorribas, Mar; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Puentedura, Olga; Cuevas, Emilio; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel


    A study of the vertical mass impact of Saharan dust intrusions is presented in this work. Simultaneous ground-based remote-sensing and airborne in-situ measurements performed during the AMISOC-TNF campaign over the Tenerife area (Canary Islands) in summertime from 01 July to 11 August 2013 were used for that purpose. A particular dusty (DD) case, associated to a progressively arriving dust intrusion lasting for two days on 31 July (weak incidence) and 01 August (strong incidence), is especially investigated. AERONET AOD and AEx values were ranging, respectively, from 0.2 to 1.4 and 0.35 to 0.05 along these two days. Vertical particle size distributions within fine and coarse modes (0.16-2.8 μm range) were obtained from aircraft aerosol spectrometer measurements. Extinction profiles and Lidar Ratio (LR) values were derived from MPLNET/Micro Pulse Lidar observations. MAXDOAS measurements were also used to retrieve the height-resolved aerosol extinction for evaluation purposes in comparison to Lidar-derived profiles. The synergy between Lidar observations and airborne measurements is established in terms of the Mass Extinction Efficiency (MEE) to calculate the vertical mass concentration of Saharan dust particles. Both the optical and microphysical profilings show dust particles mostly confined in a layer of 4.3 km thickness from 1.7 to 6 km height. LR ranged between 50 and 55 sr, typical values for Saharan dust particles. In addition, this 2-day dust event mostly affected the Free Troposphere (FT), being less intense in the Boundary Layer (BL). In particular, rather high Total Mass Concentrations (TMC) were found on the stronger DD day (01 August 2013): 124, 70 and 21 μg m-3 were estimated, respectively, at FT and BL altitudes and on the near-surface level. This dust impact was enhanced due to the increase of large particles affecting the FT, but also the BL, likely due to their gravitational settling. However, the use of an assumed averaged MEE value can be

  20. A Linear Feature-Based Approach for the Registration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remotely-Sensed Images and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu


    Full Text Available Compared with traditional manned airborne photogrammetry, unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing (UAVRS has the advantages of lower cost and higher flexibility in data acquisition. It has, therefore, found various applications in fields such as three-dimensional (3D mapping, emergency management, and so on. However, due to the instability of the UAVRS platforms and the low accuracy of the onboard exterior orientation (EO observations, the use of direct georeferencing image data leads to large location errors. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR data, which is highly accurate 3D information, is treated as a complementary data source to the optical images. This paper presents a semi-automatic approach for the registration of UAVRS images and airborne LiDAR data based on linear control features. The presented approach consists of three main components, as follows. (1 Buildings are first separated from the point cloud by the integrated use of height and size filtering and RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC plane fitting, and the 3D line segments of the building ridges and boundaries are semi-automatically extracted through plane intersection and boundary regularization with manual selections; (2 the 3D line segments are projected to the image space using the initial EO parameters to obtain the approximate locations, and all the corresponding 2D line segments are semi-automatically extracted from the UAVRS images. Meanwhile, the tie points of the UAVRS images are generated using a Förstner operator and least-squares image matching; and (3 by use of the equations derived from the coplanarity constraints of the linear control features and the colinear constraints of the tie points, block bundle adjustment is carried out to update the EO parameters of the UAVRS images in the coordinate framework of the LiDAR data, achieving the co-registration of the two datasets. Experiments were performed to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the presented

  1. Analysis of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) over Hong Kong using remote sensing and GIS. (United States)

    Shi, Wenzhong; Wong, Man Sing; Wang, Jingzhi; Zhao, Yuanling


    Airborne fine particulates (PM(2.5); particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM(2.5) and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007-2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM(2.5) concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM(2.5) concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM(2.5) were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM(2.5) emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM(2.5) concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM(2.5) vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM(2.5) vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM(2.5) concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies.

  2. Active remote sensing of snow using NMM3D/DMRT and comparison with CLPX II airborne data (United States)

    Xu, X.; Liang, D.; Tsang, L.; Andreadis, K.M.; Josberger, E.G.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Cline, D.W.; Yueh, S.H.


    We applied the Numerical Maxwell Model of three-dimensional simulations (NMM3D) in the Dense Media Radiative Theory (DMRT) to calculate backscattering coefficients. The particles' positions are computer-generated and the subsequent Foldy-Lax equations solved numerically. The phase matrix in NMM3D has significant cross-polarization, particularly when the particles are densely packed. The NMM3D model is combined with DMRT in calculating the microwave scattering by dry snow. The NMM3D/DMRT equations are solved by an iterative solution up to the second order in the case of small to moderate optical thickness. The numerical results of NMM3D/DMRT are illustrated and compared with QCA/DMRT. The QCA/DMRT and NMM3D/DMRT results are also applied to compare with data from two specific datasets from the second Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX II) in Alaska and Colorado. The data are obtained at the Ku-band (13.95 GHz) observations using airborne imaging polarimetric scatterometer (POLSCAT). It is shown that the model predictions agree with the field measurements for both co-polarization and cross-polarization. For the Alaska region, the average snow depth and snow density are used as the inputs for DMRT. The grain size, selected from within the range of the ground measurements, is used as a best-fit parameter within the range. For the Colorado region, we use the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model (VIC) to obtain the input snow profiles for NMM3D/DMRT. ?? 2010 IEEE.

  3. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel


    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  4. Remote Sensing and the Earth. (United States)

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  5. Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics (United States)


    Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Air Force Research Laboratory Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics 7 March 2012 Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Remote Sensing And Imaging Physics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Imaging of Space Objects •Information without Imaging •Predicting the Location of Space Objects • Remote Sensing in Extreme Conditions •Propagation

  6. Digital methods and remote sensing in archaeology archaeology in the age of sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Stefano


    This volume debuts the new scope of Remote Sensing, which was first defined as the analysis of data collected by sensors that were not in physical contact with the objects under investigation (using cameras, scanners, and radar systems operating from spaceborne or airborne platforms). A wider characterization is now possible: Remote Sensing can be any non-destructive approach to viewing the buried and nominally invisible evidence of past activity. Spaceborne and airborne sensors, now supplemented by laser scanning, are united using ground-based geophysical instruments and undersea remote sensing, as well as other non-invasive techniques such as surface collection or field-walking survey. Now, any method that enables observation of evidence on or beneath the surface of the earth, without impact on the surviving stratigraphy, is legitimately within the realm of Remote Sensing. The new interfaces and senses engaged in Remote Sensing appear throughout the book. On a philosophical level, this is about the landscap...

  7. Advances in Remote Sensing of Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang


    Full Text Available With the publication of eight original research articles, four types of advances in the remote sensing of floods are achieved. The uncertainty of modeled outputs using precipitation datasets derived from in situ observations and remote sensors is further understood. With the terrestrial laser scanner and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR coupled with high resolution optical and radar imagery, researchers improve accuracy levels in estimating the surface water height, extent, and flow of floods. The unmanned aircraft system (UAS can be the game changer in the acquisition and application of remote sensing data. The UAS may fly everywhere and every time when a flood event occurs. With the development of urban structure maps, the flood risk and possible damage is well assessed. The flood mitigation plans and response activities become effective and efficient using geographic information system (GIS-based urban flood vulnerability and risk maps.

  8. A Remote-Sensing Mission (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel


    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  9. Signal processing for remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, CH


    Written by leaders in the field, Signal Processing for Remote Sensing explores the data acquisitions segment of remote sensing. Each chapter presents a major research result or the most up to date development of a topic. The book includes a chapter by Dr. Norden Huang, inventor of the Huang-Hilbert transform who, along with and Dr. Steven Long discusses the application of the transform to remote sensing problems. It also contains a chapter by Dr. Enders A. Robinson, who has made major contributions to seismic signal processing for over half a century, on the basic problem of constructing seism

  10. Scale issues in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Qihao


    This book provides up-to-date developments, methods, and techniques in the field of GIS and remote sensing and features articles from internationally renowned authorities on three interrelated perspectives of scaling issues: scale in land surface properties, land surface patterns, and land surface processes. The book is ideal as a professional reference for practicing geographic information scientists and remote sensing engineers as well as a supplemental reading for graduate level students.

  11. A multi-input UV-VIS airborne GASCOD/A4r spectroradiometer for the validation of satellite remote sensing measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pace


    Full Text Available The present paper describes a UV-VIS spectroradiometer named GASCOD/A4r developed at ISAC-CNR for remote sensing measurements aboard stratospheric M55-Geophysica aircraft, flying up to 21 km. Obtained experimental data are used for retrieving of NO2, O3 and of other minor gases atmospheric content, applying the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy method. UV actinic flux and J(NO2 are also derived. All these parameters are used for satellite data validation tasks. The specific results obtained during dedicated aircraft missions in different geographical areas have already been utilized for ENVISAT validation.

  12. A multi-input UV-VIS airborne GASCOD/A4r spectroradiometer for the validation of satellite remote sensing measurements


    Pace, G.; F. Ravegnani; Petritoli, A.; Bortoli, D.; G. Giovanelli; Kostadinov, I.; Palazzi, E


    The present paper describes a UV-VIS spectroradiometer named GASCOD/A4r developed at ISAC-CNR for remote sensing measurements aboard stratospheric M55-Geophysica aircraft, flying up to 21 km. Obtained experimental data are used for retrieving of NO2, O3 and of other minor gases atmospheric content, applying the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) method. UV actinic flux and J(NO2) are also derived. All these parameters are used for satellite data validation tasks. The specific...

  13. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution (United States)

    North, G. W.


    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  14. Land cover/use classification of Cairns, Queensland, Australia: A remote sensing study involving the conjunctive use of the airborne imaging spectrometer, the large format camera and the thematic mapper simulator (United States)

    Heric, Matthew; Cox, William; Gordon, Daniel K.


    In an attempt to improve the land cover/use classification accuracy obtainable from remotely sensed multispectral imagery, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) images were analyzed in conjunction with Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) Large Format Camera color infrared photography and black and white aerial photography. Specific portions of the combined data set were registered and used for classification. Following this procedure, the resulting derived data was tested using an overall accuracy assessment method. Precise photogrammetric 2D-3D-2D geometric modeling techniques is not the basis for this study. Instead, the discussion exposes resultant spectral findings from the image-to-image registrations. Problems associated with the AIS-1 TMS integration are considered, and useful applications of the imagery combination are presented. More advanced methodologies for imagery integration are needed if multisystem data sets are to be utilized fully. Nevertheless, research, described herein, provides a formulation for future Earth Observation Station related multisensor studies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers


    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  16. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith


    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  17. Remote sensing for urban planning (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan


    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  18. Fundamentals of polarimetric remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Schott, John R


    This text is for those who need an introduction to polarimetric signals to begin working in the field of polarimetric remote sensing, particularly where the contrast between manmade objects and natural backgrounds are the subjects of interest. The book takes a systems approach to the physical processes involved with formation, collection, and analysis of polarimetric remote sensing data in the visible through longwave infrared. Beginning with a brief review of the polarized nature of electromagnetic energy and radiometry, Dr. Schott then introduces ways to characterize a beam of polarized ene

  19. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Tropical Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruzaman Jusoff


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sensing, mapping and monitoring the rain forest in forested regions of the world, particularly the tropics, has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years as deforestation and forest degradation account for up to 30% of anthropogenic carbon emissions and are now included in climate change negotiations. Approach: We reviewed the potential for air and spaceborne hyperspectral sensing to identify and map individual tree species measure carbon stocks, specifically Aboveground Biomass (AGB and provide an overview of a range of approaches that have been developed and used to map tropical rain forest across a diverse set of conditions and geographic areas. We provided a summary of air and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing measurements relevant to mapping the tropical forest and assess the relative merits and limitations of each. We then provided an overview of modern techniques of mapping the tropical forest based on species discrimination, leaf chlorophyll content, estimating aboveground forest productivity and monitoring forest health. Results: The challenges in hyperspectral Imaging of tropical forests is thrown out to researchers in such field as to come with the latest techniques of image processing and improved mapping resolution leading towards higher precision mapping accuracy. Some research results from an airborne hyperspectral imaging over Bukit Nanas forest reserve was shared implicating high potential of such very high resolution imaging techniques for tropical mixed dipterocarp forest inventory and mapping for species discrimination, aboveground forest productivity, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon mapping. Conclusion/Recommendations: We concluded that while spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing has often been discounted as inadequate for the task, attempts to map with airborne sensors are still insufficient in tropical developing countries like Malaysia. However, we demonstrated this with a case

  20. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots (United States)

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom


    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  1. The U.S. Geological Survey Land Remote Sensing Program (United States)



    The fundamental goals of the U.S. Geological Survey's Land Remote Sens-ing (LRS) Program are to provide the Federal Government and the public with a primary source of remotely sensed data and applications and to be a leader in defining the future of land remote sensing, nationally and internationally. Remotely sensed data provide information that enhance the understand-ing of ecosystems and the capabilities for predicting ecosystem change. The data promote an understanding of the role of the environment and wildlife in human health issues, the requirements for disaster response, the effects of climate variability, and the availability of energy and mineral resources. Also, as land satellite systems acquire global coverage, the program coordinates a network of international receiving stations and users of the data. It is the responsibility of the program to assure that data from land imaging satellites, airborne photography, radar, and other technologies are available to the national and global science communities.

  2. Flexible High Energy Lidar Transmitter for Remote Gas and Wind Sensing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes a high energy and flexible operation 1570 nm pulsed lidar transmitter for airborne and space-based remote CO2 gas and doppler wind sensing. The...

  3. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić


    Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in

  4. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution (United States)

    White, P. G.


    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  5. Remote sensing in soil science.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, M.A.


    This book provides coverage of remote sensing techniques and their application in soil science. A clear, step-by-step approach to the various aspects ensures that the reader will gain a good grasp of the subject so that he can apply the techniques to his own field of study. The book opens with an in

  6. Remote Sensing Best Paper Award 2013


    Prasad Thenkabail


    Remote Sensing has started to institute a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of remote sensing techniques, design and applications published in Remote Sensing. We are pleased to announce the first “Remote Sensing Best Paper Award” for 2013. Nominations were selected by the Editor-in-Chief and selected editorial board members from among all the papers published in 2009. Reviews and research papers were evaluated separately.

  7. Educational activities of remote sensing archaeology (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter


    Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.

  8. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong


    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  9. Remote sensing of sagebrush canopy nitrogen (United States)

    Mitchell, Jessica J.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Sankey, Temuulen T.; Derryberry, DeWayne R.; Germino, Matthew J.


    This paper presents a combination of techniques suitable for remotely sensing foliar Nitrogen (N) in semiarid shrublands – a capability that would significantly improve our limited understanding of vegetation functionality in dryland ecosystems. The ability to estimate foliar N distributions across arid and semi-arid environments could help answer process-driven questions related to topics such as controls on canopy photosynthesis, the influence of N on carbon cycling behavior, nutrient pulse dynamics, and post-fire recovery. Our study determined that further exploration into estimating sagebrush canopy N concentrations from an airborne platform is warranted, despite remote sensing challenges inherent to open canopy systems. Hyperspectral data transformed using standard derivative analysis were capable of quantifying sagebrush canopy N concentrations using partial least squares (PLS) regression with an R2 value of 0.72 and an R2 predicted value of 0.42 (n = 35). Subsetting the dataset to minimize the influence of bare ground (n = 19) increased R2 to 0.95 (R2 predicted = 0.56). Ground-based estimates of canopy N using leaf mass per unit area measurements (LMA) yielded consistently better model fits than ground-based estimates of canopy N using cover and height measurements. The LMA approach is likely a method that could be extended to other semiarid shrublands. Overall, the results of this study are encouraging for future landscape scale N estimates and represent an important step in addressing the confounding influence of bare ground, which we found to be a major influence on predictions of sagebrush canopy N from an airborne platform.

  10. Remote sensing and water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, N; Benveniste, J; Chen, J


    This book is a collection of overview articles showing how space-based observations, combined with hydrological modeling, have considerably improved our knowledge of the continental water cycle and its sensitivity to climate change. Two main issues are highlighted: (1) the use in combination of space observations for monitoring water storage changes in river basins worldwide, and (2) the use of space data in hydrological modeling either through data assimilation or as external constraints. The water resources aspect is also addressed, as well as the impacts of direct anthropogenic forcing on land hydrology (e.g. ground water depletion, dam building on rivers, crop irrigation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, etc.). Remote sensing observations offer important new information on this important topic as well, which is highly useful for achieving water management objectives. Over the past 15 years, remote sensing techniques have increasingly demonstrated their capability to monitor components of th...

  11. Thermal remote sensing from Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner data in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX projects: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobrino, J.A.; Jimenez-Munoz, J.C.; Zarco-Tejada, P.J.; Sepulcre-Canto, G.; Miguel, de E.; Soria, G.; Romaguera, M.; Julien, Y.; Cuenca, J.; Hidalgo, V.; Franch, B.; Mattar, C.; Morales, L.; Gillespie, A.; Sabol, D.; Balick, L.; Su, Z.; Jia, L.; Gieske, A.; Timmermans, W.; Olioso, A.; Nerry, F.; Guanter, L.; Moreno, J.; Shen, Q.


    The AHS (Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner) instrument has 80 spectral bands covering the visible and near infrared (VNIR), short wave infrared (SWIR), mid infrared (MIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range. The instrument is operated by Instituto Nacional de T,cnica Aerospacial (INTA), and it ha

  12. Remote Sensing Information Science Research (United States)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin


    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs (United States)

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent


    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  14. Specific sensors for special roles in oil spill remote sensing (United States)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.


    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. The general public expects that the government and/or the spiller know the location and the extent of the contamination. The Emergencies Science Division (ESD) of Environment Canada, is responsible for remote sensing during oil spill emergencies along Canada's three coastlines, extensive inland waterways, as well as over the entire land mass. In addition to providing operational remote sensing, ESD conducts research into the development of airborne oil spill remote sensors, including the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) and the Laser Ultrasonic Remote SEnsing of Oil Thickness (LURSOT) sensor. It has long been recognized that there is not one sensor or 'magic bullet' which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide filed-of-view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. This is even more of a problem along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The specific laser- based sensors under development by Environment Canada are designed to respond to special roles in oil spill response. In particular, the SLEAF is being developed to unambiguously detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complicated marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non- specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that

  15. Remote sensing for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Bay Hasager, C.; Lange, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark) (and others


    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risoe) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus it is closely linked to the PhD Summer Schools where state-of-the-art is presented during the lecture sessions. The advantage of the report is to supplement with in-depth, article style information. Thus we strive to provide link from the lectures, field demonstrations, and hands-on exercises to theory. The report will allow alumni to trace back details after the course and benefit from the collection of information. This is the third edition of the report (first externally available), after very successful and demanded first two, and we warmly acknowledge all the contributing authors for their work in the writing of the chapters, and we also acknowledge all our colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art 'guideline' available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. (Author)

  16. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....... Thus it is closely linked to the PhD Summer Schools where state-of-the-art is presented during the lecture sessions. The advantage of the report is to supplement with in-depth, article style information. Thus we strive to provide link from the lectures, field demonstrations, and hands-on exercises...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...

  17. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... it is closely linked to the PhD Summer Schools where state-of-the-art is presented during the lecture sessions. The advantage of the compendium is to supplement with in-depth, article style information. Thus we strive to provide link from the lectures, field demonstrations, and hands-on exercises to theory...... in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to add more topics in future editions and to update as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  18. Road Network Extraction based on Airborne LiDAR and High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery%基于机载LiDAR和高分辨率遥感影像的城市道路网提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高利鹏; 史文中; 吕志勇; 张华


    利用单个数据源的数学形态学道路提取方法不能充分利用道路的特征,提取的道路信息不完整.针对这一缺陷,并考虑到机载LiDAR数据可以提供高程信息,提出了将机载LiDAR数据和高分辨率遥感影像数据结合起来的城市道路网的提取方法.以徐州市的机载LiDAR数据和高分辨率遥感影像数据作为实验数据,首先将两者进行精确配准,然后利用伪道路信息去除的方法分别将植被信息和建筑物信息等去除,得到基本的道路轮廓,再利用形态细化算法提取道路的中心线,最后,在ArcGIS和Matlab编程环境下实现了改进的道路修剪算法(IRT),利用该算法进行道路修剪,得到了平滑和连贯的城市道路网.经过精度评价可以看出:利用该方法可以较好地避免建筑物阴影、低矮植被群等对道路提取的影响,道路的识别精度达到84%以上.%The conventional mathematical morphology method using single data source to extract road network which could not take full advantage of the road characteristics,the extracted road information was not complete.In view of this drawback,and base on the airborne LiDAR data can provide elevation information,this paper proposes a method which combines the airborne LiDAR data with high resolution remote sensing images to extract city road network.The airborne LiDAR data and high resolution remote sensing QuickBird images of Xuzhou were taken as the experimental data,the precise registration between them were first done,then the FRIR (False Road Information Removing) method was used to remove the vegetation and buildings separately,so the basic road contour was displayed.Finally,this paper achieved an Improved Road Trimming (IRT) algorithm under the ArcGIS and Matlab programming environment,the road network was trimmed by the algorithm,then a smooth and continuous city road network was obtained.The result of the accuracy evaluation indicates that the method was proposed

  19. Geologic Reconnaissance and Lithologic Identification by Remote Sensing (United States)

    remote sensing in geologic reconnaissance for purposes of tunnel site selection was studied further and a test case was undertaken to evaluate this geological application. Airborne multispectral scanning (MSS) data were obtained in May, 1972, over a region between Spearfish and Rapid City, South Dakota. With major effort directed toward the analysis of these data, the following geologic features were discriminated: (1) exposed rock areas, (2) five separate rock groups, (3) large-scale structures. This discrimination was accomplished by ratioing multispectral channels.

  20. Laser-based sensors for oil spill remote sensing (United States)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Mullin, Joseph V.


    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. It has long been recognized that there is no one sensor which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide field-of- view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the capability to positively identify oil and related products, especially along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The laser-based sensors under development by the Emergencies Science Division of Environment Canada are designed to fill specific roles in oil spill response. The scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) is being developed to detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complex marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non-specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time-consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that require remediation. The laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor will provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. There are presently no sensors available, either airborne or in the laboratory which can provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness. This information is necessary for the effective direction of spill countermeasures such as dispersant application and in-situ burning. This paper describes the development of laser-based airborne oil spill remote sensing instrumentation at Environment Canada and identifies the anticipated benefits of the use of this technology

  1. Characrterizing frozen ground with multisensor remote sensing (United States)

    Csatho, B. M.; Ping, C.; Everett, L. R.; Kimble, J. M.; Michaelson, G.; Tremper, C.


    We have a physically based, conceptual understanding of many of the significant interactions that impact permafrost-affected soils. Our observationally based knowledge, however, is inadequate in many cases to quantify these interactions or to predict their net impact. To pursue key goals, such as understanding the response of permafrost-affected soil systems to global environmental changes and their role in the carbon balance, and to transform our conceptual understanding of these processes into quantitative knowledge, it is necessary to acquire geographically diverse sets of fundamental observations at high spatial and often temporal resolution. The main goals of the research presented here are developing methods for mapping soil and permafrost distributions in polar environment as well as characterizing glacial and perglacial geomorphology from multisensor, multiresolution remotely sensed data. The sheer amount of data and the disparate data sets (e.g., LIDAR, stereo imagery, multi- hyperspectral, and SAR imagery) make the joint interpretation (fusion) a daunting task. We combine remote sensing, pattern recognition and landscape analysis techniques for the delineation of soil landscape units and other geomorphic features, for inferring the physical properties and composition of the surface, and for generating numerical measurements of geomorphic features from remotely sensed data. Examples illustrating the concept are presented from the North Slope of Alaska and from the McMurdo Sound region in Antarctica. (1) On the North Slope, Alaska we separated different vegetative, soil and landscape units along the Haul Road. Point-source soils (pedon) data and field spectrometry data have been acquired at different units to provide ground-truth for the satellite image interpretation. (2) A vast amount of remote sensing data, such as multi- and hyperspectral (Landsat, SPOT, ASTER, HYPERION) and SAR satellite imagery (ERS, RADARSAT and JERS), high resolution topographic

  2. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Urban Areas: An Overview of Techniques and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Z.M. Shafri


    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, hyperspectral remote sensing from airborne and satellite systems has been used as a data source for numerous applications. Hyperspectral imaging is quickly moving into the mainstream of remote sensing and is being applied to remote sensing research studies. Hyperspectral remote sensing has great potential for analysing complex urban scenes. However, operational applications within urban environments are still limited, despite several studies that have explored the capabilities of hyperspectral data to map urban areas. In this paper, we review the methods for urban classification using hyperspectral remote sensing data and their applications. The general trends indicate that combined spatial-spectral and sensor fusion approaches are the most optimal for hyperspectral urban analysis. It is also clear that urban hyperspectral mapping is currently limited to airborne data, despite the availability of spaceborne hyperspectral systems. Possible future research directions are also discussed.

  3. Application of optical remote sensing in the Wenchuan earthquake assessment (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Lei, Liping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Liangyun; Zhu, Boqin; Zuo, Zhengli


    A mega-earthquake of magnitude 8 of Richter scale occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China on May 12, 2008. The earthquake inflicted heavy loss of human lives and properties. The Wenchuan earthquake induced geological disasters, house collapse, and road blockage. In this paper, we demonstrate an application of optical remote sensing images acquired from airborne and satellite platforms in assessing the earthquake damages. The high-resolution airborne images were acquired by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The pre- and post-earthquake satellite images of QuickBird, IKONOS, Landsat TM, ALOS, and SPOT were collected by the Center for Earth Observation & Digital Earth (CEODE), CAS, and some of the satellite data were provided by the United States, Japan, and the European Space Agency. The pre- and post-earthquake remote sensing images integrated with DEM and GIS data were adopted to monitor and analyze various earthquake disasters, such as road blockage, house collapse, landslides, avalanches, rock debris flows, and barrier lakes. The results showed that airborne optical images provide a convenient tool for quick and timely monitoring and assessing of the distribution and dynamic changes of the disasters over the earthquake-struck regions. In addition, our study showed that the optical remote sensing data integrated with GIS data can be used to assess disaster conditions such as damaged farmlands, soil erosion, etc, which in turn provides useful information for the postdisaster reconstruction.

  4. Biogeochemical cycling and remote sensing (United States)

    Peterson, D. L.


    Research is underway at the NASA Ames Research Center that is concerned with aspects of the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. An interdisciplinary research group is attempting to correlate nitrogen transformations, processes, and productivity with variables that can be remotely sensed. Recent NASA and other publications concerning biogeochemical cycling at global scales identify attributes of vegetation that could be related or explain the spatial variation in biologically functional variables. These functional variables include net primary productivity, annual nitrogen mineralization, and possibly the emission rate of nitrous oxide from soils.

  5. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System. (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  6. Thermal remote sensing from Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner data in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX projects: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sobrino


    Full Text Available The AHS (Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner instrument has 80 spectral bands covering the visible and near infrared (VNIR, short wave infrared (SWIR, mid infrared (MIR and thermal infrared (TIR spectral range. The instrument is operated by Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospacial (INTA, and it has been involved in several field campaigns since 2004.

    This paper presents an overview of the work performed with the AHS thermal imagery provided in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX campaigns, carried out respectively in 2004 and 2005 over an agricultural area in Spain. The data collected in both campaigns allowed for the first time the development and testing of algorithms for land surface temperature and emissivity retrieval as well as the estimation of evapotranspiration from AHS data. Errors were found to be around 1.5 K for land surface temperature and 1 mm/day for evapotranspiration.

  7. Thermal remote sensing from Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner data in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX projects: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Shen


    Full Text Available The AHS (Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner instrument has 80 spectral bands covering the visible and near infrared (VNIR, short wave infrared (SWIR, mid infrared (MIR and thermal infrared (TIR spectral range. The instrument is operated by Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospacial (INTA, and it has been involved in several field campaigns since 2004.

    This paper presents an overview of the work performed with the AHS thermal imagery provided in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX campaigns, carried out respectively in 2004 and 2005 over an agricultural area in Spain. The data collected in both campaigns allowed for the first time the development and testing of algorithms for land surface temperature and emissivity retrieval as well as the estimation of evapotranspiration from AHS data. Errors were found to be around 1.5 K for land surface temperature and 1 mm/day for evapotranspiration.

  8. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul


    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  9. LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies (United States)


    Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1. Scott Tyo 5e. TASK...and tested at the University of Arizona, and preliminary images are shown in this final report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remote Sensing , polarimetry 16...7.0 LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies J. Scott Tyo College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, 85721 tyo

  10. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance. (United States)

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  11. Preface: Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments


    Deepak R. Mishra; Gould, Richard W.


    The Special Issue (SI) on “Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments” presents a wide range of articles focusing on a variety of remote sensing models and techniques to address coastal issues and processes ranging for wetlands and water quality to coral reefs and kelp habitats. The SI is comprised of twenty-one papers, covering a broad range of research topics that employ remote sensing imagery, models, and techniques to monitor water quality, vegetation, habitat suitability, and geomorphology i...

  12. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....... Thus it is closely linked to the PhD Summer Schools where state-of-the-art is presented during the lecture sessions. The advantage of the report is to supplement with in-depth, article style information. Thus we strive to provide link from the lectures, field demonstrations, and hands-on exercises...... for their work in the writing of the chapters, and we also acknowledge all our colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly...

  13. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... it is closely linked to the PhD Summer Schools where state-of-the-art is presented during the lecture sessions. The advantage of the compendium is to supplement with in-depth, article style information. Thus we strive to provide link from the lectures, field demonstrations, and hands-on exercises to theory...... of the compendium, and we also acknowledge all our colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state...

  14. Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Warren W.; Schultz, John F.


    Spectroscopic chemical sensing research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing advanced sensors for detecting the production of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons; use of chemical weapons; or the presence of explosives, firearms, narcotics, or other contraband of significance to homeland security in airports, cargo terminals, public buildings, or other sensitive locations. For most of these missions, the signature chemicals are expected to occur in very low concentrations, and in mixture with ambient air or airborne waste streams that contain large numbers of other species that may interfere with spectroscopic detection, or be mistaken for signatures of illicit activity. PNNL’s emphasis is therefore on developing remote and sampling sensors with extreme sensitivity, and resistance to interferents, or selectivity. PNNL’s research activities include: 1. Identification of signature chemicals and quantification of their spectral characteristics, 2. Identification and development of laser and other technologies that enable breakthroughs in sensitivity and selectivity, 3. Development of promising sensing techniques through experimentation and modeling the physical phenomenology and practical engineering limitations affecting their performance, and 4. Development and testing of data collection methods and analysis algorithms. Close coordination of all aspects of the research is important to ensure that all parts are focused on productive avenues of investigation. Close coordination of experimental development and numerical modeling is particularly important because the theoretical component provides understanding and predictive capability, while the experiments validate calculations and ensure that all phenomena and engineering limitations are considered.

  15. Airborne remote sensors applied to engineering geology and civil works design investigations (United States)

    Gelnett, R. H.


    The usefulness of various airborne remote sensing systems in the detection and identification of regional and specific geologic structural features that may affect the design and location of engineering structures on major civil works projects is evaluated. The Butler Valley Dam and Blue Lake Project in northern California was selected as a demonstration site. Findings derived from the interpretation of various kinds of imagery used are given.

  16. Lunar remote sensing and measurements (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.


    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  17. Geological remote sensing in Africa (United States)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.


    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  18. Planning and Implementation of Remote Sensing Experiments. (United States)

    Contents: TEKTITE II experiment-upwelling detection (NASA Mx 138); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 159); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 165); Experiments on thermal pollution; Remote sensing newsletter; Symposium on remote sensing in marine biology and fishery resources.

  19. Preface: Remote Sensing of Water Resources


    Deepak R. Mishra; Eurico J. D’Sa; Sachidananda Mishra


    The Special Issue (SI) on “Remote Sensing of Water Resources” presents a diverse range of papers studying remote sensing tools, methods, and models to better monitor water resources which include inland, coastal, and open ocean waters. The SI is comprised of fifteen articles on widely ranging research topics related to water bodies. This preface summarizes each article published in the SI.

  20. Technology Progress Report for Microwave Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jingshan; DONG Xiaolong; LIU Heguang


    In this presentation, technological progress for China's microwave remote sensing is introduced. New developments of the microwave remote sensing instruments for China's lunar exploration satellite (Chang'E-1), meteorological satellite FY-3 and ocean dynamic measurement satellite (HY-2) are reported.

  1. Remote sensing and reflectance profiling in entomology (United States)

    Remote sensing is about characterizing the status of objects and/or classifies their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be ground-based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolutio...

  2. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies. (United States)

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  3. Infrared Radiant Temperatures in the Alpine/Periglacial Environment as Related to Thermal Remote Sensing, (United States)

    remote sensing in the alpine/periglacial environment. Techniques of ground truth observations were tested by which a researcher might determine the usefulness of infrared scanning to his study without the financial investment of airborne remote sensing on a trial-and-error basis. Also, an attempt was made to determine the environmental controls upon radiant temperature by monitoring changing patterns of radiant temperature relative to changing meteorologic conditions. Observations of both actual and thermal infrared radiant temperatures were made


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Saha


    Full Text Available Information of spatial and temporal variations of soil quality (soil properties is required for various purposes of sustainable agriculture development and management. Traditionally, soil quality characterization is done by in situ point soil sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Such methodology has limitation for assessing the spatial variability of soil quality. Various researchers in recent past showed the potential utility of hyperspectral remote sensing technique for spatial estimation of soil properties. However, limited research studies have been carried out showing the potential of microwave remote sensing data for spatial estimation of various soil properties except soil moisture. This paper reviews the status of microwave remote sensing techniques (active and passive for spatial assessment of soil quality parameters such as soil salinity, soil erosion, soil physical properties (soil texture & hydraulic properties; drainage condition; and soil surface roughness. Past and recent research studies showed that both active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have great potentials for assessment of these soil qualities (soil properties. However, more research studies on use of multi-frequency and full polarimetric microwave remote sensing data and modelling of interaction of multi-frequency and full polarimetric microwave remote sensing data with soil are very much needed for operational use of satellite microwave remote sensing data in soil quality assessment.

  5. Hyperspectral remote sensing for terrestrial applications (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Murali Krishna Gumma,; Venkateswarlu Dheeravath,


    Remote sensing data are considered hyperspectral when the data are gathered from numerous wavebands, contiguously over an entire range of the spectrum (e.g., 400–2500 nm). Goetz (1992) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The acquisition of images in hundreds of registered, contiguous spectral bands such that for each picture element of an image it is possible to derive a complete reflectance spectrum.” However, Jensen (2004) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The simultaneous acquisition of images in many relatively narrow, contiguous and/or non contiguous spectral bands throughout the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  6. An international organization for remote sensing (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Edelson, Burton I.


    A recommendation is presented for the formation of a new commercially oriented international organization to acquire or develop, coordinate or manage, the space and ground segments for a global operational satellite system to furnish the basic data for remote sensing and meteorological, land, and sea resource applications. The growing numbers of remote sensing programs are examined and possible ways of reducing redundant efforts and improving the coordination and distribution of these global efforts are discussed. This proposed remote sensing organization could play an important role in international cooperation and the distribution of scientific, commercial, and public good data.

  7. Preface: Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Mishra


    Full Text Available The Special Issue (SI on “Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments” presents a wide range of articles focusing on a variety of remote sensing models and techniques to address coastal issues and processes ranging for wetlands and water quality to coral reefs and kelp habitats. The SI is comprised of twenty-one papers, covering a broad range of research topics that employ remote sensing imagery, models, and techniques to monitor water quality, vegetation, habitat suitability, and geomorphology in the coastal zone. This preface provides a brief summary of each article published in the SI.

  8. Remote sensing and urban public health (United States)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.


    The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.

  9. Suntracker for atmospheric remote sensing (United States)

    Hawat, Toufic-Michel; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Torguet, Roger J.


    A heliostat is designed and built to track the sun for optical remote sensing of the stratosphere from a balloon- borne pointed gondola. The tracking mechanism is controlled by two direct torque motors used to drive a single flat acquisition mirror. A horizontal turntable, rigidly attached to the azimuth drive, supports the elevation assembly. A position sensor receiving a small part of the solar beam reflected off the main acquisition mirror is used for the fine servo control. Using a CCD camera prepointing of the acquisition mirror is achieved when the sun is in the field of view of the heliostat. This system is coupled with a high-resolution (0.02-cm-1) Fourier transform IR spectrometer to retrieve stratospheric trace species concentration profiles. The suntracker directs the solar radiation in a stable direction along the spectrometer optical axis. The pointing precision is 1 arcmin from a stratospheric gondola, which has static and dynamic angular excursions up to 6 deg. The heliostat coupled to the Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere instrument performs successfully on several balloon flights. The description, ground tests, and balloon flight results of the suntracker are presented.

  10. Remote Sensing of Volcanic ASH at the Met Office (United States)

    Marenco, F.; Kent, J.; Adam, M.; Buxmann, J.; Francis, P.; Haywood, J.


    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 has triggered the rapid development of volcanic ash remote sensing activities at the Met Office. Volcanic ash qualitative and quantitative mapping have been achieved using lidar on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) research aircraft, and using improved satellite retrieval algorithms. After the eruption, a new aircraft facility, the Met Office Civil Contingencies Aircraft (MOCCA), has been set up to enable a rapid response, and a network of ground-based remote sensing sites with lidars and sunphotometers is currently being developed. Thanks to these efforts, the United Kingdom (UK) will be much better equipped to deal with such a crisis, should it happen in the future.

  11. a Hadoop-Based Distributed Framework for Efficient Managing and Processing Big Remote Sensing Images (United States)

    Wang, C.; Hu, F.; Hu, X.; Zhao, S.; Wen, W.; Yang, C.


    Various sensors from airborne and satellite platforms are producing large volumes of remote sensing images for mapping, environmental monitoring, disaster management, military intelligence, and others. However, it is challenging to efficiently storage, query and process such big data due to the data- and computing- intensive issues. In this paper, a Hadoop-based framework is proposed to manage and process the big remote sensing data in a distributed and parallel manner. Especially, remote sensing data can be directly fetched from other data platforms into the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The Orfeo toolbox, a ready-to-use tool for large image processing, is integrated into MapReduce to provide affluent image processing operations. With the integration of HDFS, Orfeo toolbox and MapReduce, these remote sensing images can be directly processed in parallel in a scalable computing environment. The experiment results show that the proposed framework can efficiently manage and process such big remote sensing data.

  12. Progress in the application of ocean color remote sensing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Delu; BAI Yan


    After many years'endeavor of research and application practice,the ocean color remote sensing in China has been growing into a new technique with valuable practicality from its initiate stage of trial research.With the aim of operational service,several kinds of ocean color remote sensing application systems have been developed and realized the long-term marine environmental monitoring utilizing the real-time or near real-time satellite and airborne remote sensing data.New progresses in the technology and application of ocean color remote sensing in China are described,including the research of key techniques and the development of various application systems.Meanwhile,according to the application status and demand,the prospective development of Chinese ocean color remote sensing is brought forward.With Chinese second ocean color satellite (HY-1B) orbiting on 11 April 2007 and the development of airborne ocean color remote sensing system for Chinese surveillance planes,great strides will take place in Chinese ocean color remote sensing application with the unique function in marine monitoring,resources management and national security,etc.

  13. Integrating spatial statistics and remote sensing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bruin, de S.; Cracknell, A.P.; Curran, P.J.; Fabbri, A.G.; Gorte, B.G.H.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Meer, van der F.D.; Saldana, A.


    This paper presents an integrated approach towards spatial statistics for remote sensing. Using the layer concept in Geographical Information Systems we treat successively elements of spatial statistics, scale, classification, sampling and decision support. The layer concept allows to combine contin

  14. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology (United States)

    Crippen, Robert E.


    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  15. NOAA Coastal Mapping Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Remote Sensing Division is responsible for providing data to support the Coastal Mapping Program, Emergency Response efforts, and the Aeronautical Survey Program...

  16. Design of airborne operating control system on UAV aerial remote sensing platform%无人机航空遥感平台机载作业控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国林; 陈继平; 余涛; 张颖; 陈兴峰; 宁开放


    The remote sensing platform of UAV(Unmanned aerial vehicle) features lower cost and higher flexibility than those of satellite and manned aerial aircraft. In order to meet the requirements of remote sensing experiments, accomplish remote sensing task, cohere with the operation of multi-components in UAV electronic pod, and control the attitude of the remote sensing image sensors, AT89S52 is adopted as a main control chip in the control system. Multi-serial ports and USB interfaces are designed to realize the communication between the control system and the peripheral equipments, meanwhile the camera drive module and three degrees of freedom stepping motor drive module are designed. The results of UAV aerial experiments prove that the control system can meet the requirements of the remote sensing experiments.%无人机相比较卫星和载人航空飞机遥感平台而言,具有成本低、灵活性高的特点.为了满足科学遥感实验、完成遥感作业任务、协调无人机电子吊舱中多组件工作、控制遥感影像传感器姿态,系统以AT89S52为主控芯片,扩展多路串口及USB接口以实现系统与外围设备的通信,同时设计了相机驱动模块及三自由度步进电机驱动模块.通过无人机航空遥感实验证明该系统能够满足遥感实验要求.

  17. Freeware for GIS and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Halounová


    Full Text Available Education in remote sensing and GIS is based on software utilization. The software needs to be installed in computer rooms with a certain number of licenses. The commercial software equipment is therefore financially demanding and not only for universities, but especially for students. Internet research brings a long list of free software of various capabilities. The paper shows a present state of GIS, image processing and remote sensing free software.

  18. Remote sensing of coastal and ocean studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.

    , but most of these algorithms are valid only for a limited region in the ocean. A global algorithm for ocean colour is yet to be developed. Since ocean colour sensors work in the visible region, they give no information in areas beneath clouds... research. These are the only oceanic parameters which are amenable to remote sensing and for which retrieval strategies exist to an acceptable degree of reliability. We have not discussed here the remote sensing of meteorological parameters 9 like rainfall...

  19. Remote sensing, imaging, and signal engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J.M.


    This report discusses the Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering (RISE) trust area which has been very active in working to define new directions. Signal and image processing have always been important support for existing programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but now these technologies are becoming central to the formation of new programs. Exciting new applications such as high-resolution telescopes, radar remote sensing, and advanced medical imaging are allowing us to participate in the development of new programs.

  20. Preface: Remote Sensing of Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Mishra


    Full Text Available The Special Issue (SI on “Remote Sensing of Water Resources” presents a diverse range of papers studying remote sensing tools, methods, and models to better monitor water resources which include inland, coastal, and open ocean waters. The SI is comprised of fifteen articles on widely ranging research topics related to water bodies. This preface summarizes each article published in the SI.

  1. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, John A


    Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis provides the non-specialist with a treatment of the quantitative analysis of satellite and aircraft derived remotely sensed data. Since the first edition of the book there have been significant developments in the algorithms used for the processing and analysis of remote sensing imagery; nevertheless many of the fundamentals have substantially remained the same.  This new edition presents material that has retained value since those early days, along with new techniques that can be incorporated into an operational framework for the analysis of remote sensing data. The book is designed as a teaching text for the senior undergraduate and postgraduate student, and as a fundamental treatment for those engaged in research using digital image processing in remote sensing.  The presentation level is for the mathematical non-specialist.  Since the very great number of operational users of remote sensing come from the earth sciences communities, the text is pitched at a leve...

  2. Combining Remote Sensing with in situ Measurements for Riverine Characterization (United States)

    Calantoni, J.; Palmsten, M. L.; Simeonov, J.; Dobson, D. W.; Zarske, K.; Puleo, J. A.; Holland, K. T.


    At the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory we are employing a wide variety of novel remote sensing techniques combined with traditional in situ sampling to characterize riverine hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Surface currents were estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) using imagery from visible to infrared bands, from both fixed and airborne platforms. Terrestrial LIDAR has been used for subaerial mapping from a fixed platform. Additionally, LIDAR has been combined with hydrographic surveying (multibeam) in mobile scanning mode using a small boat. Hydrographic surveying (side scan) has also been performed using underwater autonomous vehicles. Surface drifters have been deployed in combination with a remotely operated, floating acoustic Doppler current profiler. Other fixed platform, in situ sensors, such as pencil beam and sector scanning sonars, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and water level sensors have been deployed. We will present an overview of a variety of measurements from different rivers around the world focusing on validation examples of remotely sensed quantities with more traditional in situ measurements. Finally, we will discuss long-term goals to use remotely sensed data within an integrated environmental modeling framework.

  3. Remote Sensing Best Paper Award for the Year 2014


    Prasad Thenkabail


    Remote Sensing has started to institute a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of remote sensing techniques, design and applications published in Remote Sensing. We are pleased to announce the first “Remote Sensing Best Paper Award” for the year 2014.

  4. Remote sensing for quantification of agronomic properties (United States)

    Sullivan, Dana Grace

    Remote sensing (RS) may be used to rapidly assess surface features and facilitate natural resource management, precision agriculture and soil survey. Information obtained in such a way would streamline data collection and improve diagnostic capabilities. Current RS technology has had limited testing, particularly within the Southeast. Our study was designed to evaluate RS as a rapid assessment tool in three different natural resource applications: nitrogen (N) management in a corn crop (Zea mays L.), assessment of in situ crop residue cover, and quantification of near-surface soil properties. In 2000, study sites were established in four physiographic provinces of Alabama: Tennessee Valley, Ridge and Valley, Appalachian Plateau, and Coastal Plain. Spectral measurements were acquired via spectroradiometer (350--1050 nm), airborne ATLAS multispectral scanner (400--12,500 nm), and IKONOS satellite (450--900 nm). Corn plots were established from fresh-tilled ground in a completely randomized design at the Appalachian Plateau and Coastal Plain study sites in 2000. Plots received four N rates (0, 56, 112, and 168 kg N ha-1 ), and were maintained for three consecutive growing seasons. Spectroradiometer data were acquired biweekly from V6-R2 and ATLAS and IKONOS were acquired per availability. Results showed vegetation indices derived from hand-held spectroradiometer measurements as early as V6-V8 were linearly related to yield and tissue N. ATLAS imagery showed promise at the AP site during the V6 stage (r2 = 0.66), but no significant relationships between plant N and IKONOS imagery were observed. Residue plots (15m x 15m) were established at the Appalachian Plateau and Coastal Plain in 2000 and 200. Residue treatments consisted of hand applied wheat straw cover (0, 10 20, 50, or 80%) arranged in a completely randomized design. Spectroradiometer data were acquired monthly and ATLAS and IKONOS were acquired per availability. Residue cover estimates were best with ATLAS

  5. Research Dynamics of the Classification Methods of Remote Sensing Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; ZHANG; Baoguo; WU; Dong; WANG


    As the key technology of extracting remote sensing information,the classification of remote sensing images has always been the research focus in the field of remote sensing. The paper introduces the classification process and system of remote sensing images. According to the recent research status of domestic and international remote sensing classification methods,the new study dynamics of remote sensing classification,such as artificial neural networks,support vector machine,active learning and ensemble multi-classifiers,were introduced,providing references for the automatic and intelligent development of remote sensing images classification.

  6. Near-earth orbital guidance and remote sensing (United States)

    Powers, W. F.


    The curriculum of a short course in remote sensing and parameter optimization is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basics of remote sensing and the user community, (2) multivariant spectral analysis, (3) advanced mathematics and physics of remote sensing, (4) the atmospheric environment, (5) imaging sensing, and (6)nonimaging sensing. Mathematical models of optimization techniques are developed.

  7. remote sensing data combinations - global AOD maps (United States)

    Kinne, S.


    More accurate and more complete measurement-based data-sets are needed to constrain the freedom of global modeling and raise confidence in model predictions. In remote sensing, different methods and sensors frequently yield estimates for the same (or a strongly related) atmospheric property. For maximum benefit to data-users (e.g. input or evaluation data to modeling) - in the context of differences in sensor capabilities and retrieval limitations - there is a desire to combine the strengths of these individual data sources for superior products. In a demonstration, different multi-annual global monthly maps for aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite remote sensing been compared and scored against local quality reference data from ground remote sensing. The regionally best performing satellite data-sets have been combined into global monthly AOD maps. As expected, this satellite composite scores better than any individual satellite retrieval. Further improvements are achieved by merging statistics of ground remote sensing into the composite. The global average mid-visible AOD of this remote sensing composite is near 0.13 annually, with lower values during northern hemispheric fall and winter (0.12) and larger values during northern hemispheric spring and summer (0.14). This measurement based data composite also reveals characteristic deficiencies in global modeling: Modeling tends to overestimates AOD over the northern mid-latitudes and to underestimate AOD over tropical and sub-tropical land regions. Also noteworthy are AOD underestimates by modeling in remote oceanic regions, though only in relative sense as AOD values in that region as small. The AOD remote sensing data composite is far from perfect, but it demonstrates the extra value of data-combinations.

  8. Multiscale and Multitemporal Urban Remote Sensing (United States)

    Mesev, V.


    The remote sensing of urban areas has received much attention from scientists conducting studies on measuring sprawl, congestion, pollution, poverty, and environmental encroachment. Yet much of the research is case and data-specific where results are greatly influenced by prevailing local conditions. There seems to be a lack of epistemological links between remote sensing and conventional theoretical urban geography; in other words, an oversight for the appreciation of how urban theory fuels urban change and how urban change is measured by remotely sensed data. This paper explores basic urban theories such as centrality, mobility, materiality, nature, public space, consumption, segregation and exclusion, and how they can be measured by remote sensing sources. In particular, the link between structure (tangible objects) and function (intangible or immaterial behavior) is addressed as the theory that supports the wellknow contrast between land cover and land use classification from remotely sensed data. The paper then couches these urban theories and contributions from urban remote sensing within two analytical fields. The first is the search for an "appropriate" spatial scale of analysis, which is conveniently divided between micro and macro urban remote sensing for measuring urban structure, understanding urban processes, and perhaps contributions to urban theory at a variety of scales of analysis. The second is on the existence of a temporal lag between materiality of urban objects and the planning process that approved their construction, specifically how time-dependence in urban structural-functional models produce temporal lags that alter the causal links between societal and political functional demands and structural ramifications.

  9. High Fidelity Airborne Imaging System for Remote Observation of Space Launch/Reentry Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The utility of airborne remote observation of hypersonic reentry vehicles was demonstrated by the NASA Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM)...

  10. Controlling Malaria and Other Diseases Using Remote Sensing (United States)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)


    Remote sensing offers the vantage of monitoring a vast area of the Earth continuously. Once developed and launched, a satellite gives years of service in collecting data from the land, the oceans, and the atmosphere. Since the 1980s, attempts have been made to relate disease occurrence with remotely sensed environmental and geophysical parameters, using data from Landsat, SPOT, AVHRR, and other satellites. With higher spatial resolution, the recent satellite sensors provide a new outlook for disease control. At sub-meter to I 10m resolution, surface types associated with disease carriers can be identified more accurately. The Ikonos panchromatic sensor with I m resolution, and the Advanced Land Imager with 1 Om resolution on the newly launched Earth Observing-1, both have displayed remarkable mapping capabilities. In addition, an entire array of geophysical parameters can now be measured or inferred from various satellites. Airborne remote sensing, with less concerns on instrument weight, size, and power consumption, also offers a low-cost alternative for regional applications. NASA/GSFC began to collaborate with the Mahidol University on malaria and filariasis control using remote sensing in late 2000. The objectives are: (1) To map the breeding sites for the major vector species; (2) To identify the potential sites for larvicide and insecticide applications; (3) To explore the linkage of vector population and transmission intensity to environmental variables; (4) To monitor the impact of climate change and human activities on vector population and transmission; and (5) To develop a predictive model for disease distribution. Field studies are being conducted in several provinces in Thailand. Data analyses will soon begin. Malaria data in South Korea are being used as surrogates for developing classification techniques. GIS has been shown to be invaluable in making the voluminous remote sensing data more readily understandable. It will be used throughout this study

  11. Allometric equations for integrating remote sensing imagery into forest monitoring programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jucker, T.; Caspersen, John; Chave, J.; Antin, C.; Barbier, N.; Bongers, F.; Dalponte, M.; Ewijk van, K.Y.; Poorter, L.; Sterck, F.J.


    Remote sensing is revolutionizing the way we study forests, and recent technological advances mean we are now able – for the first time – to identify and measure the crown dimensions of individual trees from airborne imagery. Yet to make full use of these data for quantifying forest carbon stocks an

  12. Environmental and Landscape Remote Sensing Using Free and Open Source Image Processing Tools (United States)

    As global climate change and human activities impact the environment, there is a growing need for scientific tools to monitor and measure environmental conditions that support human and ecological health. Remotely sensed imagery from satellite and airborne platforms provides a g...

  13. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Cattet


    Full Text Available Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC. Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI, inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS.

  14. Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists. (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc


    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).

  15. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Ecological Modeling Research and Education at Mid America Remote Sensing Center (MARC): Field and Laboratory Enhancement (United States)

    Cetin, Haluk


    The purpose of this project was to establish a new hyperspectral remote sensing laboratory at the Mid-America Remote sensing Center (MARC), dedicated to in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental samples and to the manipulation, analysis, and storage of remotely sensed data for environmental monitoring and research in ecological modeling using hyperspectral remote sensing at MARC, one of three research facilities of the Center of Reservoir Research at Murray State University (MSU), a Kentucky Commonwealth Center of Excellence. The equipment purchased, a FieldSpec FR portable spectroradiometer and peripherals, and ENVI hyperspectral data processing software, allowed MARC to provide hands-on experience, education, and training for the students of the Department of Geosciences in quantitative remote sensing using hyperspectral data, Geographic Information System (GIS), digital image processing (DIP), computer, geological and geophysical mapping; to provide field support to the researchers and students collecting in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental data; to create a spectral library of the cover types and to establish a World Wide Web server to provide the spectral library to other academic, state and Federal institutions. Much of the research will soon be published in scientific journals. A World Wide Web page has been created at the web site of MARC. Results of this project are grouped in two categories, education and research accomplishments. The Principal Investigator (PI) modified remote sensing and DIP courses to introduce students to ii situ field spectra and laboratory remote sensing studies for environmental monitoring in the region by using the new equipment in the courses. The PI collected in situ measurements using the spectroradiometer for the ER-2 mission to Puerto Rico project for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS). Currently MARC is mapping water quality in Kentucky Lake and

  16. Coastal High-resolution Observations and Remote Sensing of Ecosystems (C-HORSE) (United States)

    Guild, Liane


    Coastal benthic marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs, seagrass beds, and kelp forests are highly productive as well as ecologically and commercially important resources. These systems are vulnerable to degraded water quality due to coastal development, terrestrial run-off, and harmful algal blooms. Measurements of these features are important for understanding linkages with land-based sources of pollution and impacts to coastal ecosystems. Challenges for accurate remote sensing of coastal benthic (shallow water) ecosystems and water quality are complicated by atmospheric scattering/absorption (approximately 80+% of the signal), sun glint from the sea surface, and water column scattering (e.g., turbidity). Further, sensor challenges related to signal to noise (SNR) over optically dark targets as well as insufficient radiometric calibration thwart the value of coastal remotely-sensed data. Atmospheric correction of satellite and airborne remotely-sensed radiance data is crucial for deriving accurate water-leaving radiance in coastal waters. C-HORSE seeks to optimize coastal remote sensing measurements by using a novel airborne instrument suite that will bridge calibration, validation, and research capabilities of bio-optical measurements from the sea to the high altitude remote sensing platform. The primary goal of C-HORSE is to facilitate enhanced optical observations of coastal ecosystems using state of the art portable microradiometers with 19 targeted spectral channels and flight planning to optimize measurements further supporting current and future remote sensing missions.

  17. Advances on Technology and Application of Ocean Color Remote Sensing in China (2004 - 2006)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Delu; BAI Yan


    China has great progress in the technology and application of ocean color remote sensing during 2004-2006. In this report, firstly, four major technical advances are displaying, including (1) the vector radiative transfer numerical model of coupled ocean-atmosphere system; (2) the atmospheric correction algorithm specialized on Chinese high turbid water; (3) systematical research of hyper-spectrum ocean color remote sensing; (4) local algorithms of oceanic parameters, like ocean color components, ocean primary productivity, water transparency, water quality parameters, etc. On the foundation of technical advances, ocean color remote sensing takes effect on ocean environment monitoring, with four major kinds of application systems, namely, (1) the automatic multi-satellites data receiving, processing and application system; (2) the shipboard satellite data receiving and processing system for fishery ground information; (3) Coastal water quality monitoring system, integrating satellite and airborne remote sensing technology and ship measurement; (4) the preliminary system of airborne ocean color remote sensing application system. Finally, the prospective development of Chinese ocean color remote sensing is brought forward. With Chinese second ocean color satellite (HY-1B) orbiting, great strides will take place in Chinese ocean color information accumulation and application.

  18. Polarimetric remote sensing of the Earth from satellites: a perspective (United States)

    Mishchenko, M. I.; Glory APS Science Team


    attempt to launch a more accurate aerosol-cloud polarimeter, called APS, as part of the NASA Glory Mission failed on 4 March 2011. However, much useful information has been obtained with the air-borne version of APS called RSP. In this talk I will briefly summarize the main results obtained with POLDER and RSP and discuss the prospects of polarimetric remote sensing from Earth-orbiting satellites.

  19. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero


    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  20. Remote sensing of land surface phenology (United States)

    Meier, G.A.; Brown, J.F.


    Remote sensing of land-surface phenology is an important method for studying the patterns of plant and animal growth cycles. Phenological events are sensitive to climate variation; therefore phenology data provide important baseline information documenting trends in ecology and detecting the impacts of climate change on multiple scales. The USGS Remote sensing of land surface phenology program produces annually, nine phenology indicator variables at 250 m and 1,000 m resolution for the contiguous U.S. The 12 year archive is available at

  1. A technology path to distributed remote sensing (United States)

    Fountain, Glen H.; Gold, Robert E.; Jenkins, Robert E.; Lew, Ark L.; Raney, R. Keith


    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has been engaged for over 40 years in Earth science missions spanning geodesy to atmospheric science. In parallel, APL's Advanced Technology Program is supporting research in autonomy, scalable architectures, miniaturization, and instrument innovation. These are key technologies for the development of affordable observation programs that could benefit from distributed remote sensing. This paper brings these applications and technology themes together in the form of an innovative, three-satellite remote sensing scenario. This pathfinding mission fills an important scientific niche, and relies on state-of-the-art small-satellite technology.

  2. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  3. Space remote sensing systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H S


    Space Remote Sensing Systems: An Introduction discusses the space remote sensing system, which is a modern high-technology field developed from earth sciences, engineering, and space systems technology for environmental protection, resource monitoring, climate prediction, weather forecasting, ocean measurement, and many other applications. This book consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 1 describes the science of the atmosphere and the earth's surface. Chapter 2 discusses spaceborne radiation collector systems, while Chapter 3 focuses on space detector and CCD systems. The passive space optical rad

  4. Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Geothermal Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, W L; Kasameyer, P W; Martini, B A; Potts, D C; Silver, E A


    This paper presents a plan for increasing the mapped resource base for geothermal exploration in the Western US. We plan to image large areas in the western US with recently developed high resolution hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing tools. The proposed imaging systems have the ability to map visible faults, surface effluents, historical signatures, and discover subtle hidden faults and hidden thermal systems. Large regions can be imaged at reasonable costs. The technique of geobotanical remote sensing for geothermal signatures is based on recent successes in mapping faults and effluents the Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain in California.

  5. Remotely sensing the photochemical reflectance index, PRI (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert


    In remote sensing, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) provides insight into physiological processes occurring inside leaves in a plant stand. Developed by1,2, PRI evolved from laboratory reflectance measurements of individual leaves. Yet in a remotely sensed image, a pixel measurement may include light from both reflecting and transmitting leaves. We compared values of PRI based upon polarized reflectance and transmittance measurements of water and nutrient stressed leaves. Our results show the polarized leaf surface reflection should be removed when calculating PRI and that the leaf physiology information is in leaf interior reflectance, not leaf transmittance.

  6. Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay


    the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground-based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost....... The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are 1) horizontal spatial coverage, 2) long data archives and 3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far-field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to 6 observations per day with near...

  7. Remote sensing/vegetation classification. [California (United States)

    Parker, I. E.


    The CALVEG classification system for identification of vegetation is described. This hierarchical system responds to classification requirements and to interpretation of vegetation at various description levels, from site description to broad identification levels. The system's major strength is its flexibility in application of remote sensing technology to assess, describe and communicate data relative to vegetative resources on a state-wide basis. It is concluded that multilevel remote sensing is a cost effective tool for assessment of the natural resource base. The CLAVEG system is found to be an economically efficient tool for both existing and potential vegetation.

  8. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing (United States)

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.


    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  9. Recent Progresses in Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research in China-- Chinese National Report on Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research in China during 1999-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱金桓; 陈洪滨


    Progresses of atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999-2003 are summarily introduced.This research includes: (1) microwave remote sensing of the atmosphere; (2) Lidar remote sensing; (3)remote sensing of aerosol optical properties; and (4) other research related to atmospheric remote sensing,including GPS remote sensing of precipitable water vapor and radiation model development.

  10. Remote Sensing Analysis of Forest Disturbances (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)


    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  11. Remote sensing information sciences research group (United States)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.


    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment (United States)

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  13. Multisensor image fusion guidelines in remote sensing (United States)

    Pohl, C.


    Remote sensing delivers multimodal and -temporal data from the Earth's surface. In order to cope with these multidimensional data sources and to make the most of them, image fusion is a valuable tool. It has developed over the past few decades into a usable image processing technique for extracting information of higher quality and reliability. As more sensors and advanced image fusion techniques have become available, researchers have conducted a vast amount of successful studies using image fusion. However, the definition of an appropriate workflow prior to processing the imagery requires knowledge in all related fields - i.e. remote sensing, image fusion and the desired image exploitation processing. From the findings of this research it can be seen that the choice of the appropriate technique, as well as the fine-tuning of the individual parameters of this technique, is crucial. There is still a lack of strategic guidelines due to the complexity and variability of data selection, processing techniques and applications. This paper gives an overview on the state-of-the-art in remote sensing image fusion including sensors and applications. Putting research results in image fusion from the past 15 years into a context provides a new view on the subject and helps other researchers to build their innovation on these findings. Recommendations of experts help to understand further needs to achieve feasible strategies in remote sensing image fusion.

  14. Remote sensing and today's forestry issues (United States)

    Sayn-Wittgenstein, L.


    The actual and the desirable roles of remote sensing in dealing with current forestry issues, such as national forest policy, supply and demand for forest products and competing demands for forest land are discussed. Topics covered include wood shortage, regional timber inventories, forests in tropical and temperate zones, Skylab photography, forest management and protection, available biomass studies, and monitoring.

  15. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.


    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  16. Remote sensing science - new concepts and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.

  17. Wageningen UR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility - Overview of activities (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Mucher, Sander; Kramer, Henk; Franke, Jappe


    To support environmental management there is an increasing need for timely, accurate and detailed information on our land. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are increasingly used to monitor agricultural crop development, habitat quality or urban heat efficiency. An important reason is that UAS technology is maturing quickly while the flexible capabilities of UAS fill a gap between satellite based and ground based geo-sensing systems. In 2012, different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre have established an Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing Facility. The objective of this facility is threefold: a) To develop innovation in the field of remote sensing science by providing a platform for dedicated and high-quality experiments; b) To support high quality UAS services by providing calibration facilities and disseminating processing procedures to the UAS user community; and c) To promote and test the use of UAS in a broad range of application fields like habitat monitoring, precision agriculture and land degradation assessment. The facility is hosted by the Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing (GRS) and the Department of Soil Physics and Land Management (SLM) of Wageningen University together with the team Earth Informatics (EI) of Alterra. The added value of the Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility is that compared to for example satellite based remote sensing more dedicated science experiments can be prepared. This includes for example higher frequent observations in time (e.g., diurnal observations), observations of an object under different observation angles for characterization of BRDF and flexibility in use of camera's and sensors types. In this way, laboratory type of set ups can be tested in a field situation and effects of up-scaling can be tested. In the last years we developed and implemented different camera systems (e.g. a hyperspectral pushbroom system, and multispectral frame cameras) which we operated in projects all

  18. Geometric calibration of high-resolution remote sensing sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hong-you; GU Xing-fa; TAO Yu; QIAO Chao-fei


    This paper introduces the applications of high-resolution remote sensing imagery and the necessity of geometric calibration for remote sensing sensors considering assurance of the geometric accuracy of remote sensing imagery. Then the paper analyzes the general methodology of geometric calibration. Taking the DMC sensor geometric calibration as an example, the paper discusses the whole calibration procedure. Finally, it gave some concluding remarks on geometric calibration of high-resolution remote sensing sensors.

  19. GPS Remote Sensing Measurements Using Aerosonde UAV (United States)

    Grant, Michael S.; Katzberg, Stephen J.; Lawrence, R. W.


    In February 2004, a NASA-Langley GPS Remote Sensor (GPSRS) unit was flown on an Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. Using direct and surface-reflected 1.575 GHz coarse acquisition (C/A) coded GPS signals, remote sensing measurements were obtained over land and portions of open water. The strength of the surface-reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, and is also influenced by surface roughness. Amplitude and other characteristics of the reflected signal allow an estimate of wind speed over open water. In this paper we provide a synopsis of the instrument accommodation requirements, installation procedures, and preliminary results from what is likely the first-ever flight of a GPS remote sensing instrument on a UAV. The correct operation of the GPSRS unit on this flight indicates that Aerosonde-like UAV's can serve as platforms for future GPS remote sensing science missions.

  20. History and future of remote sensing technology and education (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.


    A historical overview of the discovery and development of photography, related sciences, and remote sensing technology is presented. The role of education to date in the development of remote sensing is discussed. The probable future and potential of remote sensing and training is described.

  1. The application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; ZHANG bing; CHEN Zhengchao; ZHENG Lanfen; TONG Qingxi


    Requirements for monitoring the coastal zone environment are first summarized. Then the application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment investigation is introduced, such as the classification of coast beaches and bottom matter, target recognition, mine detection, oil spill identification and ocean color remote sensing. Finally, what is needed to follow on in application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment is recommended.

  2. Handbook on advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems paradigms and applications in forest landscape modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita N


    This book presents the latest advances in remote-sensing and geographic information systems and applications. It is divided into four parts, focusing on Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Optical Measurements of Forests; Individual Tree Modelling; Landscape Scene Modelling; and Forest Eco-system Modelling. Given the scope of its coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, practitioners, and educators interested in remote sensing and geographic information systems and applications.

  3. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.


    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  4. Microwave remote sensing of the snow and ice cover: The Russian experience (United States)

    Kondratyev, K. Ya.; Melentyev, V. V.

    Microwave remote sensing techniques are useful for deriving properties of snow and ice. There has been substantial Russian research in developing such techniques, as well as their scientific application. The main centers of such activities are described, and results of fundamental research are summarized. Results from selected case studies are presented and compared with those from western research. Included are results on retrieving ice concentration, ice type, ice thickness, and ice state during the melt period. These airborne microwave remote sensing investigations provide information on the ice cover in several regions in the eastern Arctic.

  5. Remote sensing and earthquake risk: A (re)insurance perspective (United States)

    Smolka, Anselm; Siebert, Andreas


    The insurance sector is faced with two issues regarding earthquake risk: the estimation of rarely occurring losses from large events and the assessment of the average annual net loss. For this purpose, knowledge is needed of actual event losses, of the distribution of exposed values, and of their vulnerability to earthquakes. To what extent can remote sensing help the insurance industry fulfil these tasks, and what are its limitations? In consequence of more regular and high-resolution satellite coverage, we have seen earth observation and remote sensing methods develop over the past years to a stage where they appear to offer great potential for addressing some shortcomings of the data underlying risk assessment. These include lack of statistical representativeness and lack of topicality. Here, remote sensing can help in the following areas: • Inventories of exposed objects (pre- and post-disaster) • Projection of small-scale ground-based vulnerability classification surveys to a full inventory • Post-event loss assessment But especially from an insurance point of view, challenges remain. The strength of airborne remote sensing techniques lies in outlining heavily damaged areas where damage is caused by easily discernible structural failure, i.e. total or partial building collapse. Examples are the Haiti earthquake (with minimal insured loss) and the tsunami-stricken areas in the Tohoku district of Japan. What counts for insurers, however, is the sum of monetary losses. The Chile, the Christchurch and the Tohoku earthquakes each caused insured losses in the two-digit billion dollar range. By far the greatest proportion of these insured losses were due to non-structural damage to buildings, machinery and equipment. Even with the Tohoku event, no more than 30% of the total material damage was caused by the tsunami according to preliminary surveys, and this figure includes damage due to earthquake shock which was unrecognisable after the passage of the tsunami

  6. An experiment using mid and thermal infrared in quantum remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI; Siwen; HAN; Jixia


    The concept of quantum remote sensing and the differences between quantum remote sensing and remote sensing is introduced, an experiment about the uses of mid and thermal infrared in quantum remote sensing is described and results are analyzed.

  7. Remote Sensing of Water Resources During the California Drought (United States)

    David, Cedric; Reager, John; Das, Narendra; Famiglietti, James; Farr, Thomas; Painter, Thomas


    The combination of human population growth and changes in water availability increasingly raises global awareness on the importance of sustainable water usage and management. While the traditional in situ measurements provide a detailed description of local water availability, space science and technology can depict a broader perspective that has great potential for securing our global water future. We use the severe drought that the State of California has been experiencing since the beginning of 2011 as an example of a comprehensive water resources characterization and monitoring allowed by satellites. We focus here on observations of water availability on and underneath the land surface, and provide a summary of the findings from the following remote sensing assets: the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), and Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) missions such as PALSAR, Radarsat-2, and UAVSAR.

  8. Remote sensing applied to numerical modelling. [water resources pollution (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Bland, R.


    Progress and remaining difficulties in the construction of predictive mathematical models of large bodies of water as ecosystems are reviewed. Surface temperature is at present the only variable than can be measured accurately and reliably by remote sensing techniques, but satellite infrared data are of sufficient resolution for macro-scale modeling of oceans and large lakes, and airborne radiometers are useful in meso-scale analysis (of lakes, bays, and thermal plumes). Finite-element and finite-difference techniques applied to the solution of relevant coupled time-dependent nonlinear partial differential equations are compared, and the specific problem of the Biscayne Bay and environs ecosystem is tackled in a finite-differences treatment using the rigid-lid model and a rigid-line grid system.

  9. On validating remote sensing simulations using coincident real data (United States)

    Wang, Mingming; Yao, Wei; Brown, Scott; Goodenough, Adam; van Aardt, Jan


    The remote sensing community often requires data simulation, either via spectral/spatial downsampling or through virtual, physics-based models, to assess systems and algorithms. The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model is one such first-principles, physics-based model for simulating imagery for a range of modalities. Complex simulation of vegetation environments subsequently has become possible, as scene rendering technology and software advanced. This in turn has created questions related to the validity of such complex models, with potential multiple scattering, bidirectional distribution function (BRDF), etc. phenomena that could impact results in the case of complex vegetation scenes. We selected three sites, located in the Pacific Southwest domain (Fresno, CA) of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). These sites represent oak savanna, hardwood forests, and conifer-manzanita-mixed forests. We constructed corresponding virtual scenes, using airborne LiDAR and imaging spectroscopy data from NEON, ground-based LiDAR data, and field-collected spectra to characterize the scenes. Imaging spectroscopy data for these virtual sites then were generated using the DIRSIG simulation environment. This simulated imagery was compared to real AVIRIS imagery (15m spatial resolution; 12 pixels/scene) and NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) data (1m spatial resolution; 180 pixels/scene). These tests were performed using a distribution-comparison approach for select spectral statistics, e.g., established the spectra's shape, for each simulated versus real distribution pair. The initial comparison results of the spectral distributions indicated that the shapes of spectra between the virtual and real sites were closely matched.

  10. Remote Sensing and Remote Control Activities in Europe and America: Part 2--Remote Sensing Ground Stations in Europe, (United States)


    Development tasks and products of remote sensing ground stations in Europe are represented by the In-Sec Corporation and the Schlumberger Industries Corporation. The article presents the main products of these two corporations.

  11. Review of oil spill remote sensing. (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl


    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing.

  12. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.


    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  13. Remote sensing for disaster mitigation of Sinabung (United States)

    Tampubolon, T.; Yanti, J.


    Indonesia, a country with many active volcanoes, potentially occur natural disaster due to eruptions. One of volcanoes at Indonesia was Sinabung mountain, that located on Karo Regency, North Sumatera 3°10'12″ N 98°23'31" E, 2,460 masl. A fasile and new observation method for mapping the erupted areas was remote sensing. the remote sensing consisted of Landsat 8 OLI that was published on February 8th 2015 as input data ENVI 4.7 and ArcGIS 10 as mapping tools. The Land surface temperature (LST) was applied on mapping this resulted. The highest LST was 90.929657 °C. In addition, the LST distribution indicated that the flowing lava through south east. Therefore, the south east areas should be considered as mitigated areas.

  14. The Fundamental Framework of Remote Sensing Validation System (United States)

    Jiang, X.-G.; Xi, X.-H.; Wu, M.-J.; Li, Z.-L.


    Remote sensing is a very complicated course. It is influenced by many factors, such as speciality of remote sensing sensor, radiant transmission characteristic of atmosphere, work environment of remote sensing platform, data transmission, data reception, data processing, and property of observed object etc. Whether the received data is consistent with the design specifications? Can the data meet the demands of remote sensing applications? How about the accuracy of the data products, retrieval products and application products of remote sensing? It is essential to carry out the validation to assess the data quality and application potential. Validation is effective approach to valuate remote sensing products. It is the significant link between remote sensing data and information. Research on remote sensing validation is very important for sensor development, data quality analysis and control. This paper focuses on the study of remote sensing validation and validation system. Different from the previous work done by other researchers, we study the validation from the viewpoint of systematic engineering considering that validation is involved with many aspects as talked about. Validation is not just a single and simple course. It is complicated system. Validation system is the important part of whole earth observation system. First of all, in this paper the category of remote sensing validation is defined. Remote sensing validation includes not only the data products validation, but also the retrieval products validation and application products validation. Second, the new concept, remote sensing validation system, is proposed. Then, the general framework, software structure and functions of validation system are studied and put forward. The validation system is composed of validation field module, data acquirement module, data processing module, data storage and management module, data scaling module, and remote sensing products validation module. And finally the

  15. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka


    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100-nm particles decreased with the organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF as 10(−0.43−0.44*OMF over Central Mexico and 10(−0.29−0.70*OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(−1/3, within measurement uncertainty (~20%. The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0–0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as −0.70*OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust. Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemistry and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  16. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka


    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100 nm particles decreased with increasing organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF as 0.34–0.20×OMF over Central Mexico and 0.47–0.43×OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(−1/3, within measurement uncertainty (~20%. The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0–0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as −0.70×OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust. Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemical composition and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  17. Mesoscale Modeling, Forecasting and Remote Sensing Research. (United States)

    remote sensing , cyclonic scale diagnostic studies and mesoscale numerical modeling and forecasting are summarized. Mechanisms involved in the release of potential instability are discussed and simulated quantitatively, giving particular attention to the convective formulation. The basic mesoscale model is documented including the equations, boundary condition, finite differences and initialization through an idealized frontal zone. Results of tests including a three dimensional test with real data, tests of convective/mesoscale interaction and tests with a detailed

  18. Processing Remote Sensing Data with Python


    Dillon, Ryan J., 1984-


    With public access available for numerous satellite imaging products, modelling in atmospheric and oceanographic applications has become increasingly more prevalent. Though there are numerous tools available for geospatial development, their use is more commonly applied towards mapping applications. With this being the case, there are a number of valuable texts for using these tools in such mapping applications; though, documentation for processing of remote sensing datasets is limited to ...

  19. Remote sensing application on geothermal exploration (United States)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.


    Geothermal energy is produced when water coming down from the surface of the earth and met with magma or hot rocks, which the heat comes from the very high levels of magma rises from the earth. This process produced a heated fluid supplied to a power generator system to finally use as energy. Geothermal field usually associated with volcanic area with a component from igneous rocks and a complex geological structures. The fracture and fault structure are important geological structures associated with geothermal. Furthermore, their geothermal manifestations also need to be evaluated associated their geological structures. The appearance of a geothermal surface manifestation is close to the structure of the fracture and the caldera volcanic areas. The relationship between the fault and geothermal manifestations can be seen in the form of a pattern of alignment between the manifestations of geothermal locations with other locations on the fault system. The use of remote sensing using electromagnetic radiation sensors to record images of the Earth's environment that can be interpreted to be a useful information. In this study, remote sensing was applied to determine the geological structure and mapping of the distribution of rocks and alteration rocks. It was found that remote sensing obtained a better localize areas of geothermal prospects, which in turn could cut the chain of geothermal exploration to reduce a cost of geothermal exploration.

  20. Autofocus method for scanning remote sensing cameras. (United States)

    Lv, Hengyi; Han, Chengshan; Xue, Xucheng; Hu, Changhong; Yao, Cheng


    Autofocus methods are conventionally based on capturing the same scene from a series of positions of the focal plane. As a result, it has been difficult to apply this technique to scanning remote sensing cameras where the scenes change continuously. In order to realize autofocus in scanning remote sensing cameras, a novel autofocus method is investigated in this paper. Instead of introducing additional mechanisms or optics, the overlapped pixels of the adjacent CCD sensors on the focal plane are employed. Two images, corresponding to the same scene on the ground, can be captured at different times. Further, one step of focusing is done during the time interval, so that the two images can be obtained at different focal plane positions. Subsequently, the direction of the next step of focusing is calculated based on the two images. The analysis shows that the method investigated operates without restriction of the time consumption of the algorithm and realizes a total projection for general focus measures and algorithms from digital still cameras to scanning remote sensing cameras. The experiment results show that the proposed method is applicable to the entire focus measure family, and the error ratio is, on average, no more than 0.2% and drops to 0% by reliability improvement, which is lower than that of prevalent approaches (12%). The proposed method is demonstrated to be effective and has potential in other scanning imaging applications.

  1. Oil pollution in the seas around India and application of remote sensing for its detection and monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    tor oil spill management purposes and (iii) too long interval between consecutive passes over the same region. The problem can be ettectively tavltled by airborne remote sensing with suitable sensors toworlc~byda;r or by night and in all weather... conditions. These sensors provide more objective information about the location and size ot an oil slick than visual obser- 0'. vations. 42 OIL SPILL MONITORING AND SORVEII,LANCE SYSTn'I Ideally an airborne oil pollution monitoring system should be able...

  2. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.


    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  3. Geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission; Proceedings of the Symposium, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 31-Feb. 1, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.I.; Pettersson, C.B.


    Papers and discussions concerning the geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission, sources of remotely sensed data, and glossaries of remote sensing and remote data transmission terms, acronyms, and abbreviations are presented. Aspects of remote sensing use covered include the significance of lineaments and their effects on ground-water systems, waste-site use and geotechnical characterization, the estimation of reservoir submerging losses using CIR aerial photographs, and satellite-based investigation of the significance of surficial deposits for surface mining operations. Other topics presented include the location of potential ground subsidence and collapse features in soluble carbonate rock, optical Fourier analysis of surface features of interest in geotechnical engineering, geotechnical applications of U.S. Government remote sensing programs, updating the data base for a Geographic Information System, the joint NASA/Geosat Test Case Project, the selection of remote data telemetry methods for geotechnical applications, the standardization of remote sensing data collection and transmission, and a comparison of airborne Goodyear electronic mapping system/SAR with satelliteborne Seasat/SAR radar imagery.

  4. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Methods and Applications (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.


    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing data can provide important measurements of surface energy fluxes and temperatures, which are integral to understanding landscape processes and responses. One example of this is the successful application of TIR remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration and soil moisture, where results from a number of studies suggest that satellite-based measurements from TIR remote sensing data can lead to more accurate regional-scale estimates of daily evapotranspiration. With further refinement in analytical techniques and models, the use of TIR data from airborne and satellite sensors could be very useful for parameterizing surface moisture conditions and developing better simulations of landscape energy exchange over a variety of conditions and space and time scales. Thus, TIR remote sensing data can significantly contribute to the observation, measurement, and analysis of energy balance characteristics (i.e., the fluxes and redistribution of thermal energy within and across the land surface) as an implicit and important aspect of landscape dynamics and landscape functioning. The application of TIR remote sensing data in landscape ecological studies has been limited, however, for several fundamental reasons that relate primarily to the perceived difficulty in use and availability of these data by the landscape ecology community, and from the fragmentation of references on TIR remote sensing throughout the scientific literature. It is our purpose here to provide evidence from work that has employed TIR remote sensing for analysis of landscape characteristics to illustrate how these data can provide important data for the improved measurement of landscape energy response and energy flux relationships. We examine the direct or indirect use of TIR remote sensing data to analyze landscape biophysical characteristics, thereby offering some insight on how these data can be used more robustly to further the understanding and modeling of

  5. Space-Based Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols: The Multi-Angle Spectro-Polarimetric Frontier (United States)

    Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Davis, A. B.; Cairns, B.; Dubovik, O.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Rozanov, V. V.; Litvinov, P.; Lapyonok, T.; Martin, W.; Wasilewski, A.; Xu, F.; Natraj, V.


    The review of optical instrumentation, forward modeling, and inverse problem solution for the polarimetric aerosol remote sensing from space is presented. The special emphasis is given to the description of current airborne and satellite imaging polarimeters and also to modern satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms based on the measurements of the Stokes vector of reflected solar light as detected on a satellite. Various underlying surface reflectance models are discussed and evaluated.

  6. Remote sensing for land management and planning (United States)

    Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan H.; Franklin, Janet


    The primary role of remote sensing in land management and planning has been to provide information concerning the physical characteristics of the land which influence the management of individual land parcels or the allocation of lands to various uses These physical characteristics have typically been assessed through aerial photography, which is used to develop resource maps and to monitor changing environmental conditions These uses are well developed and currently well integrated into the planning infrastructure at local, state, and federal levels in the United States. Many newly emerging uses of remote sensing involve digital images which are collected, stored, and processed automatically by electromechanical scanning devices and electronic computers Some scanning devices operate from aircraft or spacecraft to scan ground scenes directly; others scan conventional aerial transparencies to yield digital images. Digital imagery offers the potential for computer-based automated map production, a process that can significantly increase the amount and timeliness of information available to land managers and planners. Future uses of remote sensing in land planning and management will involve geographic information systems, which store resource information in a geocoded format. Geographic information systems allow the automated integration of disparate types of resource data through various types of spatial models so that with accompanying sample ground data, information in the form of thematic maps and/ or aerially aggregated statistics can be produced Key issues confronting the development and integration of geographic information systems into planning pathways are restoration and rectification of digital images, automated techniques for combining both quantitative and qualitative types of data in information-extracting procedures, and the compatibility of alternative data storage modes

  7. Experimental Investigations on Airborne Gravimetry Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapeng Yang


    Full Text Available Gravity surveys are an important research topic in geophysics and geodynamics. This paper investigates a method for high accuracy large scale gravity anomaly data reconstruction. Based on the airborne gravimetry technology, a flight test was carried out in China with the strap-down airborne gravimeter (SGA-WZ developed by the Laboratory of Inertial Technology of the National University of Defense Technology. Taking into account the sparsity of airborne gravimetry by the discrete Fourier transform (DFT, this paper proposes a method for gravity anomaly data reconstruction using the theory of compressed sensing (CS. The gravity anomaly data reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which can be transformed into a sparse optimization problem. This paper uses the zero-norm as the objective function and presents a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP to solve the corresponding minimization problem. The test results have revealed that the compressed sampling rate is approximately 14%, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by OMP is 0.03 mGal and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is 56.48 dB. In contrast, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by the existing nearest-interpolation method (NIPM is 0.15 mGal and the SNR is 42.29 dB. These results have shown that the OMP algorithm can reconstruct the gravity anomaly data with higher accuracy and fewer measurements.

  8. Experimental investigations on airborne gravimetry based on compressed sensing. (United States)

    Yang, Yapeng; Wu, Meiping; Wang, Jinling; Zhang, Kaidong; Cao, Juliang; Cai, Shaokun


    Gravity surveys are an important research topic in geophysics and geodynamics. This paper investigates a method for high accuracy large scale gravity anomaly data reconstruction. Based on the airborne gravimetry technology, a flight test was carried out in China with the strap-down airborne gravimeter (SGA-WZ) developed by the Laboratory of Inertial Technology of the National University of Defense Technology. Taking into account the sparsity of airborne gravimetry by the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), this paper proposes a method for gravity anomaly data reconstruction using the theory of compressed sensing (CS). The gravity anomaly data reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which can be transformed into a sparse optimization problem. This paper uses the zero-norm as the objective function and presents a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) to solve the corresponding minimization problem. The test results have revealed that the compressed sampling rate is approximately 14%, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by OMP is 0.03 mGal and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 56.48 dB. In contrast, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by the existing nearest-interpolation method (NIPM) is 0.15 mGal and the SNR is 42.29 dB. These results have shown that the OMP algorithm can reconstruct the gravity anomaly data with higher accuracy and fewer measurements.

  9. Remote sensing and actuation using unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Haiyang


    Unmanned systems and robotics technologies have become very popular recently owing to their ability to replace human beings in dangerous, tedious, or repetitious jobs. This book fill the gap in the field between research and real-world applications, providing scientists and engineers with essential information on how to design and employ networked unmanned vehicles for remote sensing and distributed control purposes. Target scenarios include environmental or agricultural applications such as river/reservoir surveillance, wind profiling measurement, and monitoring/control of chemical leaks.

  10. Shape saliency for remote sensing image (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Hong, Huo; Fang, Tao; Li, Deren


    In this paper, a shape saliency measure for only shape feature of each object in the image is described. Instead biologically-inspired bottom-up Itti model, the dissimilarity is measured by the shape feature. And, Fourier descriptor is used for measuring dissimilarity in this paper. In the model, the object is determined as a salient region, when it is far different from others. Different value of the saliency is ranged to generate a saliency map. It is shown that the attention shift processing can be recorded. Some results from psychological images and remote sensing images are shown and discussed in the paper.

  11. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy


    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  12. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture (United States)

    Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T. (Principal Investigator)


    Progress in the investigation of problems related to the remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture is reported. Specific topics addressed include: (1) microwave scattering from periodic surfaces using a rigorous modal technique; (2) combined random rough surface and volume scattering effects; (3) the anisotropic effects of vegetation structures; (4) the application of the strong fluctuation theory to the the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers; and (5) the investigation of the scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers using a quantum mechanical potential approach.

  13. Ssang Yong 2014 Remote Sensing Experiment (United States)


    eDwARDs JAime estRADA Office of Naval Research Alington, Virginia i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 2. REPORT TYPE1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 6. AUTHOR(S) 8. PERFORMING...ONR) developed look up tables for estimating trafficability and bathymetry from spectral remote sensing imagery in littoral regions during a recent

  14. Remote shock sensing and notification system (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.


    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  15. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Britton, Charles L [Alcoa, TN; Pearce, James [Lenoir City, TN; Jagadish, Usha [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod K [Oak Ridge, TN


    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interface circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitter with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  16. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view (United States)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.


    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  17. Basic research in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This overview paper points out that one of the problems impeding further development of remote sensing is that not much attention has been paid to basic research.Key contents of basic research in remote sensing,including modeling,inversion,scaling and scientific experiments,are reviewed.Significance of basic research is demonstrated through summarizing the intentions and progress of the project "Quantitative Remote Sensing Research on Land Surface Energy Exchange".

  18. [A review on polarization information in the remote sensing detection]. (United States)

    Gong, Jie-Qiong; Zhan, Hai-Gang; Liu, Da-Zhao


    Polarization is one of the inherent characteristics. Because the surface of the target structure, internal structure, and the angle of incident light are different, the earth's surface and any target in atmosphere under optical interaction process will have their own characteristic nature of polarization. Polarimetric characteristics of radiation energy from the targets are used in polarization remote sensing detection as detective information. Polarization remote sensing detection can get the seven-dimensional information of targets in complicated backgrounds, detect well-resolved outline of targets and low-reflectance region of objectives, and resolve the problems of atmospheric detection and identification camouflage detection which the traditional remote sensing detection can not solve, having good foreground in applications. This paper introduces the development of polarization information in the remote sensing detection from the following four aspects. The rationale of polarization remote sensing detection is the base of polarization remote sensing detection, so it is firstly introduced. Secondly, the present researches on equipments that are used in polarization remote sensing detection are particularly and completely expatiated. Thirdly, the present exploration of theoretical simulation of polarization remote sensing detection is well detailed. Finally, the authors present the applications research home and abroad of the polarization remote sensing detection technique in the fields of remote sensing, atmospheric sounding, sea surface and underwater detection, biology and medical diagnosis, astronomical observation and military, summing up the current problems in polarization remote sensing detection. The development trend of polarization remote sensing detection technology in the future is pointed out in order to provide a reference for similar studies.


    The Arctic Institute of North America long has been interested in encouraging full and specific attention to applications of remote sensing to polar...research problems. The major purpose of the symposium was to acquaint scientists and technicians concerned with remote sensing with some of the...special problems of the polar areas and, in turn, to acquaint polar scientists with the potential of the use of remote sensing . The Symposium therefore was

  20. Basic research in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This overview paper points out that one of the problems impeding further development of remote sensing is that not much attention has been paid to basic research. Key contents of basic research in remote sensing, including modeling, inversion, scaling and scientific experiments, are reviewed. Significance of basic research is demonstrated through summarizing the intentions and progress of the project "Quantitative Remote Sensing Research on Land Surface Energy Exchange".

  1. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications (United States)


    WA 98105 phone: (206) 685-2609 fax: (206) 543-6785 email: Robert A. Holman Merrick Haller, Alexander Kuropov, Tuba...Ozkan-Haller Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331 phone: (541) 737-2914 fax: (541) 737-2064 email: holman Steve...Infrared Remote Sensing and Lidar– UW: Chickadel and Jessup B. Electro-Optical Remote Sensing – OSU: Holman C. Microwave Remote Sensing – UW

  2. An Overview on Data Mining of Nighttime Light Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Deren


    Full Text Available When observing the Earth from above at night, it is clear that the human settlement and major economic regions emit glorious light. At cloud-free nights, some remote sensing satellites can record visible radiance source, including city light, fishing boat light and fire, and these nighttime cloud-free images are remotely sensed nighttime light images. Different from daytime remote sensing, nighttime light remote sensing provides a unique perspective on human social activities, thus it has been widely used for spatial data mining of socioeconomic domains. Historically, researches on nighttime light remote sensing mostly focus on urban land cover and urban expansion mapping using DMSP/OLS imagery, but the nighttime light images are not the unique remote sensing source to do these works. Through decades of development of nighttime light product, the nighttime light remote sensing application has been extended to numerous interesting and scientific study domains such as econometrics, poverty estimation, light pollution, fishery and armed conflict. Among the application cases, it is surprising to see the Gross Domestic Production (GDP data can be corrected using the nighttime light data, and it is interesting to see mechanism of several diseases can be revealed by nighttime light images, while nighttime light are the unique remote sensing source to do the above works. As the nighttime light remote sensing has numerous applications, it is important to summarize the application of nighttime light remote sensing and its data mining fields. This paper introduced major satellite platform and sensors for observing nighttime light at first. Consequently, the paper summarized the progress of nighttime light remote sensing data mining in socioeconomic parameter estimation, urbanization monitoring, important event evaluation, environmental and healthy effects, fishery dynamic mapping, epidemiological research and natural gas flaring monitoring. Finally, future

  3. Environmental impact prediction using remote sensing images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pezhman ROUDGARMI; Masoud MONAVARI; Jahangir FEGHHI; Jafar NOURI; Nematollah KHORASANI


    Environmental impact prediction is an important step in many environmental studies. Awide variety of methods have been developed in this concern. During this study, remote sensing images were used for environmental impact prediction in Robatkarim area, Iran, during the years of 2005~2007. It was assumed that environmental impact could be predicted using time series satellite imageries. Natural vegetation cover was chosen as a main environmental element and a case study. Environmental impacts of the regional development on natural vegetation of the area were investigated considering the changes occurred on the extent of natural vegetation cover and the amount of biomass. Vegetation data, land use and land cover classes (as activity factors) within several years were prepared using satellite images. The amount ofbiomass was measured by Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based on satellite images. The resulted biomass estimates were tested by the paired samples t-test method. No significant difference was observed between the average biomass of estimated and control samples at the 5% significance level. Finally, regression models were used for the environmental impacts prediction. All obtained regression models for prediction of impacts on natural vegetation cover show values over 0.9 for both correlation coefficient and R-squared. According to the resulted methodology, the prediction models of projects and plans impacts can also be developed for other environmental elements which may be derived using time series remote sensing images.

  4. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation (United States)

    Jain, Sadhana


    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  5. Machine learning in geosciences and remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David J. Lary; Amir H. Alavi; Amir H. Gandomi; Annette L. Walker


    Learning incorporates a broad range of complex procedures. Machine learning (ML) is a subdivision of artificial intelligence based on the biological learning process. The ML approach deals with the design of algorithms to learn from machine readable data. ML covers main domains such as data mining, difficult-to-program applications, and software applications. It is a collection of a variety of algorithms (e.g. neural networks, support vector machines, self-organizing map, decision trees, random forests, case-based reasoning, genetic programming, etc.) that can provide multivariate, nonlinear, nonparametric regres-sion or classification. The modeling capabilities of the ML-based methods have resulted in their extensive applications in science and engineering. Herein, the role of ML as an effective approach for solving problems in geosciences and remote sensing will be highlighted. The unique features of some of the ML techniques will be outlined with a specific attention to genetic programming paradigm. Furthermore, nonparametric regression and classification illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the ef-ficiency of ML for tackling the geosciences and remote sensing problems.

  6. Benthic habitat mapping using hyperspectral remote sensing (United States)

    Vélez-Reyes, Miguel; Goodman, James A.; Castrodad-Carrau, Alexey; Jiménez-Rodriguez, Luis O.; Hunt, Shawn D.; Armstrong, Roy


    Benthic habitats are the different bottom environments as defined by distinct physical, geochemical, and biological characteristics. Remote sensing is increasingly being used to map and monitor the complex dynamics associated with estuarine and nearshore benthic habitats. Advantages of remote sensing technology include both the qualitative benefits derived from a visual overview, and more importantly, the quantitative abilities for systematic assessment and monitoring. Advancements in instrument capabilities and analysis methods are continuing to expand the accuracy and level of effectiveness of the resulting data products. Hyperspectral sensors in particular are rapidly emerging as a more complete solution, especially for the analysis of subsurface shallow aquatic systems. The spectral detail offered by hyperspectral instruments facilitates significant improvements in the capacity to differentiate and classify benthic habitats. This paper reviews two techniques for mapping shallow coastal ecosystems that both combine the retrieval of water optical properties with a linear unmixing model to obtain classifications of the seafloor. Example output using AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii is employed to demonstrate the application potential of the two approaches and compare their respective results.

  7. Remotely Sensing the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern


    In remote sensing, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) provides insight into physiological processes occurring inside the leaves in a stand of plants. Developed by Gamon et al., (1990 and 1992), PRI evolved from laboratory measurements of the reflectance of individual leaves (Bilger et al.,1989). Yet in a remotely sensed image, a pixel measurement may include light from both reflecting and transmitting leaves. We conducted laboratory experiments comparing values of PRI based upon polarized reflectance and transmittance measurements of water and nutrient stressed leaves. We illuminated single detached leaves using a current controlled light source (Oriel model 66881) and measured the leaf weight using an analytical balance (Mettler model AE 260) and the light reflected and transmitted by the leaf during dry down using two Analytical Spectral Devices spectroradiometers. Polarizers on the incident and reflected light beams allowed us to divide the leaf reflectance into two parts: a polarized surface reflectance and a non-polarized 'leaf interior' reflectance. Our results underscore the importance when calculating PRI of removing the leaf surface reflection, which contains no information about physiological processes ongoing in the leaf interior. The results show that the leaf physiology information is in the leaf interior reflectance, not the leaf transmittance. Applied to a plant stand, these results suggest use of polarization measurements in sun-view directions that minimize the number of sunlit transmitting leaves in the sensor field of view.

  8. Theory of Geological Anomaly in Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Geological anomaly is geological body or complex body with obviously different compositions, structures or orders of genesis as compared with those in the surrounding areas. Geological anomaly, restrained by the geological factors closely associated with ore-forming process, is an important clue to ore deposits. The geological anomaly serves as a geological sign to locate ore deposits. Therefore, it is very important to study how to define the characteristics of geological anomaly and further to locate the changes in these characteristics. In this paper, the authors propose the geological anomaly based on the remote-sensing images and data, and expound systematically such image features as scale, size, boundary, morphology and genesis of geological anomalies. Then the authors introduce the categorization of the geological anomalies according to their geneses. The image characteristics of some types of geological anomalies, such as the underground geological anomaly, are also explained in detail. Based on the remote-sensing interpretation of these geological anomalies, the authors conclude that the forecasting and exploration of ore deposits should be focused on the following three aspects: (1) the analysis of geological setting and geological anomaly; (2) the analysis of circular geological anomaly, and (3) the comprehensive forecasting of ore deposits and the research into multi-source information.

  9. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.


    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  10. Linking climate change education through the integration of a kite-borne remote sensing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Xie


    Full Text Available A majority of secondary science teachers are found to include the topic of climate change in their courses. However, teachers informally and sporadically discuss climate change and students rarely understand the underlying scientific concepts. The project team developed an innovative pedagogical approach, in which teachers and students learn climate change concepts by analyzing National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA global data collected through satellites and by imitating the NASA data collection process through NASA Airborne Earth Research Observation Kites And Tethered Systems (AEROKATS, a kite-borne remote sensing system. Besides AEROKATS, other major components of this system include a web-collection of NASA and remote sensing data and related educational resources, project-based learning for teacher professional development, teacher and student field trips, iOS devices, smart field data collector apps, portable weather stations, probeware, and a virtual teacher collaboratory supported with a GIS-enabled mapping portal. Three sets of research instruments, the NASA Long-Term Experience –Educator End of Event Survey, the Teacher End of Project Survey, and the pre-and-post-Investigating Climate Change and Remote Sensing (ICCARS project student exams, are adapted to study the pedagogical impacts of the NASA AEROKATS remote sensing system. These findings confirm that climate change education is more effective when both teachers and students actively participate in authentic scientific inquiry by collecting and analyzing remote sensing data, developing hypotheses, designing experiments, sharing findings, and discussing results.

  11. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.


    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  12. Development and Experimental Verification of Key Techniques to Validate Remote Sensing Products (United States)

    Li, X.; Wang, S. G.; Ge, Y.; Jin, R.; Liu, S. M.; Ma, M. G.; Shi, W. Z.; Li, R. X.; Liu, Q. H.


    Validation of remote sensing land products is a fundamental issue for Earth observation. Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) has launched a high-tech R&D Program named `Development and experimental verification of key techniques to validate remote sensing products' in 2011. This paper introduces the background, scientific objectives, research contents of this project and research result already achieved. The objectives of this project include (1) to build a technical specification for the validation of remote sensing products; (2) to investigate the performance, we will carry out a comprehensive remote sensing experiment on satellite - aircraft - ground truth and then modify Step 1 until reach the predefined requirement; (3) to establish a validation network of China for remote sensing products. In summer 2012, with support of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER), field observations have been successfully conducted in the central stream of the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in northwest China. A flux observation matrix composed of eddy covariance (EC) and large aperture scintillometer (LAS), in addition to a densely distributed eco-hydrological wireless sensor network have been established to capture multi-scale heterogeneities of evapotranspiration (ET), leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture and temperature. Airborne missions have been flown with the payloads of imaging spectrometer, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), infrared thermal imager and microwave radiometer that provide various scales of aerial remote sensing observations. Satellite images with high resolution have been collected and pre-processed, e.g. PROBA-CHRIS and TerraSAR-X. Simultaneously, ground measurements have been conducted over specific sampling plots and transects to obtain validation data sets. With this setup complex problems are addressed, e.g. heterogeneity, scaling, uncertainty, and eventually to

  13. Recent Advances in Maya Studies Using Remotely Sensed Data (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Irwin, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3i radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the baJos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The combination of water management and bajo farming is an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a

  14. Remote Sensing Training for Middle School through the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education (United States)

    Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Baltrop, J.


    Remote sensing has steadily become an integral part of multiple disciplines, research, and education. Remote sensing can be defined as the process of acquiring information about an object or area of interest without physical contact. As remote sensing becomes a necessity in solving real world problems and scientific questions an important question to consider is why remote sensing training is significant to education and is it relevant to training students in this discipline. What has been discovered is the interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, specifically remote sensing, has declined in our youth. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) continuously strives to provide education and research opportunities on ice sheet, coastal, ocean, and marine science. One of those continued outreach efforts are Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Middle School Program. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation CReSIS Middle School Program offers hands on experience for middle school students. CERSER and NSF offer students the opportunity to study and learn about remote sensing and its vital role in today's society as it relate to climate change and real world problems. The CReSIS Middle School Program is an annual two-week effort that offers middle school students experience with remote sensing and its applications. Specifically, participants received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the students learned the tools, mechanisms, and applications of a Garmin 60 GPS. As a part of the program the students were required to complete a fieldwork assignment where several longitude and latitude points were given throughout campus. The students had to then enter the longitude and latitude points into the Garmin 60 GPS, navigate their way to each location while also accurately reading the GPS to make sure travel was in the right direction. Upon completion of GPS training the

  15. Optical Properties of Volcanic Ash: Improving Remote Sensing Observations (United States)

    Whelley, P.; Colarco, P. R.; Aquila, V.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Young, K. E.; Lima, A. R.; Martins, J. V.; Carn, S. A.


    Many times each year explosive volcanic eruptions loft ash into the atmosphere. Global travel and trade rely on aircraft vulnerable to encounters with airborne ash. Volcanic ash advisory centers (VAACs) rely on dispersion forecasts and satellite data to issue timely warnings. To improve ash forecasts model developers and satellite data providers need realistic information about volcanic ash microphysical and optical properties. In anticipation of future large eruptions we can study smaller events to improve our remote sensing and modeling skills so when the next Pinatubo 1991 or larger eruption occurs, ash can confidently be tracked in a quantitative way. At distances >100km from their sources, drifting ash plumes, often above meteorological clouds, are not easily detected from conventional remote sensing platforms, save deriving their quantitative characteristics, such as mass density. Quantitative interpretation of these observations depends on a priori knowledge of the spectral optical properties of the ash in UV (>0.3μm) and TIR wavelengths (>10μm). Incorrect assumptions about the optical properties result in large errors in inferred column mass loading and size distribution, which misguide operational ash forecasts. Similarly, simulating ash properties in global climate models also requires some knowledge of optical properties to improve aerosol speciation. Recent research has identified a wide range in volcanic ash optical properties among samples collected from the ground after different eruptions. The database of samples investigated remains relatively small, and measurements of optical properties at the relevant particle sizes and spectral channels are far from complete. Generalizing optical properties remains elusive, as does establishing relationships between ash composition and optical properties, which are essential for satellite retrievals. We are building a library of volcanic ash optical and microphysical properties. In this presentation we show

  16. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles


    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  17. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing (United States)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.


    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  18. Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigor (United States)

    Luther, Joan E.; Carroll, Allen L.


    The potential of remote sensing to monitor indices of forest health was tested by examining the spectral separability of plots with different balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, vigor. Four levels of vigor were achieved with controlled experimental manipulations of forest stands. In order of increasing vigor, the treatments were root pruning, control, thinning and thinning in combination with fertilization. Spectral reflectance of branchlets from each plot were measured under laboratory conditions using a field portable spectroradiometer with a spectral range from 350 - 2500 nm. Branchlets were discriminated using combinations of factor and discriminant analyses techniques with classification accuracies of 91% and 83% for early and late season analyses, respectively. Relationships between spectral reflectance measurements at canopy levels, stand vigor, and foliage quality for an insect herbivore will be analyzed further in support of future large scale monitoring of balsam fir vulnerability to insect disturbance.

  19. Multisensor image fusion techniques in remote sensing (United States)

    Ehlers, Manfred

    Current and future remote sensing programs such as Landsat, SPOT, MOS, ERS, JERS, and the space platform's Earth Observing System (Eos) are based on a variety of imaging sensors that will provide timely and repetitive multisensor earth observation data on a global scale. Visible, infrared and microwave images of high spatial and spectral resolution will eventually be available for all parts of the earth. It is essential that efficient processing techniques be developed to cope with the large multisensor data volumes. This paper discusses data fusion techniques that have proved successful for synergistic merging of SPOT HRV, Landsat TM and SIR-B images. It is demonstrated that these techniques can be used to improve rectification accuracies, to depicit greater cartographic detail, and to enhance spatial resolution in multisensor image data sets.

  20. Adaptive Remote Sensing Texture Compression on GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Lu


    Full Text Available Considering the properties of remote sensing texture such as strong randomness and weak local correlation, a novel adaptive compression method based on vector quantizer is presented and implemented on GPU. Utilizing the property of Human Visual System (HVS, a new similarity measurement function is designed instead of using Euclid distance. Correlated threshold between blocks can be obtained adaptively according to the property of different images without artificial auxiliary. Furthermore, a self-adaptive threshold adjustment during the compression is designed to improve the reconstruct quality. Experiments show that the method can handle various resolution images adaptively. It can achieve satisfied compression rate and reconstruct quality at the same time. Index is coded to further increase the compression rate. The coding way is designed to guarantee accessing the index randomly too. Furthermore, the compression and decompression process is speed up with the usage of GPU, on account of their parallelism.

  1. Remote sensing and characterization of anomalous debris (United States)

    Sridharan, R.; Beavers, W.; Lambour, R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Kansky, J.; Stansbery, E.


    The analysis of orbital debris data shows a band of anomalously high debris concentration in the altitude range between 800 and 1000 km. Analysis indicates that the origin is the leaking coolant fluid from nuclear power sources that powered a now defunct Soviet space-based series of ocean surveillance satellites. A project carried out to detect, track and characterize a sample of the anomalous debris is reported. The nature of the size and shape of the sample set, and the possibility of inferring the composition of the droplets were assessed. The technique used to detect, track and characterize the sample set is described and the results of the characterization analysis are presented. It is concluded that the nature of the debris is consistent with leaked Na-K fluid, although this cannot be proved with the remote sensing techniques used.

  2. Toward interactive search in remote sensing imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Do [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harvey, Neal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Theile, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    To move from data to information in almost all science and defense applications requires a human-in-the-loop to validate information products, resolve inconsistencies, and account for incomplete and potentially deceptive sources of information. This is a key motivation for visual analytics which aims to develop techniques that complement and empower human users. By contrast, the vast majority of algorithms developed in machine learning aim to replace human users in data exploitation. In this paper we describe a recently introduced machine learning problem, called rare category detection, which may be a better match to visual analytic environments. We describe a new design criteria for this problem, and present comparisons to existing techniques with both synthetic and real-world datasets. We conclude by describing an application in broad-area search of remote sensing imagery.

  3. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants (United States)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John


    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  4. Unsupervised classification of remote multispectral sensing data (United States)

    Su, M. Y.


    The new unsupervised classification technique for classifying multispectral remote sensing data which can be either from the multispectral scanner or digitized color-separation aerial photographs consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is a one-pass sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. Applications of the technique using an IBM-7094 computer on multispectral data sets over Purdue's Flight Line C-1 and the Yellowstone National Park test site have been accomplished. Comparisons between the classification maps by the unsupervised technique and the supervised maximum liklihood technique indicate that the classification accuracies are in agreement.

  5. Recent Progresses of Microwave Marine Remote Sensing (United States)

    Yang, Jingsong; Ren, Lin; Zheng, Gang; Wang, He; He, Shuangyan; Wang, Juan; Li, Xiaohui


    It is presented in this paper the recent progresses of Dragon 3 Program (ID. 10412) in the field of microwave marine remote sensing including (1) ocean surface wind fields from full polarization synthetic aperture radars (SAR), (2) joint retrieval of directional ocean wave spectra from SAR and wave spectrometer, (3) error analysis on ENVISAT ASAR wave mode significant wave height (SWH) retrievals using triple collocation model, (4) typhoon observation from SAR and optical sensors, (5) ocean internal wave observation from SAR and optical sensors, (6) ocean eddy observation from SAR and optical sensors, (7) retrieval models of water vapor and wet tropospheric path delay for the HY-2A calibration microwave radiometer, (8) calibration of SWH from HY-2A satellite altimeter.

  6. Remote sensing of vegetation at regional scales (United States)

    Hall, F. G.


    Relations between spectroscopy and the concept of inferring surface cover type and condition from measurements of reflected or emitted radiation are examined, taking into account the observation of 'spectral signatures'. It has now become evident that the paradigm which had provided the basis for the spectroscopic identification of materials, is incomplete when applied to the inference of type and condition of materials in a natural environment. It was found that one could not collect a remote sensing signature from an unknown ground cover class at a particular time and place and match that signature with an a priori catalog value to infer the properties of the unknown cover class. The spectroscopy paradigm was, therefore, largely abandoned in favor of decision theoretic approaches. Attention is given to the temporal greenness profile feature space, the crop stage of development estimation using a temporal greenness profile, the temporal greenness profile for crop yield, and applications to regional scales.

  7. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing (United States)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.


    An urban area was studied through the use of the inventory-by-surrogate method rather than by direct interpretation of photographic imagery. Prior uses of remote sensing in urban and public research are examined. The effects of crowding, poor housing conditions, air pollution, and street conditions on public health are considered. Color infrared photography was used to categorize land use features and the grid method was used in photo interpretation analysis. The incidence of shigella and salmonella, hepatitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and veneral disease were studied, together with mortality and morbidity rates. Sample census data were randomly collected and validated. The hypothesis that land use and residential quality are associated with and act as an influence upon health and physical well-being was studied and confirmed.

  8. Remote sensing monitoring of the global ozonosphere (United States)

    Genco, S.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.


    The use of CFCs, which are the main responsible for the ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere and the formation of the so-called "ozone hole" over Antarctic Region, was phase out by Montreal Protocol (1989). CFCs' concentration is recently reported to decrease in the free atmosphere, but severe episodes of ozone depletion in both Arctic and Antarctic regions are still occurring. Nevertheless the complete recovery of the Ozone layer is expected by about 2050. Recent simulation of perturbations in stratospheric chemistry highlight that circulation, temperature and composition are strictly correlated and they influence the global climate changes. Chemical composition plays an important role in the thermodynamic of the atmosphere, as every gaseous species can absorb and emit in different wavelengths, so their different concentration is responsible for the heating or cooling of the atmosphere. Therefore long-term observations are required to monitor the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. Measurements from satellite remote sensing instruments, which provide wide coverage, are supplementary to selective ground-based observations which are usually better calibrated, more stable in time and cover a wider time span. The combination of the data derived from different space-borne instruments calibrated with ground-based sensors is needed to produce homogeneous and consistent long-term data records. These last are required for robust investigations and especially for trend analysis. Here, we perform a review of the major remote-sensing techniques and of the principal datasets available to study the evolution of ozone layer in the past decades and predict future behavio

  9. Acoustic Remote Sensing of Rogue Waves (United States)

    Parsons, Wade; Kadri, Usama


    We propose an early warning system for approaching rogue waves using the remote sensing of acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) - progressive sound waves that propagate at the speed of sound in the ocean. It is believed that AGWs are generated during the formation of rogue waves, carrying information on the rogue waves at near the speed of sound, i.e. much faster than the rogue wave. The capability of identifying those special sound waves would enable detecting rogue waves most efficiently. A lot of promising work has been reported on AGWs in the last few years, part of which in the context of remote sensing as an early detection of tsunami. However, to our knowledge none of the work addresses the problem of rogue waves directly. Although there remains some uncertainty as to the proper definition of a rogue wave, there is little doubt that they exist and no one can dispute the potential destructive power of rogue waves. An early warning system for such extreme waves would become a demanding safety technology. A closed form expression was developed for the pressure induced by an impulsive source at the free surface (the Green's function) from which the solution for more general sources can be developed. In particular, we used the model of the Draupner Wave of January 1st, 1995 as a source and calculated the induced AGW signature. In particular we studied the AGW signature associated with a special feature of this wave, and characteristic of rogue waves, of the absence of any local set-down beneath the main crest and the presence of a large local set-up.

  10. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in wildlife management (United States)

    Carneggie, David M.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Pettinger, Lawrence R.


    Citations of 165 selected technical reports, journal articles, and other publications on remote sensing applications for wildlife management are presented in a bibliography. These materials summarize developments in the use of remotely sensed data for wildlife habitat mapping, habitat inventory, habitat evaluation, and wildlife census. The bibliography contains selected citations published between 1947 and 1979.

  11. Study on spectral structure of quantum remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI; Siwen; HAN; Jixia


    A study of the use of fine spectral structure in quantum remote sensing, including an expression, begins with a summary of present-day applications of spectrum remote sensing, which is followed by a theoretical discussion of the influence of electronic spin upon hydrogen-like atom energy levels and the calculation of spectral line in the absence of a circumstance field.

  12. Quantitative Application Study on Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-mei; XU Su-dong; LIN Qiang


    Quantitative application on remote sensing of suspended sediment is an important aspect of the engineering application of remote sensing study.In this paper,the Xiamen Bay is chosen as the study area.Eleven different phases of the remote sensing data are selected to establish a quantitative remote sensing model to map suspended sediment by using remote sensing images and the quasi-synchronous measured sediment data.Based on empirical statistics developed are the conversion models between instantaneous suspended sediment concentration and tidally-averaged suspended sediment concentration as well as the conversion models between surface layer suspended sediment concentration and the depth-averaged suspended sediment concentration.On this basis,the quantitative application integrated model on remote sensing of suspended sediment is developed.By using this model as well as multi-temporal remote sensing images,multi-year averaged suspended sediment concentration of the Xiamen Bay are predicted.The comparison between model prediction and observed data shows that the multi-year averaged suspended sediment concentration of studied sites as well as the concentration difference of neighboring sites can be well predicted by the remote sensing model with an error rate of 21.61% or less,which can satisfy the engineering requirements of channel deposition calculation.

  13. Application of remote sensing to agricultural field trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.


    Remote sensing techniques enable quantitative information about a field trial to be obtained instantaneously and non-destructively. The aim of this study was to identify a method that can reduce inaccuracies in field trial analysis, and to identify how remote sensing can support and/or replace conve

  14. Technology Progress Report for Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JHANG Jingshan; LIU Heguang; DONG Xiaolong


    In this presentation, technological progress for China's microwave remote sensing is introduced. New developments of the microwave remote sensing instruments formeteorological satellite FY-3, ocean dynamic measurement satellite (HY-2), environment small SAR satellite (H J-1C) and China's lunar exploration satellite (Chang'E-1), are reported.

  15. Progress for Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jingshan; LIU Heguang; DONG Xiaolong


    In this paper, technological progress for China's microwave remote sensing is introduced. New developments of the microwave remote sensing instruments for meteorological satellite FY-3, ocean dynamic measurement satellite (HY-2), environment small SAR satellite (HJ-1C) and China's lunar exploration satellite (Chang'E-1), geostationary orbit meteorological satellite FY-4M,are reported.

  16. Hydrological Application of Remote Sensing: Surface States -- Snow (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Foster, James L.; Chang, Alfred T. C.


    Remote sensing research of snow cover has been accomplished for nearly 40 years. The use of visible, near-infrared, active and passive-microwave remote sensing for the analysis of snow cover is reviewed with an emphasis on the work on the last decade.

  17. Streamflow modelling by remote sensing: a contribution to digital earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, M.L.; Latif, A.B.; Pohl, C.; Duan, Z.


    Remote sensing contributes valuable information to streamflow estimates. This paper discusses its relevance to the digital earth concept. The authors categorize the role of remote sensing in streamflow modelling and estimation. This paper emphasizes the applications and challenges of satellite-based

  18. Estimation of Areal Soil Water Content through Microwave Remote Sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oevelen, van P.J.


    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content are disc

  19. Remote Sensing and Modelling of Solar Induced Fluorescence (United States)

    Maier, S. W.

    . For synoptic, remote measurements of the physiological status of green plants under environmental conditions, the fluorescence LIDAR technique was introduced. The first approaches were oriented towards the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in order to derive from spectral information parameters related to the physiology of plants. Due to the limited spatial coverage and the complexity of an airborne fluorescence LIDAR these systems were not widely accepted for operational purposes. The objective of this paper is to present a new remote sensing technique that allows to monitor the sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence of green vegetation superimposed to the reflectance spectra. In contrast to the method using the Fraunhofer line in the red spectral region for monitoring the chlorophyll fluorescence the new method uses the spectral absorption feature of atmospheric oxygen at 762nm which better fits to the wavelength of chlorophyll fluorescence than the Fraunhofer absorption line at 656nm. In addition the requirements for spectral resolution and system stability are not so severe for the new method than for the Fraunhofer Lines Discriminator method. It is shown how the sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence can be derived from reflectance spectra measured on ground and from aircraft. The new method can even be applied to medium spectral resolution imaging spectrometers like the airborne sensor ROSIS and AVIRIS or the satellite sensors like MOS, MERIS and CHRIS with a spectral resolution better than 10nm in the oxygen absorption band. Our findings show that sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence can be observed under natural conditions in the NIR spectral region using the absorption band of oxygen on the leaf and the canopy level from ground based and airborne radiance measurements. The results demonstrate that sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence gives a different information than commonly used vegetation indices.

  20. Remote Sensing of shallow sea floor for digital earth environment (United States)

    Yahya, N. N.; Hashim, M.; Ahmad, S.


    Understanding the sea floor biodiversity requires spatial information that can be acquired from remote sensing satellite data. Species volume, spatial patterns and species coverage are some of the information that can be derived. Current approaches for mapping sea bottom type have evolved from field observation, visual interpretation from aerial photography, mapping from remote sensing satellite data along with field survey and hydrograhic chart. Remote sensing offers most versatile technique to map sea bottom type up to a certain scale. This paper reviews the technical characteristics of signal and light interference within marine features, space and remote sensing satellite. In addition, related image processing techniques that are applicable to remote sensing satellite data for sea bottom type digital mapping is also presented. The sea bottom type can be differentiated by classification method using appropriate spectral bands of satellite data. In order to verify the existence of particular sea bottom type, field observations need to be carried out with proper technique and equipment.

  1. Satellite remote-sensing technologies used in forest fire management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-rui; Douglas J. Mcrae; SHU Li-fu; WANG Ming-yu; LI Hong


    Satellite remote sensing has become a primary data source for fire danger rating prediction, fuel and fire mapping, fire monitoring, and fire ecology research. This paper summarizes the research achievements in these research fields, and discusses the future trend in the use of satellite remote-sensing techniques in wildfire management. Fuel-type maps from remote-sensing data can now be produced at spatial and temporal scales quite adequate for operational fire management applications. US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellites are being used for fire detection worldwide due to their high temporal resolution and ability to detect fires in remote regions. Results can be quickly presented on many Websites providing a valuable service readily available to fire agency. As cost-effective tools, satellite remote-sensing techniques play an important role in fire mapping. Improved remote-sensing techniques have the potential to date older fire scars and provide estimates of burn severity. Satellite remote sensing is well suited to assessing the extent of biomass burning, a prerequisite for estimating emissions at regional and global scales, which are needed for better understanding the effects of fire on climate change. The types of satellites used in fire research are also discussed in the paper. Suggestions on what remote-sensing efforts should be completed in China to modernize fire management technology in this country are given.

  2. Integrating remote sensing techniques at Cuprite, Nevada: AVIRIS, Thematic Mapper, and field spectroscopy (United States)

    Hill, Bradley; Nash, Greg; Ridd, Merrill; Hauff, Phoebe L.; Ebel, Phil


    The Cuprite mining district in southwestern Nevada has become a test site for remote sensing studies with numerous airborne scanners and ground sensor data sets collected over the past fifteen years. Structurally, the Cuprite region can be divided into two areas with slightly different alteration and mineralogy. These zones lie on either side of a postulated low-angle structural discontinuity that strikes nearly parallel to US Route 95. Hydrothermal alternation at Cuprite was classified into three major zones: silicified, opalized, and argillized. These alteration types form a bulls-eye pattern east of the highway and are more linear on the west side of the highway making a striking contrast from the air and the imagery. Cuprite is therefore an ideal location for remote sensing research as it exhibits easily identified hydrothermal zoning, is relatively devoid of vegetation, and contains a distinctive spectrally diagnostic mineral suite including the ammonium feldspar buddingtonite, several types of alunite, different jarosites, illite, kaolinite, smectite, dickite, and opal. This present study brings a new dimension to these previous remote sensing and ground data sets compiled for Cuprite. The development of a higher resolution field spectrometer now provides the capability to combine extensive in-situ mineralogical data with a new geologic field survey and detailed Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images. The various data collection methods and the refinement of the integrated techniques are discussed.

  3. Commercial future: making remote sensing a media event (United States)

    Lurie, Ian


    The rapid growth of commercial remote sensing has made high quality digital sensing data widely available -- now, remote sensing must become and remain a strong, commercially viable industry. However, this new industry cannot survive without an educated consumer base. To access markets, remote sensing providers must make their product more accessible, both literally and figuratively: Potential customers must be able to find the data they require, when they require it, and they must understand the utility of the information available to them. The Internet and the World Wide Web offer the perfect medium to educate potential customers and to sell remote sensing data to those customers. A well-designed web presence can provide both an information center and a market place for companies offering their data for sale. A very high potential web-based market for remote sensing lies in media. News agencies, web sites, and a host of other visual media services can use remote sensing data to provide current, relevant information regarding news around the world. This paper will provide a model for promotion and sale of remote sensing data via the Internet.

  4. Remote Sensing and GIS for Water Resource Decision Making (United States)

    Stough, T. M.; Scantlin, P.; Granger, S. L.; Geller, G.; Molotch, N. P.; Hyon, J.


    Climatological controls on snow distribution and associated cycling of water and energy dictates water availability for sustaining ecosystems and for meeting the demands of the Western US. Over the past 50 years, climate change and associated increases in air temperature have accelerated snowmelt rates throughout the region. Projecting these trends into the coming century, climate and economic models predict decreases in water availability and an associated devaluation of California's agricultural lands by ~15% - an economic loss amounting to billions of dollars annually. Improving knowledge of physical processes related to snow distribution is critical for reducing uncertainty in these predictions and in turn enabling mitigation of impacts through informed environmental policy and efficient resource management. We are collaborating with the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) to incorporate a GIS-based information product that integrates snowpack observations from ground, airborne, and remotely sensed data into their water forecasting process. The central data product is a snow water equivalence (SWE) reconstruction that computes the SWE for the snow maximum for each season of interest (Molotch, 2009). The SWE product is then analyzed in ArcGIS using watersheds (computed using NHD+ hyrography data) that feed stream gauges monitored by LADWP. In this way, we integrate snowpack from multiple sources to develop a GIS-based process for comparing LADWP runoff measurements with estimates from space-based observations. We will present the results of our case study of five watersheds in the Owens Valley for the 2001 through 2007 snow seasons.

  5. Field calibration and validation of remote-sensing surveys (United States)

    Pe'eri, Shachak; McLeod, Andy; Lavoie, Paul; Ackerman, Seth D.; Gardner, James; Parrish, Christopher


    The Optical Collection Suite (OCS) is a ground-truth sampling system designed to perform in situ measurements that help calibrate and validate optical remote-sensing and swath-sonar surveys for mapping and monitoring coastal ecosystems and ocean planning. The OCS system enables researchers to collect underwater imagery with real-time feedback, measure the spectral response, and quantify the water clarity with simple and relatively inexpensive instruments that can be hand-deployed from a small vessel. This article reviews the design and performance of the system, based on operational and logistical considerations, as well as the data requirements to support a number of coastal science and management projects. The OCS system has been operational since 2009 and has been used in several ground-truth missions that overlapped with airborne lidar bathymetry (ALB), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and swath-sonar bathymetric surveys in the Gulf of Maine, southwest Alaska, and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Research projects that have used the system include a comparison of backscatter intensity derived from acoustic (multibeam/interferometric sonars) versus active optical (ALB) sensors, ALB bottom detection, and seafloor characterization using HSI and ALB.

  6. NASA, Remote Sensing and Archaeology: An Example from Southeast Louisiana (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.


    NASA Stennis Space Center, located in Mississippi, USA, undertook an archaeological survey of the southeastern Louisiana marshes beginning in 2003. Progress on this activity was severely hampered by the 2005 hurricane season when both Katrina and Rita devastated the study area. In 2008, the NASA team reinitiated the analysis of the project data and that work continues today. The project was conducted initially in partnership with the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers New Orleans District and Tulane University. NASA and its partners utilized a wide variety of satellite and airborne remote sensing instruments combined with field verification surveys to identify prehistoric archeological sites in the Southeastern Louisiana delta, both known and still undiscovered. The main approach was to carefully map known sites and use the spectral characteristics of these sites to locate high probability targets elsewhere in the region. The archaeological activities were conducted in support of Coast 2050 whose stated goals is to sustain and restore a coastal ecosystem that supports and protects the environment, economy and culture of southern Louisiana. As the Coast 2050 report states: [T]he rate of coastal land loss in Louisiana has reached catastrophic proportions. Within the last 50 years, land loss rates have exceeded 40 square miles per year, and in the 1990's the rate has been estimated to be between 25 and 35 square miles each year. This loss represents 80% of the coastal wetland loss in the entire continental United States.

  7. New horizons in remote sensing for forest range resource management (United States)

    Lauer, D.T.


    Forest and range resource scientists were among the first to recognize the potential of aircraft and satellite remote sensing for management of timber, forage, water, and wildlife resource. Today, data from a variety of sensor systems are being put to practical use for inventorying, monitoring, and assessing forest and range resources. In the future, improved sensor systems providing new kinds of data will be available. Likewise, new types of data handling and processing systems can be anticipated. Among the new or anticipated aircraft and satellite systems and/or data are National High-Altitude Photograph II, U. S. Geological Survey-acquired Side-Looking Airborne Radar, the Landsat thematic mapper, the National Oceanic Resolution Radiometer, the French Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite, the European Space Agency Earth Resources Satellite, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Large Format Camera and Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A, -B, and -C), and a variety of other systems in existence or planned by the Soviets, Japanese, Canadians, Chinese, Brazilians, Indonesians, and other. Application examples are presented that illustrate uses of 1-kilometer-resolution AVHRR data, 80-meter Landsat multispectral scanner data, 30-meter Landsat thematic mapper data, and 10-meter SPOT-simulator data. These examples address fire fuel monitoring, land cover mapping, rangeland assessment, and soils landscape mapping.

  8. Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservation. (United States)

    Rose, Robert A; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison; Leimgruber, Peter; Morisette, Jeffrey; Musinsky, John; Pintea, Lilian; Prados, Ana; Radeloff, Volker C; Rowen, Mary; Saatchi, Sassan; Schill, Steve; Tabor, Karyn; Turner, Woody; Vodacek, Anthony; Vogelmann, James; Wegmann, Martin; Wilkie, David; Wilson, Cara


    In an effort to increase conservation effectiveness through the use of Earth observation technologies, a group of remote sensing scientists affiliated with government and academic institutions and conservation organizations identified 10 questions in conservation for which the potential to be answered would be greatly increased by use of remotely sensed data and analyses of those data. Our goals were to increase conservation practitioners' use of remote sensing to support their work, increase collaboration between the conservation science and remote sensing communities, identify and develop new and innovative uses of remote sensing for advancing conservation science, provide guidance to space agencies on how future satellite missions can support conservation science, and generate support from the public and private sector in the use of remote sensing data to address the 10 conservation questions. We identified a broad initial list of questions on the basis of an email chain-referral survey. We then used a workshop-based iterative and collaborative approach to whittle the list down to these final questions (which represent 10 major themes in conservation): How can global Earth observation data be used to model species distributions and abundances? How can remote sensing improve the understanding of animal movements? How can remotely sensed ecosystem variables be used to understand, monitor, and predict ecosystem response and resilience to multiple stressors? How can remote sensing be used to monitor the effects of climate on ecosystems? How can near real-time ecosystem monitoring catalyze threat reduction, governance and regulation compliance, and resource management decisions? How can remote sensing inform configuration of protected area networks at spatial extents relevant to populations of target species and ecosystem services? How can remote sensing-derived products be used to value and monitor changes in ecosystem services? How can remote sensing be used to

  9. Spectroscopic Methods of Remote Sensing for Vegetation Characterization (United States)

    Kokaly, R. F.


    Imaging spectroscopy (IS), often referred to as hyperspectral remote sensing, is one of the latest innovations in a very long history of spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods have been used for understanding the composition of the world around us, as well as, the solar system and distant parts of the universe. Continuous sampling of the electromagnetic spectrum in narrow bands is what separates IS from previous forms of remote sensing. Terrestrial imaging spectrometers often have hundreds of channels that cover the wavelength range of reflected solar radiation, including the visible, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) regions. In part due to the large number of channels, a wide variety of methods have been applied to extract information from IS data sets. These can be grouped into several broad classes, including: multi-channel indices, statistical procedures, full spectrum mixing models, and spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic methods carry on the more than 150 year history of laboratory-based spectroscopy applied to material identification and characterization. Spectroscopic methods of IS relate the positions and shapes of spectral features resolved by airborne and spaceborne sensors to the biochemical and physical composition of vegetation in a pixel. The chlorophyll 680nm, water 980nm, water 1200nm, SWIR 1700nm, SWIR 2100nm, and SWIR 2300nm features have been the subject of study. Spectral feature analysis (SFA) involves isolating such an absorption feature using continuum removal (CR) and calculating descriptors of the feature, such as center position, depth, width, area, and asymmetry. SFA has been applied to quantify pigment and non-pigment biochemical concentrations in leaves, plants, and canopies. Spectral feature comparison (SFC) utilizes CR of features in each pixel's spectrum and linear regression with continuum-removed features in reference spectra in a library of known vegetation types to map vegetation species and communities. SFC has

  10. Remote sensing of atmospheric greenhouse gases: bridging spatial scales (United States)

    Humpage, N.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Hewson, W.; Sembhi, H.; Somkuti, P.; Webb, A.; Palmer, P. I.; Feng, L.


    Observed atmospheric variations of greenhouse gases (GHG) are determined by surface-atmosphere exchange, and atmospheric chemistry and transport. These processes occur over a wide spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Confronting atmospheric transport models and ultimately improving the fidelity of surface flux estimates demands an integrated observing system that captures these scales. We will discuss using data the role of GHG remote sensing instruments and argue that our ability to deploy them from the ground and to fly them on satellite, aircraft, and unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV) mean that they represent the ideal technology to bridge the observed scales of variability. We will discuss a five-year record of global-scale column observations of CO2 and CH4 from the Japanese GOSAT satellite instrument that is available from University of Leicester as part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative. We will showcase new CO2 and CH4 column data that was collected by our shortwave infrared spectrometer GHOST oboard the NASA Global Hak during a regional survey over the eastern Pacific during early spring 2015, which included coincident overpasses from GOSAT and the NASA OCO-2. These data are being used to test atmospheric transport models over remote regions and to help validate satellite observations over the oceans. We will also discuss GHOST data collected on the UK Dornier 226 research aircraft to measure local-scale measurements over Leicester city centre, a major power plant, and downwind of a controlled Cumbrian heathland fire. Finally, we will report preliminary results from a new ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer station at Harwell (80 km west of London). We anticipate that this site will eventually join the TCCON network, which has been used to validation of satellite observations.

  11. Remote Oxygen Sensing by Ionospheric Excitation (ROSIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kalogerakis


    Full Text Available The principal optical observable emission resulting from ionospheric modification (IM experiments is the atomic oxygen red line at 630 nm, originating from the O(1D–3P transition. Because the O(1D atom has a long radiative lifetime, it is sensitive to collisional relaxation and an observed decay faster than the radiative rate can be attributed to collisions with atmospheric species. In contrast to the common practice of ignoring O-atoms in interpreting such observations in the past, recent experimental studies on the relaxation of O(1D by O(3P have revealed the dominant role of oxygen atoms in controlling the lifetime of O(1D at altitudes relevant to IM experiments. Using the most up-to-date rate coefficients for collisional relaxation of O(1D by O, N2, and O2, it is now possible to analyze the red line decays observed in IM experiments and thus probe the local ionospheric composition. In this manner, we can demonstrate an approach to remotely detect O-atoms at the altitudes relevant to IM experiments, which we call remote oxygen sensing by ionospheric excitation (ROSIE. The results can be compared with atmospheric models and used to study the temporal, seasonal, altitude and spatial variation of ionospheric O-atom density in the vicinity of heating facilities. We discuss the relevance to atmospheric observations and ionospheric heating experiments and report an analysis of representative IM data.

  12. Retrieval of Remote Sensing Images Using Colour and Texture Attribute

    CERN Document Server

    Maheswary, Priti


    Grouping images into semantically meaningful categories using low-level visual feature is a challenging and important problem in content-based image retrieval. The groupings can be used to build effective indices for an image database. Digital image analysis techniques are being used widely in remote sensing assuming that each terrain surface category is characterized with spectral signature observed by remote sensors. Even with the remote sensing images of IRS data, integration of spatial information is expected to assist and to improve the image analysis of remote sensing data. In this paper we present a satellite image retrieval based on a mixture of old fashioned ideas and state of the art learning tools. We have developed a methodology to classify remote sensing images using HSV color features and Haar wavelet texture features and then grouping them on the basis of particular threshold value. The experimental results indicate that the use of color and texture feature extraction is very useful for image r...

  13. Computational Ghost Imaging for Remote Sensing (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.


    This work relates to the generic problem of remote active imaging; that is, a source illuminates a target of interest and a receiver collects the scattered light off the target to obtain an image. Conventional imaging systems consist of an imaging lens and a high-resolution detector array [e.g., a CCD (charge coupled device) array] to register the image. However, conventional imaging systems for remote sensing require high-quality optics and need to support large detector arrays and associated electronics. This results in suboptimal size, weight, and power consumption. Computational ghost imaging (CGI) is a computational alternative to this traditional imaging concept that has a very simple receiver structure. In CGI, the transmitter illuminates the target with a modulated light source. A single-pixel (bucket) detector collects the scattered light. Then, via computation (i.e., postprocessing), the receiver can reconstruct the image using the knowledge of the modulation that was projected onto the target by the transmitter. This way, one can construct a very simple receiver that, in principle, requires no lens to image a target. Ghost imaging is a transverse imaging modality that has been receiving much attention owing to a rich interconnection of novel physical characteristics and novel signal processing algorithms suitable for active computational imaging. The original ghost imaging experiments consisted of two correlated optical beams traversing distinct paths and impinging on two spatially-separated photodetectors: one beam interacts with the target and then illuminates on a single-pixel (bucket) detector that provides no spatial resolution, whereas the other beam traverses an independent path and impinges on a high-resolution camera without any interaction with the target. The term ghost imaging was coined soon after the initial experiments were reported, to emphasize the fact that by cross-correlating two photocurrents, one generates an image of the target. In

  14. Remote Sensing of Ionosphere by IONOLAB Group (United States)

    Arikan, Feza


    Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. Electron density is a complex function of spatial and temporal variations of solar, geomagnetic, and seismic activities. Ionosphere is the main source of error for navigation and positioning systems and satellite communication. Therefore, characterization and constant monitoring of variability of the ionosphere is of utmost importance for the performance improvement of these systems. Since ionospheric electron density is not a directly measurable quantity, an important derivable parameter is the Total Electron Content (TEC), which is used widely to characterize the ionosphere. TEC is proportional to the total number of electrons on a line crossing the atmosphere. IONOLAB is a research group is formed by Hacettepe University, Bilkent University and Kastamonu University, Turkey gathered to handle the challenges of the ionosphere using state-of-the-art remote sensing and signal processing techniques. IONOLAB group provides unique space weather services of IONOLAB-TEC, International Reference Ionosphere extended to Plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) model based IRI-Plas-MAP, IRI-Plas-STEC and Online IRI-Plas-2015 model at IONOLAB group has been working for imaging and monitoring of ionospheric structure for the last 15 years. TEC is estimated from dual frequency GPS receivers as IONOLAB-TEC using IONOLAB-BIAS. For high spatio-temporal resolution 2-D imaging or mapping, IONOLAB-MAP algorithm is developed that uses automated Universal Kriging or Ordinary Kriging in which the experimental semivariogram is fitted to Matern Function with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). For 3-D imaging of ionosphere and 1-D vertical profiles of electron density, state-of-the-art IRI-Plas model based IONOLAB-CIT algorithm is developed for regional reconstruction that employs Kalman Filters for state


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-guang


    This paper attempts to explore a new avenue of urban small-regional population estimation by remote sensing technology, creatively and comprehensively for the first time using a residence count method, area (density) method and model method, incorporating the application experience of American scholars in the light of the state of our country. Firstly, the author proposes theoretical basis for population estimation by remote sensing, on the basis of analysing and evaluating the history and state quo of application of methods of population estimation by remote sens-ing. Secondly, two original types of mathematical models of population estimation are developed on the basis of remote sensing data, taking Tianjin City as an example. By both of the mathematical models the regional population may be estimated from remote sensing variable values with high accuracy. The number of the independent variables in the lat-ter model is somewhat smaller and the collection of remote sensing data is somewhat easier, but the deviation is a little larger. Finally, some viewpoints on the principled problems about the practical application of remote sensing to popu-lation estimation are put forward.

  16. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.


    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  17. Thermal remote sensing of estuarine spatial dynamics: Effects of bottom-generated vertical mixing (United States)

    Marmorino, G. O.; Smith, G. B.


    In a recent paper, Hedger, R.D., Malthus, T.J., Folkard, A.M., Atkinson, P.M. [2007. Spatial dynamics of estuarine water surface temperature from airborne remote sensing. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 71, 608-615] demonstrate that airborne thermal remote sensing shows great potential for monitoring estuarine dynamics and surface currents. One aspect needing further attention is the impact of bottom-generated vertical mixing as this can create both stationary thermal features as well as thermal patterns that advect with the flow. This dual effect is illustrated using airborne infrared imagery of a mixing front having an embedded pattern of thermal boils. The boils are several meters in diameter (in water less than 4 m deep) and are ˜0.2 °C cooler than the ambient water surface. Time sequential imagery that captures the movement of individual boils as well as their growth rate can be used to deduce both the near-surface current and the intensity of turbulent mixing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Maliki


    Full Text Available Advances in remote sensing technologies are increasingly becoming more useful for resource, ecosystem and agricultural management applications to the extent that these techniques can now also be applied for monitoring of soil contamination and human health risk assessment. While, extensive previous studies have shown that Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (VNIRS in the spectral range 400–2500 nm can be used to quantify various soil constituents simultaneously, the direct determination of metal concentrations by remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy is not as well examined as other soil parameters. The application of VNIRS, including laboratory hyperpectral measurements, field spectrometer measurements or image spectroscopy, generally achieves a good prediction of metal concentrations when compared to traditional wet chemical methods and has the advantage of being relatively less expensive and faster, allowing chemical assessment of contamination in close to real time. Furthermore, imaging spectroscopy can potentially provide significantly more samples over a larger spatial extent than traditional ground sampling methods. Thus the development of remote sensing techniques (field based and either airborne or satellite hyperspectral imaging can support the monitoring and efficient mapping of metal contamination (in dust and soil for environmental and health impact assessment. This review is concerned with the application of remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy to the detection of heavy metals and discusses how current methods could be applied for the quantification of Pb contaminated soil surrounding mines and smelters.

  19. Remote sensing of rainfall for debris-flow hazard assessment (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; ,


    Recent advances in remote sensing of rainfall provide more detailed temporal and spatial data on rainfall distribution. Four case studies of abundant debris flows over relatively small areas triggered during intense rainstorms are examined noting the potential for using remotely sensed rainfall data for landslide hazard analysis. Three examples with rainfall estimates from National Weather Service Doppler radar and one example with rainfall estimates from infrared imagery from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite are compared with ground-based measurements of rainfall and with landslide distribution. The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing of rainfall for landslide hazard analysis are discussed. ?? 2003 Millpress,.

  20. A catalog system for remote-sensing data (United States)

    Singh, R. S.; Scherz, J. P.


    The Practical System for Cataloging, Indexing, and Retrieval of Remote Sensing Data developed by the Interdisciplinary Remote Sensing Group at the University of Wisconsin consists of a card catalog, a site-index-map, a site-index-file, an industry-index-file, and a project-index-file. The system is designed for retrieval of remote-sensing data which include imagery, magnetic tapes, flight logs, maps, ground-truth reports, and research reports containing raw data. It can be operated by conventional library methods, but provision has been made for digitizing the system for computer retrieval.

  1. Preface to: Pan Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Brown, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Joseph, G.

    stream_size 2404 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Pre.pdf.txt stream_source_info Pre.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Preface The Pan Ocean Remote Sensing... Conference (PORSEC), earlier known as the Paci c Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC), was formed in 1992 to provide a venue for international cooperation in the increasingly important area of remote sensing of the ocean. Many countries that border...

  2. Remote sensing models and methods for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schowengerdt, Robert A


    This book is a completely updated, greatly expanded version of the previously successful volume by the author. The Second Edition includes new results and data, and discusses a unified framework and rationale for designing and evaluating image processing algorithms.Written from the viewpoint that image processing supports remote sensing science, this book describes physical models for remote sensing phenomenology and sensors and how they contribute to models for remote-sensing data. The text then presents image processing techniques and interprets them in terms of these models. Spectral, s

  3. Assessment of Watershed Drought Using Remote Sensing (United States)

    Chataut, S.; Piechota, T.


    This paper focuses on drought assessment of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) using remote sensing. Lee's Ferry discharge data for Colorado river in the UCRB and the various Palmer Drought Indices (PDI) such as Palmer Hydrological Drought Indices (PHDI), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and Palmer Z Index (ZINDX) for the five climatic divisions of the UCRB for last 100 years will be analyzed to find out the best climatic division in the UCRB for carrying out the further analysis between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from 5 km resolution Advanced Very High Radiometric Radar (AVHRR) data and the various PDI. The multivariate statistical technique called rotated principal component analysis will be carried out in the time series of the NDVI data in order to avoid multicollinearity and to extract the component that significantly explains the variance in the dataset. The corresponding significant principal scores will be correlated with the PDI to derive relationship between the NDVI and PDI. Preliminary analysis has shown that there is significant correlation between the NDVI and the various PDI, which implies that NDVI could be used as an important data source to detect and monitor the drought condition in the UCRB.

  4. Visibility assesment using remote sensing data (United States)

    Toanca, Florica; Vasilescu, Jeni; Nicolae, Doina; Stefan, Sabina


    Severe weather events like fog have a high impact on all kinds of traffic operations. During the last decade was proven the capability of remote sensing equipments to detect fog cases in terms of duration, occurrence and dissipation. Therefore, in this study the data from Väïsälä CL31 ceilometer and Raman Depolarization Lidar installed at Magurele, Romania (44.35 N, 26.03 E) were used. The backscatter coefficient from Ceilometer and extinction coefficient and different lidar ratios (LR) values from Lidar were used in order to determine horizontal visibility during the fog events in Magurele area. Ceilometer backscatter coefficient profiles are obtained with a time resolution of 16 s and up to 7.5 km altitude. . A neural network algorithm was used to calculate the lidar ratio values for different aerosol types and also for different relative humidity. Thus, for continental aerosol the LR value is 58srad, for continental polluted is 60srad and for smoke LR is 55srad. The average visibility computed for radiation fog , dominant type (57 cases) occurring in Magurele, during 2012-2014 was 50m. An important result is that the dependence of horizontal visibility for radiation fog at Magurele on LR is insignificant. This means that radiation, meteorological and geographical factors influence fog generation more much than aerosol type.

  5. Proceedings of the twelfth international symposium on remote sensing of environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is the third of three volumes of the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, held 20 to 26 April 1978 in Manila, Philippines. This symposium is part of a continuing program investigating current activities in the field of remote sensing. The meeting is intended to promote increased international cooperation in research, development and application of this technology, and to stimulate an exchange of information on all aspects of this multidisciplinary field through the presentation of reports on work planned, in progress or completed. Presentations include those concerned with the utilization of this technology in various national and international programs as well as in numerous applications for monitoring and managing the earth's resources and man's global environment. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne sensor systems and both manual and machine-assisted data analysis and interpretation are included. All papers included in their entirety were abstracted and indexed for EDB/ERA.

  6. Lidar Remote Sensing for Characterizing Forest Vegetation - Special Issue. Foreword (United States)

    Popescu, Sorin C.; Nelson, Ross F.


    The Silvilaser 2009 conference held in College Station, Texas, USA, was the ninth conference in the Silvilaser series, which started in 2002 with the international workshop on using lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) for analyzing forest structure, held in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Following the Canadian workshop, subsequent forestry-lidar conferences took place in Australia, Sweden, Germany, USA, Japan, Finland, and the United Kingdom (UK). By the time this Silvilaser 2009 special issue of PE&RS is published, the 10th international conference will have been held in Freiburg, Germany, and planning will be ongoing for the 11th meeting to take place in Tasmania, Australia, in October 2011. Papers presented at the 2005 conference held in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, were assembled in a special issue of PE&RS published in December 2006. Other special issues resulting from previous conferences were published in journals such as the Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing (2003), the Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research (2004), and Japan s Journal of Forest Planning (2008). Given the conference history and the much longer record of publications on lidar applications for estimating forest biophysical parameters, which dates back to the early 1980s, we may consider lidar an established remote sensing technology for characterizing forest canopy structure and estimating forest biophysical parameters. Randy Wynne, a professor at Virginia Tech and the final keynote speaker at Silvilaser 2009, made the case that it was time to push 30 years of research into operations, along the lines of what has already been done to good effect in the Scandinavian countries. In Randy s words, it s time to "Just do it!" This special issue includes a selection of papers presented during the 2009 Silvilaser conference, which consisted of eight sections as follows: (1) biomass and carbon stock estimates, (2) tree species and forest type classification, (3) data fusion and integration, (4, 5

  7. Microwave Remote Sensing: Needs and Requirements Concerning Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels


    Spaceborne microwave remote sensing instruments, like the imaging radiometer and the synthetic aperture radar, are over timed faced with two partly conflicting requirements: performance expectations (resolutions, sensitivity, coverage) steadily increase with resource allocations (weight, power...

  8. Lidar Remote Sensing for Forest Canopy Studies 2014 (United States)

    Remote sensing has facilitated extraordinary advances in modeling, mapping, and the understanding of ecosystems. Conventional sensors have significant limitations for ecological and forest applications. The sensitivity and accuracy of these devices have repeatedly been shown to fall with increasing ...

  9. A small autonomous surface vehicle for ocean color remote sensing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Maurya, P.; Pereira, A.; Pascoal, A.M.; Desai, R.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Desa, E.; Madhan, R.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Prabhudesai, S.; Afzulpurkar, S.

    the nature of calibration validation (CALVAL) sites for ocean remote sensing needs. A further benefit of ASVs is that they can be built at a low cost and used in monitoring applications of diverse coastal ecosystems....

  10. Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Remote sensing data has been used for mapping coastal vegetation along the Goa Coast, India. The study envisages the use of digital image processing techniques for delineating geomorphic features and associated vegetation, including mangrove, along...

  11. Application of remote sensing technology for studying littoral sediment dynamics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Satellite remote sensing data pertaining to two areas, one each on east and west coasts of India has been utilized to study suspended sediment dynamics within the near-shore region. For this purpose, thematic mapper image and second principal...

  12. Underlying Surface Remote Sensing by the Microwave Radiometer with High Measurement Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaichin Anton


    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to microwave radiometer design. The approach implies simultaneous using both modified zero measurement method and multi-receiver technique. Simultaneous using increases the operating characteristics of airborne microwave radiometers for aircrafts with self-contained power supply. The block diagram of the onboard Earth remote sensing microwave radiometric system is presented. The block diagram and operating timing diagrams of the designed radiometer are shown. An original technique to design a fiducial noise source for transfer characteristics is discussed. The advantages of the designed radiometer in comparison with the state of the art zero-type microwave radiometer are described.

  13. Remote sensing solutions for when spectrometers no longer are affordable (United States)

    van Brug, Hedser; Visser, Huib


    This paper describes one of the issues that are facing the remote sensing community in the not so far future; scientists ask for certain requirement that cannot be fulfilled either due to cost issues or technological issues. The paper starts with giving a short and quick historical overview of the development of spectrometer based remote sensing systems. Next, the likely end of the spectrometers will be explained, followed by a possible alternative.

  14. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, year four (United States)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.


    The needs of the remote sensing research and application community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and space station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms are examined. Research conducted was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing research activities in the areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. Projects are discussed in detail.

  15. Validating firn compaction model with remote sensing data



    A comprehensive understanding of firn processes is of outmost importance, when estimating present and future changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Especially, when remote sensing altimetry is used to assess the state of ice sheets and their contribution to global sea level rise, firn compaction models have been shown to be a key component. Now, remote sensing data can also be used to validate the firn models. Radar penetrating the upper part of the firn column in the interior part of Greenland ...

  16. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary (United States)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig


    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  17. Remote sensing and vegetation stress detection - Problems and progress (United States)

    Duggin, M. J.; Whitehead, V.


    Although considerable progress has been made in applying remote sensing technology to vegetation monitoring, considerable problems still exist in the improvement of techniques for crop type discrimination, stress detection on a large scale, and stress quantification. In this paper, some of the problems remaining in the operational use of remote sensing technology for vegetation stress detection are discussed, and directions in which some of these problems might be solved are proposed.

  18. Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Tronin


    Full Text Available A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications.

  19. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.


    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  20. Satellite remote sensing of hailstorms in France (United States)

    Melcón, Pablo; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía


    Hailstorms are meteorological phenomena of great interest to the scientific community, owing to their socioeconomic impact, which is mainly on agricultural production. With its global coverage and high spatial and temporal resolution, satellite remote sensing can contribute to monitoring of such events through the development of appropriate techniques. This paper presents an extensive validation in the south of France of a hail detection tool (HDT) developed for the Middle Ebro Valley (MEV). The HDT is based on consecutive application of two filters, a convection mask (CM) and hail mask (HM), using spectral channels of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The south of France is an ideal area for studying hailstorms, because there is a robust database of hail falls recorded by an extensive network of hailpads managed by the Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fleáux Atmosphériques (ANELFA). The results show noticeably poorer performance of the HDT in France relative to that in the MEV, with probability of detection (POD) 60.4% and false alarm rate (FAR) 26.6%. For this reason, a new tool to suit the characteristics of hailstorms in France has been developed. The France Hail Detection Tool (FHDT) was developed using logistic regression from channels of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor of the MSG. The FHDT was validated, resulting in POD 69.3% and FAR 15.4%, thus improving hail detection in the study area as compared with the previous tool. The new tool was tested in a case study with satisfactory results, supporting its future practical application.

  1. Remote sensing of ecosystem health: opportunities, challenges, and future perspectives. (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin


    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  2. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Li


    Full Text Available Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1 scale issue; (2 transportability issue; (3 data availability; and (4 uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  3. KW-SIFT descriptor for remote-sensing image registration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangzeng Liu; Zheng Tian; Weidong Yan; Xifa Duan


    A technique to construct an affine invariant descriptor for remote-sensing image registration based on the scale invariant features transform (SIFT) in a kernel space is proposed.Affine invariant SIFT descriptor is first developed in an elliptical region determined by the Hessian matrix of the feature points.Thereafter,the descriptor is mapped to a feature space induced by a kernel, and a new descriptor is constructed by whitening the mapped descriptor in the feature space, with the transform called KW-SIFT.In a final step, the new descriptor is used to register remote-sensing images.Experimental results for remote-sensing image registration indicate that the proposed method improves the registration performance as compared with other related methods.%@@ A technique to construct an affine invariant descriptor for remote-sensing image registration based on the scale invariant features transform (SIFT) in a kernel space is proposed.Affine invariant SIFT descriptor is first developed in an elliptical region determined by the Hessian matrix of the feature points.Thereafter,the descriptor is mapped to a feature space induced by a kernel, and a new descriptor is constructed by whitening the mapped descriptor in the feature space, with the transform called KW-SIFT.In a final step, the new descriptor is used to register remote-sensing images.Experimental results for remote-sensing image registration indicate that the proposed method improves the registration performance as compared with other related methods.

  4. Challenges of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Education and Technology Transfer in a Fast Developing Industry (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Chen, L.-C.


    During the past decade, Taiwan has experienced an unusual and fast growing in the industry of mapping, remote sensing, spatial information and related markets. A successful space program and dozens of advanced airborne and ground-based remote sensing instruments as well as mobile mapping systems have been implemented and put into operation to support the vast demands of geospatial data acquisition. Moreover, in addition to the government agencies and research institutes, there are also tens of companies in the private sector providing geo-spatial data and services. However, the fast developing industry is also posing a great challenge to the education sector in Taiwan, especially the higher education for geo-spatial information. Facing this fast developing industry, the demands of skilled professionals and new technologies in order to address diversified needs are indubitably high. Consequently, while delighting in the expanding and prospering benefitted from the fast growing industry, how to fulfill these demands has become a challenge for the remote sensing and spatial information disciplines in the higher education institutes in Taiwan. This paper provides a brief insight into the status of the remote sensing and spatial information industry in Taiwan as well as the challenges of the education and technology transfer to support the increasing demands and to ensure the continuous development of the industry. In addition to the report of the current status of the remote sensing and spatial information related courses and programs in the colleges and universities, current and potential threatening issues and possible resolutions are also discussed in different points of view.

  5. Multispectral, hyperspectral, and LiDAR remote sensing and geographic information fusion for improved earthquake response (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.; Kim, A. M.; Runyon, S. C.; Carlisle, Sarah C.; Clasen, C. C.; Esterline, C. H.; Jalobeanu, A.; Metcalf, J. P.; Basgall, P. L.; Trask, D. M.; Olsen, R. C.


    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Remote Sensing Center (RSC) and research partners have completed a remote sensing pilot project in support of California post-earthquake-event emergency response. The project goals were to dovetail emergency management requirements with remote sensing capabilities to develop prototype map products for improved earthquake response. NPS coordinated with emergency management services and first responders to compile information about essential elements of information (EEI) requirements. A wide variety of remote sensing datasets including multispectral imagery (MSI), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and LiDAR were assembled by NPS for the purpose of building imagery baseline data; and to demonstrate the use of remote sensing to derive ground surface information for use in planning, conducting, and monitoring post-earthquake emergency response. Worldview-2 data were converted to reflectance, orthorectified, and mosaicked for most of Monterey County; CA. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired at two spatial resolutions were atmospherically corrected and analyzed in conjunction with the MSI data. LiDAR data at point densities from 1.4 pts/m2 to over 40 points/ m2 were analyzed to determine digital surface models. The multimodal data were then used to develop change detection approaches and products and other supporting information. Analysis results from these data along with other geographic information were used to identify and generate multi-tiered products tied to the level of post-event communications infrastructure (internet access + cell, cell only, no internet/cell). Technology transfer of these capabilities to local and state emergency response organizations gives emergency responders new tools in support of post-disaster operational scenarios.

  6. Suitability Evaluation for Products Generation from Multisource Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan


    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era in Earth observation, the remote sensing communities have accumulated a large amount of invaluable and irreplaceable data for global monitoring. These massive remote sensing data have enabled large-area and long-term series Earth observation, and have, in particular, made standard, automated product generation more popular. However, there is more than one type of data selection for producing a certain remote sensing product; no single remote sensor can cover such a large area at one time. Therefore, we should automatically select the best data source from redundant multisource remote sensing data, or select substitute data if data is lacking, during the generation of remote sensing products. However, the current data selection strategy mainly adopts the empirical model, and has a lack of theoretical support and quantitative analysis. Hence, comprehensively considering the spectral characteristics of ground objects and spectra differences of each remote sensor, by means of spectrum simulation and correlation analysis, we propose a suitability evaluation model for product generation. The model will enable us to obtain the Production Suitability Index (PSI of each remote sensing data. In order to validate the proposed model, two typical value-added information products, NDVI and NDWI, and two similar or complementary remote sensors, Landsat-OLI and HJ1A-CCD1, were chosen, and the verification experiments were performed. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, the experimental results were consistent with our model calculation results, and strongly proved the validity of the suitability evaluation model. The proposed production suitability evaluation model could assist with standard, automated, serialized product generation. It will play an important role in one-station, value-added information services during the big data era of Earth observation.

  7. Quarterly literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources (United States)

    Fears, C. B. (Editor); Inglis, M. H. (Editor)


    The Technology Application Center reviewed abstracted literature sources, and selected document data and data gathering techniques which were performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft or groundbased stations. All of the documentation was related to remote sensing sensors or the remote sensing of the natural resources. Sensors were primarily those operating within the 10 to the minus 8 power to 1 meter wavelength band. Included are NASA Tech Briefs, ARAC Industrial Applications Reports, U.S. Navy Technical Reports, U.S. Patent reports, and other technical articles and reports.

  8. Adaptive Remote-Sensing Techniques Implementing Swarms of Mobile Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asher, R.B.; Cameron, S.M.; Loubriel, G.M.; Robinett, R.D.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.


    In many situations, stand-off remote-sensing and hazard-interdiction techniques over realistic operational areas are often impractical "and difficult to characterize. An alternative approach is to implement an adap- tively deployable array of sensitive agent-specific devices. Our group has been studying the collective be- havior of an autonomous, multi-agent system applied to chedbio detection and related emerging threat applications, The current physics-based models we are using coordinate a sensor array for mukivanate sig- nal optimization and coverage as re,alized by a swarm of robots or mobile vehicles. These intelligent control systems integrate'glob"ally operating decision-making systems and locally cooperative learning neural net- works to enhance re+-timp operational responses to dynarnical environments examples of which include obstacle avoidance, res~onding to prevailing wind patterns, and overcoming other natural obscurants or in- terferences. Collectively',tkensor nefirons with simple properties, interacting according to basic community rules, can accomplish complex interconnecting functions such as generalization, error correction, pattern recognition, sensor fusion, and localization. Neural nets provide a greater degree of robusmess and fault tolerance than conventional systems in that minor variations or imperfections do not impair performance. The robotic platforms would be equipped with sensor devices that perform opticaI detection of biologicais in combination with multivariate chemical analysis tools based on genetic and neural network algorithms, laser-diode LIDAR analysis, ultra-wideband short-pulsed transmitting and receiving antennas, thermal im- a:ing sensors, and optical Communication technology providing robust data throughput pathways. Mission scenarios under consideration include ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detection of underground struc- tures, airborne systems, and plume migration and mitigation. We will describe our

  9. Rapid and Robust Damage Detection using Radar Remote Sensing (United States)

    Yun, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Owen, S. E.


    Under ARIA (Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis) project at JPL and Caltech, we developed a prototype algorithm and data system to rapidly detect surface change caused by natural or man-made damage using a radar remote sensing technique of InSAR coherence. We tested the algorithm with a building demolition site in the City of Pasadena, California. The results show clear signal at the demolition site, with about 150% SNR improvement compared to conventional approach. Out of fourteen strongest detected signals, we confirmed that at least eleven of them were associated with real demolition and construction projects. We applied the algorithm to the February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand, which killed 185 people and caused financial damage of US $16-24 billion. We produced a damage proxy map (DPM) using radar data from ALOS satellite (Figure A), where red pixels identify regions where there may have been earthquake induced building damage, landslides, and liquefaction. The distribution of the red regions agrees well with the post-earthquake assessment performed on the ground by inspectors from the New Zealand government and summarized in their damage assessment zone map (Figure B). The DPM was derived from radar data acquired 3 days after the earthquake, whereas the ground truth zone map was first published 4 months after the earthquake. In addition to all-weather and day-and-night capability of radar, the sensitivity of radar signal to surface property change is high enough for reliable damage assessment. Current and future satellite and airborne missions should keep the expected composite data acquisition latency within a day. Rapidly produced accurate damage assessment maps will help saving people, assisting effective prioritization of rescue operations at early stage of response, and significantly improve timely situational awareness for emergency management and national / international assessment for response and recovery.

  10. System and method for evaluating wind flow fields using remote sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John; Hirth, Brian; Guynes, Jerry


    The present invention provides a system and method for obtaining data to determine one or more characteristics of a wind field using a first remote sensing device and a second remote sensing device. Coordinated data is collected from the first and second remote sensing devices and analyzed to determine the one or more characteristics of the wind field. The first remote sensing device is positioned to have a portion of the wind field within a first scanning sector of the first remote sensing device. The second remote sensing device is positioned to have the portion of the wind field disposed within a second scanning sector of the second remote sensing device.

  11. Remote Sensing: The View from Above. Know Your Environment. (United States)

    Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

    This publication identifies some of the general concepts of remote sensing and explains the image collection process and computer-generated reconstruction of the data. Monitoring the ecological collapse in coral reefs, weather phenomena like El Nino/La Nina, and U.S. Space Shuttle-based sensing projects are some of the areas for which remote…

  12. Adjusted normalized emissivity method for surface temperature and emissivity retrieval from optical and thermal infrared remote sensing data


    Coll Company, César; Valor i Micó, Enric; Caselles Miralles, Vicente; Niclòs Corts, Raquel


    A methodology for the retrieval of surface temperatures and emissivities combining visible, near infrared and thermal infrared remote sensing data was applied to Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (DAIS) data and validated with coincident ground measurements acquired in a multiyear experiment held in an agricultural site in Barrax, Spain. The Adjusted Normalized Emissivity Method (ANEM) is based on the use of visible and near infrared data to estimate the vegetation cover and model the max...

  13. Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing for CO2 Storage Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, W; Cover, W


    This project's goal is to develop remote sensing methods for early detection and spatial mapping, over whole regions simultaneously, of any surface areas under which there are significant CO2 leaks from deep underground storage formations. If large amounts of CO2 gas percolated up from a storage formation below to within plant root depth of the surface, the CO2 soil concentrations near the surface would become elevated and would affect individual plants and their local plant ecologies. Excessive soil CO2 concentrations are observed to significantly affect local plant and animal ecologies in our geothermal exploration, remote sensing research program at Mammoth Mountain CA USA. We also know from our geothermal exploration remote sensing programs, that we can map subtle hidden faults by spatial signatures of altered minerals and of plant species and health distributions. Mapping hidden faults is important because in our experience these highly localized (one to several centimeters) spatial pathways are good candidates for potentially significant CO2 leaks from deep underground formations. The detection and discrimination method we are developing uses primarily airborne hyperspectral, high spatial (3 meter) with 128 band wavelength resolution, visible and near infrared reflected light imagery. We also are using the newly available ''Quickbird'' satellite imagery that has high spatial resolution (0.6 meter for panchromatic images, 2.4 meters for multispectral). We have a commercial provider, HyVista Corp of Sydney Australia, of airborne hyperspectral imagery acquisitions and very relevant image data post processing, so that eventually the ongoing surveillance of CO2 storage fields can be contracted for commercially. In this project we have imaged the Rangely Colorado Oil field and surrounding areas with an airborne hyperspectral visible and near infrared reflected light sensor. The images were analyzed by several methods using the suite of

  14. Multibeam monopulse radar for airborne sense and avoid system (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo


    The multibeam monopulse radar for Airborne Based Sense and Avoid (ABSAA) system concept is the next step in the development of passive monopulse direction finder proposed by Stephen E. Lipsky in the 80s. In the proposed system the multibeam monopulse radar with an array of directional antennas is positioned on a small aircaraft or Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Radar signals are simultaneously transmitted and received by multiple angle shifted directional antennas with overlapping antenna patterns and the entire sky, 360° for both horizontal and vertical coverage. Digitizing of amplitude and phase of signals in separate directional antennas relative to reference signals provides high-accuracy high-resolution range and azimuth measurement and allows to record real time amplitude and phase of reflected from non-cooperative aircraft signals. High resolution range and azimuth measurement provides minimal tracking errors in both position and velocity of non-cooperative aircraft and determined by sampling frequency of the digitizer. High speed sampling with high-accuracy processor clock provides high resolution phase/time domain measurement even for directional antennas with wide Field of View (FOV). Fourier transform (frequency domain processing) of received radar signals provides signatures and dramatically increases probability of detection for non-cooperative aircraft. Steering of transmitting power and integration, correlation period of received reflected signals for separate antennas (directions) allows dramatically decreased ground clutter for low altitude flights. An open architecture, modular construction allows the combination of a radar sensor with Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B), electro-optic, acoustic sensors.

  15. Remote Sensing Time Series Product Tool (United States)

    Predos, Don; Ryan, Robert E.; Ross, Kenton W.


    programmers to bypass the GUI and to create more user-specific output products, such as comparison time plots or images. This type of time series analysis tool for remotely sensed imagery could be the basis of a large-area vegetation surveillance system. The TSPT has been used to generate NDVI time series over growing seasons in California and Argentina and for hurricane events, such as Hurricane Katrina.

  16. Water Quality Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing (United States)

    Haque, Saad Ul


    The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality

  17. Footprint Representation of Planetary Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Walter, S. H. G.; Gasselt, S. V.; Michael, G.; Neukum, G.

    The geometric outline of remote sensing image data, the so called footprint, can be represented as a number of coordinate tuples. These polygons are associated with according attribute information such as orbit name, ground- and image resolution, solar longitude and illumination conditions to generate a powerful base for classification of planetary experiment data. Speed, handling and extended capabilites are the reasons for using geodatabases to store and access these data types. Techniques for such a spatial database of footprint data are demonstrated using the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) PostgreSQL, spatially enabled by the PostGIS extension. Exemplary, footprints of the HRSC and OMEGA instruments, both onboard ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, are generated and connected to attribute information. The aim is to provide high-resolution footprints of the OMEGA instrument to the science community for the first time and make them available for web-based mapping applications like the "Planetary Interactive GIS-on-the-Web Analyzable Database" (PIG- WAD), produced by the USGS. Map overlays with HRSC or other instruments like MOC and THEMIS (footprint maps are already available for these instruments and can be integrated into the database) allow on-the-fly intersection and comparison as well as extended statistics of the data. Footprint polygons are generated one by one using standard software provided by the instrument teams. Attribute data is calculated and stored together with the geometric information. In the case of HRSC, the coordinates of the footprints are already available in the VICAR label of each image file. Using the VICAR RTL and PostgreSQL's libpq C library they are loaded into the database using the Well-Known Text (WKT) notation by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC). For the OMEGA instrument, image data is read using IDL routines developed and distributed by the OMEGA team. Image outlines are exported together with relevant attribute

  18. Research on compressive fusion for remote sensing images (United States)

    Yang, Senlin; Wan, Guobin; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Chong, Xin


    A compressive fusion of remote sensing images is presented based on the block compressed sensing (BCS) and non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). Since the BCS requires small memory space and enables fast computation, firstly, the images with large amounts of data can be compressively sampled into block images with structured random matrix. Further, the compressive measurements are decomposed with NSCT and their coefficients are fused by a rule of linear weighting. And finally, the fused image is reconstructed by the gradient projection sparse reconstruction algorithm, together with consideration of blocking artifacts. The field test of remote sensing images fusion shows the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources

  20. A Prototype Network for Remote Sensing Validation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingguo Ma


    Full Text Available Validation is an essential and important step before the application of remote sensing products. This paper introduces a prototype of the validation network for remote sensing products in China (VRPC. The VRPC aims to improve remote sensing products at a regional scale in China. These improvements will enhance the applicability of the key remote sensing products in understanding and interpretation of typical land surface processes in China. The framework of the VRPC is introduced first, including its four basic components. Then, the basic selection principles of the observation sites are described, and the principles for the validation of the remote sensing products are established. The VRPC will be realized in stages. In the first stage, four stations that have improved remote sensing observation facilities have been incorporated according to the selection principles. Certain core observation sites have been constructed at these stations. Next the Heihe Station is introduced in detail as an example. The three levels of observation (the research base, pixel-scale validation sites, and regional coverage adopted by the Heihe Station are carefully explained. The pixel-scale validation sites with nested multi-scale observation systems in this station are the most unique feature, and these sites aim to solve some key scientific problems associated with remote sensing product validation (e.g., the scale effect and scale transformation. Multi-year of in situ measurements will ensure the high accuracy and inter-annual validity of the land products, which will provide dynamic regional monitoring and simulation capabilities in China. The observation sites of the VRPC are open, with the goal of increasing cooperation and exchange with global programs.

  1. Acoustic remote sensing of ocean flows

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.

    Acoustic techniques have become powerful tools for measurement of ocean circulation mainly because of the ability of acoustic signals to travel long distances in water, and the inherently non-invasive nature of measurement. The satellite remote...

  2. Combining Citizen Science Phenological Observations with Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Delbart, Nicolas; Beaubien, Elisabeth; Kergoat, Laurent; Deront, Lise; Le Toan, Thuy


    Citizen science is efficient to collect data about plant phenology across large areas such as Canada and independently for each species. However, such time series are often discontinuous and observations are not evenly distributed. On the other hand, remote sensing provides a synoptic view on phenology but does not inform about inter-species differences in phenological response to climate variability.Existing interactions between the two types of data are so far essentially limited to the evaluation of remote sensing methods by citizen science data, which proved quite efficient. Here we first use such an approach to show that one remote sensing method green-up date relates to the leaf-out date of woody species but also to the whole plant community phenology at the regional level, including flowering phenology. Second we use a remote sensing time series to constrain the analysis of citizen data to overcome the main drawbacks that is the incompleteness of time series. We analyze the interspecies differences in phenology at the scale of so- called "pheno-regions" delineated using remote sensing green-up maps.

  3. [Analysis of related factors of slope plant hyperspectral remote sensing]. (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Tu, Lin-Ling


    In the present paper, the slope gradient, aspect, detection zenith angle and plant types were analyzed. In order to strengthen the theoretical discussion, the research was under laboratory condition, and modeled uniform slope for slope plant. Through experiments we found that these factors indeed have influence on plant hyperspectral remote sensing. When choosing slope gradient as the variate, the blade reflection first increases and then decreases as the slope gradient changes from 0° to 36°; When keeping other factors constant, and only detection zenith angle increasing from 0° to 60°, the spectral characteristic of slope plants do not change significantly in visible light band, but decreases gradually in near infrared band; With only slope aspect changing, when the dome meets the light direction, the blade reflectance gets maximum, and when the dome meets the backlit direction, the blade reflectance gets minimum, furthermore, setting the line of vertical intersection of incidence plane and the dome as an axis, the reflectance on the axis's both sides shows symmetric distribution; In addition, spectral curves of different plant types have a lot differences between each other, which means that the plant types also affect hyperspectral remote sensing results of slope plants. This research breaks through the limitations of the traditional vertical remote sensing data collection and uses the multi-angle and hyperspectral information to analyze spectral characteristics of slope plants. So this research has theoretical significance to the development of quantitative remote sensing, and has application value to the plant remote sensing monitoring.

  4. Water column correction for coral reef studies by remote sensing. (United States)

    Zoffoli, Maria Laura; Frouin, Robert; Kampel, Milton


    Human activity and natural climate trends constitute a major threat to coral reefs worldwide. Models predict a significant reduction in reef spatial extension together with a decline in biodiversity in the relatively near future. In this context, monitoring programs to detect changes in reef ecosystems are essential. In recent years, coral reef mapping using remote sensing data has benefited from instruments with better resolution and computational advances in storage and processing capabilities. However, the water column represents an additional complexity when extracting information from submerged substrates by remote sensing that demands a correction of its effect. In this article, the basic concepts of bottom substrate remote sensing and water column interference are presented. A compendium of methodologies developed to reduce water column effects in coral ecosystems studied by remote sensing that include their salient features, advantages and drawbacks is provided. Finally, algorithms to retrieve the bottom reflectance are applied to simulated data and actual remote sensing imagery and their performance is compared. The available methods are not able to completely eliminate the water column effect, but they can minimize its influence. Choosing the best method depends on the marine environment, available input data and desired outcome or scientific application.

  5. User requirements for hydrological models with remote sensing input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolberg, Sjur


    Monitoring the seasonal snow cover is important for several purposes. This report describes user requirements for hydrological models utilizing remotely sensed snow data. The information is mainly provided by operational users through a questionnaire. The report is primarily intended as a basis for other work packages within the Snow Tools project which aim at developing new remote sensing products for use in hydrological models. The HBV model is the only model mentioned by users in the questionnaire. It is widely used in Northern Scandinavia and Finland, in the fields of hydroelectric power production, flood forecasting and general monitoring of water resources. The current implementation of HBV is not based on remotely sensed data. Even the presently used HBV implementation may benefit from remotely sensed data. However, several improvements can be made to hydrological models to include remotely sensed snow data. Among these the most important are a distributed version, a more physical approach to the snow depletion curve, and a way to combine data from several sources. 1 ref.

  6. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.


    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  7. Close-range environmental remote sensing with 3D hyperspectral technologies (United States)

    Nevalainen, O.; Honkavaara, E.; Hakala, T.; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Viljanen, N.; Rosnell, T.; Khoramshahi, E.; Näsi, R.


    Estimation of the essential climate variables (ECVs), such as photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and the leaf area index (LAI), is largely based on satellite-based remote sensing and the subsequent inversion of radiative transfer (RT) models. In order to build models that accurately describe the radiative transfer within and below the canopy, detailed 3D structural (geometrical) and spectral (radiometrical) information of the canopy is needed. Close-range remote sensing, such as terrestrial remote sensing and UAV-based 3D spectral measurements, offers significant opportunity to improve the RT modelling and ECV estimation of forests. Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) has been developing active and passive high resolution 3D hyperspectral measurement technologies that provide reflectance, anisotropy and 3D structure information of forests (i.e. hyperspectral point clouds). Technologies include hyperspectral imaging from unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV), terrestrial hyperspectral lidar (HSL) and terrestrial hyperspectral stereoscopic imaging. A measurement campaign to demonstrate these technologies in ECV estimation with uncertainty propagation was carried out in the Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK, in June 2015. Our objective is to develop traceable processing procedures for generating hyperspectral point clouds with geometric and radiometric uncertainty propagation using hyperspectral aerial and terrestrial imaging and hyperspectral terrestrial laser scanning. The article and presentation will present the methodology, instrumentation and first results of our study.

  8. Allometric equations for integrating remote sensing imagery into forest monitoring programmes. (United States)

    Jucker, Tommaso; Caspersen, John; Chave, Jérôme; Antin, Cécile; Barbier, Nicolas; Bongers, Frans; Dalponte, Michele; van Ewijk, Karin Y; Forrester, David I; Haeni, Matthias; Higgins, Steven I; Holdaway, Robert J; Iida, Yoshiko; Lorimer, Craig; Marshall, Peter L; Momo, Stéphane; Moncrieff, Glenn R; Ploton, Pierre; Poorter, Lourens; Rahman, Kassim Abd; Schlund, Michael; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sterck, Frank J; Trugman, Anna T; Usoltsev, Vladimir A; Vanderwel, Mark C; Waldner, Peter; Wedeux, Beatrice M M; Wirth, Christian; Wöll, Hannsjörg; Woods, Murray; Xiang, Wenhua; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Coomes, David A


    Remote sensing is revolutionizing the way we study forests, and recent technological advances mean we are now able - for the first time - to identify and measure the crown dimensions of individual trees from airborne imagery. Yet to make full use of these data for quantifying forest carbon stocks and dynamics, a new generation of allometric tools which have tree height and crown size at their centre are needed. Here, we compile a global database of 108753 trees for which stem diameter, height and crown diameter have all been measured, including 2395 trees harvested to measure aboveground biomass. Using this database, we develop general allometric models for estimating both the diameter and aboveground biomass of trees from attributes which can be remotely sensed - specifically height and crown diameter. We show that tree height and crown diameter jointly quantify the aboveground biomass of individual trees and find that a single equation predicts stem diameter from these two variables across the world's forests. These new allometric models provide an intuitive way of integrating remote sensing imagery into large-scale forest monitoring programmes and will be of key importance for parameterizing the next generation of dynamic vegetation models.

  9. Evaluating the feasibility of multitemporal hyperspectral remote sensing for monitoring bioremediation (United States)

    Noomen, Marleen; Hakkarainen, Annika; van der Meijde, Mark; van der Werff, Harald


    In recent years, several studies focused on the detection of hydrocarbon pollution in the environment using hyperspectral remote sensing. Particularly the indirect detection of hydrocarbon pollution, using vegetation reflectance in the red edge region, has been studied extensively. Bioremediation is one of the methods that can be applied to clean up polluted sites. So far, there have been no studies on monitoring of bioremediation using (hyperspectral) remote sensing. This study evaluates the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing for monitoring the effect of bioremediation over time. Benzene leakage at connection points along a pipeline was monitored by comparing the red edge position (REP) in 2005 and 2008 using HyMap airborne hyperspectral images. REP values were normalized in order to enhance local variations caused by a change in benzene concentrations. 11 out of 17 locations were classified correctly as remediated, still polluted, or still clean, with a total accuracy of 65%. When only polluted locations that were remediated were taken into account, the (user's) accuracy was 71%.

  10. Review of Machine Learning Approaches for Biomass and Soil Moisture Retrievals from Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ali


    Full Text Available The enormous increase of remote sensing data from airborne and space-borne platforms, as well as ground measurements has directed the attention of scientists towards new and efficient retrieval methodologies. Of particular importance is the consideration of the large extent and the high dimensionality (spectral, temporal and spatial of remote sensing data. Moreover, the launch of the Sentinel satellite family will increase the availability of data, especially in the temporal domain, at no cost to the users. To analyze these data and to extract relevant features, such as essential climate variables (ECV, specific methodologies need to be exploited. Among these, greater attention is devoted to machine learning methods due to their flexibility and the capability to process large number of inputs and to handle non-linear problems. The main objective of this paper is to provide a review of research that is being carried out to retrieve two critically important terrestrial biophysical quantities (vegetation biomass and soil moisture from remote sensing data using machine learning methods.

  11. FPGA Implementation of the Pixel Purity Index Algorithm for Remotely Sensed Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resano Javier


    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging is a new emerging technology in remote sensing which generates hundreds of images, at different wavelength channels, for the same area on the surface of the Earth. Over the last years, many algorithms have been developed with the purpose of finding endmembers, assumed to be pure spectral signatures in remotely sensed hyperspectral data sets. One of the most popular techniques has been the pixel purity index (PPI. This algorithm is very time-consuming. The reconfigurability, compact size, and high computational power of Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs make them particularly attractive for exploitation in remote sensing applications with (near real-time requirements. In this paper, we present an FPGA design for implementation of the PPI algorithm. Our systolic array design includes a DMA and implements a prefetching technique to reduce the penalties due to the I/O communications. We have also included a hardware module for random number generation. The proposed method has been tested using real hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer over the Cuprite mining district in Nevada. Experimental results reveal that the proposed hardware system is easily scalable and able to provide accurate results with compact size in (near real-time, which make our reconfigurable system appealing for on-board hyperspectral data processing.

  12. UV Laser Fluorosensor for Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Saxena


    Full Text Available Several substances both organic and inorganic, when excited by alow wavelength radiation, fluoresce; the fluorescence in the longer wavelength region is generally characteristic of the substances so irradiated and to some extent of the wavelength of the exciting radiation. Thus, the spectral analysis of this fluorescence can be used to detect, monitor and even quantify the presence of matter on which the exciting radiations impinge. The rate of decay of the fluorescence alongwith a spectral and temporal return signals, such as from oil spills, have been described in this paper as also the functioning of an airborne laser fluorosensor using a 1 MW pulsed nitiogcn laser.

  13. Spatial Scaling Assessment of Surface Soil Moisture Estimations Using Remotely Sensed Data for Precision Agriculture (United States)

    Hassan Esfahani, L.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Jensen, A.; McKee, M.


    Airborne and Landsat remote sensing are promising technologies for measuring the response of agricultural crops to variations in several agricultural inputs and environmental conditions. Of particular significance to precision agriculture is surface soil moisture, a key component of the soil water balance, which addresses water and energy exchanges at the surface/atmosphere interface and affects vegetation health. Its estimation using the spectral reflectance of agricultural fields could be of value to agricultural management decisions. While top soil moisture can be estimated using radiometric information from aircraft or satellites and data mining techniques, comparison of results from two different aerial platforms might be complicated because of the differences in spatial scales (high resolution of approximately 0.15m versus coarser resolutions of 30m). This paper presents a combined modeling and scale-based approach to evaluate the impact of spatial scaling in the estimation of surface soil moisture content derived from remote sensing data. Data from Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI and AggieAirTM aerial imagery are utilized. AggieAirTM is an airborne remote sensing platform developed by Utah State University that includes an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) which captures radiometric information at visual, near-infrared, and thermal wavebands at spatial resolutions of 0.15 m or smaller for the optical cameras and about 0.6 m or smaller for the thermal infrared camera. Top soil moisture maps for AggieAir and Landsat are developed and statistically compared at different scales to determine the impact in terms of quantitative predictive capability and feasibility of applicability of results in improving in field management.

  14. Norwegian remote sensing spectrometry for mapping and monitoring of algal blooms and pollution - NORSMAP-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.H.; Johannessen, O.M.; Frette, O. (Nansen Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway))


    During the late spring of 1988 an extensive bloom of the toxic algae Chrysocromulina polylepis occurred in the Skagerrak region influencing most life in the upper 30 meter of the ocean. The algal front was advected northward with the Norwegian Coastal Current along the coast of southern Norway, where it became a severe threat to the Norwegian seafarming industry. An ad-hoc expert team was established to monitor and forecast the movement of the algae front. Remote sensing of sea surface temperature from the operational US NOAA satellites monitored the movement of the algal front, consistent with a warm ocean front. The lack of any optical remote sensing instrumentation was recognized as a major de-efficiency during this algal bloom. To prepare for similar events in the future Nansen Remote Sensing Center initiated a three week pilot study in the Oslofjord and Skagerrak region, during May 1989. The Canadian Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) was installed in the surveillance aircraft. Extensive in situ campaigns was also carried out by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Institute of Marine Research. A ship-borne non-imaging spectrometer was operated from the vessels participating in the field campaign. As a contribution from a joint campaign (EISAC '89) between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Community and the European Space Agency (ESA) both the Canadian Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and the US 64-channel GER scanner was operated simultaneously at the NORSMAP 89 test site. Regions of different biological and physical conditions were covered during the pilot study and preliminary analysis are obtained from oil slicks, suspended matter from river, as well as minor algal bloom. The joint analysis of the data collected during the NORSMAP 89 campaign and conclussions will be presented, as well as suggestions for future utilization of airborne spectroscopy systems for operational monitoring of algal bloom and water pollution.

  15. Remotely Operating a Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (United States)

    Blavier, J.-F.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.


    This paper describes how the MkIV instrument was adapted for remote operation from the Barcroft site, where the harsh winter conditions make access difficult. Some of the main technical challenges will be discussed including, (i) operation from solar panels and batteries, (ii) cooling the detectors with LN2, (iii) instrument control and monitoring over a cellular phone, and (iv) data storage, processing and analysis. Finally, MkIV spectra measured from Barcroft and compared with those measured from JPL to highlight the advantages of the higher altitude site.

  16. Water pollution remote sensing for Pearl River Delta (United States)

    Deng, Ruru; Xiong, Shouping; Qin, Yan


    Water pollution on the Delta of Pearl River is increasingly serious and to command the fact of pollution is the key of the control. A remote sensing model for water pollution base on single scattering is deduced in this paper. To avoid the effect by turbidity of water, by analysis the characteristics of the energy composition of multiple scattering, a factor of second scattering is deduced to build a double scattering model, and the practical arithmetic for the calculation of the model is put forwarded and then used to the pollution remote sensing over the Pearl River Delta. The precision of the result is validated by the synchronous measured data on water surface. The result of remote sensing showed that all of the North River, East River and West River are polluted in Pearl River Delta, and the most serious pollution is take place around Guang Zhou City and Dong Guan City.

  17. Scientific Programming Using Java: A Remote Sensing Example (United States)

    Prados, Don; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Johnson, Michael; Cao, Changyong; Gasser, Jerry


    This paper presents results of a project to port remote sensing code from the C programming language to Java. The advantages and disadvantages of using Java versus C as a scientific programming language in remote sensing applications are discussed. Remote sensing applications deal with voluminous data that require effective memory management, such as buffering operations, when processed. Some of these applications also implement complex computational algorithms, such as Fast Fourier Transformation analysis, that are very performance intensive. Factors considered include performance, precision, complexity, rapidity of development, ease of code reuse, ease of maintenance, memory management, and platform independence. Performance of radiometric calibration code written in Java for the graphical user interface and of using C for the domain model are also presented.

  18. Researching on the process of remote sensing video imagery (United States)

    Wang, He-rao; Zheng, Xin-qi; Sun, Yi-bo; Jia, Zong-ren; Wang, He-zhan

    Unmanned air vehicle remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude has the advantages of higher revolution, easy-shooting, real-time accessing, etc. It's been widely used in mapping , target identification, and other fields in recent years. However, because of conditional limitation, the video images are unstable, the targets move fast, and the shooting background is complex, etc., thus it is difficult to process the video images in this situation. In other fields, especially in the field of computer vision, the researches on video images are more extensive., which is very helpful for processing the remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude. Based on this, this paper analyzes and summarizes amounts of video image processing achievement in different fields, including research purposes, data sources, and the pros and cons of technology. Meantime, this paper explores the technology methods more suitable for low-altitude video image processing of remote sensing.

  19. Remote sensing surveys design in regional agricultural inventories (United States)

    Andreev, G. G.; Djemardian, Y. A.; Ezkov, V. V.; Sazanov, N. V.

    In this paper, we consider the methodology problems of remote sensing surveys design in regional agricultural inventories. The strategy of samples, based on the combined use of multispectral aerospace data and ground truth data obtained on test sites in the region under supervision, is used. The strategy of samples includes: selection of areas, which are statistically homogenous with certain agricultural parameters under research, identification of representative test sites grid; remote sensing from aerospace platforms and ground truth data acquisition on test sites as well. The ground measurements of biometrical parameters of certain agricultural crops under research are taken at test sites, maps of anomalies are compiled, spectrometrical and other optico-physical characteristics of vegetation canopies and soils are defined. The derived data are used in automatic interactive imagery processing at the training stages of the procedures of classification and application of thematical remote sensing data processing results to the entire region.

  20. Validating firn compaction model with remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, S. B.; Stenseng, Lars; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    A comprehensive understanding of firn processes is of outmost importance, when estimating present and future changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Especially, when remote sensing altimetry is used to assess the state of ice sheets and their contribution to global sea level rise, firn compaction...... models have been shown to be a key component. Now, remote sensing data can also be used to validate the firn models. Radar penetrating the upper part of the firn column in the interior part of Greenland shows a clear layering. The observed layers from the radar data can be used as an in-situ validation...... correction relative to the changes in the elevation of the surface observed with remote sensing altimetry? What model time resolution is necessary to resolved the observed layering? What model refinements are necessary to give better estimates of the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from...

  1. Combining interior and exterior characteristics for remote sensing image denoising (United States)

    Peng, Ni; Sun, Shujin; Wang, Runsheng; Zhong, Ping


    Remote sensing image denoising faces many challenges since a remote sensing image usually covers a wide area and thus contains complex contents. Using the patch-based statistical characteristics is a flexible method to improve the denoising performance. There are usually two kinds of statistical characteristics available: interior and exterior characteristics. Different statistical characteristics have their own strengths to restore specific image contents. Combining different statistical characteristics to use their strengths together may have the potential to improve denoising results. This work proposes a method combining statistical characteristics to adaptively select statistical characteristics for different image contents. The proposed approach is implemented through a new characteristics selection criterion learned over training data. Moreover, with the proposed combination method, this work develops a denoising algorithm for remote sensing images. Experimental results show that our method can make full use of the advantages of interior and exterior characteristics for different image contents and thus improve the denoising performance.

  2. Tasseled cap transformation for HJ multispectral remote sensing data (United States)

    Han, Ling; Han, Xiaoyong


    The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in environment, agriculture, forest and ecology. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ multi-spectrum data has been established through Givens rotation matrix to rotate principal component transform vector to whiteness, greenness and blueness direction of ground object basing on 24 scenes year-round HJ multispectral remote sensing data. The whiteness component enhances the brightness difference of ground object, and the greenness component preserves more detailed information of vegetation change while enhances the vegetation characteristic, and the blueness component significantly enhances factory with blue plastic house roof around the town and also can enhance brightness of water. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ will enhance the application effect of HJ multispectral remote sensing data in their application fields.

  3. Remote Sensing Image Deblurring Based on Grid Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-yang; ZHU Chong-guang; GE Ping-ju


    In general, there is a demand for real-time processing of mass quantity remote sensing images. However, the task is not only data-intensive but also computating-intensive. Distributed processing is a hot topic in remote sensing processing and image deblurring is also one of the most important needs. In order to satisfy the demand for quick processing and deblurring of mass quantity satellite images, we developed a distributed, grid computation-based platform as well as a corresponding middleware for grid computation. Both a constrained power spectrum equalization algorithm and effective block processing measures, which can avoid boundary effect, were applied during the processing. The result is satisfactory since computation efficiency and visual effect were greatly improved. It can be concluded that the technology of spatial information grids is effective for mass quantity remote sensing image processing.

  4. Assessment of biochemical concentrations of vegetation using remote sensing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The main biochemicals (such as lignin, protein, cellulose, sugar, starch, chlorophyll and water) of vegetation are directly or indirectly involved in major ecological processes, such as the functions of terrestrial ecosystems (i.e., nutrient-cycling processes, primary production, and decomposition). Remote sensing techniques provide a very convenient way of data acquisition capable of covering a large area several times during one season, so it can play a unique and essential role provided that we can relate remote sensing measurements to the biochemical characteristics of the Earth surface in a reliable and operational way. The application of remote sensing techniques for the estimation of canopy biochemicals was reviewed. Three methods of estimating biochemical concentrations of vegetation were included in this paper: index, stepwise multiple linear regression, and stepwise multiple linear regression based on a model of the forest crown. In addition, the vitality and potential applying value are stressed.

  5. Remote sensing of aquatic vegetation: theory and applications. (United States)

    Silva, Thiago S F; Costa, Maycira P F; Melack, John M; Novo, Evlyn M L M


    Aquatic vegetation is an important component of wetland and coastal ecosystems, playing a key role in the ecological functions of these environments. Surveys of macrophyte communities are commonly hindered by logistic problems, and remote sensing represents a powerful alternative, allowing comprehensive assessment and monitoring. Also, many vegetation characteristics can be estimated from reflectance measurements, such as species composition, vegetation structure, biomass, and plant physiological parameters. However, proper use of these methods requires an understanding of the physical processes behind the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and vegetation, and remote sensing of aquatic plants have some particular difficulties that have to be properly addressed in order to obtain successful results. The present paper reviews the theoretical background and possible applications of remote sensing techniques to the study of aquatic vegetation.

  6. Target Detection: Remote Sensing Techniques for Defence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Chaudhuri


    Full Text Available The tremendous development in remote sensing technology in the recent past has opened up new challenges in defence applications. On important area of such applications is in target detection. This paper describes both classical and newly developed approaches to detect the targets by using remotely-sensed digital images. The classical approach includes statistical classification methods and image processing techniques. The new approach deals with a relatively new sensor technology, namely, synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems and fast developing tools, like neural networks and multisource data integration for analysis and interpretation. With SAR images, it is possible to detect targets or features of a target that is otherwise not possible. Neural networks and multisource data integration tools also have a great potential in analysing and interpreting remote sensing data for target detection.

  7. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application (United States)

    Li, Ming


    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  8. Prospecting for coal in China with remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ke-long; WAN Yu-qing; SUN Sun-xin; BAO Gui-bao; KUANG Jing-shui


    With the rapid development of China's economy, coal resources are increasingly in great demand. As a result, the remaining coal reserves diminish gradually with large-scale exploitation of coal resources. Easily-found mines which used to be identiffed from outcrops or were buried under shallow overburden are decreasing, especially in the prosperous eastern regions of China,which experience coal shortages. Currently the main targets of coal prospecting are concealed and unidentified underground coal bodies, making it more and more difficult for coal prospecting. It is therefore important to explore coal prospecting by taking advantage of modern remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Given a theoretical basis for coal prospecting by remote sensing, we demonstrate the methodologies and existing problems systematically by summarizing past practices of coal prospecting with remote sensing. We propose a new theory of coal prospecting with remote sensing. In uncovered areas, coal resources can be prospected for by direct interpretation. In coal beating strata of developed areas covered by thin Quaternary strata or vegetation, prospecting for coal can be carried out by indirect interpretation of geomorphology and vegetation. For deeply buried underground deposits, coal prospecting can rely on tectonic structures, interpretation and analysis of new tectonic clues and regularity of coal formation and preservation controlled by tectonic structures. By applying newly hyper-spectral, multi-polarization, multi-angle, multi-temporal and multi-resolution remote sensing data and carrying out integrated analysis of geographic attributes,ground attributes, geophysical exploration results, geochemical exploration results, geological drilling results and remote sensing data by GIS tools, coal geology resources and mineralogical regularities can be explored and coal resource information can be acquired with some confidence.

  9. Risk management support through India Remote Sensing Satellites (United States)

    Aparna, N.; Ramani, A. V.; Nagaraja, R.


    Remote Sensing along with Geographical Information System (GIS) has been proven as a very important tools for the monitoring of the Earth resources and the detection of its temporal variations. A variety of operational National applications in the fields of Crop yield estimation , flood monitoring, forest fire detection, landslide and land cover variations were shown in the last 25 years using the Remote Sensing data. The technology has proven very useful for risk management like by mapping of flood inundated areas identifying of escape routes and for identifying the locations of temporary housing or a-posteriori evaluation of damaged areas etc. The demand and need for Remote Sensing satellite data for such applications has increased tremendously. This can be attributed to the technology adaptation and also the happening of disasters due to the global climate changes or the urbanization. However, the real-time utilization of remote sensing data for emergency situations is still a difficult task because of the lack of a dedicated system (constellation) of satellites providing a day-to-day revisit of any area on the globe. The need of the day is to provide satellite data with the shortest delay. Tasking the satellite to product dissemination to the user is to be done in few hours. Indian Remote Sensing satellites with a range of resolutions from 1 km to 1 m has been supporting disasters both National & International. In this paper, an attempt has been made to describe the expected performance and limitations of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites available for risk management applications, as well as an analysis of future systems Cartosat-2D, 2E ,Resourcesat-2R &RISAT-1A. This paper also attempts to describe the criteria of satellite selection for programming for the purpose of risk management with a special emphasis on planning RISAT-1(SAR sensor).

  10. The global troposphere - Biogeochemical cycles, chemistry, and remote sensing (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Allario, F.


    The chemical composition of the troposphere is controlled by various biogeochemical cycles that couple the atmosphere with the oceans, the solid earth and the biosphere, and by atmospheric photochemical/chemical reactions. These cycles and reactions are discussed and a number of key questions concerning tropospheric composition and chemistry for the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur species are identified. Next, various remote sensing techniques and instruments capable of measuring and monitoring tropospheric species from the ground, aircraft and space to address some of these key questions are reviewed. Future thrusts in remote sensing of the troposphere are also considered.

  11. The Discrete Fourier Transform on hexagonal remote sensing image (United States)

    Li, Yalu; Ben, Jin; Wang, Rui; Du, Lingyu


    Global discrete grid system will subdivide the earth recursively to form a multi-resolution grid hierarchy with no Overlap and seamless which help build global uniform spatial reference datum and multi-source data processing mode which takes the position as the object and in the aspect of data structure supports the organization, process and analysis of the remote sensing big data. This paper adopts the base transform to realize the mutual transformation of square pixel and hexagonal pixel. This paper designs the corresponding discrete Fourier transform algorithm for any lattice. Finally, the paper show the result of the DFT of the remote sensing image of the hexagonal pixel.

  12. Improving remote sensing flood assessment using volunteered geographical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schnebele


    Full Text Available A new methodology for the generation of flood hazard maps is presented fusing remote sensing and volunteered geographical data. Water pixels are identified utilizing a machine learning classification of two Landsat remote sensing scenes, acquired before and during the flooding event as well as a digital elevation model paired with river gage data. A statistical model computes the probability of flooded areas as a function of the number of adjacent pixels classified as water. Volunteered data obtained through Google news, videos and photos are added to modify the contour regions. It is shown that even a small amount of volunteered ground data can dramatically improve results.

  13. Deriving harmonised forest information in Europe using remote sensing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria

    the need for harmonised forest information can be satisfied using remote sensing methods. In conclusion, the study showed that it is possible to derive harmonised forest information of high spatial detail in Europe with remote sensing. The study also highlighted the imperative provision of accuracy...... parameters for the spatial units of any foreseen application, as it is crucial for evaluating the fitness for purpose. Yet, the lack of comprehensive reference data limits large area accuracy assessments. Improvement of reference data availability is, thus, a prerequisite for better decision-making processes...

  14. An Approach to Extracting Fractal in Remote Sensing Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ji; LIN Ziyu; WANG Angsheng; CUI Peng


    In order to apply the spatial structure information to remote sensing interpretation through fractal theory,an algorithm is introduced to compute the single pixel fractal dimension in remote sensing images. After a computer program was written according to the algorithm, the ETM+ images were calculated to obtain their fractal data through the program. The algorithm has following characteristics: The obtained fractal values indicate the complexity of image, and have positive correlation with the complexity of images and ground objects. Moreover, the algorithm is simple and reliable, and easy to be implemented.

  15. Prototype simulates remote sensing spectral measurements on fruits and vegetables (United States)

    Hahn, Federico


    A prototype was designed to simulate spectral packinghouse measurements in order to simplify fruit and vegetable damage assessment. A computerized spectrometer is used together with lenses and an externally controlled illumination in order to have a remote sensing simulator. A laser is introduced between the spectrometer and the lenses in order to mark the zone where the measurement is being taken. This facilitates further correlation work and can assure that the physical and remote sensing measurements are taken in the same place. Tomato ripening and mango anthracnose spectral signatures are shown.

  16. Remote sensing models and methods for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schowengerdt, Robert A


    Remote sensing is a technology that engages electromagnetic sensors to measure and monitor changes in the earth's surface and atmosphere. Normally this is accomplished through the use of a satellite or aircraft. This book, in its 3rd edition, seamlessly connects the art and science of earth remote sensing with the latest interpretative tools and techniques of computer-aided image processing. Newly expanded and updated, this edition delivers more of the applied scientific theory and practical results that helped the previous editions earn wide acclaim and become classroom and industry standa

  17. Remote sensing and aerial photography for coastal geomorphology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    -Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 :;. RmOTE 5mBIN(; AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR COASTAL GIDMORPHOLOGY By B. G. Wagle National Institute of Oceanography Dona Paula, Goa -~o:;DOL,. • : " In this lecture I will discuss the use ofRemote~. Sensing data... between the dates of photographs. Considering the rapid development of Remote Sensing Seismic the need was felt to use the aerial photographs and LANDSAT imageries for coastal and nearshore studies. Use of aerial photographs has increased the effi ciency...

  18. On MSDT inversion with multi-angle remote sensing data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the wavelet transform, image of multi-angle remote sensing is decomposed into multi-resolution. With data of each resolution, we try target-based multi-stages inversion, taking the inversion result of coarse resolution as the prior information of the next inversion. The result gets finer and finer until the resolution of satellite observation. In this way, the target-based multi-stages inversion can be used in remote sensing inversion of large-scaled coverage. With MISR data, we inverse structure parameters of vegetation in semiarid grassland of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The result proves that this way is efficient.

  19. [Hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring the vegetation heavy metal pollution]. (United States)

    Li, Na; Lü, Jian-sheng; Altemann, W


    Mine exploitation aggravates the environment pollution. The large amount of heavy metal element in the drainage of slag from the mine pollutes the soil seriously, doing harm to the vegetation growing and human health. The investigation of mining environment pollution is urgent, in which remote sensing, as a new technique, helps a lot. In the present paper, copper mine in Dexing was selected as the study area and China sumac as the study plant. Samples and spectral data in field were gathered and analyzed in lab. The regression model from spectral characteristics for heavy metal content was built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing in environment pollution monitoring was testified.

  20. Remote sensing of biomass of salt marsh vegetation in France (United States)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Levasseur, J. E.


    Spectral data (gathered using a hand-held radiometer) and harvest data were collected from four salt marsh vegetation types in Brittany, France, to develop equations predicting live aerial biomass from spectral measurements. Remote sensing estimates of biomass of the general salt marsh community (GSM) and of Spartina alterniflora can be obtained throughout the growing season if separate biomass prediction equations are formulated for different species mixtures (for the GSM) and for different canopy types (for S. alterniflora). Results suggest that remote sensing will not be useful for predicting Halimione portulacoides biomass, but can be used to estimate Puccinellia maritima biomass early in the growing season.

  1. Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nanzer, Jeffrey


    Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection,

  2. Design and construction of a remote sensing apparatus (United States)

    Maples, D.; Hagewood, J. F.


    The methods of identifying plant and soil types using remote sensing techniques are described. The equipment employed consists of a balloon system and a mobile remote sensing laboratory housing a radiometer which is mounted on a turret mechanism. The radiometer is made up of a telescope whose lenses are replaced by mirrors which channel received radiation into a monochromator. The radiation is then focused onto detectors for measurement of the intensity of the electromagnetic energy as a function of wavelength. Measurements from a wavelength of 0.2 microns to 15 microns are obtained with the system. diagrams are provided.

  3. Advanced remote sensing terrestrial information extraction and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Shunlin; Wang, Jindi


    Advanced Remote Sensing is an application-based reference that provides a single source of mathematical concepts necessary for remote sensing data gathering and assimilation. It presents state-of-the-art techniques for estimating land surface variables from a variety of data types, including optical sensors such as RADAR and LIDAR. Scientists in a number of different fields including geography, geology, atmospheric science, environmental science, planetary science and ecology will have access to critically-important data extraction techniques and their virtually unlimited application

  4. Mariana Islands-Hyperspectral Airborne Remote Environmental Sensing Experiment 2010 (United States)


    a thick stalk with a leathery top. They have a fuzzy appearance when the polyps are all extended and a smooth leathery appearance when the polyps...Manila, China and Guam. The A-2 airport also supports small aircraft travelling throughout the CNMI. The airports on Tinian and Rota serve inter...Solpao Tini~tn ~A&ulj<ln 0 05-Mar-10 1 ......... ~ Rot . • 06-Mar-10 0 09-Mar-10 ,.... ............_Gu.lm 14"Ŕ𔄃ŕ

  5. Airborne Remote Sensing of the Plata Plume Using STARRS (United States)


    USING STARRSTabare Perez (Compania Industrial de Tabacos), Joel Wesson and Derek Burrage (Naval Research Laboratory) explain how a microwave radiometer... Industrial de Tabacos Monte Paz SA C. Montevideo, Uruguay Joel Wesson Oceanographer and Derek Burrage Oceanographer Ocean Sciences Branch Naval Research...coverage. de Mantenimiento , Servicio de Sen- of Research and De- garsores Remotos y Aeroespaciales and velopment, Compa- oraResults Escuadr6n de

  6. Report of second LASFLEUR field campaign for remote sensing of vegetation health: ENEA contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipt. Sviluppo Tecnologie di Punta


    The second European joint field campaign for the remote sensing of vegetation health was held in Oberpfaffenhofen (D) (30 Jun-9 Jul 1992) within the framework of the EUREKA/LASFLEUR Project. Italian groups, from ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment), CNR (Italian National Research Council) and Viterbo University participated in this campaign together with German, French and Swedish groups from different institutes. On the occasion of this campaign, the lidar (light detection and ranging) fluorosensor system built at ENEA Frascati for the remote sensing of water and territory was improved, on the basis of the former field experience on plant fluorescence remote detection gained during the first LASFLEUR campaign held in Viterbo, and carried out on-site by means of a movable container. The new version of the set-up is presented here, together with the measurements performed on the available targets (spruce, maple, elm and cornel trees, and mais plants). Data analysis is discussed in detail, attempting to correlate the present spectral domain measurements with the plant photosynthetic activity under different weather and (nutrition or water) stress conditions. Several correlations were found between different pigment concentrations in various vegetables and spectrally resolved remote sensed data on the same species. It was demonstrated that the measurements, when performed from an airborne platform, would allow for a remote vegetation recognition across large areas (monitoring cultivations or forests). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the inter-calibration of different lidar systems operating in the spectrally resolved mode: this point is discussed here as well. Some conclusions drawn at the end of the LASFLEUR project Phase 1 are presented at the end of this report, as discussed during the last Project Workshop held in Florence from October 22nd to 26th, 1992.

  7. To what extent can vegetation change and plant stress be surveyed by remote sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toemmervik, Hans


    Air pollution from the nickel processing industry in the Kola region of Russia accounts for a large part of the environmental problems in the north-eastern parts of Norway and Finland. The objectives of this thesis were to examine if vegetation damage and plant stress can be surveyed by remote sensing and to assess the use of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to detect plant stress in the field. The study was carried out in the border area between Norway and Russia. Two spaceborne and one airborne sensors were used. Changes in vegetation cover could be monitored with a degree of accuracy varying from 75 to 83%. A hybrid classification method monitored changes in both lichen dominated vegetation and in vegetation cover types dominated by dwarf shrubs and green plants, which were significantly associated with the differences in SO{sub 2} emission during the period from 1973 to 1994. Vegetation indices, change detection maps and prediction maps provided information on biomass and coverage of green vegetation. This was associated with the differences in the SO{sub 2} emissions during the same period. The vegetation and land cover types with the greatest stress and damage had the largest modelled SO{sub 2} concentration levels in the ground air layer while the vegetation cover types with the lowest degree of stress had the lowest. Comparison of the airborne casi map with the previously processed Landsat TM map from the same area showed that the casi map separated the complete vegetation cover into more detail than the Landsat TM map. The casi images indicated a red-edge shift for the medium to heavily damaged vegetation cover types. Problems with using airborne remote sensing by casi include variable clouds, lack of synoptic view, and cost. The variation in chlorophyll fluorescence of 11 plant species at 16 sites was most influenced by precipitation, temperature and continentality. 373 refs., 49 figs., 37 tabs.

  8. Remote sensing for restoration ecology: Application for restoring degraded, damaged, transformed, or destroyed ecosystems. (United States)

    Reif, Molly K; Theel, Heather J


    Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases, and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high-resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar. Restoration practitioners in federal agencies require monitoring standards to assess restoration performance of injured resources. This review attempts to address a technical need and provides an introductory overview of spatial data and restoration metric considerations, as well as an in-depth review of optical (e.g., spaceborne, airborne, unmanned aerial vehicles) and active (e.g., radar, lidar) sensors and examples of restoration metrics that can be measured with remotely sensed data (e.g., land cover, species or habitat type, change detection, quality, degradation, diversity, and pressures or threats). To that end, the present article helps restoration practitioners assemble information not only about essential restoration metrics but also about the evolving technological approaches that can be used to best assess them. Given the need for monitoring standards to assess restoration success of injured resources, a universal monitoring framework should include a range of remote sensing options with which to measure common restoration metrics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;X:000-000. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  9. Research Advances in Monitoring Agro-meteorological Disasters Using Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueyan; SUI; Rujuan; WANG; Huimin; YAO; Meng; WANG; Shaokun; LI; Xiaodong; ZHANG


    Remote sensing is an important method for rapidly obtaining farmland information. Once meteorological disaster occurs,using the remote sensing technology to extract disaster area of crops and monitor disaster level has great significance for evaluating disasters and making a timely remedy. This paper elaborated the importance of monitoring agro-meteorological disasters using remote sensing in current special historical period,overviewed remote sensing methods both at home and abroad,analyzed existing problems,made clear major problems to be solved in monitoring agro-meteorological disasters using remote sensing,and discussed the development prospect of the remote sensing technology.

  10. Towards automatic lithological classification from remote sensing data using support vector machines (United States)

    Yu, Le; Porwal, Alok; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Michael


    Remote sensing data can be effectively used as a mean to build geological knowledge for poorly mapped terrains. Spectral remote sensing data from space- and air-borne sensors have been widely used to geological mapping, especially in areas of high outcrop density in arid regions. However, spectral remote sensing information by itself cannot be efficiently used for a comprehensive lithological classification of an area due to (1) diagnostic spectral response of a rock within an image pixel is conditioned by several factors including the atmospheric effects, spectral and spatial resolution of the image, sub-pixel level heterogeneity in chemical and mineralogical composition of the rock, presence of soil and vegetation cover; (2) only surface information and is therefore highly sensitive to the noise due to weathering, soil cover, and vegetation. Consequently, for efficient lithological classification, spectral remote sensing data needs to be supplemented with other remote sensing datasets that provide geomorphological and subsurface geological information, such as digital topographic model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data. Each of the datasets contain significant information about geology that, in conjunction, can potentially be used for automated lithological classification using supervised machine learning algorithms. In this study, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based supervised learning method, was applied to automated lithological classification of a study area in northwestern India using remote sensing data, namely, ASTER, DEM and aeromagnetic data. Several digital image processing techniques were used to produce derivative datasets that contained enhanced information relevant to lithological discrimination. A series of SVMs (trained using k-folder cross-validation with grid search) were tested using various combinations of input datasets selected from among 50 datasets including the original 14 ASTER bands and 36 derivative datasets (including 14

  11. The remote sensing needs of Arctic geophysics (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.


    The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.

  12. The use of remote sensing for landslide studies in Europe (United States)

    Tofani, Veronica; Agostini, Andrea; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola


    The existing remote sensing techniques and their actual application in Europe for landslide detection, mapping and monitoring have been investigated. Data and information necessary to evaluate the subjects have been collected through a questionnaire, designed using a Google form, which was disseminated among end-users and researchers involved in landslide. In total, 49 answers were collected, coming from 17 European countries and from different kinds of institutions (universities, research institutes, public institutes and private companies). The spatial distribution of the answers is consistent with the distribution of landslides in Europe, the significance of landslides impact on society and the estimated landslide susceptibility in the various countries. The outcomes showed that landslide detection and mapping is mainly performed with aerial photos, often associated with optical and radar imagery. Concerning landslide monitoring, satellite radars prevail over the other types of data followed by aerial photos and meteorological sensors. Since subsampling the answers according to the different typology of institutions it is not noticeable a clear gap between research institutes and end users, it is possible to infer that in landslide remote sensing the research is advancing at the same pace as its day-to-day application. Apart from optical and radar imagery, other techniques are less widespread and some of them are not so well established, notwithstanding their performances are increasing at a fast rate as scientific and technological improvements are accomplished. Remote sensing is mainly used for detection/mapping and monitoring of slides, flows and lateral spreads with a preferably large scale of analysis (1:5000 - 1:25000). All the compilers integrate remote sensing data with other thematic data, mainly geological maps, landslide inventory maps and DTMs and derived maps. Concerning landslide monitoring, the results of the questionnaire stressed that the best

  13. Asteroid Sufaces/Regoliths Deduced by Remote Sensing (United States)

    Price, S.

    Resolved imagery on a small number of asteroids provides information about the size, density and surface relief from which inferences may be made regarding their regoliths; Eros Eros is the best studied asteroid in this regard However, remote sensing is necessary to deduce properties for the large majority of objects. These techniques include: spectroscopy and multi-spectral band photometry, which provide clues as to the chemical composition of the surface, infrared (plus visible) radiometry, from which physical bulk and surface properties may be inferred through the derived albedo and thermal inertia, and radar, which permits one to deduce the near surface bulk density. This article reviews what these techniques have revealed about the surface characteristics of asteroids. Asteroids have been classified by the broad emissive properties of the surface as indicated by filter band photometry. Recently, observations from large scale surveys - 2MASS (Denis to a lesser extent) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - provided taxonomic classifications for thousands of asteroids. The mineralogy is more secure at higher spectral resolution. Silicates on the surface of asteroids have been inferred from IRAS, ISO and Kuiper Airborne infrared spectra. Infrared radiometry has been used to derive the albedos and diameters of ~2300 asteroids observed by IRAS and MSX. The simplified Standard Thermal Model (STM) works well for main belt asteroids. The model assumes that the asteroid does not rotate and is in instantaneous thermal equilibrium between absorbed sunlight and emitted radiation. Empirical factors for flux enhancement (beaming) and phase function are adopted. There is a dichotomy between large and small asteroids in this database. About 20% of the asteroids with diameters inertia, rotation rate, orientation of the rotation pole, surface roughness and degree of cratering. A complex model is required to account for all the variables. Such a model was developed using full

  14. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster


    Full Text Available In the Arctic, global warming is particularly pronounced so that we need to monitor its development continuously. On the other hand, the vast and hostile conditions make in situ observation difficult, so that available satellite observations should be exploited in the best possible way to extract geophysical information. Here, we give a résumé of the sea ice remote sensing efforts of the European Union's (EU project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. In order to better understand the seasonal variation of the microwave emission of sea ice observed from space, the monthly variations of the microwave emissivity of first-year and multi-year sea ice have been derived for the frequencies of the microwave imagers like AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS and sounding frequencies of AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, and have been used to develop an optimal estimation method to retrieve sea ice and atmospheric parameters simultaneously. In addition, a sea ice microwave emissivity model has been used together with a thermodynamic model to establish relations between the emissivities from 6 GHz to 50 GHz. At the latter frequency, the emissivity is needed for assimilation into atmospheric circulation models, but is more difficult to observe directly. The size of the snow grains on top of the sea ice influences both its albedo and the microwave emission. A method to determine the effective size of the snow grains from observations in the visible range (MODIS is developed and demonstrated in an application on the Ross ice shelf. The bidirectional reflectivity distribution function (BRDF of snow, which is an essential input parameter to the retrieval, has been measured in situ on Svalbard during the DAMOCLES campaign, and a BRDF model assuming aspherical particles is developed. Sea ice drift and deformation is derived from satellite observations with the scatterometer

  15. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster


    Full Text Available In the Arctic, global warming is particularly pronounced so that we need to monitor its development continuously. On the other hand, the vast and hostile conditions make in situ observation difficult, so that available satellite observations should be exploited in the best possible way to extract geophysical information. Here, we give a résumé of the sea ice remote sensing efforts of the EU project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. The monthly variation of the microwave emissivity of first-year and multiyear sea ice has been derived for the frequencies of the microwave imagers like AMSR-E and sounding frequencies of AMSU, and has been used to develop an optimal estimation method to retrieve sea ice and atmospheric parameters simultaneously. A sea ice microwave emissivity model has been used together with a thermodynamic model to establish relations between the emisivities at 6 GHz and 50 GHz. At the latter frequency, the emissivity is needed for assimilation into atmospheric circulation models, but more difficult to observe directly. A method to determine the effective size of the snow grains from observations in the visible range (MODIS is developed and applied. The bidirectional reflectivity distribution function (BRDF of snow, which is an essential input parameter to the retrieval, has been measured in situ on Svalbard during the DAMOCLES campaign, and a BRDF model assuming aspherical particles is developed. Sea ice drift and deformation is derived from satellite observations with the scatterometer ASCAT (62.5 km grid spacing, with visible AVHRR observations (20 km, with the synthetic aperture radar sensor ASAR (10 km, and a multi-sensor product (62.5 km with improved angular resolution (Continuous Maximum Cross Correlation, CMCC method is presented. CMCC is also used to derive the sea ice deformation, important for formation of sea ice leads (diverging deformation and

  16. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.


    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  17. A high throughput geocomputing system for remote sensing quantitative retrieval and a case study (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Ziqiang; Xu, Hui; Ai, Jianwen; Jiang, Shuzheng; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Ying; Guang, Jie; Mei, Linlu; Jiao, Xijuan; He, Xingwei; Hou, Tingting


    The quality and accuracy of remote sensing instruments have been improved significantly, however, rapid processing of large-scale remote sensing data becomes the bottleneck for remote sensing quantitative retrieval applications. The remote sensing quantitative retrieval is a data-intensive computation application, which is one of the research issues of high throughput computation. The remote sensing quantitative retrieval Grid workflow is a high-level core component of remote sensing Grid, which is used to support the modeling, reconstruction and implementation of large-scale complex applications of remote sensing science. In this paper, we intend to study middleware components of the remote sensing Grid - the dynamic Grid workflow based on the remote sensing quantitative retrieval application on Grid platform. We designed a novel architecture for the remote sensing Grid workflow. According to this architecture, we constructed the Remote Sensing Information Service Grid Node (RSSN) with Condor. We developed a graphic user interface (GUI) tools to compose remote sensing processing Grid workflows, and took the aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval as an example. The case study showed that significant improvement in the system performance could be achieved with this implementation. The results also give a perspective on the potential of applying Grid workflow practices to remote sensing quantitative retrieval problems using commodity class PCs.

  18. Balloonborne lidar payloads for remote sensing (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.; Reidy, W. P.; Rieder, R. J.; Bedo, D. E.; Swirbalus, R. A.


    A series of lidar experiments has been conducted using the Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment payload (ABLE). These experiments included the measurement of atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie backscatter from near space (approximately 30 km) and Raman backscatter measurements of atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude. The ABLE payload consisted of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser transmitter, a 50 cm receiver telescope, and filtered photodetectors in various focal plane configurations. The payload for lidar pointing, thermal control, data handling, and remote control of the lidar system. Comparison of ABLE performance with that of a space lidar shows significant performance advantages and cost effectiveness for balloonborne lidar systems.

  19. The interpretation of remote sensing, a feasibility study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dulk, J.A.


    This thesis describes research done to ascertain the possibilities and limitations of the use of remote sensing observations for agriculture. The topic is defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 the possible applicability of certain existing models for this study is examined. Three models are developed f

  20. UAS remote sensing for precision agriculture: An independent assessment (United States)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. However, research is required to determine which sensors and data processing methods are required to use sUAS in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Oregon State U...

  1. Activities of the Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Botkin, D.; Peuquet, D.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L. (Principal Investigator)


    Topics on the analysis and processing of remotely sensed data in the areas of vegetation analysis and modelling, georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence are investigated. Discussions on support field data and specific applications of the proposed technologies are also included.

  2. Estimation of Forest Degradation with Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus

    +). An indirect remote sensing (RS) approach has been suggested to map the infrastructure used for degradation rather than the actual change in forest canopy cover. This offers a way to delineate intact forest land and to model and estimate emissions from forest degradation in the non‐intact forest land – thereby...

  3. Cooling effect of rivers on metropolitan Taipei using remote sensing. (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen


    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  4. Use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.


    This paper, presented in poster form addresses the use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management. Current and future applications in The Netherlands are highlighted with an outlook to technology and models that are involved. Applications include monitoring of the environment, oil spills, sh

  5. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review (United States)

    Colomina, I.; Molina, P.


    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last five years, these two sister disciplines have developed technology and methods that challenge the current aeronautical regulatory framework and their own traditional acquisition and processing methods. Navety and ingenuity have combined off-the-shelf, low-cost equipment with sophisticated computer vision, robotics and geomatic engineering. The results are cm-level resolution and accuracy products that can be generated even with cameras costing a few-hundred euros. In this review article, following a brief historic background and regulatory status analysis, we review the recent unmanned aircraft, sensing, navigation, orientation and general data processing developments for UAS photogrammetry and remote sensing with emphasis on the nano-micro-mini UAS segment.

  6. Drought impacts on the Amazon forest: the remote sensing perspective. (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Alencar, Ane


    Drought varies spatially and temporally throughout the Amazon basin, challenging efforts to assess ecological impacts via field measurements alone. Remote sensing offers a range of regional insights into drought-mediated changes in cloud cover and rainfall, canopy physiology, and fire. Here, we summarize remote sensing studies of Amazônia which indicate that: fires and burn scars are more common during drought years; hydrological function including floodplain area is significantly affected by drought; and land use affects the sensitivity of the forest to dry conditions and increases fire susceptibility during drought. We highlight two controversial areas of research centering on canopy physiological responses to drought and changes in subcanopy fires during drought. By comparing findings from field and satellite studies, we contend that current remote sensing observations and techniques cannot resolve these controversies using current satellite observations. We conclude that studies integrating multiple lines of evidence from physiological, disturbance-fire, and hydrological remote sensing, as well as field measurements, are critically needed to narrow our uncertainty of basin-level responses to drought and climate change.

  7. Remote sensing of troposphere for aviation safety: antenna aspect


    Yanovsky, Felix J.


    Techniques of microwave remote sensing of the atmosphere with the emphasis to the aviation applications arc considered. Some results recently obtained are presented including joint research projects of NAU and IRCTR. Specificity of antennas is discussed. The paper mainly reflects the works, which were done with author participation, and does not aspire to saturation coverage.

  8. [Remote passive sensing of aeroengine exhausts using FTIR system]. (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Zuo, Hong-Fu; Li, Shao-Cheng; Wen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yao-Hua


    The traditional method of measuring the aeroengine exhausts is intrusive gas sampling analysis techniques. The disadvantages of the techniques include complex system, difficult operation, high costs and potential danger because of back-pressure effects. The non-intrusive methods have the potential to overcome these problems. So the remote FTIR passive sensing is applied to monitor aeroengine exhausts and determine the concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines. The principle of FTIR remote passive sensing is discussed. The model algorithm for the calibration of FTIR system, the radiance power distribution and gas concentration are introduced. TENSOR27 FTIR-system was used to measure the spectra of infrared radiation emitted by the hot gases of exhausts in a test rig. The emission spectra of exhausts were obtained under different thrusts. By analyzing the spectra, the concentrations of CO2, CO and NO concentration were calculated under 4 thrusts. Researches on the determination of concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines by using the remote FTIR sensing are still in early stage in the domestic aeronautics field. The results of the spectra and concentration in the aeroengine test are published for the first time. It is shown that the remote FTIR passive sensing techniques have a great future in monitoring the hot gas of the aeroengines exhausts.

  9. Applications of Remote Sensing to Alien Invasive Plant Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner


    Full Text Available Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Therefore, it is often important to systematically monitor the spread of species over a broad region. Remote sensing has been an important tool for large-scale ecological studies in the past three decades, but it was not commonly used to study alien invasive plants until the mid 1990s. We synthesize previous research efforts on remote sensing of invasive plants from spatial, temporal and spectral perspectives. We also highlight a recently developed state-of-the-art image fusion technique that integrates passive and active energies concurrently collected by an imaging spectrometer and a scanning-waveform light detection and ranging (LiDAR system, respectively. This approach provides a means to detect the structure and functional properties of invasive plants of different canopy levels. Finally, we summarize regional studies of biological invasions using remote sensing, discuss the limitations of remote sensing approaches, and highlight current research needs and future directions.

  10. Beyond NDVI: Extraction of biophysical variables from remote sensing imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.


    This chapter provides an overview of methods used for the extraction of biophysical vegetation variables from remote sensing imagery. It starts with the description of the main spectral regions in the optical window of the electromagnetic spectrum based on typical spectral signatures of land surface

  11. Development of a UAV rangeland remote sensing capability (United States)

    Starting in 2000, experiments have been conducted at the Jornada Experimental Range near Las Cruces, NM to evaluate the utility of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for applications on arid rangelands. When compared to all types of remote sensing research ongoing at Jornada and other locations, UAVs h...

  12. MTF online compensation in space optical remote sensing camera (United States)

    Qu, Youshan; Zhai, Bo; Han, Yameng; Zhou, Jiang


    An ordinary space optical remote sensing camera is an optical diffraction-limited system and a low-pass filter from the theory of Fourier Optics, and all the digital imaging sensors, whether the CCD or CMOS, are low-pass filters as well. Therefore, when the optical image with abundant high-frequency components passes through an optical imaging system, the profuse middle-frequency information is attenuated and the rich high-frequency information is lost, which will blur the remote sensing image. In order to overcome this shortcoming of the space optical remote sensing camera, an online compensating approach of the Modulation Transfer Function in the space cameras is designed. The designed method was realized by a hardware analog circuit placed before the A/D converter, which was composed of adjustable low-pass filters with a calculated value of quality factor Q. Through the adjustment of the quality factor Q of the filters, the MTF of the processed image is compensated. The experiment results display that the realized compensating circuit in a space optical camera is capable of improving the MTF of an optical remote sensing imaging system 30% higher than that of no compensation. This quantized principle can efficiently instruct the MTF compensating circuit design in practice.

  13. Consideration of smoothing techniques for hyperspectral remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaiphasa, C.


    Spectral smoothing filters are popularly used in a large number of modern hyperspectral remote sensing studies for removing noise from the data. However, most of these studies subjectively apply ad hoc measures to select filter types and their parameters. We argue that this subjectively minded appro

  14. Remote sensing in marine geology: Arctic to Caribbean (United States)

    Carlson, P. R.


    The applications of remote sensing to coastal dynamics of both nearshore and offshore waters are discussed. Results of aerial photographic analysis of four areas are presented. The study areas include the Arctic (Beaufort Sea), the Pacific Northwest, San Francisco Bay, and St. John, Virgin Islands (Project Tektite).

  15. Study on retrieve specified objects in massive remote sensing data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rongjing; CHEN Ping; ZHANG Wei


    In this paper, we show that to retrieve specified objects in massive remote sensing data set is very important in both practice and theory. An algorithm-based content retrieval in the massive data set is studied. To avoid the loss of information, the algorithm based on the Support Vector Machine classification is proposed. Also, the experiment on the real data set is made.

  16. Natural resource inventory for urban planning utilizing remote sensing techniques (United States)

    Foster, K. E.; Mackey, P. F.; Bonham, C. D.


    Remote sensing techniques were applied to the lower Pantano Wash area to acquire data for planning an ecological balance between the expanding Tucson metropolitan area and its environment. The types and distribution of vegetation are discussed along with the hydrologic aspects of the Wash.


    The extent of past and anticipated plantings of transgenic corn in the United States requires a new approach to monitor this important crop for the development of pest resistance. Remote sensing by aerial and/or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pest...


    Current plantings of 25+ million acres of transgenic corn in the United States require a new approach to monitor this important crop for the development of pest resistance. Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal cro...

  19. Radar remote sensing to support tropical forest management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.


    This text describes an investigation into the potential of radar remote sensing for application to tropical forest management. The information content of various radar images is compared and assessed with regard to the information requirements of parties involved in tropical forest management at the

  20. Remote sensing of sea state through a Polaroid

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Saran, A.K.

    of surface reflected light in the context of using it for remote sensing of sea state. We propose the design for an instrument that will view the wind-roughened sea surface over a period of time and compute the fraction of plane polarised light received by it...

  1. Cooling Effect of Rivers on Metropolitan Taipei Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen


    Full Text Available This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  2. Satellite remote sensing for water erosion assessment: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.


    Water erosion creates negative impacts on agricultural production, infrastructure, and water quality across the world. Regional-scale water erosion assessment is important, but limited by data availability and quality. Satellite remote sensing can contribute through providing spatial data to such as

  3. Cornell University remote sensing program. [New York State (United States)

    Liang, T.; Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Stanturf, J. A.


    High altitude, color infrared aerial photography as well as imagery from Skylab and LANDSAT were used to inventory timber and assess potential sites for industrial development in New York State. The utility of small scale remotely sensed data for monitoring clearcutting in hardwood forests was also investigated. Consultation was provided regarding the Love Canal Landfill as part of environment protection efforts.

  4. Remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces for pluvial flood modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Drews, Martin

    This paper investigates the accuracy of medium resolution (MR) satellite imagery in estimating impervious surfaces for European cities at the detail required for pluvial flood modelling. Using remote sensing techniques enables precise and systematic quantification of the influence of the past 30...

  5. On the remote sensing of small black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C


    We support further our arguments on the black hole remote-sensing problem, i.e., finding out `surface'-temperature distributions of various types of non-isolated small (micron-sized) black holes from the spectral measurements of their Hawking-like pulses, that we started in a previous paper [Nuovo Cimento B 108, 1333 (1993)].

  6. On the remote sensing of Hawking grey pulses


    Rosu, H. C.


    This is a short note on the black hole remote-sensing problem, i.e., finding out `surface' temperature distributions of various types of small (micron-sized) black holes from the spectral measurements of their Hawking grey pulses. Chen's modified Moebius inverse transform is illustrated in this context

  7. Investigating a Quadrant Surface Coil Array for NQR Remote Sensing (United States)


    2006 IEEE James E. Burke received a Bachelors of Science degree in electrical engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida...Resonance) remote sensing. In this paper, each of four surface coils will be parallel tuned and series matched with common electrical components to

  8. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in agriculture (United States)

    Draeger, William C.; McClelland, David T.


    The bibliography contains nearly 300 citations of selected publications and technical reports dealing with the application of remote-sensing techniques to the collection and analysis of agricultural information. Most of the items included were published between January 1968 and December 1975, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  9. The Solar Spectrum: An Atmospheric Remote Sensing Perspective (United States)

    Toon, Geoff


    The solar spectrum not only contains information about the composition and structure of the sun, it also provides a bright and stable continuum source for earth remote sensing (atmosphere and surface). Many types of remote sensors use solar radiation. While high-resolution spaceborne sensors (e.g. ACE) can largely remove the effects of the solar spectrum by exo-atmospheric calibration, this isn't an option for sub-orbital sensors, such as the FTIR spectrometers used in the NDACC and TCCON networks. In this case the solar contribution must be explicitly included in the spectral analysis. In this talk the methods used to derive the solar spectrum are presented, and the underlying solar physics are discussed. Implication for remote sensing are described.

  10. Geologic remote sensing for geothermal exploration: A review (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek; Hecker, Christoph; van Ruitenbeek, Frank; van der Werff, Harald; de Wijkerslooth, Charlotte; Wechsler, Carolina


    This paper is a comprehensive review of the potential for remote sensing in exploring for geothermal resources. Temperature gradients in the earth crust are typically 25-30 °C per kilometer depth, however in active volcanic areas situated in subduction or rift zones gradients of up to 150 °C per kilometer depth can be reached. In such volcanic areas, meteoric water in permeable and porous rocks is heated and hot water is trapped to form a geothermal reservoir. At the Earth's surface hot springs and fumaroles are evidence of hot geothermal water. In low enthalpy systems the heat can be used for heating/cooling and drying while in high enthalpy systems energy is generated using hot water or steam. In this paper we review the potential of remote sensing in the exploration for geothermal resources. We embark from the traditional suite of geophysical and geochemical prospecting techniques to arrive at parameters at the Earth surface that can be measured by earth observing satellites. Next, we summarize direct and indirect detection of geothermal potential using alteration mineralogy, temperature anomalies and heat fluxes, geobotanical anomalies and Earth surface deformation. A section of this paper is dedicated to published remote sensing studies illustrating the principles of mapping: surface deformation, gaseous emissions, mineral mapping, heat flux measurements, temperature mapping and geobotany. In a case study from the La Pacana caldera (Chili) geothermal field we illustrate the cross cutting relationships between various surface manifestations of geothermal reservoirs and how remotely sensed indicators can contribute to exploration. We conclude that although remote sensing of geothermal systems has not reached full maturity, there is great potential for integrating these surface measurements in a exploration framework. A number of recommendations for future research result from our analysis of geothermal systems and the present contributions of remote sensing to

  11. The Design of a Remote Sensing Data Acquisition Campaign for Precision Agriculture and Some Early Results (United States)

    Rickmanl, D.; Luvall, J. C.; Wersinger, J. M.; Mask, P.; Kissel, D. E.


    In the 1970s NASA and the Department of Agriculture attempted to use the new Landsat MSS system for agricultural purposes. The program had relatively little success. With the advent of differential GPS, yield monitors on harvest equipment and higher spatial resolution remote sensing systems it seemed likely the situation should be reexamined. Therefore, a campaign of data acquisition involving remote sensing and other modalities with dependent research was assembled and funded by the Space Grant Consortia in Alabama and Georgia. The design of the remote sensing data acquisition was driven by the biology and physics of the crop system and limited by the available sensor platforms. Major parameters included crop stage, spatial resolution, seasonal and daily weather conditions, and which portion of the EM spectrum would actually capture the most discriminating information. Joint visible and Near IR with Thermal IR would permit use of existing indices, such as greenness, as well as phenomena driven by the plant' s evapotranspiration. Spatial resolution in the 2-5 meter range was chosen, avoiding many complexities caused by aliasing crop row spacing at, higher resolutions yet finer than the harvester's tightest recording rate. This dictates use of an airborne system. Use of an airborne system also makes scheduling around weather much simpler than use of satellite data. Active video calibration was recognized as essential if quantitative measures were ever to be obtained or reproduced. The system would also have to have onboard geoOF1 Based on these elements 3 data acquisitions have been flown. Seven flight lines were flown twice in 1998 and 16 lines flown in 1999. Total raw data is several GBytes. All of the data has now been geometrically corrected and some preliminary analysis accomplished. The thermal bands have an extremely high correlation with yield. For one@test case with corn, correlation in excess of 0.86 was obtained from a data acquisition two months prior to


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MULTI-TEMPORAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGE CLASSIFICATION - A MULTI-VIEW APPROACH VARUN CHANDOLA AND RANGA RAJU VATSAVAI Abstract. Multispectral remote sensing images have...

  13. The Technical Framework of Multi-source Remote Sensing Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuiliGong; JingLi; WenjiZhao; SongmeiZhang


    With the delivery of a great deal remote sensing data to land from Landsat constantly, Remote Sensing Satellite Ground Station accumulates abundant satellite remote sensing data. For lack of effective data mining (DM) and knowledge Discovery from Databases (KDD technique) to these data, most part of the information cannot be usede fficiently. Technical innovation and improvement of the traditional DM and KDD, study of the data mining and KDD will both increase the interpretation level and intelligentized, and moreover explore and utilize the remote sensing information at the maximum degree. Based on the traditional data mining and KDD, the authors probed the technical flow of DM and KDD of the remote sensing, designed the systematical framework of multi-sources remote sensing DM, put forward a prototypeEstablished a base for further exploring andsystem.of multi-sources remote sensing DM system. developing multi-sources remote sensing DM system.

  14. Perspectives in using a remotely sensed dryness index in distributed hydrological models at river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Sandholt, Inge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh;


    Remote Sensing, hydrological modelling, dryness index, surface temperature, vegetation index, Africa, Senegal, soil moisture......Remote Sensing, hydrological modelling, dryness index, surface temperature, vegetation index, Africa, Senegal, soil moisture...

  15. The remote sensing image segmentation mean shift algorithm parallel processing based on MapReduce (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhou, Liqing


    With the development of satellite remote sensing technology and the remote sensing image data, traditional remote sensing image segmentation technology cannot meet the massive remote sensing image processing and storage requirements. This article put cloud computing and parallel computing technology in remote sensing image segmentation process, and build a cheap and efficient computer cluster system that uses parallel processing to achieve MeanShift algorithm of remote sensing image segmentation based on the MapReduce model, not only to ensure the quality of remote sensing image segmentation, improved split speed, and better meet the real-time requirements. The remote sensing image segmentation MeanShift algorithm parallel processing algorithm based on MapReduce shows certain significance and a realization of value.

  16. Use of remotely sensed precipitation and leaf area index in a distributed hydrological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Dybkjær, Gorm Ibsen; Jensen, Karsten Høgh


    distributed hydrological modelling, remote sensing, precipitation, leaf area index, NOAA AVHRR, cold cloud duration......distributed hydrological modelling, remote sensing, precipitation, leaf area index, NOAA AVHRR, cold cloud duration...

  17. Satellite Data for All? Review of Google Earth Engine for Archaeological Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Alcover Firpi


    Full Text Available A review of Google Earth Engine for archaeological remote sensing using satellite data. GEE is a freely accessible software option for processing remotely sensed data, part of the larger Google suite of products.

  18. 75 FR 65304 - Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES); Request for Nominations (United States)


    ... Commerce. ACTION: Notice requesting nominations for the Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing... serving on the Committee. Self-nominations are acceptable. The following contact information should... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing...

  19. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L.L.


    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  20. A laser velocimeter for remote wind sensing. (United States)

    Lawrence, T. R.; Wilson, D. J.; Craven, C. E.; Jones, I. P.; Huffaker, R. M.; Thomson, J. A. L.


    A CW carbon dioxide laser Doppler radar has been developed and applied to remote measurement of atmospheric wind velocity and turbulence. The carbon dioxide laser illuminates residual particulate matter in the atmosphere. Radiation scattered by these particles is homodyned with a local oscillator to provide the Doppler signal. The performance of the instrument is verified by comparison of wind velocity data recorded simultaneously by the laser Doppler system and a cup-anemometer wind-vane system. All data comparisons indicate very close agreement of the two systems. Data inconsistencies are within the accuracy limitations of the conventional anemometer system. The range of the laser Doppler system during these tests was confined to approximately 30 m. Laser Doppler wind velocity data were observed at ranges exceeding 300 m; however, no conventional anemometer was set up at these ranges for data comparisons.

  1. Regional Characterization of Soil Properties via a Combination of Methods from Remote Sensing, Geophysics and Geopedology (United States)

    Meyer, Uwe; Fries, Elke; Frei, Michaela


    Soil is one of the most precious resources on Earth. Preserving, using and enriching soils are most complex processes that fundamentally need a sound regional data base. Many countries lack this sort of extensive data or the existing data must be urgently updated when land use recently changed in major patterns. The project "RECHARBO" (Regional Characterization of Soil Properties) aims at the combination of methods from remote sensing, geophysics and geopedology in order to develop a new system to map soils on a regional scale in a quick and efficient manner. First tests will be performed on existing soil monitoring districts, using newly available sensing systems as well as established techniques. Especially hyperspectral and infrared data measured from satellites or airborne platforms shall be combined. Moreover, a systematic correlation between hyperspectral imagery and gamma-ray spectroscopy shall be established. These recordings will be compared and correlated to measurements upon ground and on soil samples to get hold of properties such as soil moisture, soil density, specific resistance plus analytic properties like clay content, anorganic background, organic matter etc. The goal is to generate a system that enables users to map soil patterns on a regional scale using airborne or satellite data and to fix their characteristics with only a limited number of soil samples.

  2. Research on remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition method in AutoCAD (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Guangtong; Liu, Jun; Liu, Hui


    The remote sensing image has been widely used in AutoCAD, but AutoCAD lack of the function of remote sensing image processing. In the paper, ObjectARX was used for the secondary development tool, combined with the Image Engine SDK to realize remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition in AutoCAD, which provides critical technical support for AutoCAD environment remote sensing image processing algorithms.

  3. Airborne Hyperspectral Sensing of Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms in the Great Lakes Region: System Calibration and Validation (United States)

    Lekki, John; Anderson, Robert; Avouris, Dulcinea; Becker, RIchard; Churnside, James; Cline, Michael; Demers, James; Leshkevich, George; Liou, Larry; Luvall, Jeffrey; Ortiz, Joseph; Royce, Anthony; Ruberg, Steve; Sawtell, Reid; Sayers, Michael; Schiller, Stephen; Shuchman, Robert; Simic, Anita; Stuart, Dack; Sullivan, Glenn; Tavernelli, Paul; Tokars, Roger; Vander Woude, Andrea


    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Lake Erie have been prominent in recent years. The bloom in 2014 reached a severe level causing the State of Ohio to declare a state of emergency. At that time NASA Glenn Research Center was requested by stakeholders to help monitor the blooms in Lake Erie. Glenn conducted flights twice a week in August and September and assembled and distributed the HAB information to the shoreline water resource managers using its hyperspectral imaging sensor (in development since 2006), the S??3 Viking aircraft, and funding resources from the NASA Headquarters Earth Science Division. Since then, the State of Ohio, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have elevated their funding and activities for observing, monitoring, and addressing the root cause of HABs. Also, the communities and stakeholders have persistently requested NASA Glenn??s participation in HAB observation. Abundant field campaigns and sample analyses have been funded by Ohio and NOAA, which provided a great opportunity for NASA to advance science and airborne hyperspectral remote sensing economically. Capitalizing on this opportunity to advance the science of algal blooms and remote sensing, NASA Glenn conducted the Airborne Hyperspectral Observation of harmful algal blooms campaign in 2015 that was, in many respects, twice as large as the 2014 campaign. Focusing mostly on Lake Erie, but also including other small inland lakes and the Ohio River, the campaign was conducted in partnership with a large number of partners specializing in marine science and remote sensing. Airborne hyperspectral observation of HABs holds promise to distinguish potential HABs from nuisance blooms, determine their concentrations, and delineate their movement in an augmented spatial and temporal resolution and under clouds??all of which are excellent complements to satellite observations. Working with collaborators at several Ohio and Michigan

  4. Advances in remote sensing of vegetation function and traits

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus


    Remote sensing of vegetation function and traits has advanced significantly over the past half-century in the capacity to retrieve useful plant biochemical, physiological and structural quantities across a range of spatial and temporal scales. However, the translation of remote sensing signals into meaningful descriptors of vegetation function and traits is still associated with large uncertainties due to complex interactions between leaf, canopy, and atmospheric mediums, and significant challenges in the treatment of confounding factors in spectrum-trait relations. This editorial provides (1) a background on major advances in the remote sensing of vegetation, (2) a detailed timeline and description of relevant historical and planned satellite missions, and (3) an outline of remaining challenges, upcoming opportunities and key research objectives to be tackled. The introduction sets the stage for thirteen Special Issue papers here that focus on novel approaches for exploiting current and future advancements in remote sensor technologies. The described enhancements in spectral, spatial and temporal resolution and radiometric performance provide exciting opportunities to significantly advance the ability to accurately monitor and model the state and function of vegetation canopies at multiple scales on a timely basis.

  5. Characterization of Vegetation using the UC Davis Remote Sensing Testbed (United States)

    Falk, M.; Hart, Q. J.; Bowen, K. S.; Ustin, S. L.


    Remote sensing provides information about the dynamics of the terrestrial biosphere with continuous spatial and temporal coverage on many different scales. We present the design and construction of a suite of instrument modules and network infrastructure with size, weight and power constraints suitable for small scale vehicles, anticipating vigorous growth in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and other mobile platforms. Our approach provides the rapid deployment and low cost acquisition of high aerial imagery for applications requiring high spatial resolution and revisits. The testbed supports a wide range of applications, encourages remote sensing solutions in new disciplines and demonstrates the complete range of engineering knowledge required for the successful deployment of remote sensing instruments. The initial testbed is deployed on a Sig Kadet Senior remote controlled plane. It includes an onboard computer with wireless radio, GPS, inertia measurement unit, 3-axis electronic compass and digital cameras. The onboard camera is either a RGB digital camera or a modified digital camera with red and NIR channels. Cameras were calibrated using selective light sources, an integrating spheres and a spectrometer, allowing for the computation of vegetation indices such as the NDVI. Field tests to date have investigated technical challenges in wireless communication bandwidth limits, automated image geolocation, and user interfaces; as well as image applications such as environmental landscape mapping focusing on Sudden Oak Death and invasive species detection, studies on the impact of bird colonies on tree canopies, and precision agriculture.

  6. Remote sensing of vegetation ecophysiological function for improved hydrologic prediction (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Ruddell, B. L.


    Land surface hydrology in vegetated landscapes is strongly controlled by ecophysiological function. The coupling between photosynthesis, stomatal dynamics and leaf energy balance fundamentally links the hydrologic and carbon cycles, and provides a basis for examining the utility of observations of functional plant traits for hydrologic prediction. Here we explore the potential of solar induced fluorescence (SIF) and thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing observations to improve the accuracy and reduce the uncertainty in hydrologic prediction. While SIF represents an emission of radiation associated with photosynthesis, TIR provides information on foliage temperature and is related to stomatal function and water stress. A set of remote observing system simulation experiments are conducted to quantify the value of remotely sensed observations of SIF and TIR when assimilated into a detailed vegetation biophysical model. The MLCan model discretizes a dense plant canopy to resolve vertical variation in photosynthesis, water vapor and energy exchange. Here we present extensions to MLCan that allow for direct computation of the canopy emission of both SIF and TIR. The detailed representation of the physical environment and biological functioning of structurally complex canopies makes MLCan an ideal simulation tool for exploring the impact of these two unique, and potentially synergistic observables. This work specifically addresses remote sensing capabilities on both recently launched (OCO-2) and near-term (ECOSTRESS) satellite platforms. We contrast the information gained through the assimilation of SIF and TIR observations to that of the assimilation of data related to physical states such as soil moisture and leaf area index.

  7. RSComPro: An Open Communication Protocol for Remote Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Trujillo, Juan-José

    The remote sensing protocol (RSComPro) is a communication protocol, which has been developed for controlling multiple remote sensing systems simultaneously through a UDP/IP and TPC/IP network. This protocol is meant to be open to the remote sensing community. The scope is the implementation of so...

  8. 15 CFR 960.12 - Data policy for remote sensing space systems. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data policy for remote sensing space... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS Licenses § 960.12 Data policy for remote sensing space systems. (a) In accordance with the Act, if the U.S....

  9. RSComPro: An Open Communication Protocol for Remote Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Trujillo, Juan-José

    The remote sensing protocol (RSComPro) is a communication protocol which has been developed for controlling multiple remote sensing systems simultaneously through a UDP/IP and TPC/IP network. This protocol is meant to be open to the remote sensing community. The scope is the implementation of so...

  10. A remote sensing driven distributed hydrological model of the Senegal River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Simon; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge


    in West Africa. By utilizing remote sensing data to estimate precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and leaf area index (LAI) the model was driven entirely by remote sensing based data and independent of traditional meteorological data. The remote sensing retrievals were based on data from...

  11. Integrating remote sensing data from multiple optical sensors for ecological and crop condition monitoring (United States)

    Ecological and crop condition monitoring requires high temporal and spatial resolution remote sensing data. Due to technical limitations and budget constraints, remote sensing instruments trade spatial resolution for swath width. As a result, it is difficult to acquire remotely sensed data with both...

  12. Unmanned aerial vehicle: A unique platform for low-altitude remote sensing for crop management (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide a unique platform for remote sensing to monitor crop fields that complements remote sensing from satellite, aircraft and ground-based platforms. The UAV-based remote sensing is versatile at ultra-low altitude to be able to provide an ultra-high-resolution imag...

  13. 78 FR 44536 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Licensing of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems (United States)


    ... of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... of remote-sensing space systems. The information in applications and subsequent reports is needed to ensure compliance with the Land Remote- Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and with the national security...

  14. 75 FR 32360 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Licensing of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems (United States)


    ... of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... the licensing of private operators of remote-sensing space systems. The information in applications and subsequent reports is needed to ensure compliance with the Land Remote- Sensing Policy Act of...

  15. Polarimetric remote sensing of Solar System objects: a perspective (United States)

    Mishchenko, M. I.


    Aerosol and cloud particles exert a strong influence on climates of the Earth and other planets. Microscopic regolith particles covering the surfaces of many Solar System bodies and particles forming cometary atmospheres have a strong and often controlling effect on many ambient physical and chemical processes. Moreover, they are "living witnesses" of the history of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Therefore, detailed and accurate knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of such particles has the utmost scientific and practical importance. More often than not it is impracticable to collect samples of such particles and subject them to a laboratory test. Therefore, in most cases one has to rely on theoretical analyses of remote measurements of the electromagnetic radiation scattered by the particles. Fortunately, the scattering and absorption properties of small particles often exhibit a strong dependence on their size, shape, orientation, and refractive index. This factor makes remote sensing an extremely useful and often the only practicable means of physical and chemical particle characterization in geophysics and planetary astrophysics. For a long time remote-sensing studies had relied on measurements of only the scattered intensity and its spectral dependence. Eventually it has become recognized that polarimetric characteristics of the scattered radiation contain much more accurate and specific information about such important properties of particles as their size, morphology, and chemical composition. Continuing progress in electromagnetic scattering theory coupled with great advances in the polarization measurement capability has resulted in overwhelming examples of the immense practical power of polarimetric remote sensing which are no longer possible to ignore. As a result of persistent research efforts, polarimetry has become one of the most informative, accurate, and efficient means of terrestrial and planetary remote sensing.

  16. Lidar remote sensing of savanna biophysical attributes (United States)

    Gwenzi, David

    plot level biomass into wall-to-wall maps that provide more ecological information. We evaluated the utility of three spatial modeling approaches to address this problem: deterministic methods, geostatistical methods and an image segmentation approach. Overall, the mean pixel biomass estimated by the 3 approaches did not differ significantly but the output maps showed marked differences in the estimation precision and ability of each model to mimic the primary variable's trend across the landscape. The results emphasized the need for future satellite lidar missions to consider increasing the sampling intensity across track so that biomass observations are made and characterized at the scale at which they vary. We used data from the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), an airborne photon counting lidar sensor developed by NASA Goddard to simulate ICESat-2 data. We segmented each transect into different block sizes and calculated canopy top and mean ground elevation based on the structure of the histogram of the block's aggregated photons. Our algorithm was able to compute canopy height and generate visually meaningful vegetation profiles at MABEL's signal and noise levels but a simulation of the expected performance of ICESat-2 by adjusting MABEL data's detected number of signal and noise photons to that predicted using ATLAS instrument model design cases indicated that signal photons will be substantially lower. The lower data resolution reduces canopy height estimation precision especially in areas of low density vegetation cover. Given the clear difficulties in processing simulated ATLAS data, it appears unlikely that it will provide the kind of data required for mapping of the biophysical properties of savanna vegetation. Rather, resources are better concentrated on preparing for the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, a waveform lidar mission scheduled to launch by the end of this decade. In addition to the full waveform technique

  17. Regional Drought Monitoring Based on Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing (United States)

    Rhee, Jinyoung; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyoung


    Drought originates from the deficit of precipitation and impacts environment including agriculture and hydrological resources as it persists. The assessment and monitoring of drought has traditionally been performed using a variety of drought indices based on meteorological data, and recently the use of remote sensing data is gaining much attention due to its vast spatial coverage and cost-effectiveness. Drought information has been successfully derived from remotely sensed data related to some biophysical and meteorological variables and drought monitoring is advancing with the development of remote sensing-based indices such as the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) to name a few. The Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) has also been proposed to be used for humid regions proving the performance of multi-sensor data for agricultural drought monitoring. In this study, remote sensing-based hydro-meteorological variables related to drought including precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture were examined and the SDCI was improved by providing multiple blends of the multi-sensor indices for different types of drought. Multiple indices were examined together since the coupling and feedback between variables are intertwined and it is not appropriate to investigate only limited variables to monitor each type of drought. The purpose of this study is to verify the significance of each variable to monitor each type of drought and to examine the combination of multi-sensor indices for more accurate and timely drought monitoring. The weights for the blends of multiple indicators were obtained from the importance of variables calculated by non-linear optimization using a Machine Learning technique called Random Forest. The case study was performed in the Republic of Korea, which has four distinct seasons over the course of the year and contains complex topography with a variety

  18. Solid-State, High Energy 2-Micron Laser Development for Space-Based Remote Sensing (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.


    Lidar (light detection and ranging) remote sensing enjoys the advantages of excellent vertical and horizontal resolution; pointing capability; a signal source independent from natural light; and control and knowledge of transmitted wavelength, pulse shape, and polarization and received polarization. Lidar in space is an emerging technology now being developing to fit applications where passive sensors cannot meet current measurement requirements. Technical requirements for space lidar are more demanding than for ground-based or airborne systems. Perhaps the most distinguishing characteristics of space lidars are the environmental requirements. Space lidar systems must be specially designed to survive the mechanical vibration loads of launch and operate in the vacuum of space where exposure to ionizing radiation limits the electronic components available. Finally, space lidars must be designed to be highly reliable because they must operate without the need for repair or adjustment. Lifetime requirements tend to be important drivers of the overall system design. The maturity of the required technologies is a key to the development of any space lidar system. NASA entered a new era in the 1990 s with the approval of several space-based remote sensing missions employing laser radar (lidar) techniques. Following the steps of passive remote sensing and then active radar remote sensing, lidar sensors were a logical next step, providing independence from natural light sources, and better spatial resolution and smaller sensor size than radar sensors. The shorter electromagnetic wavelengths of laser light also allowed signal reflectance from air molecules and aerosol particles. The smaller receiver apertures allowed the concept of scanning the sensor field of view. However, technical problems with several space-based lidar missions during that decade led to concern at NASA about the risk of lidar missions. An external panel was convened to make recommendations to NASA. Their

  19. Determining suitability of Large Aperture Scintillometer for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration maps (United States)

    Paul, G.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Basu, S.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Marek, T.


    Scintillation method is a relatively new technique for measuring the sensible heat and water fluxes over land surfaces. Path integrating capabilities of scintillometer over heterogeneous landscapes make it a potential tool for comparing the energy fluxes derived from remote sensing based energy balance algorithms. For this reason, scintillometer-derived evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes are being used to evaluate remote sensing based energy balance algorithms for their ability to estimate ET fluxes. However, LAS' (Large Aperture Scintillometer) ability to derive ET fluxes is not thoroughly tested. The objective of this study was to evaluate LAS- and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)-derived fluxes against lysimetric data to determine LAS' suitability for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) maps. The study was conducted during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment - 2008 (BEAREX-08) at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL), Bushland, Texas. SEBS was coded in a GIS environment to retrieve ET fluxes from the high resolution imageries acquired using airborne multispectral sensors. The CPRL has four large weighing lysimeters (3 m long x 3 m wide x 2.4 m deep), each located in the middle of approximately 5 ha fields, arranged in a block pattern. The two lysimeter fields located on the east (NE and SE) were managed under irrigated conditions, and the other two lysimeters on the west (NW and SW) were under dryland management. Each lysimeter field was equipped with an automated weather station that provided measurements for net radiation (Rn), Ts, soil heat flux (Go), Ta, relative humidity, and wind speed. During BEAREX08, the NE and SE fields were planted to cotton on May 21, and the NW and SW dryland lysimeters fields were planted to cotton on June 5. One LAS each was deployed across two large dryland lysimeter fields (NW and SW) and two large irrigated lysimeter fields (NE and SE). The

  20. Capturing Micro-topography of an Arctic Tundra Landscape through Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) Acquired from Various Remote Sensing Platforms (United States)

    Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Tweedie, C. E.; Oberbauer, S. F.


    The need to improve the spatial and temporal scaling and extrapolation of plot level measurements of ecosystem structure and function to the landscape level has been identified as a persistent research challenge in the arctic terrestrial sciences. Although there has been a range of advances in remote sensing capabilities on satellite, fixed wing, helicopter and unmanned aerial vehicle platforms over the past decade, these present costly, logistically challenging (especially in the Arctic), technically demanding solutions for applications in an arctic environment. Here, we present a relatively low cost alternative to these platforms that uses kite aerial photography (KAP). Specifically, we demonstrate how digital elevation models (DEMs) were derived from this system for a coastal arctic landscape near Barrow, Alaska. DEMs of this area acquired from other remote sensing platforms such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Airborne Laser Scanning, and satellite imagery were also used in this study to determine accuracy and validity of results. DEMs interpolated using the KAP system were comparable to DEMs derived from the other platforms. For remotely sensing acre to kilometer square areas of interest, KAP has proven to be a low cost solution from which derived products that interface ground and satellite platforms can be developed by users with access to low-tech solutions and a limited knowledge of remote sensing.

  1. Effect of Remote Sensing Resolution on Evapotranspiration Estimates for the Jornada and Sevilleta, NM Experimental Rangeland Sites (United States)

    French, A. N.


    The effect of remote sensing resolution on estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) is important for determining modeling uncertainties and for planning future remote sensing missions such as the NASA HyspIRI satellite. Higher spatial resolutions, 30 m or better, are often needed to discriminate many land cover classes critical for accurate ET modeling. However, coarser remote sensing resolutions, up to 100-200 m, may still provide valuable observations with small increases in ET modeling uncertainties. To investigate the quantitative effects of resolution upon ET estimation, a remote sensing study was conducted over semi-arid rangeland sites in New Mexico: Jornada and Sevilleta. Using 15-m resolution airborne data collected between 2001 and 2010, multispectral visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared data were progressively degraded to 120 m scales and modeled for ET using a two-source energy balance approach. Results showed that range in observed ET was strongly reduced between 15 and 60 m, but also that little ET bias (<50 Wm2) was introduced. This outcome was due to landscape heterogeneities at very fine scales, 3 m. A way to estimate the loss of ET range will be discussed using 1 m resolution panchromatic image data.

  2. City of Flagstaff Project: Ground Water Resource Evaluation, Remote Sensing Component (United States)

    Chavez, Pat S.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Bowell, Jo-Ann; Sides, Stuart C.; Gonzalez, Rosendo R.; Soltesz, Deborah L.


    Many regions, cities, and towns in the Western United States need new or expanded water resources because of both population growth and increased development. Any tools or data that can help in the evaluation of an area's potential water resources must be considered for this increasingly critical need. Remotely sensed satellite images and subsequent digital image processing have been under-utilized in ground water resource evaluation and exploration. Satellite images can be helpful in detecting and mapping an area's regional structural patterns, including major fracture and fault systems, two important geologic settings for an area's surface to ground water relations. Within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Flagstaff Field Center, expertise and capabilities in remote sensing and digital image processing have been developed over the past 25 years through various programs. For the City of Flagstaff project, this expertise and these capabilities were combined with traditional geologic field mapping to help evaluate ground water resources in the Flagstaff area. Various enhancement and manipulation procedures were applied to the digital satellite images; the results, in both digital and hardcopy format, were used for field mapping and analyzing the regional structure. Relative to surface sampling, remotely sensed satellite and airborne images have improved spatial coverage that can help study, map, and monitor the earth surface at local and/or regional scales. Advantages offered by remotely sensed satellite image data include: 1. a synoptic/regional view compared to both aerial photographs and ground sampling, 2. cost effectiveness, 3. high spatial resolution and coverage compared to ground sampling, and 4. relatively high temporal coverage on a long term basis. Remotely sensed images contain both spectral and spatial information. The spectral information provides various properties and characteristics about the surface cover at a given location or pixel

  3. Environmental monitoring: civilian applications of remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, W.; Lapp, M.; Vitko, J. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to explore how best to utilize Sandia`s defense-related sensing expertise to meet the Department of Energy`s (DOE) ever-growing needs for environmental monitoring. In particular, we focused on two pressing DOE environmental needs: (1) reducing the uncertainties in global warming predictions, and (2) characterizing atmospheric effluents from a variety of sources. During the course of the study we formulated a concept for using unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) for making key 0798 climate measurements; designed a highly accurate, compact, cloud radiometer to be flown on those UAVs; and established the feasibility of differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) to measure atmospheric effluents from waste sites, manufacturing processes, and potential treaty violations. These concepts have had major impact since first being formulated in this ,study. The DOE has adopted, and DoD`s Strategic Environmental Research Program has funded, much of the UAV work. And the ultraviolet DIAL techniques have already fed into a major DOE non- proliferation program.

  4. Assessing forest resources in Denmark using wall-to-wall remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes

    Forests act as a multifunctional, natural, renewable resource, and thus play an important role for many different stakeholders. They are not only providers of wood resources, but also fulfil functions such as providing a buffer from noise, habitat for fauna, contributing to air and water quality...... assessments, is lacking. In this thesis wall-to-wall remote sensing data (from aerial images, airborne LiDAR, and space-borne SAR) were combined with ground reference data (from NFI plots and tree species experiments) to build and evaluate models estimating properties such as basal area, timber volume......, biomass, and tree types in forests at a countrywide scale, i.e. in Denmark. In addition, LiDAR data and ecological modelling were coupled to model canopy throughfall, i.e. precipitation falling through gaps in canopies or dripping off tree crowns, an important factor in forest water flux cycles...

  5. AHS and CASI Processing for the REFLEX Remote Sensing Campaign: Methods and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Eduardo de


    Full Text Available The airborne spectroradiometers AHS and CASI were used as a source of hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing data during the REFLEX campaign. Data geolocation and a first simple atmospheric correction was performed by INTA in near-real time with a specific on-site setup and distributed to all campaign participants. In this paper we present briefly the AHS and CASI REFLEX flight campaign followed by a detailed description of the methodology used for image processing and finally the results obtained in terms of image quality. As a conclusion, near-real time processing for AHS and CASI level 1 geolocated products was successful as most of CASI level 2 results but further work is needed for achieving accurate AHS level 2 products.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranade


    Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

  7. Passive remote sensing of aerosol layer height using near-UV multiangle polarization measurements (United States)

    Wu, Lianghai; Hasekamp, Otto; Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Cairns, Brian; Yorks, John E.; Chowdhary, Jacek


    We demonstrate that multiangle polarization measurements in the near-UV and blue part of the spectrum are very well suited for passive remote sensing of aerosol layer height. For this purpose we use simulated measurements with different setups (different wavelength ranges, with and without polarization, different polarimetric accuracies) as well as airborne measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) obtained over the continental USA. We find good agreement of the retrieved aerosol layer height from RSP with measurements from the Cloud Physics Lidar showing a mean absolute difference of less than 1 km. Furthermore, we found that the information on aerosol layer height is provided for large part by the multiangle polarization measurements with high accuracy rather than the multiangle intensity measurements. The information on aerosol layer height is significantly decreased when the shortest RSP wavelength (410 nm) is excluded from the retrieval and is virtually absent when 550 nm is used as shortest wavelength.

  8. Landscape Archeology: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya in the Peten Rainforest of Northern Guatemala (United States)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Irwin, Daniel E.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    Through the use of airborne and satellite imagery we are improving our ability to investigate ancient Maya settlement, subsistence, and landscape modification in this dense forest region. Today the area is threatened by encroaching settlement and deforestation. However, it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons in the 9th century AD. At the time of their collapse they had attained one of the highest population densities in human history. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not well understood at this time. A NASA-funded project used remote sensing technology to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this preliminary research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Microenvironmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetation associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), one-meter IKONOS satellite imagery, as well as high resolution airborne STAR-3i radar imagery--2.5 meter backscatter/10 meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM)--are opening new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karat topographic landscape. This understanding is critical for the current population that is currently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through

  9. Winter wheat growth spatial variation monitoring through hyperspectral remote sensing image (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Ting; Wang, Jihua; Gu, Xiaohe; Xu, Xingang


    This work aims at quantifying the winter wheat growth spatial heterogeneity captured by hyperspectral airborne images. The field experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 and airborne hyperspectral remote-sensing data was acquired at noon on 11 April 2001 using an operational modular imaging spectrometer (OMIS). Totally 12 winter fields which covered by both dense and sparse winter wheat canopies were selected to analysis the winter wheat growth heterogeneity. The experimental semi-variograms for bands covered from invisible to mid-infrared were computed for each field then the theoretical models were be fitted with least squares algorithm for spherical model, exponential model. The optimization model was selected after evaluated by R-square. Three key terms in each model, the sill, the range, and nugget variance were then calculated from the models. The study results show that the sill, range and nugget for same field wheat were varied with the wavelength from blue to mid infrared bands. Although wheat growth in different fields showed different spatial heterogeneity, they all showed an obvious sill pattern. The minimum of mean range value was 7.52 m for mid-infrared bands while the maximum value was 91.71 m for visible bands. The minimum of mean sill value ranged from 1.46 for visible bands to 39.76 for NIR bands, the minimum of mean nugget value ranged from 0.06 for visible bands to5.45 for mid-infrared bands. This study indicate that remote sensing image is important for crop growth spatial heterogeneity study. But it is necessary to explore the effect of different wavelength of image data on crop growth semi-variogram estimation and find out which band data could be used to estimate crop semi-variogram reliably.

  10. Analysis of remote sensing data for geothermal exploration over Fish Lake Valley, Esmeralda County, Nevada (United States)

    Littlefield, Elizabeth F.

    The purpose of this study was to identify and map hydrothermal alteration and geothermal deposits in northern Fish Lake Valley, Nevada using both visible, near, shortwave infrared (0.4-2.5 microm) and thermal infrared (8-12 microm) remote sensing data. Visible, near, and shortwave infrared data were collected by four airborne instruments including NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) instruments, HyVista Corporation's HyMap sensor, and SpecTIR Corporation's ProSpecTIR instrument. MASTER also collected thermal infrared data over Fish Lake Valley. Hydrothermal alteration minerals and hot spring deposits were identified using diagnostic spectra extracted from the remote sensing data. Mapping results were verified in the field using a portable spectrometer. Two areas of opaline sinter and travertine deposits were identified west of the Fish Lake Valley playa. Field observation reveals the alternating nature of these beds, which likely reflects fluctuating hot spring fluid chemistries. Sinter and travertine were likely deposited around fault-related hot springs during the Pleistocene when the water table was higher. Previously undiscovered Miocene crystalline travertine was identified within the Emigrant Hills near Columbus Salt Marsh. Argillic alteration was mapped in parts of the ranges surrounding Fish Lake Valley. Kaolinite, and to a lesser extent, muscovite and montmorillonite, were used as indicator minerals for argillic alteration. In these regions, thermal fluids were likely discharged from faults to alter rhyolite tuff. Mineral maps were synthesized with previously published geologic data and used to delineate four new targets for future geothermal exploration. The abundant hot spring deposits along the edge of the Volcanic Hills combined with argillic alteration minerals mapped in the ranges suggest geothermal influence throughout much of the valley.

  11. Biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems - Modeling, measurement, and remote sensing (United States)

    Peterson, D. L.; Matson, P. A.; Lawless, J. G.; Aber, J. D.; Vitousek, P. M.


    The use of modeling, remote sensing, and measurements to characterize the pathways and to measure the rate of biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems is described. The application of the process-level model to predict processes in intact forests and ecosystems response to disturbance is examined. The selection of research areas from contrasting climate regimes and sites having a fertility gradient in that regime is discussed, and the sites studied are listed. The use of remote sensing in determining leaf area index and canopy biochemistry is analyzed. Nitrous oxide emission is investigated by using a gas measurement instrument. Future research projects, which include studying the influence of changes on nutrient cycling in ecosystems and the effect of pollutants on the ecosystems, are discussed.

  12. Optimized Radar Remote Sensing for Levee Health Monitoring (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.


    Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.

  13. Advances in Remote Sensing for Vegetation Dynamics and Agricultural Management (United States)

    Tucker, Compton; Puma, Michael


    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  14. A Comparative Study of Removal Noise from Remote Sensing Image

    CERN Document Server

    Al-amri, Salem Saleh; Khamitkar, S D


    This paper attempts to undertake the study of three types of noise such as Salt and Pepper (SPN), Random variation Impulse Noise (RVIN), Speckle (SPKN). Different noise densities have been removed between 10% to 60% by using five types of filters as Mean Filter (MF), Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF), Gaussian Filter (GF), Standard Median Filter (SMF) and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF). The same is applied to the Saturn remote sensing image and they are compared with one another. The comparative study is conducted with the help of Mean Square Errors (MSE) and Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). So as to choose the base method for removal of noise from remote sensing image.

  15. Data acquisition and preprocessing techniques for remote sensing field research (United States)

    Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.


    A crops and soils data base has been developed at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing using spectral and agronomic measurements made by several government and university researchers. The data are being used to (1) quantitatively determine the relationships of spectral and agronomic characteristics of crops and soils, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques. Researchers follow defined data acquisition and preprocessing techniques to provide fully annotated and calibrated sets of spectral, agronomic, and meteorological data. These procedures enable the researcher to combine his data with that acquired by other researchers for remote sensing research. The key elements or requirements for developing a field research data base of spectral data that can be transported across sites and years are appropriate experiment design, accurate spectral data calibration, defined field procedures, and through experiment documentation.

  16. Remote sensing and vegetation mapping in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Jarman


    Full Text Available The kinds of imagery, types of data and general relationships between scale of study, scale of mapping and scale of remote sensing products that are appropriate to the South African situation for visual and digital analysis are presented. The type of remote sensing product and processing, the type of field exercise appropriate to each, and the purpose of producing maps at each scale are discussed. Lack of repetitive imagery to date has not allowed for the full investigation of monitoring potential and careful planning at national level is needed to ensure availability of imagery for monitoring purposes. Map production processes which are rapid and accurate should be utilized. An integrated approach to vegetation mapping and surveying, which incorporates the best features of both visual and digital processing, is recommended for use.

  17. Remote sensing image fusion based on Bayesian linear estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE ZhiRong; WANG Bin; ZHANG LiMing


    A new remote sensing image fusion method based on statistical parameter estimation is proposed in this paper. More specially, Bayesian linear estimation (BLE) is applied to observation models between remote sensing images with different spatial and spectral resolutions. The proposed method only estimates the mean vector and covariance matrix of the high-resolution multispectral (MS) images, instead of assuming the joint distribution between the panchromatic (PAN) image and low-resolution multispectral image. Furthermore, the proposed method can enhance the spatial resolution of several principal components of MS images, while the traditional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method is limited to enhance only the first principal component. Experimental results with real MS images and PAN image of Landsat ETM+ demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than traditional methods based on statistical parameter estimation,PCA-based method and wavelet-based method.

  18. Remote sensing for rural development planning in Africa (United States)

    Dunford, C.; Mouat, D. A.; Norton-Griffiths, M.; Slaymaker, D. M.


    Multilevel remote-sensing techniques were combined to provide land resource and land-use information for rural development planning in Arusha Region, Tanzania. Enhanced Landsat imagery, supplemented by low-level aerial survey data, slope angle data from topographic sheets, and existing reports on vegetation and soil conditions, was used jointly by image analysts and district-level land-management officials to divide the region's six districts into land-planning units. District-planning officials selected a number of these land-planning units for priority planning and development activities. For the priority areas, natural color aerial photographs provided detailed information for land-use planning discussions between district officials and villagers. Consideration of the efficiency of this remote sensing approach leads to general recommendations for similar applications. The technology and timing of data collection and interpretation activities should allow maximum participation by intended users of the information.

  19. ATHENA: Remote Sensing Science Center for Cultural Heritage in Cyprus (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriakos; Cuca, Branka; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter


    The Cultural Heritage (CH) sector, especially those of monuments and sites has always been facing a number of challenges from environmental pressure, pollution, human intervention from tourism to destruction by terrorism.Within this context, CH professionals are seeking to improve currently used methodologies, in order to better understand, protect and valorise the common European past and common identity. "ATHENA" H2020-TWINN-2015 project will seek to improve and expand the capabilities of the Cyprus University of Technology, involving professionals dealing with remote sensing technologies for supporting CH sector from the National Research Center of Italy (CNR) and German Aerospace Centre (DLR). The ATHENA centre will be devoted to the development, introduction and systematic use of advanced remote sensing science and technologies in the field of archaeology, built cultural heritage, their multi-temporal analysis and interpretation and the distant monitoring of their natural and anthropogenic environment in the area of Eastern Mediterranean.

  20. Swarm intelligence for classification of remote sensing data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper proposes a new method to classify remote sensing data by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). This method is to generate classification rules through simulating the behaviors of bird flocking. Optimized intervals of each band are found by particles in multi-dimension space, linked with land use types for forming classification rules. Compared with other rule induction techniques (e.g. See5.0), PSO can efficiently find optimized cut points of each band, and have good convergence in the search process. This method has been applied to the classification of remote sensing data in Panyu district of Guangzhou with satisfactory results. It can produce higher accuracy in the classification than the See5.0 decision tree model.