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Sample records for airborne radioactive materials

  1. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection.

  2. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document states the general functional requirements for systems and procedures for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials from facilities administered by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The following issues are addressed in this document: lg-bullet definition of the program objectives lg-bullet selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples lg-bullet sampling equipment design lg-bullet sampling equipment maintenance and quality assurance issues. The following issues are not addressed in this document: lg-bullet air sampling in work areas or containments lg-bullet selection of specific on-line sample monitoring instrumentation lg-bullet analyzing collected samples lg-bullet reporting and interpreting results. The document provides equipment design guidance that is performance based rather than prescriptive. Locations from which samples are obtained should exhibit mixing of the contaminants with the airstream and acceptable air flow characteristics. Sample collection equipment and effluent and sample flow elements should meet defined performance standards. Quality control and assurance requirements specific to sample collection, equipment inspection, and calibration are presented. Key sample collection performance requirements are summarized in Section 5.4. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance

  3. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance

  4. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination

  5. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... equivalent to an individual should be based upon measurements using instruments or individual monitoring... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne...

  6. Experiments to quantify airborne release from packages with dispersible radioactive materials under accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, R.; Lange, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Koch, W.; Nolte, O. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Str.1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    For transport or handling accidents involving packages with radioactive materials and the assessment of potential radiological consequences, for the review of current requirements of the IAEA Transport Regulations, and for their possible further development reliable release data following mechanical impact are required. Within this context a research project was carried out which extends the basis for a well-founded examination of the contemporary system of requirements of 'Low Specific Activity' (LSA)-type materials and allows for its further development where appropriate. This project comprises a prior system-analytical examination and an experimental programme aiming at improving the general physical understanding of the release process as well as the quantity and the characteristics of airborne released material for non-fixed dispersible LSA-II material upon mechanical impact. Impaction experiments applying small, medium and real sized specimens of different dispersible materials revealed that the release behaviour of dispersible powders strongly depends upon material properties, e.g. particle size distribution and cohesion forces. The highest experimentally determined release fraction of respirable mass (AED < 10 {mu}m) amounted to about 2 % and was obtained for 2 kg of un-contained easily dispersible pulverized fly ash (PFA). For larger un-contained PFA specimen the release fraction decreases. However, packaging containing powdery material substantially reduces the airborne release fraction. The measured airborne release fractions for a 200 l drum with Type A certificate containing PFA were about a factor of 50 to 100 lower than for un-contained material. For a drop height of 9 m the airborne release fraction amounted to about 4 x 10{sup -5}. This value should be applicable for most of transport and handling accidents with mechanical impact. For a metal container of Type IP-2 or better which contains powder masses of 100 kg or more this release

  7. Optimization of the retention of radioactive material from the airborne effluents of reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-protection ordinance of the Federal Republic of Germany does not know the expression 'optimization in radiological protection'. In order to gain experiences with the cost-benefit analysis for the retention of radioactive material from nuclear facilities as proposed in ICRP 26, this method has been applied on the emission of radioactive material with the airborne effluents of reprocessing plants. The reference plant has an annual throughput of 1500 t of spent LWR-fuel. Basing on this plant, two smaller plants (350 t/a, 700 t/a) are also analysed. The cost-benefit-analysis is carried-out for H3, C14, Kr85, J129 and aerosols. For these nuclides as well as for the three plant-sizes, the methods of retention, the estimated annual costs of retention, the emission rates for the different retention measures and the resulting collective-dose commitments are shown. Based on an α-value of 8000 $/man-Sv (20,000 DM/Man-Sv) the cost-benefit analysis shows no optimum for H3 and Kr 85. The optimum C14 as well as iodine retention is a high-efficiency scrubber and an iodine filter, respectively for the dissolver off-gas. For aerosols the cost-benefit analysis shows an optimum for the filtration of the dissolver off-gas by means of HEPA filters. For the other aerosol-sources, condensation, scrubbing and additional droplet separation from the off-gas is optimum. Reasons differing from cost-benefit analysis require HEPA filters for all major aerosol-sources. (author)

  8. Sampling airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contaminants have historically been considered apart from chemical contaminants because it is their radiological properties that determine their biological and environmental impact. Additionally they have been regulated by special government agencies concerned with radiological protection. Radioactive contaminants are also distinguished by the specialized and very sensitive methods available for the detection of radioactivity. Measurements of a few thousand atoms per liter are not uncommon. Radiation detectors in common use are gas filled chambers, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, and the more recently developed thermoluminescent and etched track detectors. Solid-state nuclear track detectors consist of a large group of inorganic and organic dielectrics which register tracks when traversed by heavy charged particles. They do not respond to light, beta particles or gamma ray photons and thus provide a very low background system for the detection of extremely low levels of radioactivity. In addition, no power source or electronic equipment is required. Cellulose nitrate detectors are currently in use for long term integrated sampling of environmental radon. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TID's) are crystalline materials, in which electrons which have been displaced by an interaction with ionizing radiation become trapped at an elevated energy level and emit visible light when released from that energy level. As which etched-track detectors no power or electronic equipment is needed for the TID's at a measurement site, but they respond to alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters are useful for long term environmental monitoring, and have also been newly incorporated into integrating radon detection systems

  9. Airborne radioactivity surveys in geologic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, R.M.

    1958-01-01

    The value of airborne radioactivity surveys in guiding uranium exploration has been well established. Recent improvements in circuitry and development of semiquantitative analytical techniques permit a more comprehensive evaluation of the geologic distribution of radioactive materials that may prove useful in exploration for other minerals and in regional geologic studies. It is shown that placer deposits of heavy minerals can be detected from the air, and that the geometric configuration and average grade of the surficial part of the deposit can be approximated. Uranium-bearing phosphorite deposits may be similarly evaluated. Airborne surveys over the Coastal Plain area, Texas, show that

  10. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The specific radionuclides considered in the Standard are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents (eg, tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters (Kr-Rb, Xe-Cs), and radioiodines (I)); and certain radioactive particulates (eg, Cs, Ru, Sr, Te) that may become airborne under exceptional circumstances

  11. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The radionuclides considered are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents: tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters, radioiodines, and certain radioactive particulates (Cs, Ru, Sr, Te). The standard focuses on the calculation of radiation doses for external exposures from radioactive material in the cloud; internal exposures for inhalation of radioactive material in the cloud and skin penetration of tritium; and external exposures from radionuclides deposited on the ground. It uses as modified Gaussian plume model to evaluate the time-integrated concentration downwind. (52 refs., 12 tabs., 21 figs.)

  12. ORION-II: a computer code to estimate environmental concentration and dose due to airborne release of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code ORION-II has been developed to estimate environmental concentration and dose due to airborne release of radioactive material from multiple sources of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The modified Gaussian plume model is applied to calculate atmospheric dispersion. The plume depletion models such as gravitational settling, dry deposition, precipitation scavenging and radioactive decay are considered as the causes of the depletion and deposition on the ground and vegetation. Dose to the public is calculated as an individual dose. Inhalation and oral intake are considered as internal pathways. Submersion in the radioactive cloud and external exposure to ground surface contamination are considered as external pathways. ORION-II is the updated version of ORION code (PNCT N841-83-42) and is appricable to the case study of environmental assessment for the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. ORION-II is written in FORTRAN-IV language and can be run on IBM 360, 370, 303X, 308X, 43XX and FACOM M-series computers. (author)

  13. Monitoring of airborne radioactivity (radon, thoron and daughters; radioactive dust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes resulting in airborne radioactivity from uranium and thorium ores are discussed. Measurement methods for radioactive dust, radon and thoron gas and radon and thoron daughters are described and assessed. The monitoring equipment required for measurement of airborne radioactivity is described

  14. ORION-WIN. A computer code to estimate environmental concentration and radiation dose due to airborne discharge of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code, ORION-WIN, has been developed to estimate environmental concentration and radiation dose to public due to airborne discharge of radioactive materials from multiple sources of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The modified Gaussian plume model is applied to calculate atmospheric dispersion of the discharged radioactive material. The plume depletion processes such as gravitational settling, dry deposition, precipitation scavenging and radioactive decay are considered, and resuspension from the ground and product of progeny from the parent radionuclides are also considered. Inhalation and oral intake are considered in internal pathways, and submersion in the radioactive cloud and external exposure to contaminated ground surface are considered in external pathways. Radiation dose to an individual is calculated. Because ORION-WIN has many options, it is applicable to the sensitivity study of safety assessment for the nuclear fuel cycle facilities and to dose assessment based on the amount of radioactive materials discharged from the stack. The ORION-WIN is an updated version of ORION-II and runs on PC with Windows OS, and has a graphical user interface for inputting the parameters and referring output files. (author)

  15. Description of the SAFRAN Model for Evaluation of Public Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials into the Atmosphere and User’s Guide. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Model can be used for evaluation of public exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. The model is based on the public exposure evaluation concept as described in IAEA reports. While both these reports in primary addresses impacts arising from routine (e.g. long time permanent) releases, the concept employed can be adapted for assessment of impacts arising from accidental (e.g. short time) releases. Another source which has also been extensively used is the German Incident calculation bases

  16. Forage: a sensitive indicator of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of using Ge(Li) γ-ray spectroscopy to measure radioactivity concentration of forage in the vicinity of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Houston County, AL., over a 31/2 yr period. The report period includes 2 yr of pre-operational and 11/2 yr of operational sampling. Although the objective of forage sampling was the measurement of manmade airborne fallout radioactivity, several natural radioisotopes were also found to be present. A summary of natural radioactivity data for all samples measured during the period from August 1975 to December 1978 is given. Approximately 10 days after each of four Chinese atmospheric nuclear tests conducted during the sampling period fresh fission product fallout was measured on the forage. The information from these nuclear tests shows forage sampling to be a convenient and sensitive monitoring tool for airborne fallout radioactivity. (author)

  17. Description of the SAFRAN Models for Evaluation of Worker Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials snd User’s Guide. Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for the calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials. Models can be used for evaluation of occupational exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. Presently, four models are available to address different exposure conditions. The first three are ‘no dilution’ model, ‘gradual mixing’ model and ‘complete mixing’ model. The fourth combined ‘gradual mixing / complete mixing’ model is a combination of the two last models and allows the user to run subsequently the ‘gradual mixing and ‘complete mixing’ models. Each of the models are created using Ecolego. Each of the models is described and their practical use is explained

  18. Forage: A sensitive indicator for airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the radiological environmental monitoring program at the Joseph M. Parley Nuclear Plant to meet the requirements of NRC Regulations 10 CRF 50, Appendix I, routine sampling of forage was implemented. Indicator plots of forage (grass) were established at the plant site boundary in the two Meteorological sectors having the highest X/Q values for ground-level dispersion of airborne radioactivity. Likewise, a control plot was established in a sector having a significantly lower X/Q value at a distance of 18 miles. Procedures for maintenance of the grass plots, sampling of forage, and sample preparation for measurement of gamma radioactivity with a Ge (Li) detector were developed during the reported three year measurement period. Three atmospheric nuclear tests by the Peoples Republic of China in 1976 and 1977 has proven forage sampling to be convenient, sensitive, and in the judgement of the authors gives results which are superior to most other media sampled for airborne radioactivity. Typical measured levels of radioactivity from 150 to greater than 10,000 pCi/kg (dry weight) were obtained for the principal fission products in the Chinese bomb fallout, which included 95Zr-95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 140Ba-140La, 141Ce, and 144Ce. On a unit weight basis the level of radioactivity measured was consistently higher for forage than for green leafy vegetables. This was attributed to the higher surface area for the forage. For comparison, plots of airborne concentrations for gross beta and particulate gamma emitters are shown during the time periods that include the Chinese nuclear tests. (author)

  19. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  20. Experience with airborne detection of radioactive pollution (ENMOS, IRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advancements of our society create with the increased level of comfort, increased risk of either unintentional or intentional radioactive pollution. New instrumentation and processing techniques can rapidly produce visual images of areas exposed to radiation. Protecting the health of the population in case of a nuclear accident is an essential social priority. Monitoring of existing levels of natural and manmade radioactive contamination, in and around nuclear installations and nuclear materials handling facilities is a valuable reference in case of a nuclear accident. Fast deployment of airborne radiation monitoring systems in the case of nuclear accidents is essential. The portability of the new range of instrumentation with accurate navigation, data acquisition and real time processing can provide fast and low cost estimates of potential problems. Many examples of real situations assessed on the basis of data gained by the airborne measurements demonstrate, that the use of airborne data is reliable, fast and relatively inexpensive. Short period of time required for data acquisition assures data consistency. Practically unrestricted access provides good and homogeneous data. Today advanced measuring and processing techniques are result of many years of hard and slow progress mostly in airborne geophysics, together with advancements in mathematics, physics, data processing and electronics. (authors)

  1. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  2. Changing methodology for measuring airborne radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requires that measurements of airborne radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities be performed following outdated methods contained in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N13.1-1969 Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities. Improved methods are being introduced via two paths. First, the ANSI standard is being revised, and second, EPA's equivalency granting process is being used to implement new technology on a case-by-case or broad basis. The ANSI standard is being revised by a working group under the auspices of the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. The revised standard includes updated methods based on current technology and a performance-based approach to design. The performance-based standard will present new challenges, especially in the area of performance validation. Progress in revising the standard is discussed. The US Department of Energy recently received approval from the USEPA for an alternate approach to complying with air-sampling regulations. The alternate approach is similar to the revised ANSI standard. New design tools include new types of sample extraction probes and a model for estimating line-losses for particles and radioiodine. Wind tunnel tests are being performed on various sample extraction probes for use at small stacks. The data show that single-point sampling probes are superior to ANSI-Nl3.1-1969 style multiple-point sample extraction probes

  3. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  4. Radioactive material storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a radioactive material storage vessel having a single sealing boundary in the cylindrical portion and a double sealing boundary in the lid portion, and the outer circumference of the vessel being cooled by air, in which difference is made between the pressure in a radioactive material storage chamber and the pressure in an intermediate chamber present between a primary sealing lid and a secondary sealing lid. A valve is disposed to the primary sealing lid, which breaks the sealing between the radioactive material containing chamber and the intermediate chamber when the difference between the pressure of the containing chamber and that of the intermediate chamber is reduced to lower than a predetermined value, and a sensor for detecting pressure change in the intermediate chamber is disposed to the secondary sealing lid. In addition, a shrinkable member having at least a predetermined length and an extensible length is disposed to the primary sealing lid, and a displacement sensor capable of detecting the change of the length of the shrinkable member is disposed to the secondary sealing lid. Then, when the sealing boundary at the cylinder portion of the radioactive material containing chamber should be broken in the radioactive material storage vessel, it can be detected. (N.H.)

  5. Use of airborne radiometric measurements for monitoring environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of airborne gamma spectrometry has many advantages over conventional ground based monitoring methods in the mounting of a time constrained response to an accident involving a release of radioactive material into the environment. The paper reviews the basis and background of the method, with an emphasis on the role that detector and nucleonics development plays in determining capabilities. The main features of detector response are briefly discussed, including nuclide specificity, circles of investigation and sensitivity. Identification of distributed and point sources of radioactivity is potentially of interest and leads to differing survey requirements. The relative merits and limitations of calibration methods are also reviewed. Practical examples of the use of aerial methods in the United Kingdom are given, including surveys conducted by the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre using fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft in Scotland and west Cumbria in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. The results clearly show the potential of aerial methods for guiding ground based work in the recovery phase of an accident involving release of radioactivity to the environment. Further needs include baseline studies, technical developments and improved knowledge of nuclide mobility and transfer factors. (author). 25 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing public concern over the potential hazards of transporting radioactive materials has led to a considerable body of state and local restrictions, including bans in certain jurisdictions. In spite of a good safety record and the acknowledged necessity of many of these shipments, restrictive enactments continue to proliferate. Users of radioactive materials contend that these restrictions impede shipments and contribute to rising costs while, on the other hand, state and local officials are concerned with the health and safety of their citizenry. A showdown between state and local safety interests and federal promoters of unencumbered interstate commerce will occur when the proposed US Department of Transportation (DOT) highway routing rules for the shipment of radioactive materials are implemented February 1, 1982. As proposed, these rules would preempt several restrictive state and local requirements

  7. Introduction to radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide the researcher with basic information on the physics of radioactive materials and the nature and detection of radiations emitted by these materials. A detailed knowledge of nuclear structure and radiation physics is not needed for most radioisotope applications, but a basic understanding of these subjects is essential for proper choice of radiation detection instrumentation and radiation protection methods for a specific experimental procedure. (author)

  8. Material for radioactive protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  9. Radioactive material storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To make a spent fuel accommodating box movable and accommodate spent fuels at a position farther than the side wall of the storage installation and to draw the spent fuel near to the side wall with the lapse of the storage time, thereby attenuating the radiation effectively and increasing the storage capacity. Constitution: A space (box) accommodating radioactive materials is made movable, and the radiation is effectively shielded by the attenuation of the radioactive materials in storage due to the lapse of the storage time and the shielding of the radiation due to the liquefied shielding material up to the shielding wall of the storage installation, whereby the shielding wall of the storage installation is made thin and the capacity in the installation is enlarged, thus the accommodation capacity, that is, the storage capacity being increased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  13. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  14. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, large numbers of packages containing radioactive materials are shipped for industrial, medical and commercial purposes. The nature of the hazards and the associated risks are examined; the protection measures and regulatory requirements are indicated. The result of a survey on the number of packages being shipped is presented; a number of incidents are analyzed as a function of their consequences. Measures to be applied in the event of an emergency and the responsibility for the preparation of contingency plans are considered. (author)

  15. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Miller Hill area, Carbon county, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 65 square miles northwest of Miller Hill, Carbon county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomalies shown on the accompanying map cannot be interpreted in terms of either the radioactive content or the extent of the source materials. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to uranium, or to thorium, or to a combination of uranium and thorium. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. Any particular anomaly

  16. Radioactive materials in metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are covered: Dutch law and regulations on radioactive materials; guidelines for the industry; difficulties related to radioactivity in metal scrap; and services provided and experience gained by Roentgen Technische Dienst bv. (P.A.)

  17. Krypton-85 and other airborne radioactivity measurements throughout Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In compliance with articles 35 and 36 of the EURATOM Treaty, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) undertakes a comprehensive programme of radioactivity monitoring in the Irish terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The RPII monitors airborne radioactivity concentrations at ten stations throughout Ireland, of which, nine are equipped with low volume particulate samplers and one, in Dublin, with a high volume particulate sampler. The low volume particulate samples are assessed for total beta activity and high volume samples for gamma emitting radionuclides such as caesium-137 and beryllium-7. In addition, air sampled at the RPII laboratory in Dublin, is monitored for krypton-85, a radioactive noble gas, released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Since the inception of the krypton measurements in 1993 a trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations has been observed. The results of the krypton-85 monitoring, as well as the airborne radioactivity concentration measurements, will be presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Atlantic Ocean beach, Virginia to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, R.M.; Johnson, R.W.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying maps show the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach from Cape Henry, Virginia to Cape Fear, North Carolina and from Savannah Bach Georgia to Miami Beach, Florida. The survey was made March 23-24, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the normal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone would be as much as 1,400 feet. The location of the flight lines is shown on the index map below. No abnormal radioactivity was detected along the northern flight line between Cape Henry, Virginia and Cape Fear, North Carolina. Along the southern flight line fourteen areas of abnormal radioactivity were detected between Savannah Beach, Georgia and Anastasia Island, Florida as shown on the map on the left. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently due to radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits with occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity sue to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given on the accompanying map indicates only those localities of greater-than-average radioactivity and, therefore suggest areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more

  19. Particle sizing of airborne radioactivity field measurements at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 1, 1991 the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) commenced a two year project entitled - Particle sizing of airborne radioactivity, funded by a Mining and Quarrying Occupational Health and Safety Committee - grant (submission No. 9138). This study was set out to measure airborne radioactivity size distributions in an underground uranium mine, in order to provide better estimates of the health risks associated with inhalation of airborne radiation in the work place. These measurements included both active and passive measurement of radon gas, continuous and spot sample of radon daughter levels, as well as wire screen diffusion battery measurements of the radon daughter size distributions. The results of measurements at over 50 sites within the mine are reported, together with the calculated dose conversion factors derived from the older dosimetric models and from the new ICRP lung model using the computer code RADEP. The results showed that the ventilation is relatively uniform within the mine and the radon daughter concentrations are kept to less than 20% of the equilibrium concentration. The radon and radon daughter concentrations showed marked variability with both time and position within the mine. It is concluded that the present radiation protection methods and dose conversion factors used in Australia provide a good estimate of the radiation risk for the inhalation of radon progeny. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  20. Radioactive airborne particles from Chernobyl forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spring and summer, 1992 within 30-km zone near Chernobyl NPP were very hot and dry. That lead to forest fires in May (4 ... 9,23 ... 25), July (28 ... 30) and August (10...12). The Cs-137 soil contamination density (SCD) was equal to 1...400 Ci/km2 at various forest sections of combustion. The stationary air samplers with capacity of 1500 m3/h were used for the monitoring of aerosol emissions during fires. These samplers were situated at a distance of 5...10km from fires boundaries. Smoke particles were collected by the fibrous filters FPP-15-1,5 (Russia). After exposure the activity of aerosols of Cs which deposited by a filter was measured by a gamma-spectrometer. For the separation of Sr-90 and isotopes of Pu the radiochemical analysis was used. It was found that the concentration of Cs-137 increased up to 10...100 times compare with open-quotes backgroundclose quotes one even at several km from fires. The concentration of Cs-137 inside of combustion zone was estimated could exceed the Russian maximum permissible one both for population (0.49 nCi/m3) and for professionals (14 nCi/m3) if the SCD will be more than 0.5 and 7 Ci/km2, respectively. It was measured that Cs-137/Sr-90 and Cs-137/Pu-238 ratios increase in fire emissions. It is obviously, that such enrichment was a consequense of radioactive cesium evaporation at temperature more than 500 C. The experimental forest fire was carry out in August, 1993 in Bryansk region (Russia). The forest section with area 50x50 m was selected. The SCD of Cs-137 was equal to 30 Ci/km2. The Cs-137 concentration during the day before the experiment was equal to 0.16pCi/m3. The concentration was varied from 1.6 to 15 pCi/m3 during the experiment. For the determination of particle sizes the filter pack technique (Budyka et al, 1993) was used. It was found that particle size distribution was a bimodal in plume

  1. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  2. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  3. The Application of Plastic Fibre HEPA Filters to the Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEPA filters used to separate airborne radioactive wastes must not be inflammable. This particular safety requirement is met with almost ideally by HEPA filters made of glassfibre. Plastic-fibre filters are inflammable, and therefore they appear to be unsuitable for the purpose from a safety standpoint. While glass-fibre filters are rather bulky when disposed of, plastic-fibre filters can be reduced to tiny lumps by the use of suitable solvents. Filter frame and filter layer are moulded together using identical plastic material. The use of solvents and the application of subsequent evaporation techniques will reduce the bulk of the radioactive waste to a minimum. The plastic-fibre filter layer also offers a method of recovering valuable radioactive components. Safety requirements, however, make it compulsory to combine plastic-fibre filters with glass-fibre filters of the HEPA type. Several applications will be demonstrated and the results discussed. (author)

  4. Safe use of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials have become essential tools in much of the research conducted in the biological and medical sciences. Procedures documented in this manual are only examples of the numerous applications of radioactive materials in the field of parasitology. Like many chemical reagents and much of the equipment found in laboratories, radionuclides can be hazardous if used carelessly. Exposure to large doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to increase the risk of cancer in humans and animals, and has been shown to increase the risk of genetic abnormalities in animal studies. Everyone handling radionuclides in a research program has a responsibility to follow safe laboratory practices for use of these materials. Most research institutions will have a radiation safety organization which may include a Radiation Safety Officer and a Radiation Safety Committee. Procedures developed by the radiation safety organization must be followed in order to protect personnel working with radioactive material, and the public, from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Investigators must also know and follow regulations established by government agencies for the use and disposal of radioactive materials. In this chapter some basic information on procedures for the safe use of radioactive materials in the laboratory is provided. Greater detail for specific operations and radiation safety concerns may be obtained from documents referred to in the text

  5. New developments in the rapid analysis of off-site consequences of airborne radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of techniques exist for the assessment of the offsite consequences of accidental airborne releases of radioactive material. These range from hand calculation methods using graphs and tables to very complex wind field computer models. The larger computer models require specialist personnel to operate them and, being centrally based, may not be available to operators due to communications breakdowns. Smaller computer models of varying complexity exist which can be used by the site personnel to determine the need for countermeasures in the early stages of an accidental release. The UKAEA UMPIRE system was developed to provide predictions of doses to individuals from airborne releases. Advances in computer technology made it necessary to update the hardware and carry out modifications to the programs. A method of incorporating monitoring data to modify the dose predictions has been under development and the increase in computing power has enabled this to be included in the new system

  6. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  7. Transport security of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material transport safety is highly regulated and the transport safety regulations have been in effect for decades. Transport security recommendations for many types of radioactive material have just been developed and are now being applied, and the potential impact on transport operations is significant. While the security measures and definition of high consequence radioactive material added to the United Nations Model Regulations for Transport of Dangerous Goods were recognized as a very positive step, the IAEA initiated a review of these provisions to ensure they were technically sound and consistent with other approaches used in nuclear and radioactive material security. Several significant steps have been taken in further defining appropriate security measures to apply during transport and these are reflected in the IAEA guide 'Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material'. These measures can be adopted by countries and international transport modal organizations to provide a consistent approach in security requirements for these materials. However, there is still much to be accomplished before transport security is on par with transport safety. This poster briefly describes the implementation of the IAEA security recommendations. The poster will also present information on the training course 'Security in Transport of Radioactive Material' that has been given at a number of occasions in different parts of the world. This training course, developed cooperatively by the IAEA, the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration and The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), is based on the guidance and is intended to educate Member States in how to apply the Recommendations. The poster also will present information on transport security upgrade assistance programs that are now getting started. (author)

  8. Airborne monitoring of radioactivity level in the regions surrounding Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and Shanghai city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the monitoring method and main results of environmental γ radioactivity level and surface density of 137Cs and 60Co on the ground in the regions surrounding Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and Shanghai City, using airborne γspectrometer. The results show that the absorbed dose rate in air (1 m above ground) is lower normal background, the average is 52.7 nGy/h in the regions. No pollution from Nuclear Power Plant had been monitored, but two artificial pollution points at the fertilizer factory of Fengxian County and the refractory material factory of Haiyan County had unexpectly been monitored

  9. Air concentration and ground deposition following radioactive airborne releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental aim of this report is to provide the mathematical and physical operational basis for the evaluation of air concentration and ground deposition, following radioactive airborne releases from a nuclear power plant, both during normal operations and in accidental conditions. As far as accidental releases are concerned, the basical assumptions on meteorological and diffusive situation are considered from a safety point of view: namely those pessimistic but realistically representative situation are taken into account which lead to maximum air concentration and ground deposition values, even if characterized by low recurrence probability. Those elements are the inputs for many environmental transfer models of maximum consequence evaluations up to man. As far as routine releases are concerned, it is shown, together with the usual models based on long term averaged meteorological conditions, also models studied to estimate atmospheric diffusion and deposition in low wind situations and in fog conditions, being those latter very frequent in the Po valley. Finally, the main operations and modalities of collecting and elaborating meteorological data for for radioprotection evaluations are also shown. It is to be pointed out that the methods and the models developed and considered in this work are of a more general validity, and can be also used for applications concerning non-radioactive releases, as it is the case when dealing with conventional power plants

  10. Airborne radioactive effluent study at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 112 and 122 as amended in 1977, the Office of Radiation Programs (OPR) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing standards for radionuclides emitted to the air by several source categories. In order to confirm source-term measurements and pathway calculations for radiation exposures to humans offsite, the ORP performs field studies at selected facilities that emit radionuclides. This report describes the field study conducted at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a laboratory operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company for the US Department of Energy. This purpose of the study at ARP was to verify reported airborne releases and resulting radiation doses from the facility. Measurements of radionuclide releases for brief periods were compared with measurements performed by SRP staff on split samples and with annual average releases reported by SRP for the same facilities. The dispersion model used by SRP staff to calculate radiation doses offsite was tested by brief environmental radioactivity measurements performed simultaneously with the release measurements, and by examining radioactivity levels in environmental samples. This report describes in detail all measurements made and data collected during the field study and presents the results obtained. 34 references, 18 figures, 49 tables

  11. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  12. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  13. Device for encapsulating radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule for encapsulating radioactive material for radiation treatment comprising two or more interfitting sleeves, wherein each sleeve comprises a closed bottom portion having a circumferential wall extending therefrom, and an open end located opposite the bottom portion. The sleeves are constructed to fit over one another to thereby establish an effectively sealed capsule container. 3 figs

  14. Models and key points of review for airborne radioactive source terms in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The calculation model of airborne radioactive source term in Nuclear Power Plants is one of the key points of safety review. However, in most safety analysis reports, a general simplified model of airborne radioactive source terms has been used, which is not applicable for all cases. Purpose: The aim is to complete the review calculations quickly and accurately. Methods: The model was based on the physical diffusion mechanism of radionuclides and their diffusion behavior in different spaces. Results: We proposed three models which could be respectively used for airborne radioactive source terms in reactor building, fuel element building and auxiliary building. Meanwhile, the key points in review of airborne radioactive source terms were put forward. Conclusion: Three models were proposed and their corresponding review key points will play a significant role in review calculations. (authors)

  15. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 1. Environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on radioactivity survey in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on February, 1996. This data relates to radioactive materials such as Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 in environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, seawater, and sea sediments, which were collected at all over of Japan. In the survey report, followings are also contained; 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of figure. (G.k.)

  16. Working safely with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In common with exposure to many other laboratory chemicals, exposure to ionising radiations and to radioactive materials carries a small risk of causing harm. Because of this, there are legal limits to the amount of exposure to ionising radiations at work and special rules for working with radioactive materials. Although radiation protection is a complex subject it is possible to simplify to 10 basic things you should do -the Golden Rules. They are: 1) understand the nature of the hazard and get practical training; 2) plan ahead to minimise time spent handling radioactivity; 3) distance yourself appropriately from sources of radiation; 4) use appropriate shielding for the radiation; 5) contain radioactive materials in defined work areas; 6) wear appropriate protective clothing and dosimeters; 7) monitor the work area frequently for contamination control; 8) follow the local rules and safe ways of working; 9) minimise accumulation of waste and dispose of it by appropriate routes, and 10) after completion of work, monitor, wash, and monitor yourself again. These rules are expanded in this article. (author)

  17. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (NRC) under 10 CFR parts 30 and 34. (b) Stowage of radioactive materials must conform to the... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials....

  18. Radioactive material transportation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey has thousands of radiation sources and there is an intensive traffic in the region. The number of imported radiation sources for nuclear medicine purposes within a year exceeds 60 000. The number of diagnostic radiology equipment is about 7000, industrial radiography equipment is 353 and therapy equipment is around 120. There are 3 PET machines, 2 Pet cyclotrons, 2 isotope production units, 2 sterilization facilities etc. Besides, in Turkey there is an intensive import of scrap materials as well as export (there are totally around 12 panel detectors, of which 6 are located at customs and 6 are owned by scrap steel operators); 59 online stations are in 24-hrs operation. Some of the radiation protection systems used in Turkey are produced by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) in accordance with the EC standards. The regulatory actions for the issue of the transport of radioactive materials are summarized briefly together with their design approvals of packaging and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive substances. Underlined are the great importance given to nuclear and radioactive material security and radiation safety due to the presence of thousands of radiation sources in the country and intensive traffic in the region. (author)

  19. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  20. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  1. Radioactive substances in the Danish building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building materials as any other materials of natural occurrence contain small concentrations of natural radioactive elements. This natural radioactivity affects people inside buildings. This publiccation refers measurements of the Danish building materials, and radiation doses originating from this source affecting the Danish population are related to the other components of background radioactivity. (EG)

  2. Storage facility for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an underground type storage chamber for horizontally storing storage vessels made of steel having radioactive materials sealed therein and cooling them by spontaneous ventilation, the storage vessels made of steel are stored in multi-layers in vertical direction. In addition, lifts for transferring casks which transfer the storage vessels made of steel from a nuclear power plant are made movable in vertical and horizontal directions in the underground type storage chamber. In addition, the storage chamber is partitioned so that the air for cooling radioactive materials flows in parallel with or perpendicular to the storage vessels made of steel. Since the storage vessels can be stored in multi-layers, the density upon storing the spent fuels and high level radioactive wastes can be increased. In addition, protection against external flying objects such as crush of air crafts can be attained neither increasing the thickness of the walls of a building excessively nor specifying the shape of the construction site. (N.H.)

  3. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites

  4. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  6. Natural Radioactivity in Ceramic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramics are one of the most important types of the industrial building materials. The raw materials of the ceramic are made of a mixture of clay, feldspar, silica, talc kaolin minerals together with zirconium silicates (ZrSiO4).The ceramic raw materials and the final products contain naturally occurring radionuclide mainly U-238 and, Th-232 series, and the radioactive isotope of potassium K-40. Six raw ceramic samples were obtained from the Aracemco Company at Egypt together with a floor tile sample (final product) for measuring radioactive concentration levels., The activity of the naturally U-238, Th-232, and K-40 were determined as (Bq/kg) using gamma spectroscopy (Hyperactive pure germanium detector). Concentration of U and Th were determined in (ppm) using spectrophotometer technique by Arsenazo 111 and Piridy l-Azo -Resorcinol (PAR) indicators. Sequential extraction tests were carried out in order to determine the quantity of the radionuclide associated with various fractions as exchangeable, carbonate, acid soluble and in the residue. The results evaluated were compared to the associated activity indices (AI) that were defined by former USSR and West Germany

  7. Method of removing material contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To effectively remove radioactive materials contaminating the surface of a substrate of the material to be processed by thermal shock. Method: First the radioactive materials adhering to the surface of the material to be processed are frozen using dry ice, liquified nitrogen gas and other suitable materials. Then the surface is heated strongly using steam, hot water, heat radiation or other means. As a result the radioactive materials adhering to the surface of pipes, and equipment get a thermal shock due to temperature differential. This allows the radioactive materials to be delaminated and removed. In addition, by using dryice, liquified nitrogen and other suitable materials which can be liquified at abbient temperatures, the problem of liquid waste has been considerably lowered. Moreover, as the process of removing the above radioactive materials involves mostly connecting nozzles and opening/closing valves etc., these operations can be done by remote control. This reduces the risk of exposure to radioactivity. (Takahashi, M.)

  8. Monitoring for radioactive materials releasing to environment in M310 reformatived nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne radioactive materials of nuclear power plant (NPP) releases to the environment from the stack of NPP. Radioactive liquid waste releases of the ocean, the fluvial and the lake through the liquid waste letdyke of NPP. Further more, a few radioactive waste may be taken out of the NPP by vehicle or personnel. For the purpose of strict management and control above-mentioned waste, we use detect equipment monitoring radioactive waste of NPP. Management and control for the releasing of radioactive material to the environment in M310 reformatived NPP is strict and safety. (authors)

  9. Extraction of radioactive cesium from ash of flammable radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huge amount of radioactive materials was released by the hydrogen explosion at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Suppression of the volume of radioactive materials stored by decontamination works is strongly required since the preparation of storage places is not easy. We are developing the technology for separation and concentration of radioactive cesium using nano-particle, Prussian blue, as a cesium adsorption material which has a high efficiency and good selectivity. We propose a method in which radioactive cesium is extracted from the ash of flammable materials into the water and the Prussian blue nano-particles are added to the water to collect cesium. The volume of radioactive wastes contaminated by cesium is expected to be cut down with these processes. (J.P.N.)

  10. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports

  11. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  12. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  13. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  14. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  15. Safe transport of radioactive material [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow. (author)

  16. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  17. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items

  18. Passive dust collectors for assessing airborne microbial material

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Rachel I.; Tian, Yilin; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Thomas D.; Hyvärinen, Anne; Täubel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Settled airborne dust is used as a surrogate for airborne exposure in studies that explore indoor microbes. In order to determine whether detecting differences in dust environments would depend on the sampler type, we compared different passive, settled dust sampling approaches with respect to displaying qualitative and quantitative aspects of the bacterial and fungal indoor microbiota. Results Settled dust sampling approaches—utilizing plastic petri dishes, TefTex material, and el...

  19. Water pollution by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the definition of a philosophy and politics of waste disposal and site selection, an analysis is made of the main elements of radioactive pollution of waters: sources of radioactivity, radionuclides classified according to their hazard, waste processing, disposal criteria and transfer processes in the compartments: water, suspended sediments, deposited sediments, biomass

  20. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  1. Management of radioactive wastes produced by users of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a document to provide guidance for regulatory, administrative and technical authorities who are responsible for, or are involved in, planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste management programmes related to the safe use of radioactive materials in hospitals, research laboratories, industrial and agricultural premises and the subsequent disposal of the radioactive wastes produced. It provides information and guidance for waste management including treatment techniques that may be available to establishments and individual users

  2. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed. PMID:23629067

  3. Various consequences regarding hypothetical dispersion of airborne radioactivity in a city center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of dispersion of airborne radioactive material in a city center a number of questions will prompt for an answer. While many questions can get their answers in due course of time based on results of tests and sampling, a good understanding of the quantitative effect of dispersion will be very helpful to rescue staff, in particular in the early stage. In the following dose and dose rate estimates are presented for three scenarios including dispersion of radioactivity in a city center. In one case the activity is released in an open place, in another from a roof and in the third case from a source on a street where the wind is blowing along the street. In each case, at specific positions, estimates are made of dose from inhalation, and dose rates for contamination on skin as well as from radioactive particles deposited onto ground, walls and roofs (external exposure) in the city center. It should be noted that the deposition pattern in urban areas varies greatly which means that the consequences are difficult to predict. The dispersion is influenced by recirculation behind tall buildings and diverted flow close to street-ends, which have significant effects on the deposit pattern. Regarding the relative importance of contributions to total dose it is found that inhalation could play a major role for long term effects while dose to skin might dominate acute effects. - Highlights: ► Consequences of dispersion and deposition of 137Cs in a city center are modeled. ► External exposure from local deposition patterns on walls, roofs and ground is estimated. ► Estimates are made of dose from inhalation, skin dos rates and external dose rates. ► Skin dose was the most serious acute dose while inhalation dominates long term effects. ► Among the investigated scenarios a release near a street end is most serious.

  4. A method to encapsule radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to encapsule highly radioactive material is proposed. Pre-formed solid elements of radioactive material (e.g. glass, preferably pressure-sintered silicates) are cladded with corrosion-resistant metallic material, which can also hardly be penetrated by radiation, encapsuled and are subjected to isostatic pressing. Pressure (preferably at least 50 MPa) and temperature (at least 5000C) must be sufficient to form a compact dense cladding. (RB)

  5. Response to Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two response paths are discussed in the presentation. Reactive response follows when an alarm of a border monitor goes off or a notification is received about an incident involving or suspected to involve radioactive materials. The response can also be the result of the finding of a discrepancy between a customs declaration form and the corresponding actual shipment. Proactive response is undertaken upon receipt of intelligence information suggesting the illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, notification about the discovery of non-compliance with transport regulations or if discrepancies are found in an inventory of radioactive materials.

  6. Radioactive material accidents in the transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport is an important part of the worldwide nuclear industry and the safety record for nuclear transport across the world is excellent. The increase in the use of radioactive materials in our country requires that these materials be moved from production sites to the end user. Despite the number of packages transported, the number of incidents and accidents in which they are involved is low. In Brazil, do not be records of victims of the radiation as a result of the transport of radioactive materials and either due to the accidents happened during the transports. The absence of victims of the radiation as result of accidents during the transports is a highly significant fact, mainly to consider that annually approximately two hundred a thousand packages containing radioactive material are consigned for transport throughout the country, of which eighty a thousand are for a medical use. This is due to well-founded regulations developed by governmental and intergovernmental organizations and to the professionalism of those in the industry. In this paper, an overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in the state of Sao Paulo. The applicable legislation, the responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. It also presents the packages amounts of carried and the accidents occurred during the transport of radioactive materials, in the last five years. The main occurred events are argued, demonstrating that the demanded requirements of security for any transport of radioactive material are enough to guarantee the necessary control of ionizing radiation expositions to transport workers, members of general public and the environment. (author)

  7. Transport regulations for radioactive material in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material in Germany is regulated by the dangerous goods transport regulations and the regulations of the Atomic Energy Act and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. For radioactive material shipments by road, rail, sea and air the modal regulations on the transport of dangerous goods for class 7 of the ADR, RID, ADNR, IMO and ICAO are implemented in Germany and have to be complied with. In parallel with this the Atomic Energy Act requirements and the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance concerning the transport of radioactive material have to be met. They contain provisions regarding the reliability of transport organisations and persons, training of persons involved in transport nuclear liability insurance, physical protection and public interest in addition to the need to fulfil the dangerous goods transport regulations. According to these requirements shipment approvals which are presented in the paper, are necessary for nuclear material, large sources and other radioactive materials. Based on this some practical implications for radioactive material shipments will be discussed as well as some aspects of the future developments. The paper also gives an overview of the responsibilities for approval and inspection of radioactive material shipments in Germany. (author)

  8. Contamination due to radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peaceful exploitation of radioactivity and the expansion of the nuclear power programme ensure that the disposal of radioactive wastes will cause contamination of the marine environment in the foreseeable future. The exposure of marine organisms to radioactivity from wastes has been studied in depth and related to exposure to natural background radiation. Concentrations of natural radionuclides and those from marine waste disposal have been measured at various stations in the oceans and seas around the world. The fate of radionuclides at four representative sites has been studied and the concentrations of radionuclides in oysters, porphyra, plaice in the Windscale discharge area have been measured. The extent of human exposure, particularly with reference to seafood consumption in local fishing communities, has been assessed. Effects of radiation on developing fish embryos and eggs and genetic radiation effects in aquatic organisms has been studied. The above studies reveal that the controls applied to the discharge of radioactive wastes to limit hazards to humans also provide adequate protection for populations of marine organisms. (U.K.)

  9. Traffic accident with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A traffic accident with a package with radioactive contents of the category 'III-YELLOW' remaining undamaged, caused complete confusion among the responsible rescue services. All forces active until professional fire-brigades arrived showed a deficit of tactical radiation protection behaviour. Even a medical unit with an equipped emergency task force in situ and radiation protection equipment did not feel responsible. (DG)

  10. Transport security of radioactive material in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraguay has implemented diverse mechanisms for the safe transport of radioactive material. Among the first of these was the adoption and implementation of national regulations based on the latest edition of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1). The National Regulation for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, in Article 34, states that any transport of radioactive materials must fulfil the IAEA's Transport Regulations. In addition, Resolution No. 4097/00 of the Rector of the National University of Asuncion approved the latest edition of the IAEA's Transport Regulations, as the only instrument to be used by the National Commission of Atomic Energy - the competent authority - in authorizing the safe transport of radioactive material, for exports and especially within MERCOSUR, the Common Market of the South. (author)

  11. Emergency preparedness for radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipments of radioactive waste in the United States are increasing. This paper discusses how the federal government must certify a package design before radioactive materials are allowed to be shipped in the actual package or cask. The certification process and the package provides the first line of defense in assuring that radioactive material will not be released in a transportation accident. If a transportation accident occurs, state, tribal and local governments have the responsibility to protect the health and safety of the public. If those resources are not sufficient, the DOE maintains a network of trained personnel and state- of-the-art equipment to supplement state, tribal and local resources

  12. Radioactive Contamination Estimation from Micro-Copters or Helicopter Airborne Survey: Simulation and Real Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main advantages of acquiring aero-radiometric measurements lies in the high collection rate of data over large areas and rough terrain. Typical aero-radiometric system records and saves gamma ray spectrum, correlated with the GPS derived location information in regular time intervals of one to two seconds. Such data can be used to locate radiation anomalies on the ground, map ground contamination or track a radioactive airborne plume. Acquiring spectral data of this type allows separation of natural radioactivity from that of man-made sources and identification of specific isotopes, natural or man-made

  13. Identification of airborne radioactive spatial patterns in Europe - Feasibility study using Beryllium-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Tollefsen, T; Marín-Ferrer, M

    2016-05-01

    The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means). To evaluate this methodology, cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) data, collected between 2007 and 2010 at 19 sampling stations in European Union (EU) countries and stored in the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database, are used. This methodology yields a solution with three distinguishable clusters (south, central and north), each with a different evolution of the (7)Be monthly index. Clear differences between monthly indices are shown in both intensity and time trends, following a latitudinal distribution of the sampling stations. This cluster result is evaluated performing ANOVA analysis, considering the original (7)Be activity concentrations grouped in each cluster. The statistical results (among clusters and sampling stations within clusters) confirm the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe, and, hence, reinforce the use of this methodology. Finally, the impact of tropopause height on this grouping is successfully tested, suggesting its influence on the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe. For airborne radioactive particles the analysis gave valuable results that improve knowledge of these atmospheric compounds in Europe. Hence, this work addresses a methodology to a grouping of airborne sampling stations, 1) allowing a better understanding of the distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in the EU, and 2) serving as a basis for

  14. Confinement of airborne radioactivity. Progress report, January--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several commercial activated carbons, marketed for iodine removal in reactor off-gas cleanup systems, were evaluated for iodine penetration at elevated temperatures (4 hr at 1800C), and the penetration data varied widely. Subsequent chemical analysis of the samples indicated a strong correlation between the atom ratio of iodine to potassium (I/K) in the carbon and the high-temperature performance data. Iodine penetration tests were also performed on several carbons in an intense gamma radiation field (greater than 107 rads/hr). Test data show that carbons intentionally exposed to high concentrations of DOP aerosol performed as well as unexposed carbons. Studies of the rate of evaporation of elemental iodine from aqueous solutions indicated that significant quantities of I2 might be expected to become airborne within a short period of time (5 hr) after release to open ponds. Addition of sodium thiosulfate to the solution substantially reduced the evaporative loss of iodine; however, the effects of high-intensity radiation fields on iodine-thiosulfate solutions remain to be evaluated. Small HEPA filters containing filter media of the type used in the Savannah River confinement system were exposed to reactor building air and a high-intensity radiation field. Following this exposure, they were tested for flow performance under simulated accident conditions. Radiation exposure slightly impaired the performance of new filters and improved the performance of service-aged filters. Service aging effects on filter performance were far more significant than radiation effects

  15. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is disposed below ground at a position adjacent the coast line such that, 1. drainage of any water which has flowed through the disposal volume can be drained to the sea, or 2. the waste is disposed below the foreshore or coastal shallow water. Disposal facilities are described which advantageously include surrounding the waste with absorber to increase protection against migration of radionuclides. An example of a radioactive waste disposal facility is shown and includes a number of cells formed from concrete walls and floors, the cells being loaded successively with drums containing the waste, each cell being roofed with concrete after filling, there being absorber placed beneath the floors between the walls and after complete filling, above the said roof, with a soil mound surmounting. Drainage channels extend to sea via monitoring means. (author)

  16. Airborne radioactivity survey of the West Lonetree area, Uinta county, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 154 square miles in Uinta county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 23, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area

  17. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Devils Tower area, Crook county, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J.R.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 45 square miles northwest of Devils Tower, Crook County, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 4, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  18. Security of radioactive sources and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities involving the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials are subject to the control of the national bodies dedicated to the nuclear regulation. The main objective of this control is to assure an appropriate level of radiological protection and nuclear safety. In Argentina, this function is carried out by the 'Nuclear Regulatory Authority' (ARN) whose regulatory system for radiation sources and radioactive materials comprises a registration, licensing and inspection scheme. The system is designed to keep track of such materials and to allow taking immediate corrective actions in case some incident occurs. Due to the appearance of a considerable number of illicit traffic events involving radiation sources and radioactive materials, the specialized national and international community has begun to evaluate the adoption of supplementary measures to those of 'safety' guided to its prevention and detection (i.e. 'security measures'). This paper presents a view on when the adoption of complementary 'security' measures to those of 'safety' would be advisable and which they would be. This will be done through the analysis of two hypothesis of illicit traffic, the first one with sources and radioactive materials considered as 'registered' and the second, with the same materials designated as 'not registered'. It will also describe succinctly the measures adopted by the ARN or under its analysis regarding the 'security' measures to sources and radioactive materials. (author)

  19. Decontamination method of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ions leached from plant constituent materials to reactor primary coolants are gradually deposited in primary circuits in a state that metal ions are mixed with iron oxides, to form obstinate oxidized coating layers. In order to remove radioactive materials intruded into such oxide coating layers, the radiation-contaminated materials are brought into contact with electrostatically charged water to make the radioactive materials free and remove them from the surface of the contaminants. That is, if metal oxides such as Fe2O3 are brought into contact with electrostatically charged water, e- is applied to the oxide, and water molecules return to a stable state, as well as Fe2O3 is reduced from Fe+3 to Fe+2, to cause structural change in the tissues of the oxide coating layers. This can change the property of the oxide coating layers and easily remove them by washing, and radioactive materials intruded between oxide particles are removed simultaneously. (T.M.)

  20. Diffusion of Radioactive Materials in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Wali Ajlouni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The dispersion of radioactive materials in the environment related to escaping of noble gases, halogens and aerosols of non-volatile radioactive materials, from the reactor containment during normal operations, or in the event of a sever reactor accident. Approach: radionuclide dispersion in the environment is demonstrated by mathematical tools which are the partial differential equations, mainly the diffusion equation. A mathematical model to calculate the concentration of nuclear pollutants (radioactivity with certain boundary conditions is constructed. Results: Solving the mathematical model and using some approximations lead to a distribution represents a model for plume of radioactive pollutants dispersed in two dimensions normal to the wind direction in which the plume moves as an entire non-dispersible unit. Conclusion: The obtained result theoretically are very close to those achieved experimentally.

  1. Airborne and truck-borne ''radiation footprints'' of areas producing, storing, using or being exposed to nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the use of advanced Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer for environmental assessment of nuclear radiation in areas exposed to radioactive materials. The use of high capacity real time processors operating in parallel mode packaged into one mechanical enclosure together with navigation, allows implementation of highly sophisticated proprietary algorithms to produce results in absolute physical units. Airborne footprinting provides rapid, well defined spatial images of natural and manmade radioactive contamination. Integrated GPS guidance systems provides instant position information related to the internal geographical data base. Short time span of data acquisition provides consistent data. Airborne acquisition of data guarantees good spatial resolution. Airborne measurements are calculated via special algorithms in absolute units and related to the individual radioactive nuclei on the ground in real time. Full raw and calculated data recording is provided including the position coordinates. More precise results may be achieved via post flight processing. Principles of ground contamination estimates measured from the air and the sensitivities for different radioactive nuclei are also discussed. Results from an Ontario Hydro (Canada) test over a nuclear power plant, an Atom bomb blast measurements in Maralinga (Australia), after 40 years, and a Nuclear power plant in Slovakia and Uranium mining area in Germany are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazuo [Building Materials Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  3. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  4. Illicit trafficking of radioactive material in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungary, due to its geographical location is a convenient region for illegal transit of nuclear material between source and target countries. In recent years nine cases have became known and altogether 21.7 kg depleted, 4.6 kg natural, and 2.5 kg low enriched uranium have been confiscated. A brief summary is given of possible origin of the illicitly transported radioactive material. The most important elements of the security of sources including the national and accounting system of radioactive material and the intervention plans are discussed. (author)

  5. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on March, 1997. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1994 to Mar. 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (G.K.)

  6. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1995 to Mar. 1996. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  7. Natural Radioactivity of Some Mongolian Building Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbish, S; Ganchimeg, G

    2000-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of some building materials used in cities of Darkhan, Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet in Mongolia was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with HP-Ge-detector. The radium equivalent concentration and the gamma absorbed dose rate in air, were estimated as the external and internal hazard indices. The results indicate that these materials are not a major source of exposure.

  8. Characterization of unknown objects containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunhofer-INT is going to equip a transportable container with a system for the detection, identification and characterization of radioactive material inside objects with unknown content. This system will be a prototype for a mobile system to detect illicit trafficking of radioactive and especially nuclear material and will thus prohibit nuclear proliferation. This container will be equipped with systems for passive and active nondestructive measurements. For active measurements we use a sealed tube 14 MeV neutron generator with an without a moderating assembly between the interrogating neutron source and the object of interest. Because stolen or diverted radioactive material generally may not have a fixed geometry and will not be packaged in standard containers the main emphasis in this paper is on in-situ gamma measurements taking into account possible shielding around the radioactive source. High-resolution gamma measurements were performed on radioactive material behind different types of shielding. The measured data were evaluated by modeling the different parameters like the wall thickness of the box, matrix and shielding material inside and so on. Comparison with the actual experimental setup of the models showed good agreement and proved the power of this method. In this way significant information was gained on the content of the unknown box, which is important for further actions. (author)

  9. Transport of radioactive materials by post

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Seminar was to encourage safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material by post. Adequate, up-to-date regulations for international and domestic shipment of radioactive material by all modes of transport, including by mail, have been published by the IAEA. UPU, ICAO, IATA and other international organizations as well as a majority of the countries of the world have adopted most sections of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Although there is an apparent need for shipping radioactive material by mail, some countries allow only domestic shipments and the postal regulations applied in these countries often differs from the international regulations. Only about 25 countries are known to allow international (as well as domestic) shipments. From the discussions and comments at the Seminar, it appears that the option of shipment by post would be advantageous to enhance both the safety and economy of transporting, as well as to increase availability of, radioactive materials. The Agency's Regulations for transport by post as adopted by the UPU and ICAO are considered to provide a high level of safety and ensure a negligible element of risk. A more uniform application of these regulations within UPU Member States should be encouraged. The competent authority for implementation of the other parts of the Agency's Regulations in each of the Member States should be invited to advise the Postal Administrators and assist in applying the requirements to national as well as international postal shipments

  10. Airborne and deposited radioactivity in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the air surveillance programme concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. In 1987, air dust samples were collected in Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki and in Rovaniemi. When necessary, sampling was also launched in Helsinki. Several radionuclides originating from the accident in Chernobyl in 1987 could still be detected in air dust samples. A sharp decrease in the amounts of radioactive subtances deposited was noted at all the 18 sampling stations as against 1986. The total annual amounts of deposited 137Cs varied at different stations in 1987 from 7.7 Bq/m2 (Rovaniemi) to 1500 Bq/m2 (Kauhava) and those of 90Sr in 1986 from 4.7 Bq/m2 (Taivalkoski) to 590 Bq/m2 (Kuhmo) and in 1987 from 1.4 Bq/m2 (Ivalo) to 38 Bq/m2 (Kuhmo). The total annual amounts of 238Pu and 239,240Pu were 3.1 and 12 mBq/m2 in Nurmijaervi and 3.4 and 14 mBq/m2 and Lappeenranta in 1987, respectively. In 1987, resuspension of radionuclides was characteristic of the depostion situation. Due to this phenomenon, unexpectedly high contents of deposited radiocesium occurred occasionally in the samples, though the discharge caused by the Chernobyl accident lasted for only a short period in spring 1986. The proportion of 137Cs originating from Chernobyl in 1987 varied from 3% to about 40% of the corresponding amounts in 1986 at different stations. The corresponding percentages for 90Sr varied from 1.6% to 34%

  11. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  12. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  13. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Assessment of Airborne Radioactivity. Proceedings of a Symposium on Instruments and Techniques for the Assessment of Airborne Radioactivity in Nuclear Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held at its headquarters in Vienna, 3-7 July 1967. The meeting was attended by 140 participants from 24 Member States and three international organizations. Contents: General review papers (4 papers); Characteristics and control of airborne radioactive pollutants (12 papers); Techniques of sampling (7 papers); Techniques of sampling and special topics (8 papers); Instruments for assay of specific radionuclides (22 papers); Special topics (3 papers); Panel discussion on air monitoring. Each paper is in its original language (34 English, 18 French and 4 Russian) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  15. Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials

  16. Transport regulations for radioactive materials in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials are taken as a basis for our national regulations to secure the safe transport of radioactive materials in Japan. The requirements for packaging and packages that are used to transport radioactive materials are based on the IAEA Regulations. Furthermore, in addition to the IAEA Regulations, the relative international regulations such as the IMDG code of IMO etc. are reviewed by our national authorities and applied to the conveyance such as the transport vehicle/vessel etc. that is used for the shipment. The transport system such as a transport caravan in Japan is intended to provide even greater safety during transport. The future activities to be discussed in the IAEA are how to adopt the IAEA Regulations to Member States as soon as possible and to evaluate the safety margin of the IAEA Regulations to the assumed accidents. (author)

  17. Identification of radioactive materials in moving objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control over the transportation of the radioactive materials crossing the borders of Uzbekistan is actually today not like before because of increased threat of terrorism.and urges of terrorist organizations to use radioactive materials in their terrorist activities. There are many companies producing radiation control systems. All such systems existing nowadays are based on the principles of intensity comparison for radiation detected by the system in the absence of control object and the intensity of the radiation when object appears. This method works well only in the conditions of constant or weakly changing background. However, at significant deviation in the value of background the number of false alarms set off by the systems increases. The present work describes the method for radioactive materials detection in the moving objects independent of the significant background deviations and present radiation monitoring establishment based on this principle

  18. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

  19. Denials and Delays of Radioactive Material Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    delays of shipments of radioactive materials forms an important issue today. Radioactive materials need to be transported using all modes of transport for use in different applications such as public health, industry, research and production of nuclear power. The transport of radioactive materials is governed by national and international regulations, which are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (TS-R-1). These regulations ensure high standards of safety. Recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive materials even when complying with the regulations. The denials and delays can result in difficulties to patients and others who rely on products sterilized by radiation. Therefore there is an urgent need for a universally accepted approach to solve this problem. In response, the IAEA has formed an International Steering Committee (ISC) on denials and delays of radioactive materials. Also, it designate the National Focal Points (NFP) representative to help the ISC members and the IAEA by informing about denial operations and how they can help. The Steering Committee developed and adopted an action plan which includes the action to be taken. This plan is based on: Awareness, Training, Communication, Lobbying for marketing, Economic and Harmonization among member states. It is important to work within the mandate of the ISC and in the line of action plan on denials and delays. It identified the following network members such as: National Focal Points, Regional Coordinators, National Committee, National Representative for different modes of transport and similar bodies, Carriers, Producers and Suppliers, Different civil societies, NGO's, Ministry of transport and others.

  20. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  1. Radioactive Material (Road Transport) Act 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act came into force on 27 August 1991. It replaces earlier legislation dating from 1948 and enables the United Kingdom to give effect to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) latest recommended Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The new Act clarifies and extends the power of the Secretary of State to make regulations regarding, among other things, the design, labelling, handling, transport and delivery of packages containing radioactive material and the placarding of vehicles transporting such packages. The Act gives the Secretary of State the power to appoint inspectors to assist him in enforcing the regulations. (NEA)

  2. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of transport by road, rail, sea and air, consignments of radioactive material are in close proximity to ordinary members of the public and in most cases they are loaded and unloaded by transport workers who have no special training or experience in the handling of radioactive substances. The materials being transported cover a wide variety - ranging from small batches of short-lived radionuclides used in medical practice which can be transported in small sealed lead pots in cardboard boxes, to large, extremely radioactive consignments of irradiated nuclear fuel in flasks weighing many tons. With the growing development of nuclear power programmes the transport of irradiated fuel is likely to increase markedly. It is clear that unless adequate regulations concerning the design and assembly of the packages containing these materials are precisely set down and strictly carried out, there would be a high probability that some of the radioactive contents would be released, leading to contamination of other transported goods and the general environment, and to the delivery of a radiation dose to the transport workers and the public. An additional requirement is that the transport should proceed smoothly and without delay. This is particularly important for radioactive materials of short half-life, which would lose significant amounts of their total activity in unnecessary delays at international boundaries. Therefore, it is essential that the regulations are also enforced, to ensure that the radioactive material is contained and the surrounding radiation level reduced to a value which poses no threat to other sensitive goods such as photographic film, or to transport workers and other passengers. These regulations should be as uniform as possible on an international basis, so that consignments can move freely from one country to another with as little delay as possible at the frontiers. (author)

  3. World Health Considerations in Airborne Pollution with Special Reference to Radioactive Wastes (Opening Address)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Health Organization is concerned with the promotion of health and human well-being throughout the world. For this reason, it is as closely concerned with the problem of pollution as it is with other better defined problems such as malaria, plague, influenza, cancer, mental illness, and all other killing and debilitating diseases of man. At this meeting we are concerned specifically with the cleaning of airborne radioactive waste and the operation and developmental experience acquired from the management of these wastes in the past. We can view the present and future with reasonable confidence, and this is justifiable since the experience of the past 20 years has been reassuring. Despite many residual uncertainties we probably know a great deal more of the risks of radiation exposure than we do of almost any other actual or potential atmospheric contaminants. The World Health Organization is also concerned with this problem, but I wish to emphasize that the question of radioactive waste is only part, and maybe a very small part, of the problem of pollution as a whole. Indeed, it is probably unwise, except in very exceptional circumstances, to treat and view radioactive waste, either airborne or waterborne, as a single series of contaminants posing a single problem in their own right

  4. Radioactive research of building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides in 31 pieces of ground bricks from different sources were determined by using the γ spectrometry. The spectra were resolved by the least square method. The contents of U, Th, Ra and 40K in them spread in a wide range. Values of some bricks products were above the limits of the state standard for radiahazards in building materials

  5. Radioactive substances in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews all activity measurements performed on building materials at SSI during 1962 and 1972-1984. The content of 232-Th, 226-Ra and 40-K was determined. The measuring method and the accuracy is discussed. Comparisons are made to measurements from the 1950:s. (L.E.)

  6. Monitoring of radioactive cesium in Kawasaki derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by a sequential leaching method for airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) was seriously damaged by the huge earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11 March 2011, and has released large amounts of radioactive materials into the environment. Since the accident, radioactive cesium originating from the FDNPP accident was detected over a wide range of the northeastern half of Honshu, the main island of Japan, including the Kanto region. The long-term monitoring of the activities of FDNPP-derived radioactive cesium in surface air must provide important knowledge concerning the dispersion processes of radioactive cesium and its supply to the atmosphere. In this study, we focused on airborne particulate matters (APM) collected at Kawasaki city, Kanagawa. The aim of this study was to obtain the time series date of radioactive cesium activities and to characterize the chemical properties of radioactive cesium in the APM. Consequently, we obtained the following information. Until the spring of 2014, both of the FDNPP-derived 134Cs and the 137Cs activities in the APM, which were still detected, decreased to ca. 10-5 times those observed just after the FDNPP accident. Specifically, their activities decreased rapidly until September, 2011, and then their decrease rates slowed down. Sequential leaching experiments revealed that the chemical properties of radioactive cesium in the APM differed from those in soil; significant amounts of radioactive cesium in the APM existed as a water-soluble form, whereas most of the radioactive cesium in soil was insoluble in water. (author)

  7. Environment - sustainable management of radioactive materials and radioactive - report evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic affairs commission evaluated the report of M. Henri Revol on the law project n 315 of the program relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes. It precises and discusses the choices concerning the researches of the three axis, separation and transmutation, deep underground disposal and retrieval conditioning and storage of wastes. The commission evaluated then the report on the law project n 286 relative to the transparency and the security in the nuclear domain. It precises and discusses this text objectives and the main contributions of the Senate discussion. (A.L.B.)

  8. Chernobylsk accident: radioactivity measurement of airborn particulate in the AM/CNR network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of the radioactivity measurements performed on samples of airborne particulates taken at the station of the AM/CNR network after the Chernobylsk accident. In particular for the 16 operating stations are reported tables and trends referred to the beta total measurements performed on two samples per day per station and the activity of some gamma emitting radionuclides deriving from the analysis made on concentrations of filters referred to North-Central and Southrn Italy plus Islands. The presentation of data is preceded by a short description of the AM/CNR network and the sampling system as well as the methodology of total beta measurement and gamma analysis

  9. A review of airborne particle sampling with special reference to long-lived radioactive dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews some basic aspects related to the sampling of airborne particles with special reference to Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD). The report covers a number of areas of practical interest such as the production of aerosols, the dynamics of suspended particles, the physical and chemical characteristics and properties of dust clouds, and the inhalation and measurement of dust. It is followed with a brief review of dust sampling instrumentation, and with a short account of the work done on LLRD in Canada with a few references to work done outside this country. (34 figs., 7 tabs., 117 refs.)

  10. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  11. Recycling and Reuse of Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dou, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has a Radiation Protection Program that was designed to provide students with the ability to safely work with radioactive materials in quantities that are not available in other academic environments. Requirements for continuous training and supervision make this unique…

  12. The air transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory requirements and philosophy pertaining to the transport of radioactive materials are outlined. A study to determine the exposures arising from this transport is described and estimates of individual and collective doses for aircrews and passengers are given and reviewed. (author)

  13. Licensing of radioactive material (CPR Part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of PAEC Regulations (CPR) part 2 sets forth the rules and regulations applicable to all persons in the Philippines governing the licensing of radioactive materials by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). The following are the parts of the CPR, 1) General provisions, 2) Exceptions, 3) Licenses, 4) Records, reports, inspections and tests, and 5) Enforcement. (ELC)

  14. Natural radioactivity in building materials at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for determination of natural radioactivity content in building materials arises from the growing attention paid to its potential radiation effects and consequent concern of many producers of such materials These materials have been analyzed for natural radioactivity due to presence of primordial radionuclide 238U, 232Th and 40K using gamma spectrometry. The activity of different building material obtained in this study ranged from 1-72 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 4-148 Bq/kg for 232Th and 38-1288 for 40K respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) values of all the building materials are lower than the limit of 370 Bq/kg which will produce an exposure of 1.5 mSv/yr to the inhabitants. In all cases both External hazard index Hex and Internal hazard index Hin in all the building materials collected and analysed in this paper is below unity. Based on the criterion formula for gamma activity the results presented indicate that the commonly used building materials in Kalpakkam could be used in building construction without exceeding the proposed radioactivity criterion level. (author)

  15. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA

  16. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  17. Security of radioactive materials for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both sealed and unsealed radioactive sources are used in hospitals throughout the world for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. High activity single sealed sources are used in teletherapy units, although these are becoming less common as they are replaced by linear accelerators, and in blood irradiator units, which are in widespread use. Lower activity sealed sources are used in brachytherapy. High activity unsealed sources are used typically for the treatment of thyroid cancer and neuroblastoma in inpatients while diagnostic doses of unsealed radioactive materials have much lower activities. In the case of a central radiopharmacy producing patient doses of radiopharmaceutical for several Nuclear Medicine departments, however, quite large amounts of radioactive materials may be held. Hospitals are, by their nature, less secure than other licensed nuclear sites and the ever-changing patient /visitor (and staff) population is a further complicating factor. Hitherto, security of radioactive materials in hospitals has tended to be considered from the perspective only of radiation safety but this approach is no longer sufficient

  18. The fractal nature of the european network for airborne radioactivity monitoring and its implications for the detectability of radioactive clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the European Communities (EC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have agreed upon a rapid exchange of radiological data among their member states, in case of nuclear emergencies. This will happen through an information network operated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and/or through the Global Telecommunications System of WMO. Data coming from nation wide on-line monitoring networks will be among the very first to be exchanged. They will constitute an important source of information for the real-time assessment of the situation after large accidents with national and international impact. In particular when data on airborne radioactivity are availably early after an accidental release, they might be used to update long range transport model predictions for the period to follow. It is therefore important to analyze the national networks in an international context, to see what information they can offer and what limitations exist

  19. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced, transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-sources@cern.ch

  20. Completion of the radioactive materials packaging handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance', which will serve as a replacement for the 'Cask Designers Guide'(1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US DOE and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials. Even though the Handbook is concerned with both small and large packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting fissile, radioactive sources (e.g. spent fuels). The safety analysis reports for packagings (SARPs) must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet United States and/or international regulations, all of which are covered in the Handbook. One of the primary goals of the Handbook is to provide information which would guide designers of radioactive materials packages to make decisions that would most likely be acceptable to regulatory agencies during the approval process of the packaging. It was therefore important to find those authors who not only were experts in one or more of the areas that are addressed in a SARP, but who also had been exposed to the regulatory process or had operational experience dealing with a wide variety of package types. Twenty-five such people have contributed their time and talents to the development of this document, mostly on a volunteer basis

  1. Safe transport of radioactive material. 4. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has been publishing Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material since 1961. Meeting its statutory obligation to foster the exchange and training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training. This training manual is an anchor of the standardized approach to training. It is a compendium of training modules for courses related to the different aspects of safety of transport of radioactive material. Keeping in view the specific needs of the potential users, the manual includes material that can be used for a variety of training programmes of duration ranging from half-a-day to ten days, for specific audiences such as competent authority personnel, public authorities, emergency response personnel and cargo handlers

  2. Security in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Adequate security is an essential concern in the transport of radioactive materials for all the stakeholders involved - the countries producing radioactive materials, the countries across which and to where the radioactive materials are transported, and the transport industry. Indeed, stringent security measures in the movement of radioactive materials have been in place for many years. Regulators have recognised that specific radioactive materials transported require special security controls and measures in order to prevent illicit use of such material. This need for protection is now even greater. No industry is subject to more stringent levels of security. The transport of radioactive materials has traditionally been subject to specific national protection measures, as shown for instance by a State reserving its right to oversee the security measures taken during the transport of such materials originating from or carried through its territory. To prevent theft of radioactive materials during transport, a wide range of protection measures, including access control, employee screening and coordination with local and national security authorities, involving security forces, have been developed. Some of these provisions have a direct and considerable impact on how transports are organised. While State sovereignty on security matters is appreciated, and since international transport of radioactive materials is a common practice, greater harmonisation of security measures within and between countries should be encouraged in the interest both of security and efficiency. For example, a security official at an international border crossing may interpret requirements on the ground in a different way from authorities at the centre. There appears to be a view among some potential transport service providers that the transport safety and security regulatory regimes are onerous or too complicated. It is the operator who experiences at first hand the differences

  3. A review of methods for sampling large airborne particles and associated radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive particles, tens of μm or more in diameter, are unlikely to be emitted directly from nuclear facilities with exhaust gas cleansing systems, but may arise in the case of an accident or where resuspension from contaminated surfaces is significant. Such particles may dominate deposition and, according to some workers, may contribute to inhalation doses. Quantitative sampling of large airborne particles is difficult because of their inertia and large sedimentation velocities. The literature describes conditions for unbiased sampling and the magnitude of sampling errors for idealised sampling inlets in steady winds. However, few air samplers for outdoor use have been assessed for adequacy of sampling. Many size selective sampling methods are found in the literature but few are suitable at the low concentrations that are often encountered in the environment. A number of approaches for unbiased sampling of large particles have been found in the literature. Some are identified as meriting further study, for application in the measurement of airborne radioactivity. (author)

  4. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  5. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G. M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Simpson, J. [Class 7 Limited, 9 Irk Vale Drive, Chadderton, Oldham OL1 2TW (United Kingdom); Ghobril, C. N. [Governo de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Economia Agricola, 04301-903 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perez, C. F., E-mail: adelia@atomo.com.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2468, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sau Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  6. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1981. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1981 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1981 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1989: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1989 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1970 through 1988 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1989 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  8. Transport of radioactive material in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material

  9. Provision of transport packaging for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe transport of radioactive materials is governed by various regulations based on International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations. This code of practice is a supplement to the regulations, its objects being (a) to advise designers of packaging on the technical features necessary to conform to the regulations, and (b) to outline the requirements for obtaining approval of package designs from the competent authority. (U.K.)

  10. Safety of radiation sources and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities involving the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials must be subject to the control of national authorities dedicated to their regulation. Nuclear regulatory bodies should be established with an adequate infrastructure, independence and technical competence and knowledge to provide the people with an appropriate to level of protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. In Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control all nuclear activities with regard to radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection and non proliferation matters. Its regulatory system for radiation sources and radioactive materials comprises a registration, licensing and inspection regime. Due to the appearance of a considerable number of illicit traffic events involving radiation sources and radioactive materials in several countries and at their borders, the specialized national and international community identified and adopted supplementary measures to those of 'safety' aim at preventing and responding to such events. These measures are known as 'security measures'. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the main international forum in which its Member States are discussing the problems associated with the illicit traffic of radioactive materials and radiation sources. A main product of these discussions is the implementation of an Action Plan that includes 'security' measures. The objective of this article is to analyze when the adoption of additional 'security' measures is indispensable. The analysis considers two cases of illicit trafficking: one involving radiation sources under regulatory control; and the other involving 'orphan sources'. Orphan sources constitute the most important challenge to be addressed since these radiation sources are out of adequate control. The absence of additional measures (named 'security measures') to prevent and detect such sources, reduce the possibility of

  11. Transportaton of radioactive materials by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian regulations for air transportation of radioactive materials are based on the IAEA regulations. The Atomic Energy Control Board is responsible for enforcement. The IAEA regulations are summarized in this report. A review of 402 210 shipments by air, road, rail, and sea in Canada between 1957 and 1975 reveals 61 incidents. Of the 36 incidents involving air transportation, one resulted in package failure and an increase in radiation and two resulted in package contents being spilled. (LL)

  12. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided

  13. Air modelling as an alternative to sampling for low-level radioactive airborne releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes our efforts to assess the effect of airborne releases at one DOE laboratory using air modelling based on historical data. Among the facilities affected by these developments is Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. RCRA, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) in 1984, requires all facilities which involve the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste obtain a RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit. LANL complied with CEARP by initiating a process of identifying potential release sites associated with LANL operations prior to filing a RCRA/HSWA permit application. In the process of preparing the RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a total of 603 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) were identified as part of the requirements of the HSWA Module VIH permit requirements. The HSWA Module VIII permit requires LANL to determine whether there have been any releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from SWMUs at the facility dating from the 1940's by performing a RCRA Facility Investigation to address known or suspected releases from specified SWMUs to affected media (i.e. soil, groundwater, surface water, and air). Among the most troublesome of the potential releases sites are those associated with airborne radioactive releases. In order to assess health risks associated with radioactive contaminants in a manner consistent with exposure standards currently in place, the DOE and LANL have established Screening Action Levels (SALs) for radioactive soil contamination. The SALs for each radionuclide in soil are derived from calculations based on a residential scenario in which individuals are exposed to contaminated soil via inhalation and ingestion as well as external exposure to gamma emitters in the soil. The applicable SALs are shown

  14. The transport of radioactive materials - Future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, set the standards for the packages used in the transport of radioactive materials under both normal and accident conditions. Transport organisations are also required to implement Radiation Protection Programmes to control radiation dose exposure to both workers and the public. The industry has now operated under this regulatory regime safely and efficiently for nearly 50 years. It is vital that this record be maintained in the future when the demands on the transport industry are increasing. Nuclear power is being called upon more and more to satisfy the world's growing need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity and there will be a corresponding demand for nuclear fuel cycle services. There will also be a growing need for other radioactive materials, notably large sources such as Cobalt 60 sources for a range of important medical and industrial uses, as well as radio-pharmaceuticals. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support all these industry sectors and the challenge will be to ensure that this can be maintained safely and securely in a changing world where public and political concerns are increasing. This paper will discuss the main issues which need to be addressed. The demand for uranium has led to increased exploration and the development of mines in new locations far removed from the demand centres. This inevitably leads to more transport, sometimes from areas potentially lacking in transport infrastructure, service providers, and experience. The demand for sources for medical applications will also increase, particularly from the rapidly developing regions and this will also involve new transport routes and increased traffic. This raises a variety of issues concerning the ability of the transport infrastructure to meet the future challenge, particularly in an environment where there already exists reluctance on

  15. Measurements of airborne short-lived radioactivity concentration in a PET facility at a national University hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National universities in Japan became under regulation of Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2004FY. One of the legal obligations is working environment measurements such as airborne radioactivity concentration in the rooms where employees handle unsealed radiation sources. Both in 2004FY and in 2005FY, measurements of airborne radioactivity concentration were carried out by two different agencies. The most prominent difference among them is the measurement for short-lived PET nuclides. In 2004FY, one agency measured the radioactivity with a Ge spectrometer at its own laboratory, whereas, in 2005FY, the other agency brought a NaI scintillation counter for gross gamma counting to the Hospital. It can be shown that detection limits for short-lived PET nuclides are in principle almost the same in both methods. It is also found that, in the actual case, gamma spectrometry with a Ge spectrometer is superior in judgement of detection of the radioactivity. (author)

  16. Radioactive materials and emergencies at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent events have heightened awareness of the problems raised by accidents at sea involving radioactive materials. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) noted that, while the transport of radioactive materials at sea is governed by extensive international regulations, deficiencies remained, particularly concerning mechanisms for early accident reporting and the development of generic safety assessments and accident analysises for various kinds of sea transport. As a contribution towards improving international guidance in this field, the NEA appointed a consultant to review the current status of activities carried out by the principal international organizations concerned with the transport of radioactive materials (the IAEA, IMO and the CEC), to identify the various areas where additional work is required and to suggest appropriate improvements. Only the radiation protection aspects of sea transport have been considered here. After having examined the consultant report, the CRPPH felt that its wide distribution to national regulatory authorities in OECD countries would serve a useful purpose. The report is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD and does not commit Member Governments or the Organization

  17. Integration of Radioactive Material with Microcalorimeter Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. P.; Bond, E. M.; Hoover, A. S.; Kunde, G. J.; Moody, W. A.; Rabin, M. W.; Bennett, D. A.; Hayes-Wehle, J.; Kotsubo, V.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2014-09-01

    Microcalorimeter detectors with embedded radioactive material offer many possibilities for new types of measurements and applications. We will discuss the designs and methods that we are developing for precise deposition of radioactive material and its encapsulation in the absorber of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter detectors for two specific applications. The first application is total nuclear reaction energy (Q) spectroscopy for nuclear forensics measurements of trace actinide samples, where the goal is determination of ratios of isotopes with Q values in the range of 5-7 MeV. Simplified, rapid sample preparation and detector assembly is necessary for practical measurements, while maintaining good energy resolution. The second application is electron capture spectroscopy of isotopes with low Q values, such as Ho, for measurement of neutrino mass. Detectors for electron capture spectroscopy are designed for measuring energies up to approximately 6 keV. Their smaller heat capacity and physical size present unique challenges. Both applications require precise deposition of radioactive material and encapsulation in an absorber with optimized thermal properties and coupling to the TES. We have made detectors for both applications with a variety of designs and assembly methods, and will present their development.

  18. Levels of radioactivity in grit blasting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of the build up of naturally occurring radioactive materials within the scales and silts accumulating in gas and oil production and processing plants are well known. Whilst surveying for these materials it became apparent that very occasionally high survey readings were being produced which could not be associated with elevated levels in scales or silts in the plant being investigated. Further measurements established that the source of these elevated levels was in fact grit from recent cleaning operations which had not been properly cleaned away. It was therefore decided to look at the activity levels in grits more systematically to see if a real problem did or could exist. (author)

  19. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  20. Perception of risks in transporting radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework for relating the variables involved in the public perception of hazardous materials transportation is presented in which perceived risk was described in six basic terms: technical feasibility, political palatability, social responsibility, benefit assessment, media interpretation, and familiarity as a function of time. Scientists, the media and public officials contribute to the discussion of risks but ultimately people will decide for themselves how they feel and what they think. It is not sufficient to consider the public of not being enlightened enough to participate in the formulation of radioactive material transport policy. The framework provides the technologist with an initial formulation to better inform the public and to understand public perception

  1. Transport of radioactive materials; Transporte de materiais radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material.

  2. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  3. Scintillation material for radioactivity detection in chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scintillation material was developed for radioactivity detection in liquid and gas chromatography. The starting material is crystalline Al-Y perovskite doped with Ce and La ions, which is heat treated at 1100-1700 degC under hydrogen for 1/2 to 8 hrs, ground, and screened to obtain a fraction 20-30 μm in grain size. The grain surface is modified by etching with phosphoric acid at 400-600 degC for 5-60 sec or with NaOH at 100-200 degC for 10 min. For some applications this material can be coated with a monomer (e.g., a styrene-divinylbenzene mixture) and exposed to gamma radiation to achieve complete polymerization of the monomer. The material suggested exhibits a high detection efficiency for β radiation, short luminescence times, a high chemical, mechanical and radiation resistance, and low sorption properties. (P.A.)

  4. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency published Training Course Series No. 1 (TCS-1), a training manual that provides in 20 chapters a detailed discussion of the background, philosophy, technical bases and requirements and implementation aspects of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The Transport Regulations are widely implemented by the IAEA's Member States and are also used as the bases for radioactive material transport requirements of modal organisations such as the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization. This document is a supplement of TCS-1 to provide additional material in the form of learning aids and new exercises, that have been developed with the use of TCS-1 at succeeding IAEA training courses. The learning aids in the first part of the supplement are hitherto unpublished material that provide detailed guidance useful in solving the exercises presented in the second part. Solutions to the exercises are on field at the IAEA Secretariat and are available by arrangement to lectures presenting IAEA training courses. 4 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  5. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10–100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: 60Co≤4.6%, 134Cs≤4.7%, 137Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and 3H≤1.3%. - Highlights: • Seven kinds environmental materials were used to establish the production of the RMs. • Spiking the traceable standard radioactive source to the blank substance. • Each sample was carefully evaluated for its uncertainty. • The performance of the RMs was estimated with the Proficiency Testing program report. • The ability of the environment RMs in the configuration is quite good

  6. High airborne radioactivity levels due to radon in some non-uranium mines in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten non-uranium mines from various regions of India have been surveyed for airborne radioactivity due to radon daughter products. The average air concentrations of RaA, RaB and RaC in the main ventilation return airways and in some selected areas in different working levels underground were assessed. The average equilibrium equivalent radon values and the RaC to RaB ratios were calculated. In one of these mines activity levels of the order of 500 to 1200 mWl were observed in different working areas. In all other mines the levels observed varied from a few mWL to about 100 mWL. The method of air sampling and analysis is briefly described. (author)

  7. Analysis of γ spectra in airborne radioactivity measurements using multiple linear regressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the net peak counts calculating of nuclide 137Cs at 662 keV of γ spectra in airborne radioactivity measurements using multiple linear regressions. Mathematic model is founded by analyzing every factor that has contribution to Cs peak counts in spectra, and multiple linear regression function is established. Calculating process adopts stepwise regression, and the indistinctive factors are eliminated by F check. The regression results and its uncertainty are calculated using Least Square Estimation, then the Cs peak net counts and its uncertainty can be gotten. The analysis results for experimental spectrum are displayed. The influence of energy shift and energy resolution on the analyzing result is discussed. In comparison with the stripping spectra method, multiple linear regression method needn't stripping radios, and the calculating result has relation with the counts in Cs peak only, and the calculating uncertainty is reduced. (authors)

  8. Validation of Monte Carlo model of HPGe detector for field-station measurement of airborne radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolc, J.; Kovář, P.; Dryák, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) model of a mechanically-cooled High Purity Germanium detection system IDM-200-V™ manufactured by ORTEC® was created, optimized and validated within the scope of the Joint Research Project ENV57 ``Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe''. The validation was performed for a planar source homogeneously distributed on a filter placed on top of the detector end cap and for point sources positioned farther from the detector by comparing simulated full-energy peak (FEP) detection efficiencies with the ones measured with two or three different pieces of the IDM detector. True coincidence summing correction factors were applied to the measured FEP efficiencies. Relative differences of FEP efficiencies laid within 8% that is fully satisfactory for the intended use of the detectors as instruments for airborne radioactivity measurement in field-stations. The validated MC model of the IDM-200-V™ detector is now available for further MC calculations planned in the ENV57 project.

  9. Handling of disused radioactive materials in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the handling of disused radioactive sources. It also shows graphic information of medical and industrial equipment containing radioactive sources. This information was prepared as part of a training course on radioactive wastes. (The author)

  10. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol's iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs

  11. Radioactive materials transportation emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro transports radioactive material between its nuclear facilities, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at Chalk River Laboratories and Radiochemical Company in Kanata, on a regular basis. Ontario Hydro also occasionally transports to Whiteshell Laboratories, Hydro-Quebec and New Brunswick Electric Power Commission. Although there are stringent packaging and procedural requirements for these shipments, Ontario Hydro has developed a Radioactive Materials Transportation Emergency Response Plan in the event that there is an accident. The Transportation Emergency Response plan is based on six concepts: 1) the Province id divided into three response areas with each station (Pickering, Darlington, Bruce) having identified response areas; 2) response is activated via a toll-free number. A shift supervisor at Pickering will answer the call, determine the hazards involved from the central shipment log and provide on-line advice to the emergency worker. At the same time he will notify the nearest Ontario Hydro area office to provide initial corporate response, and will request the nearest nuclear station to provide response assistance; 3) all stations have capability in terms of trained personnel and equipment to respond to an accident; 4) all Ontario Hydro shipments are logged with Pickering NGS. Present capability is based on computerized logging with the computer located in the shift office at Pickering to allow quick access to information on the shipment; 5) there is a three tier structure for emergency public information. The local Area Manager is the first Ontario Hydro person at the scene of the accident. The responding facility technical spokesperson is the second line of Corporate presence and the Ontario Hydro Corporate spokesperson is notified in case the accident is a media event; and 6) Ontario Hydro will respond to non-Hydro shipments of radioactive materials in terms of providing assistance, guidance and capability. However, the shipper is responsible

  12. Facilities for reducing radioactive material release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon occurrence of an accident, temperature is elevated by the heat from exothermic materials in an building to cause expansion of the air in the building till the time an emergency gas processing system reaches a rated operation. Further, external air leaks into the building during the time lag depending on the rate of the leakage of the building. They cause lowering of the negative pressure in the building to bring about a worry that the air in the building containing radioactive materials in leaked and released. Then, in the present invention, an ordinary ventilation system comprising an air supply blower, an air exhaustion blower, an air supply isolation valve and an air exhaustion isolation valve, and an emergency gas processing system for exhausting the air in the building by removing radioactive materials upon occurrence of accident are disposed. Upon occurrence of accidents, the operation of the ordinary ventilation system is continued till the emergency gas processing system reaches a rated operation. In view of the above, the lowering of the negative pressure in the building till the emergency gas processing system reaches a rated operation can be prevented. (T.M.)

  13. Liability in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the application of the IAEA-sponsored 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage to the maritime transport of radioactive materials. The paper refers also to the regime for civil liability created by other Conventions, including the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, concluded under the auspices of the OECD and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, also an IAEA sponsored Convention. The paper will primarily focus on the Vienna Convention. (author)

  14. Rapid technique for determining building material radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid technique for determining building material radioactivity graphically, using nomogram of known uranium (226Ra), thorium (232Th), potassium contents is suggested. Nomogram usage permits to replace labour-consuming calculations of radionuclide specific activity by formula with simple rule imposition. Determination errors don't exceed 1-2%. The nomogram may be easily constructed selecting ranges of radionuclide concentration variation ranges, which are the most characteristic for the work region, and calculating scale values for U, Th and K by formula. Distance from uranium activity scale to U and Th total activity scale as well as scale factor of total specific activity are calculated by formula

  15. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third edition of the ANDRA's national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). After a brief historical review of the national inventory and the way it is constructed, the report gives the basics on radioactive wastes, their classification, origins and management processes, followed by a general presentation and discussion of the inventory results (radioactive wastes and materials). Results are then detailed for the different activity sectors using radioactive materials (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). Information is also given concerning radioactive polluted areas (characterization and site management) and radioactive waste inventories in various foreign countries

  16. Decommissioning strategies for facilities using radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planning for the decommissioning of facilities that have used radioactive material is similar in many respects to other typical engineering projects. However, decommissioning differs because it involves equipment and materials that are radioactive and therefore have to be handled and controlled appropriately. The project management principles are the same. As with all engineering projects, the desired end state of the project must be known before the work begins and there are a number of strategies that can be used to reach this end state. The selection of the appropriate strategy to be used to decommission a facility can vary depending on a number of factors. No two facilities are exactly the same and their locations and conditions can result in different strategies being considered acceptable. The factors that are considered cover a wide range of topics from purely technical issues to social and economic issues. Each factor alone may not have a substantial impact on which strategy to select, but their combination could lead to the selection of the preferred or best strategy for a particular facility. This Safety Report identifies the factors that are normally considered when deciding on the most appropriate strategy to select for a particular facility. It describes the impact that each factor can have on the strategy selection and also how the factors in combination can be used to select an optimum strategy

  17. Decontamination of radioactive materials. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials to which an individual may be exposed are not rare. These potential sources of accidental radiation include medical and food sterilizers, therapeutic devices, industrial radiography sources, research laboratories, transportation accidents, nuclear medicine laboratories, and nuclear power plants. While radiation accidents occur infrequently, one of the problems is that ionizing radiation cannot be detected by the human senses. Contamination accidents involve not only some exposure to radiation as the individuals carry the radioactive materials either internally or externally, and are thus continually exposed to radiation until the contaminant is removed. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has published ''''Management of Persons Accidentally Contaminated with Radionuclides'''' as report No. 65. One of the chapters, entitled ''''Therapy Procedures and Drugs,'''' details the decontamination of radionuclides. It is the goal of this article to outline and establish procedures and resources for the decontamination of contaminated individuals. Here, we review the treatment of contamination and describe drugs for internal decontamination in Japan. (author). 56 refs

  18. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  19. Dry-type radioactive material storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plurality of container tubes containing a plurality of canisters therein are disposed in a canister storage chamber. High level radioactive materials are filled in the canisters in the form of glass solidification materials. The canister storage chamber is divided into two cooling channels by a horizontal partition wall. Each of the container tubes is suspended from a ceiling slab and pass through the horizontal partition wall. Namely, each of the container tubes vertically traverses the cooling channel formed between the ceiling slab and the partition wall and extends to the cooling channel formed between the partition wall and a floor slab. Cooling gases heated in the cooling channel below the partition wall are suppressed from rising to the cooling channel above the partition wall. Therefore, the container tubes are efficiently cooled even in a cooling channel above the partition wall to unify temperature distribution in the axial direction of the container tubes. (I.N.)

  20. The safety and security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency has two complementary programmes relating to the security of radioactive materials. One finds its origins in the General Conference resolution in 1994, GC(XXXVIII)/RES/DEC(1994), on measures against illicit trafficking in nuclear materials. This resolution was undoubtedly an expression of the concern on the matter that arose following the break-up of the Soviet Union. The other is an integral part of the broader programme of radiation safety, which, in essence, finds its origins in the statutory functions of the Agency. Article III, part A. 6 of the Statute states that the Agency is authorized 'to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property ... and to provide for the application of these standards ...'. The objectives of the first programme are to improve Member State's ability to protect nuclear materials and other radioactive material from sub-national, terrorist or unlawful activities that could impose a non-proliferation threat, or that could endanger health and safety, and to provide Member States with the knowledge and tools for detecting and responding to such unlawful incidents. Specifically, with radioactive materials, the objective is to assist Member States in their efforts to prevent, detect and respond to illicit trafficking in such materials. The statutory function regarding the establishment of safety standards and providing for their application has been taken seriously by the Agency since its inception, the first part being expressed particularly in the Basic Safety Standards. The Board of Governors first approved radiation protection and safety measures in March 1960 and the first basic safety standards in June 1962. Since then, there has been a number of revisions; the latest

  1. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  2. Natural Radioactivity of Quarry Raw Material in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decades Natural Occurring Radioactive Material has been receiving growing attention by radiation protection agencies, including chronic exposure to radon and radiation from building materials. A new Israeli Standard (IS 5098)(1) which limits the radionuclide concentration in building material entered into force in 2003. Building materials are made of natural raw materials which contain natural radionuclides from the 238U-226Ra decay series, 232Th decay series and 40K. The radionuclide concentration in the building material depends on the source of the raw material, manufacturing process and the addition of technically enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Material like fly ash, phospho-gypsum, etc. The radioactivity in building materials in Israel have been investigated, but not the raw materials from local quarries. In this paper we present the natural radioactivity in quarries substances in Israel and an assessment of the radioactivity in concrete according to IS 5098

  3. Radioactive materials' transportation main routes in Brazil. Radiation protection aspects about radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy transportation in Brazil is generally done by highways. The radioactive material transportation follow this same rule. Whenever a radioactive material is carried by the road, by the sea or by the air, in some cases, a kind of combination of those transportation ways, the transport manager has to create a Transportation Plan and submit it to CNEN. Only after CNEN's approval, the transportation can be done. The plan must have the main action on Radiation Protection, giving responsibilities and showing all the directing that will be take. Although, the Brazilian's highways are not in good conditions, one could say that some of them are not good enough for any kind of transportation. But we are facing radioactive material use increase but the hospitals and industries, that the reason it's much more common that kind of transportation nowadays. So, because of that, a special attention by the governments must be provide to those activities. This paper goal is to show the real conditions of some important highways in Brazil in a radioactive protection's perspective and give some suggestions to adjust some of those roads to this new reality. (author)

  4. Storage facility for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A disk-like covering slab is supported on a pit by a numbers of elastic support members (earthquake proof device) disposed on the upper surface in the vicinity of an opening of a pit. Upper ends of containing tubes containing high level radioactive materials formed by vitrifying radioactive liquid wastes are buried at the lower side of the covering slab. Air ventilation tubes are vertically disposed on the outer side of the containing tubes at a portion situated in the pit at a space of circulation channels. A portion between the outer side of the air ventilation tubes and the inner circumference of the pit is entirely isolated all over by a lower plenum forming plate and an upper plenum forming plate. Pleats-like flexible portions are each formed at the circumference of the lower plenum forming plate and the upper plenum forming plate in the vicinity of the inner circumference of the pit. With such a constitution, failure of containing tubes due to earthquakes or the like can be prevented by a simple constitution. (I.N.)

  5. Radioactive emissions study in radioluminescent composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper we analyze radioactive emissions from the selfradiolytical processes in radioluminescent composite materials based on tritium labeled polymers. We studied tritium labelled siloxanic polymers obtained by hydrolysis of: ethyl-T2-SiCl3+SiCl4; ethyl-T2-SiCl3+phenyl-SiCl3+SiCl4; ethyl-T2-SiCl3+phenyl-SiCl3; ethyl-T2-phenyl-SiCl2+SiCl4; propyl-T2-SiCl3+SiCl4; propyl-T2-SiCl3+phenyl-SiCl3+SiCl4; propyl-T2-SiCl3+phenyl-SiCl3; propyl-T2-phenyl-SiCl2+SiCl4 and tritiated oligomers 1,4-diphenyl-butane-T8; 1,4-diphenyl-2-butene-T6; 1,4-diphenyl-butadiene-T4, oligomers poly-1,4-diphenyl-butadiene. Radioactive emissions analysis was carried out by storage activity loss determination in conditions similar to those of radioluminescent pigments. The results obtained were compared with the results obtained by ESR spectroscopy on inactive polymeric structures and by quantum mechanical simulation. (authors)

  6. Gamma emitting radioactive materials in household dinnerware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Fawzia Ahmad

    A variety of commonly available household and tableware items and some specialty glass materials commonly found in everyday life were examined for their radioactivity content with two different detection and measurement methods. Dinnerware is produced mainly from clay and sand at high temperatures. Therefore, it should be expected to have some degree of radioactivity. It is also stored in confined places, which permits radon accumulation. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K in dinnerware used in houses was measured. Many dinnerware items from various origins that are sold on the open market were studied. Measurements of specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclide for the samples were carried out. The measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry having a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer and a computer system. The average values of specific activities were (6.03 ± 0.54 to 223.67 ± 22.37 for 238U; 2.87 ± 0.14 to 513.85 ± 15.42 for 232Th; 28.67 ± 2.01 to 2726.70 ± 54.53 for 40K; and 0.592 ± 0.037 to 3.549 ± 0.248 for 137Cs) Bq kg-1, respectively. The glazed samples seemed to contribute most of the activity, although also unglazed samples showed some activity. The absorbed dose rates, radium equivalent and external hazard index were also calculated and tabulated. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to measure the radon track density, exhalation rate and effective radium content for the investigated samples. The exhalation rate was found to vary from 4.376 to 8.144 Bq m-2 d-1. It appears that foreign ceramic products, especially Chinese ones with high uranium content, eventually enter the country. The results from the two methods are compared and their combined uncertainties were estimated from the relation of relative combined variance. In Egypt, no special regulations exist concerning radioactivity in glazed earthenware. On the basis of the previous

  7. Radioactivity of waste materials produced from the Inchass uranium extraction pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant was constructed at Inchass, Cairo for uranium processing from conventional ore materials consists of 4 rubber lined leaching tanks fitted with the required impellers beside having procured two columns ion-exchange unit from Permutite Company LTD of London and a mixer settler from Henkel USA. The capacity of this unit is 100 kg yellowcake per year. The aim of this work is to study the radioactivity of wastes produced from the pilot plant. Uranium ore, dust, airborne material, solid waste (tailings) and liquid effluents have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry

  8. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  9. Study of radioactive materials with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation brings 3 major improvements compared to other X-ray sources usually used in laboratories. Its high brilliance permits the study of size-reduced samples, the low divergency of the beam gives the possibility to increase the angular resolution of the diffractometer and the spectrum of the X-photons which is continuous, allows the experimenter to chose a particular wavelength. Synchrotron radiation is becoming an important tool to investigate radioactive materials particularly burnt nuclear fuels. Zircon is the corrosion product that appears on fuel clad during irradiation, the use of synchrotron radiation with the right wavelength and a discerning incidence angle has clearly shown a crystallographic change of the zircon induced by heavy ion irradiation. X-ray fluorescence induced by synchrotron radiation can give information on fission products which were till then undetected because of the lack of sensibility of previous methods. (A.C.)

  10. Research with radioactive materials in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the revision of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, for instance in section 41, the author - who can draw on his own experience as a referee for projects planned in the area of research with radioactive materials in man - deals with the following problems: 1. Quantifiable risk-benefit assessment as opposed to qualitative risk-benefit assessment based on medical experience. 2. Delimination of medicine and research by criteria such as application to healthy or sick persons, application of a new method or an already standardized one, application in the hope to achieve an individual benefit or without such hopes, and application with a view to obtaining results suitable to be generalized, in the course of which many borderline cases will crop up. 3. Legal requirements in section 41 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance with the demands for minimization of risks and quality assurance, and 4. application procedure and experience gathered so far. (TRV)

  11. Procedures for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, T. Y

    2007-11-15

    This technical report describes the procedure and work responsibility along with the regulation and standard necessary for the safe transport of radioactive or contaminated materials. This report, therefore, can be effectively used to secure the public safety as well as to prevent the disastrous event which might be resulted from the transport process of radioactive materials by establishing a procedure and method on the safe packing, handling and transport of radioactive materials.

  12. Transportation of radioactive materials in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is designed to calculate the total risk due to shipping radioactive materials in Sweden. The base case developed is the shipment model that is used now or the best estimate for expected shipments. The model for the calculations and the computer program used has been developed at the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA and is the same that was used for the NUREG-0170 study. The results from the calculations show an annual expected population dose of 30 person-rem due to normal transport conditions. The annual expected dose from accidents were calculated to be between 2.3-20.8 person rem. The higher figure represents the case where plutonium is shipped back to Sweden from reprocessing plants abroad in the form of PuO2 and the lower figure represent the case when plutonium is shipped back in the form of mixed oxide fuel. The total additional population dose in Sweden due to both normal and accident conditions in the transportation of radioactive materials will be 30 - 50 person rem/year. Compared to the natural background radiation that is 8x105 person rem per year in Sweden, this figure is very low. If converted to latent cancer fatalities this population dose will add approximately 3.5x103 cancers each year. The consequences due to accidents have been calculated and are discussed separately from their probabilities. The most severe accident that was found was an accident involving PuO2. This accident would give 82 400 rem as a maximum individual dose and 8.1x105 person rem as a population dose. (Auth.)

  13. Emerging issues in radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power generates around 16% of the world's electricity and will play an increasingly significant role in meeting the world's need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity. Industry expansion will bring demand for fuel cycle services placing new and greater demands on transport. The demand for other radioactive materials, like Cobalt-60 sources, is also likely to increase. Few countries manufacture gamma sources and sea transport is therefore vital to distribute them globally. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support these industries. The challenge will be ensuring this can be maintained safely and securely in a world where security and other concerns have increased. Sources of nuclear fuel cycle services often are remote from the demand centres. An essential question for future nuclear power generation surely must be: even if availability of fuel can be assured, how can transport to support such a programme be assured? At the front end of the fuel cycle, could existing commercial liner services be relied upon when there are increasing delays and denials of shipments already? Can availability of transport in a commercial environment be assured? Moreover, where will the capacity to transport spent fuel, reprocessed fuel and residues in greater volumes and across expanded routes come from? More transport to areas potentially lacking in infrastructure, service providers and experience raises various issues including compliance with regulation, harmonised standards, security and training. Radioactive materials transport cannot be taken for granted; it faces a variety of challenges, and numerous emerging issues in the wider nuclear industry that have important implications for transport. (author)

  14. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section 177.842 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages...

  15. Construction module protecting against emissions from radioactive material and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A construction module is described for use in protecting personnel against emissions from radioactive material comprising: a shaped member suitable for assembly with other shaped members to form a structure for shielding personnel; said shaped members being formed from suitable shielding material capable of excluding passage of emissions from radioactive material and having adjoining surfaces for reception closely adjacent complementary surfaces of other shaped members; and a synthetic polymeric material having been formed by molding to engage and extend over an exterior surface of said shaped member forming a hardened coating layer protecting the shielding material from contamination by exposure to radioactive material and serving as a readily decontaminated surface to avoid exposure of personnel to emissions from radioactive material; whereby an encapsulated construction module is formed suitable for assembly as a structure to shield personnel and which is easily decontaminated avoiding exposure to emissions from radioactive material

  16. Data base about the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe two data bases which provide supporting information on radioactive material transport experience in the United States. The Radioactive Material Incident Report (RMIR), a mature data base, documents accident incident experience from 1971 to the present from data acquired from the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Radioactive Material Postnotification (RAMPOST) data base documents the shipments that have taken place for Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) of radioactive material. HRCQ shipments are post notified (that is, after the shipment) to the DOT

  17. Data bases concerning the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe two data bases which provide supporting information on radioactive material transport experience in the United States. The Radioactive Material Incident Report (RMIR) documents accident/incident experience from 1971 to the present from data acquired from the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Radioactive Material Postnotification (RAMPOST) data base documents the shipments that have taken place for Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) of radioactive material. HRCQ shipments are post notified (that is, after the shipment) to the DOT

  18. Vectorization of nuclear codes for atmospheric transport and exposure calculation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three computer codes MATHEW, ADPIC of LLNL and GAMPUL of JAERI for prediction of wind field, concentration and external exposure rate of airborne radioactive materials are vectorized and the results are presented. Using the continuous equation of incompressible flow as a constraint, the MATHEW calculates the three dimensional wind field by a variational method. Using the particle-in -cell method, the ADPIC calculates the advection and diffusion of radioactive materials in three dimensional wind field and terrain, and gives the concentration of the materials in each cell of the domain. The GAMPUL calculates the external exposure rate assuming Gaussian plume type distribution of concentration. The vectorized code MATHEW attained 7.8 times speedup by a vector processor FACOM230-75 APU. The ADPIC and GAMPUL are estimated to attain 1.5 and 4 times speedup respectively on CRAY-1 type vector processor. (author)

  19. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  20. Absorbent material for type a radioactive materials packaging containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of absorbent materials to the packaging and transport of liquid radioactive materials in Type A packages has not been reported in the literature. However, a significant body of research exists on absorbent materials for personal hygiene products such as diapers. Absorption capacity is dependent on both the absorbent material and the liquid being absorbed. Theoretical principles for capillary absorption in both the horizontal and the vertical plane indicate that small contact angle between the absorbent fibre and the liquid, and a small inter-fibre pore size are important. Some fluid parameters such as viscosity affect the rate of absorption but not the final absorption capacity. There appears to be little comparability between results obtained for the same absorbent and fluid using different test procedures. Test samples of materials from several classes of potential absorbents have been evaluated in this study, and shown to have a wide range of absorbent capacities. Foams, natural fibres, artificial fibres and granular materials are all potentially useful absorbents, with capacities ranging from as little as 0.86 to as much as 40.6 grams of distilled water per gram of absorbent. Two experimental procedures for evaluating the absorbent capacity of these materials have been detailed in this report, and found suitable for evaluating granular, fibrous or foam materials. Compression of the absorbent material reduces its capacity, but parameters such as relative humidity, pH, temperature, and viscosity appear to have little significant influence on capacity. When the materials were loaded to 50% of their one-minute absorbency, subsequent loss of the absorbed liquid was generally minimal. All of the absorbent materials rapidly lost their absorbed water through evaporation within twenty-four hours in still air at 21 degrees C and 50% relative humidity

  1. Perceptions, perspectives, proportions: Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly a hundred years ago in 1893 - when railroads still monopolized land transport, the first set of international rules governing shipments of hazardous materials were issued to cover their movement by rail. Since then, more than a dozen international bodies, and scores of national regulatory agencies, have published regulations directed at the carriage of dangerous goods by road, sea, air, as well as rail. The regulatory network today covers virtually all kinds of substances and commodities that are used for beneficial purposes, but that under certain conditions are potentially harmful to people and the environment. 'The Problems Encountered by International Road Transport in Multimodal Transport Operations', by M. Marmy, paper presented at the 8th International Symposium on the Transport and Handling of Dangerous Goods by Sea and Associated Modes, Havana, Cuba, 1984. These include the chemical fertilizers farmers spread on their fields, the nuclear fuel now powering electricity plants in some two dozen countries, the drugs physicians use to diagnose and treat illnesses, and the fossil fuels, such as gasoline, routinely used in transport vehicles. All told today, about 21 different international labels are required to identify separate classes of dangerous goods among them, explosives, corrosives, and flammables. Another separate class radioactive materials is the specific subject of feature articles in this issue of the IAEA Bulletin. The evolving regulatory system reflects at once the growth in traffic of hazardous materials, essentially a post-World War II trend. Since the mid-1940s, for example, the transport of all dangerous goods just on the seas has grown 1000%. based on reports at a recent international conference. Overall, years ahead will see further increases

  2. Gammafet - fixed-wing gamma survey for the detection of radioactive materials. Finnish support to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland has the operational capability to make airborne gamma ray measurements in emergency situations. The original purpose of airborne radiation mapping was to determine hazardous areas containing radioactive fallout after nuclear accidents or the use of nuclear weapons. Regular exercises are held annually to keep operational functionality at high level for this purpose. The knowledge and achieved practice can easily be extended to use in international radiation monitoring campaigns. The presented guidelines are based on Finnish knowhow, but it is not limited to use with Finnish equipment. The report describes the method and its usability in detecting the chain of nuclear material production using aerial gamma ray measurements. Technical details are given on how to manage measurement tasks, and information is also given on what is detectable from an aeroplane and how it is detected. The ability to use the airborne detection system has been tested to reveal the use of undeclared nuclear material. Various scenarios were considered with which to reveal clandestine nuclear material production, enrichment, and nuclear waste trails. The exercises arranged during this programme show that it is possible to reveal such clandestine activities. The fixed-wing gamma measurement technique developed under this contract is ready for detecting significant amounts of nuclear material efficiently and cost effectively. Large areas can be screened to find suspicious sub-areas for more accurate inspection. The approximate cost of screening is USD 17.4 per square kilometre. (orig.)

  3. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  4. Framework for assessing the effects of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials transport may result in environmental effects during both incident-free and accident conditions. These effects may be caused by radiation exposure, pollutants, or physical trauma. Recent environmental impact analyses involving the transportation of radioactive materials are cited to provide examples of the types of activities which may be involved as well as the environmental effects which can be estimated

  5. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. In short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet gives a summary of the national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). Intended for public information, the booklet explains the basics of radioactive materials and wastes and waste management, and gives some data on present and future waste volumes, information about radioactive waste classification, the geographical distribution of waste sites in France, etc. The various types of radioactive wastes are described (classified by their lifetime and activity level) as well as historical storage sites, polluted areas where wastes are stored, radioactive objects, etc. and their respective management approaches are presented

  6. Verification of declared content in the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials during legal transport (in the presence of a licence and other certified documents) across borders by substituting the quantity or quality of the declared materials poses a serious problem for customs authorities at border checkpoints. To prevent such cases of illicit trafficking, the parameters of the declared nuclear or other radioactive materials must be compared to the actual measured parameters of the material being transported. The paper describes procedures and methods for carrying out a customs control of nuclear and other radioactive materials during their legal transport across borders. (author)

  7. Transport of radioactive materials: the need for radiation protection programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the use of radioactive materials worldwide requires that these materials be moved from production sites to the end user or in the case of radioactive waste, from the waste generator to the repository. Tens of millions of packages containing radioactive material are consigned for transport each year throughout the world. The amount of radioactive material in these packages varies from negligible quantities in shipments of consumer products to very large quantities of shipments of irradiated nuclear fuel. Transport is the main way in which the radioactive materials being moved get into the public domain. The public is generally unaware of the lurking danger when transporting these hazardous goods. Thus radiation protection programmes are important to assure the public of the certainty of their safety during conveyance of these materials. Radioactive material is transported by land (road and rail), inland waterways, sea/ocean and air. These modes of transport are regulated by international 'modal' regulations. The international community has formulated controls to reduce the number of accidents and mitigate their consequences should they happen. When accidents involving the transport of radioactive material occur, it could result in injury, loss of life and pollution of the environment. In order to ensure the safety of people, property and the environment, national and international transport regulations have been developed. The appropriate authorities in each state utilise them to control the transport of radioactive material. Stringent measures are required in these regulations to ensure adequate containment, shielding and the prevention of criticality in all spheres of transport, i.e. routine, minor incidents and accident conditions. Despite the extensive application of these stringent safety controls, transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will continue to occur. When a transport accident occurs, it

  8. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ye [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Tang, Xiao-Bin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2015-10-11

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr{sub 3} detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R{sup 2}=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. - Highlights: • An airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was developed to measure radionuclide after a nuclear accident. • A spectrum correction algorithm was proposed to obtain precise information on the detected radioactivity within a small area. • The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. • The corresponding spectrum correction coefficients increase first and then stay constant.

  9. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. - Highlights: • An airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was developed to measure radionuclide after a nuclear accident. • A spectrum correction algorithm was proposed to obtain precise information on the detected radioactivity within a small area. • The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. • The corresponding spectrum correction coefficients increase first and then stay constant

  10. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  11. Hydrological dispersion of radioactive material in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide discusses the dispersion of normal and accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants into surface water, including the washout of airborne radionuclides, and gives recommendations on information to be collected during the various stages of the siting procedure, a minimum measurement programme and the selection and validation of appropriate mathematical models for predicting dispersion. Guidelines are also provided for the optimal use of models for a specific site situation and for defining the necessary input parameters. Results of existing validation studies are given

  12. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  13. Report on current research into organic materials in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary review of relevant recent papers on organic materials in radioactive waste is presented. In particular, the effects of chelating or complexing agents, the influence of bacteria and the role of colloids are assessed. The requirement for further radioactive waste inventory detail is indicated. Potential problem areas associated with the presence of organic materials in radioactive waste are identified and appropriate experimental work to assess their significance is proposed. Recommendations for specific further work are made. A list and diagrams of some of the more important polymer structures likely to be present in radioactive waste and their possible degradation products are appended. (author)

  14. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  15. Trasmar: automated vehicle for transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally robots have been used for industrial applications, even though area in which these devices had a deep impact is in the nuclear industry. The ININ is an Institute that must to manage and to work with radioactive substances. The ININ is also responsible of the storage and supervision of radioactive wastes in the country, therefore the applications of the automated systems in the Institute have as the main objective to reduce the exposure and the contact of personnel with the radioactive material. Here to, it has been proposed the project called Assisted Transportation of Radioactive Material (TRASMAR). (Author)

  16. Transporting radioactive materials: Q ampersand A to your questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 2 million packages of radioactive materials are shipped each year in the United States. These shipments are carried by trucks, trains, ships, and airplanes every day just like other commodities. Compliance with Federal regulations ensures that radioactive materials are transported safely. Proper packaging is the key to safe shipment. Package designs for radioactive materials must protect the public and the environment even in case of an accident. As the level of radioactivity increases, packaging design requirements become more stringent. Radioactive materials have been shipped in this country for more than 40 years. As with other commodities, vehicles carrying these materials have been involved in accidents. However, no deaths or serious injuries have resulted from exposure to the radioactive contents of these shipments. People are concerned about how radioactive shipments might affect them and the environment. This booklet briefly answers some of the commonly asked questions about the transport of radioactive materials. More detailed information is available from the sources listed at the end of this booklet

  17. Ontario Hydro's transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any release to the environment. There have been three accidents involving Hydro's shipments of radioactive material with no spill of material in any of the incidents. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation's ability to respond and to provide emergency public information in the event of an accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes our commitment to worker safety and public safety. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations

  18. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to States and competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a nuclear security regime for facilities dealing with radioactive material and associated activities. This is to be achieved through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement a legislative and regulatory framework to address the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and associated activities in order to reduce the likelihood of malicious acts involving those materials. These recommendations reflect a broad consensus among States on the requirements which should be met for the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and activities.

  19. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  20. Air-borne radioactive pollutants in twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated with collaboration of Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF) in orderer to ensure safe operation of PINSTECH nuclear facilities, protect the environment and general public from air-borne radioactive pollutants and establish base-line data for Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas. A total of 30 sampling points were initially earmarked and samples were collected from these sites. Radiometric analyses were performed using various measuring techniques. The range of ambient gamma dose was found to be 0.12 to 0.36 Svhr/sup -1/ with an average value of 0.25 +- 0.06 Svhr/sup -1/. The mean values of specific activity for /sup 7/Be and /sup 40/K were 3.7 +- 1.3 and 1.14 +- 0.6 mBq/m/sup 3/ respectively. The activity of /sup 7/Be in air as a function of percent of samples is shown. Analysis of /sup 90/Sr for all the samples showed very little activity. The specific activities of /sup 7/Be were lower that the world average (12.5 mBq/m/sup 3/) and comparable with other countries of the world. /sup 7/Be activity in air as a function of percent of samples. The average specific activity of /sup 40/K was significantly lower than the derived air concentration (6 X 106 mBq/m/sup 3/) reported by IAEA. The data showed that the concentrations of radionuclides in the surveyed area were nominal. Hence, they do not pose any potential health hazard to the environment and general public. (Orig./A.B.)

  1. Simultaneous sampling of indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Janik, Miroslaw; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-02-18

    Several studies have estimated inhalation doses for the public because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Most of them were based on measurement of radioactivity in outdoor air and included the assumption that people stayed outdoors all day. Although this assumption gives a conservative estimate, it is not realistic. The "air decontamination factor" (ratio of indoor to outdoor air radionuclide concentrations) was estimated from simultaneous sampling of radioactivity in both inside and outside air of one building. The building was a workplace and located at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Aerosol-associated radioactive materials in air were collected onto filters, and the filters were analyzed by γ spectrometry at NIRS. The filter sampling was started on March 15, 2011 and was continued for more than 1 year. Several radionuclides, such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were found by measuring the filters with a germanium detector. The air decontamination factor was around 0.64 for particulate (131)I and 0.58 for (137)Cs. These values could give implications for the ratio of indoor to outdoor radionuclide concentrations after the FDNPP accident for a similar type of building. PMID:24450729

  2. On the design of a global detection system for airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements are investigated for a global network of air sampling stations to have a reasonable efficiency for detecting emissions to the atmosphere of radioactive material anywhere on Earth. It is found that some 50 stations should be enough to detect within 15 days and with a probability of at least 25 percent a nuclear explosion with a fission yield larger than or equal to 1 kt. If the probability limit is set at 90 percent, a substantially greater number of stations is required. (author.)

  3. Method to fabricate bodies containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure the ultimate storage of highly radioactive wastes, it is suggested to transfer the radioactive substances enclosed in glass in the known manner, into a glass ceramic by tempering in a metal bath. The glass particles are brought to crystallize in a specific manner in a metal melt (lead and its alloys or aluminium and its alloys). It is preferable to temper directly the container for ultimate storage. (UWI)

  4. The safety and security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the IAEA's programme on the safety and security of radiation sources which is aimed primarily at protecting people's health. This programme finds its origins in the IAEA's statutory function for establishing safety standards and providing for their application. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources provides the basic safety requirements. In spite of the existence of such standards, serious radiological accidents continue to occur, some of these accidents involving 'orphan' sources, that is, they that are not under appropriate control. Concerns about this matter over led, in 1999, to the development of an Action Plan, which is aimed at enabling the IAEA to develop and implement activities that will assist States in maintaining and, where necessary, improving the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials over their life cycle. This paper describes the seven major topics of the Action Plan and the progress in the implementation of the various actions. These topics are: regulatory infrastructures; management of disused sources; categorization of sources; response to abnormal events; information exchange; education and training; and international undertakings. The findings of a Conference held in Buenos Aires in December 2000, while reinforcing the activities in the Action Plan, also identified further actions. One of these was that events where individuals are exposed to radiation because of breaches in radiation source safety or security without malice aforethought should be clearly distinguished from events where there is a criminal intent of exposing people to harmful effects of radiation. (author)

  5. The use of radioactive residues as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent describes the use of radioactive residues consisting of metal and/or concrete, particularly in the form of removed or dismantled radioactive core plant, as building material for shielding in nuclear technology, also in the form of equipment having a shielding function. The method used ensures that the specific radioactivity equivalent to cobalt 60 is below 100 Bq/gram. (orig./PW)

  6. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)

    1997-12-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  7. The safety transport of the radioactive materials in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive materials (RAM) is a very important problem considering the potential risks and radiological consequences in carrying-out this activity. Romania as a Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency has implemented national regulations for a safe transport of RAM in accordance with the Agency's recommendations as well as other international specialized organizations. Based on the IAEA's Safety Standard-TS-R-1 (ST-1), Romanian National Nuclear Regulatory Body - CNCAN adopted and implemented, by Act no. 374/October 2001, the safety regulations for the transport of radioactive materials in Romania under the title: 'Fundamental Regulations for a Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, in Romania'. The paper presents the main sources of radioactive materials in Romania their transportation routes with a particular interest paid to the radioactive wastes (low level radioactive materials), isotopes and radioactive sources, uranium ore. Starting from the fact that the safety in the transport of radioactive materials is dependent on appropriate packaging for the contents being shipped, rather than operational and/or administrative actions required for the package, the paper presents, briefly the main packages used for transport and storage of such RAM in Romania. There are presented hypothetical scenarios for specific problems related to the identification and evaluation of the risks and potential radiological consequences associated with the transport of radioactive materials in Romania, for all these three situations: routine transport (without incidents), normal transport (with minor incidents) and during possible accidents. As a conclusion, it is ascertained that the evaluated annual collective dose for the population due to RAM transport is less than that received by natural radiation sources. At the same time it is concluded that Romanian made packages are safe and prevent loss of their radioactive contents into the environment

  8. Inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the content of the inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. It covers accidents and losses resulting in the actual release of radioactive materials into the marine environment and also those which have the potential for release. For completeness, records of radioactive materials involved in accidents but which were recovered intact from the sea are also reported. Information on losses of sealed sources resulting in actual or potential release of activity to the marine environment nad of sealed sources that were recovered intact is also presented

  9. Ionising radiations, radioactive materials and the fire services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive experience has shown that ionizing radiations and radioactive materials can be used safely in a wide variety of applications, provided a number of precautions are implemented. Transport of radioactive materials is common and regulations designed to ensure safety in such transport have resulted in an excellent safety record. Pre-planning for fire situations in buildings where radioactive materials are known to be present is very desirable. An Australian Standard, AS2243, recommends that Station Officers of the local fire brigade be appraised of the hazards and the need to take particular care in areas marked with ionizing radiation warning signs

  10. Natural radioactivity in construction materials and the resulting radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BfS report on the natural radioactivity in construction materials and the resulting radiation exposure covers the following topics: Procedures of sampling. Measuring methods: measurement of the specific activity (gamma spectrometry, determination of the radon exhalation). Radiation exposure estimation: radon exposure, external radiation exposure. Measuring results: specific activity, radon exhalation, total exposure. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity of construction materials: overview on the existing requirements of the radiation protection law, EU recommendations ''Radiation Protection 112'', Austrian norm S 5200 ''radioactivity on construction materials (OeNORM). EU basic norm draft, requirements according building laws. BfS evaluation proposal.

  11. Transport of radioactive material at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport plays an important role in the worldwide nuclear industry and the safety record of nuclear transport across the world is excellent. This is due to well-grounded regulations developed by governmental and intergovernmental organizations and to the professional ability of those in the industry. This paper presents an overview of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material at IPEN-CNEN/SP. In particular, the applicable legislation, the responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described.(author)

  12. Licensing of radioactive materials and facilities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importation, acquisition, possession, use, sale and/ or transfer of radioactive materials need to be regulated and controlled in order to safeguard the importer, possessor, user or seller and the general public as well. The Philippine Atomic Energy Commission pursuant to Republic Act No. 2067, as amended and Republic Act No. 5207, has been charged by the government to control, regulate and license all the radioactive materials and facilities in the Philippines. Licensing and control is accomplished through a system of rules and regulations applicable to all importers, possessors, users or sellers of radioactive materials

  13. Differences in in vitro dissolution properties of settled and airborne uranium material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution behavior of settled and airborne uranium material produced by firing of depleted uranium munitions was studied using an in vitro dissolution technique. Differences in the composition of bulk and respirable fraction samples of these materials were observed. Dissolution analysis results suggest that under some conditions a rapidly dissolving uranium fraction may be formed. This fraction may play an important role in determining hazard potential associated with inhalation exposure to uranium materials. The fact that a larger rapidly dissolving fraction was observed in the airborne material than in the settled material indicates that dissolution analysis should be performed on appropriate size fraction samples. 20 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  14. Field guide for Ontario Hydro shipments involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field guide consists of two parts. Part I deals with the packages used by Ontario Hydro for shipment of its radioactive materials. Highly radioactive material must be transported in rugged containers which will survive a severe transportation accident. These containers are known at Type B Packages. Each container used by Ontario Hydro for shipments of highly radioactive material has been allotted a single page in this field guide with specific information for quick reference. Each package identification card includes a description of the package and contents and the required safety marking. Photographs of both the container and the vehicle as well as a cross-sectional diagram will assist Ontario Hydro personnel as well as emergency response personnel in quick identification of containers and contents. Containers used for transportation of material will low levels of radioactivity are also briefly discussed. These containers could fail in the event of an accident but the radioactivity is limited to low levels. Part I of this field guide also summarizes general emergency response instructions which are applicable to any transportation accident involving a package with radioactive material. Part II of this field guide provides information about the requirements which must be met by Ontario Hydro prior to any shipment of radioactive material in Ontario

  15. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notification is defined under the provisions of the regulations for execution of the aviation law. Terms of exclusive loading and container are explained. Transportable radioactive materials hereunder exclude naturally igniting fluid materials, substances necessary to be contained in vessels which filtrate interior gas with filters or refrigerate contents with cooling devices, etc., or BM loads necessary to be continuously ventilated. Radioactive materials to be conveyed as radioactive loads and L loads are prescribed with tables attached. Technical standards for radioactive loads are stipulated for L, A, BM and BU loads respectively. Confirmation of safety of radioactive loads may be made by examiniation of documents prepared by persons acknowledged proper by the Minister of Transportation. Radioactive materials are uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238, 239 and 241, their compounds and those materials which include one or more than two of such substances. Materials whose quantities or quantities of components are less than 15 grams and natural or depleted uranium are excluded. The maximum doses of containers with radioactive loads shall not exceed for an hour 200 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at a distance of 1 meter from the surface. Confirmation of safety of transport, method of loading, prevention of criticality, restriction of mixed shipment, transport index, signals and others are provided for in detail. (Okada, K.)

  16. The Egyptian legislation for safe transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian legislation related the safe transport of radioactive materials, a licence is required for the transport, import and or export these materials. The licence is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the NCNSRC-AEA licence to handle/ transport radioactive materials/wastes have been developed according to the international and Egyptian legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or to refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Suez Canal, in the Egyptian regional waters, in the sea harbours or in the exclusive economic zones of Egypt according to the national and international regulations. (author)

  17. Safe Practice of Transportation of Extremely Hazardous Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About twenty million consignments of all sizes containing radioactive materials are routinely transported worldwide annually on public roads, railways and ships. There have been accidents over the years, but never one in which a container with highly radioactive material has been breached, or has leaked; as these kind of consignments use robust and secure containers. International regulations for the transport of radioactive material have been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These regulations have been widely adopted into national regulations, as well as AELBs Radiation Protection (Transport) Regulations 1989. The objective of these Regulations is to establish requirements that must be satisfied to ensure safety and to protect persons, property and the environment from the effects of radiation in the transport of radioactive material; by requiring containment of the radioactive contents, control of external radiation levels, prevention of criticality, and prevention of damage caused by heat. In order to further expand its expertise in the field of radioactive waste management, Malaysian Nuclear Agency has acquired a Class D (Transport) Licence from AELB in 2014. Prior to performing any transportation of radioactive materials, particularly extremely hazardous Category 1 sources, all safe measures must be taken into account to ensure no problems occur during transport, as well as to comply with the regulations set. (author)

  18. U.S. port commerce in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much attention has focused on the movement of radioactive materials over land transport systems. On the other hand, maritime flow and associated throughput studies of such substances have been neglected. Although several peaks and troughs are evident between 1972 and 1981, radioactive tonnage moving through U.S. port facilities steadily increasing. In the ten-year period assessed, total radioactive materials handled at U.S. ports expanded by over 19,000 tons, which amounts to almost a 173 percent growth rate. The purpose of this exploratory research is threefold. First, it identifies all U.S. ports which were involved in loading or discharging radioactive materials. The major goal of the identification process is to broaden public awareness of these types of movement. Second, it classifies U.S. seaports based on the magnitude of radioactive tonnage handled. The function of the classification is to impose some order on the varied data, while at the same time categorizing large, medium, and small facilities. Finally, it seeks to verify whether or not a long term trend exists. The objective of the verification process is to ascertain if the distribution of radioactive materials handled at individual ports has remained constant. Port safety and contingency planning are clearly within the purview of coastal zone management. The results of this preliminary research should form a foundation for future studies which compare and evaluate local, state, and federal regulatory policy pertaining to port operations involving radioactive materials, including waste

  19. Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes. Proceedings of a Symposium on Operating and Developmental Experience in the Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of a Symposium convened by the IAEA in co-operation with the USAEC and Harvard University and held in New York 26-30 August 1968. The meeting was attended by 150 participants and 80 observers from 17 countries and five international organizations. Contents: Monitoring air contaminants (3 papers), Characteristics of air contaminants from nuclear reactors (8 papers), Filtration design development cost (7 papers), Testing high efficiency filters (4 papers), Removal of noble gases (3 papers), Special problems related to heat and moisture (6 papers), Developments in the removal of iodine and its compounds (4 papers), Recent developments in spray technology (5 papers), Airborne wastes from incineration (4 papers), Operational experience in the treatment of airborne wastes (8 papers), Panel discussions, List of participants, Author index. Each paper is in its original language (44 English, 7 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  20. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  1. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  2. Transport of radioactive materials and equipment. Requirements. (Provisional)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard is aimed at establishing the procedures that must be followed when transporting radioactive materials and equipment in Venezuelan Territory. The ''Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear'' is responsible for their fulfillment and control

  3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations and rules for the safe transport of radioactive materials by all kinds of conveyance are offered. Different types of packages and the conditions associated with the methods of safe packaging are given

  4. Drop impact analysis method of radioactive material container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: It is important for the safety of the radioactive material containers during transportation. Purpose: In the procedure of reviewing radioactive material containers transportation, it is very important factor to carry a drop impact analysis of container. Methods: This paper presents a drop impact analysis method of radioactive material container. First, do the calculation of several drop cases of the container such as horizontal drop, vertical drip and gradient drop with the famous transient dynamic analysis program LS-DYNA. Second, do the stress evaluation according to the rules in the ASME Section Ⅲ Division I Appendices which are about the fatigue analysis. Results: With this method, we can do the judgment that whether the container's strength is good enough or not. Conclusions: The radioactive material container's strength is good enough by analysis. (authors)

  5. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference

  6. Handbook for structural analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described structural analysis method of radioactive material transport casks for use of a handbook of safety analysis and evaluation. Safety analysis conditions, computer codes for analyses and stress evaluation method are also involved in the handbook. (author)

  7. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference. (DC)

  8. Quality management in the regulation of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the quality management procedure used by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority to establish the regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials. The quality management system is based on the family of the ISO 9000 norms

  9. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  10. Estimation of global inventories of radioactive waste and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of nuclear activities have been carried out in the second part of the twentieth century for different purposes. Initially the emphasis was on military applications, but with the passage of time the main focus of nuclear activities has shifted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to the use of radioactive material in industry, medicine and research. Regardless of the objectives, the nuclear activities generate radioactive waste. It was considered worthwhile to produce a set of worldwide data that could be assessed to evaluate the legacy of the nuclear activities performed up to the transition between the twentieth and the twenty first century. The assessment tries to cover the inventory of all the human produced radioactive material that can be considered to result from both military and civilian applications. This has caused remarkable difficulties since much of the data, particularly relating to military programmes, are not readily available. Consequently the data on the inventory of radioactive material should be considered as order-of-magnitude approximations. This report as a whole should be considered as a first iteration in a continuing process of updating and upgrading. The accumulations of radioactive materials can be considered a burden for human society, both at present and in the future, since they require continuing monitoring and control. Knowing the amounts and types of such radioactive inventories can help in the assessment of the relative burdens. Knowledge of the national or regional radioactive waste inventory is necessary for planning management operations, including the sizing and design of conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. A global inventory, either of radioactive waste or of other environmental accumulations of radioactive material, could be used to provide a perspective on the requirements and burdens associated with their management, by means of comparisons with the burdens caused by other types of waste or other

  11. Natural Radioactivity in Tanzania Cements and their Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Aloyce Isaya Amasi; Kelvin Mark Mtei; Ijumba Jasper Nathan; Pawel Jodłowski; Chau Nguyen Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the study of natural radioactivity in Tanzania Portland cements and their raw materials. Samples collected as raw materials were pozzolan, sandstone, limestone, clay, gypsum and cement as finished products. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of radium 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K were measured by means of gamma spectrometer coupled with HPGe detector. The mean measured activity concentrations of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the raw materia...

  12. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials (PATRAM '86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this volume the following aspects of packaging and transport of radioactive materials are represented as topics: Regulations, codes, standards, research, development, radiation protection, risk assessment, transport experience, transport planning, administrative issues, and emergency response. Road, rail, and maritime transport are considered. Spent fuels and radioactive waste are mentioned often as the materials being transported. Issues of particular interest to the field of safeguards are brought up

  13. Transport regulations for radioactive and nuclear materials in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Slovenia, transport of radioactive and nuclear materials is regulated by the Act on carriage of dangerous goods including all international conventions and agreements concerning transport of dangerous goods. This paper will also cover some practical experience, past events, co-operation among national regulatory bodies and bilateral and multilateral programmes. The paper also gives an overview of responsibilities for approval and inspection of radioactive and nuclear material shipments in Slovenia. (author)

  14. Environmental radioactivity in the UK: the airborne geophysical view of dose rate estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Beamish, David

    2014-01-01

    This study considers UK airborne gamma-ray data obtained through a series of high spatial resolution, low altitude surveys over the past decade. The ground concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides Potassium, Thorium and Uranium are converted to air absorbed dose rates and these are used to assess terrestrial exposure levels from both natural and technologically enhanced sources. The high resolution airborne information is also assessed alongside existing knowledge from soil sam...

  15. Regulation of Transportation of Radioactive Material in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirwono, Muttaqin Margo; Choi, Kwang Sik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition

  16. Regulation of Transportation of Radioactive Material in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition

  17. The safety of radioactive materials transport; La surete des transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The rule of the radioactive materials transport contains two different objectives: the safety, or physical protection, consists in preventing the losses, the disappearances, the thefts and the diversions of the nuclear materials (useful materials for weapons); the high civil servant of defence near the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry is the responsible authority; the safety consists in mastering the risks of irradiation, contamination and criticality presented by the radioactive and fissile materials transport, in order that man and environment do not undergo the nuisances. The control of the safety is within the competence of the Asn. (N.C.)

  18. Experiments by the Mexican NNEC on the Control of Airborne Radioactive Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installations of the Mexican National Nuclear Energy Commission have to deal with the problem of environmental contamination caused by dust and aerosols suspended in the air and originating mainly with such uranium-bearing ores as tyuyamunite, carnotite, betafite, technical-grade sodium uranate, ammonium uranate concentrate, uranium tetrafluoride and uranium dioxide. To prevent environmental contamination by these radioactive materials, the Commission has experimented with three different systems, based on the principle of extracting the dust from the environment, passing it through a cyclone system, separating the particles of larger size and controlling the small particles or aerosols by means of filtration, dilution in liquid columns and dilution in liquid curtains. On the basis of the results obtained, plans have been made for supplementing the systems with an adsorption column and an ion exchange column, depending on the specific requirements of each laboratory. (author)

  19. Electrohydraulic pulse grinding of radioactive solid NF waste simulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique used for the grinding of radioactive waste simulation materials using water spark discharges has been proposed. Two modes of the material grinding have been specified. The mass loss of grinded materials versus the amount of pulses and the work volume of electrohydraulic reactor has been compared

  20. Contamination with radioactive materials and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of the monograph mainly designed for personnel in nuclear power plants, radiochemical laboratories and laboratories of nuclear medicine departments is basically divided into two parts. In the general part, the contamination of persons and objects with radioactive substances is discussed and the physico-chemical principles of decontamination are presented. The main part of the publication is devoted to concrete practical decontamination procedures. Special attention is devoted to the decontamination of components of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors and to the decontamination of the equipment of radiochemical and radiological laboratories (in-service, after accidents and during decommissioning). Also described is the decontamination of garments, underwear, protective aids, rooms, buildings, terrain and water. Also included is a chapter on the disposal of radioactive wastes generated during decontamination. (A.K.)

  1. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  2. Data about shipping of radioactive material for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive materials implies a risk for the personnel of the team, those members of the public and the environment. While the safety in the transports is based on the designs of the bulks, the programs of radiological protection are important to assure the radiological control to the workers, the public and the environment during the transport of these materials. Although the biggest interest in the transport of radioactive materials it spreads to be centered in the nuclear industry, the transport in great measure it happens for the materials of medical use. These are mainly transported in bulks of the A Type and excepted bulks. The transport ones are forced, by national regulations, to send to the competent authority, in our case the National Comissao of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), all the data of the transported materials. This work has by objective to aim the efforts made to settle down and to manage the data regarding the transported radioactive materials. The existent data in the Radiopharmaceuticals Center, of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations 'IPEN/CNEN' it contains the information on all the radioactive materials consigned for the transport during every year. A statistic of the number of deliveries of the radioactive material for the period from 2001 to 2005 is provided. Based on this statistic its are presented the number of bulks, the quantity of activity and the ways of the transport for the period in study. (Author)

  3. Permissible state and local regulation of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Congressionally-mandated construction of a nuclear waste repository by the year 1998 has focused attention on the development of a safe transportation system for radioactive materials. While numerous state and local governments have enacted laws to regulate the movement of radioactive materials, shippers and carriers have successfully challenged some of these laws. More challenges can be expected in the future when more regulations are passed as state and local governments prepare for the greatly increased numbers of shipments associated with the operation of a high level radioactive waste repository. Therefore, state and local governments need guidance as to the criteria used to determine the validity of their regulations. Examination of the Department of Transportation's inconsistency rulings and federal court cases reveals three approaches a state or local government may choose in regulating radioactive materials transportation: conservative, moderate, or activist

  4. Information from the Import/Export of radioactive material Service

    CERN Document Server

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    The radiation protection group reminds you that the import/export of all radioactive material must be declared in advance. In the case of exports, an EDH shipping request form must be completed, ticking the box “radioactive material”. In the case of imports, an electronic form must be completed before the material arrives on the CERN site. Any requests which do not comply with the above procedure will be refused. The import of any radioactive material that has not been declared in advance will be systematically refused. For further information, please consult the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Tél: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00

  5. Contamination detection device for radioactive material transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a device for detecting leakage of radioactive materials and clogging of a vial in a radioactive material transporting device. Namely, a transporting tube pneumatically transports the vial containing a sample of radioactive materials. A fine flow tube is laid in adjacent with and along the transporting tube. A pump flows a detection liquid prepared by a preparation device to the fine flow tube. A flow-cell type spectrophotometer is disposed to the fine flow tube. The detection liquid is preferably containing elements having a valency changeable by undergoing radiation irradiation, which is a type used, for example, for a Fricke dosimeter. With such a constitution, the position of the radioactive contamination of the inside of the pneumatic tube and clogging of a vial can be detected only by flowing radiation sensitive detection liquid to the fine flow tube. In addition, the detection liquid is not activated only changing the valency of the contained elements. (N.H.)

  6. Germany - Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2001 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2001, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2001, some 3 211 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 3 226 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union, Canada, Russia, and the USA. (orig.)

  7. Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2002 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2002, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2002, some 3 070 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 3 052 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union, Russia, and the USA. (orig.)

  8. Estimation of radioactivity in structural materials of ETRR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise knowledge of the thermal neutron flux in the different structural materials of a reactor is necessary to estimate the radioactive inventory in these materials that are needed in any decommissioning study of the reactor. ETRR-1 is a research reactor that went critical on 2/1691. In spite of this long age of the reactor, the effective operation time of this reactor is very short since the reactor was shutdown for long periods. Because of this long age one may think of reactor decommissioning. For this purpose, the radioactivity of the reactor structural materials was estimated. Apart from the reactor core, the important structural materials in the ETRR-1 are the reactor tank, shielding concrete, and the graphite thermal column. The thermal neutron flux was determined by the monte Carlo method in these materials and the isotope inventory and the radioactivity were calculated by the international code ORIGEN-JR. 1 fig

  9. Fixed-wing gamma measurement for the detection of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland has the operational capability to take airborne gamma-ray measurements in emergency situations. The original purpose of airborne radiation mapping in Finland was to identify hazardous areas containing radioactive fall-out after a nuclear accident or use of nuclear weapons. Regular exercises are held annually to keep the operational functionality at a high level. The achieved capability has been well demonstrated in international INEX-2-FIN 1997 and Barents Rescue 2001 exercises. The knowledge and competence achieved can easily be applied in international radiation monitoring campaigns designed to expose undeclared nuclear materials or other clandestine nuclear activities. The essential improvements in the detection system are linked to the ability to locate point-like radiation sources rather than large areas of fall-out. Aerial gamma-ray measurement method and its usability for the detection of nuclear material production chains and trails of fission or activation products is described. The ability of airborne detection systems in revealing the use of undeclared nuclear materials has been tested. Various scenarios for exposing clandestine nuclear material production, enrichment and nuclear waste trails have been considered. Based on detection capability calculations and testing in practice, it was found that the detection of one un-shielded significant quantity of natural uranium (10 tons of yellow cake in storage barrels) is possible through the daughter products, using one single 6' x 4' NaI detector on the airplane. The developed fixed wing gamma measurement technique is now able to detect significant amounts of nuclear material conveniently and cost-effectively. Large areas can be screened to identify suspicious sub-areas for more detailed ground-based inspection. (author)

  10. Safety of transport of radioactive material. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material has been transported for decades within and between countries as the use of radioactive material to benefit mankind has expanded. The transport can involve many types of materials (radionuclides and radiation sources for applications in agriculture, energy production, industry, and medicine) and all modes of transport (road, rail, sea and waterways, and air). Among the organizations in the United Nations system, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health against exposure to ionizing radiation. Within its statutory mandate and pursuant to this request, in 1961, the IAEA issued Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations). The Transport Regulations were periodically reviewed and, as appropriate, have been amended or revised. The latest version of the Transport Regulations was issued in 2000 by the IAEA as Publication TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). In addition, the IAEA is entrusted by its Statute to provide for the application of its standards at the request of States. The objective of the Conference is to foster the exchange of information on issues related to the safety of transport of radioactive material by providing an opportunity for representatives from sponsoring international organizations and their Member States and from other co-operating and participating organizations to discuss critical issues relating to the safety of transport of radioactive material by all modes and to formulate recommendations, as appropriate, regarding further international co-operation in this area. The following topics have been identified by the Technical Programme Committee as the subjects to be covered in the background briefing sessions: History and Status of the IAEA Transport Regulation Development; Experience in adoption of the IAEA Transport Regulations at the international level; Implementation of the IAEA Transport

  11. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, April 1993--August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the April 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period April 1, 1993--August 31, 1993. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. A copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  12. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, November 1992--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the November 1992 Legislative and Legal Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation report and describes activities for the period November 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. NCSL is working to bring on-line a data base that contains abstracts of state laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of July 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. Hard copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains summaries of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness and general nuclear waste issues are described. Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation. A recent court decision is also summarized

  13. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, September 1993--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the eighth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the September 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period September 1, 1993--June 30, 1994. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of August 1994. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 and 1994 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices and changes in federal regulations pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  14. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  15. Using computer technology to identify the appropriate radioactive materials packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging (RAMPAC) database is designed to store and retrieve information on all non-classified packages certified for the transport of radioactive materials within the boundaries of the US. The information in RAMPAC is publicly available, and the database has been designed so that individuals without programming experience can search for and retrieve information using a menu-driven system. RAMPAC currently contains information on over 650 radioactive material shipping packages. Information is gathered from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of transportation (DOT), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). RAMPAC is the only tool available to radioactive material shippers that contains and reports packaging information from all three Federal Agencies. The DOT information includes package listings from Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Japan, which have DOT revalidations for their certificates of competent authority and are authorized for use within the US for import and export shipments only. RAMPAC was originally developed in 1981 by DOE as a research and development tool. In recent years, however, RAMPAC has proven to be highly useful to operational personnel. As packages become obsolete or materials to be transported change, shippers of radioactive materials must be able to determine if alternative packages exist before designing new packages. RAMPAC is designed to minimize the time required to make this determination, thus assisting the operational community in meeting their goals

  16. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  17. Environmental effects associated with the transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary aim of this paper has been to describe some of the background information concerning nuclear materials transportation systems, accident statistics, accident severities, and test information - all of which when combined yield an environmental statement of the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive materials. The results of the ultimate risk analysis are expressed in terms of numbers of fatalities and, in that sense at least, tend to be an absolute measure of risk. When these risks are compared with other accepted societal risks, the relative risks associated with radioactive material transportation can be established. This information can be used to make decisions at the governmental level and to inform an interested public about these risks. It can be concluded that the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material are low relative to the other risks that society has already accepted

  18. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-06-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a comprehensive review carried out by panels of experts convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency starting in 1979, a revised version of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (Safety Series No. 6) was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1984. This edition supersedes all the previous editions of the Regulations issued under Safety Series No. 6. The regulations contain the following sections: introduction, general principles and provisions, activity and fissile material limits, preparation, requirements and controls for shipment and for storage in transit, requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages, test procedures and approval and administrative requirements.

  20. New materials for the containment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos-cement is a new material that can be used in the containment or storage of radioactive waste, because it can act as intermediate storage for high activity waste dispersed in this material or else be used in the shape of definitive storage containers

  1. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines

  2. Security of radioactive sources and nuclear materials in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Bangladesh, different type s of radioactive sources and nuclear materials are being used in various fields, such as medicine, industry, agriculture, industrial gauges and well logging, construction works, research, irradiation of medical products and food etc. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating 14 Nuclear Medical institutes and 04 research centres, in addition to other research and educational institutes. There is one 3MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor for production of radioisotopes and research activities. There are also 12 Nuclear Medical/Radiotherapy centres working in Government and 2 in private sectors. Several other users are using sealed radioactive sources for industrial purposes as well. Planning is in progress for a much larger irradiator for material processing plant of BAEC. The country is also considering building a nuclear power plant. The safety and security of radioactive and nuclear materials have long been a matter of national and international concern. Presently, BAEC is working with the USDOE for upgrading the physical/nuclear security system for different radioactive and nuclear facilities in the country to prevent the possibility of radiological threats. The same principles of physical protection to the security management of nuclear material, radioactive sources and the facilities are applied. The physical protection system consists of three elements of detection, delay and response. In order to protect the security of nuclear material, radioactive sources and nuclear facilities effectively, BAEC set up several protection layers for different locations. The detection is the first line of defence technical measures of perimeter detection, access control, video camera assessment, personnel identification are applied. Physical barriers is the second line of defence to delay adversary to reach the targets effectively, the technical measures such as fences, hardened doors, meshed windows, locks, fixed devices

  3. Natural radioactivity levels in building materials used in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    All building materials contain various amounts of radioactive nuclides. The levels of natural radioactivity in 43 selected typical building materials used in the construction of walls, windows and doors were determined. For the first time, the radioactivity of iron was measured, revealing the existence of 60Co. A shielded high-purity germanium detector was used to measure the abundance of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The materials examined in this work showed radioactivity levels below the limit estimated from radium equivalent activity for acceptable radiation doses attributable to building materials, except for the fact that one gypsum sample showed higher levels of activity than average world levels. The studied building materials were classified according to the radium equivalent activities, which varied from highest to lowest levels as follows: clay, cement, brick, gypsum except from Abu-Zaabal, sand, wood, iron, glass and hydrated lime The existence of the 137Cs isotope in some building materials was confirmed and its concentration levels were determined (ranging from 0.04 to 21.156 Bq kg-1). The alpha-activity of radon was measured in a number of building materials using CR-39 detectors.

  4. Airborne mapping of radioactive contamination. Results from a test in Finland, RESUME95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, S.; Smethurst, M.A. [Geological Survey of Norway (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Geological Survey of Norway participated in the exercise RESUME95 (Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment 95) in Finland, during August 1995. The purpose of the exercise was to 1) test preparedness in the Nordic countries for accidents involving the release and dispersal of radioactive material, 2) compare results from the different teams participating in the exercise, 3) establish routines for the exchange of data and 4) investigate the possibility of international assistance in the event of nuclear accidents. The Geological Survey of Norway carried out a survey over three test areas (area I, II and III). All three areas were contaminated with man made radionuclides in the days following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The Cesium-137 contamination level was reported to be about 50 kBq/m{sup 2} in area I, and this area was used for calibration. In area II mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration was carried out. Detection of hidden artificial radiation sources were the main purpose in area III. This report describes the exercise - RESUME95, field operations, calibration, mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration and detection of hidden point sources. Results are presented as colour maps. (au).

  5. Some Experience with Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (orphan sources or disuse sources) is of global concern. Reports on the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Data Base (ITDB) indicates increasing trend of incidents recorded in more than 40 countries on six continents[1]. It is suspected that nuclear trafficking is fueled by nuclear terrorism and is a threat for increasing illegal trade in nuclear and radioactive materials to manufacture Radiological Disposal Devices (RDD)- dirty bombs. As such, the international co-operative efforts are needed to uncover and combat nuclear trafficking in order to minimize its consequences such as external radiation exposure of persons from source to various radiation levels during illicit movement and after seizure; rupture of source leading to internal exposure of persons and environmental contamination. Although accidents with radioactive materials have not occurred in the United Republic of Tanzania (URT), incidents of illicit trafficking and unauthorized possession of radioactive materials has occurred thus prompting the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) to strengthen its nuclear security of nuclear and radioactive material in the URT. Nuclear faclities and radioactive sources lacks adequate physical protection against theft, fire or different forms of unauthorized access. Tanzaniaia has recorded about thirteen (13) illicit trafficking incidents of radioactive between 1996-2006. Caesium-137, Uranium-238; and Uranium oxide standard and Radium-226 with activity ranging from low to significantly high were among the radiounuclides which were intercepted. Most of these incidents had their original outside Tanzania. The incidents were uncovered by informers in cooperation with the police. Despite the fact that the management of these incidents by the police were adequate, it was observed that there is an inadequate radiation protection arrangements during transport of seized sources; lack of precautions for safety when handling seized

  6. The trafficking control of fissile and radioactive materials in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After disintegration of the USSR the problem of control for transfers of radioactive and fissile materials has getting more and more urgent in sovereign Kazakhstan. Fissile materials, which theoretically could be used to creation of nuclear weapons, were available at the following enterprises of Kazakhstan: The Institute of Nuclear Physics - National Nuclear Center - Almaty The Institute of Atomic Energy - National Nuclear Center - Kurchatov Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Combine - Aktau Ulbinskiy Metallurgical Plant - Ust-Kamenogorsk At last time mass-media have reported many incidents of a new type of theft. Individuals are detained, trying to sell fuel pellets made of enriched uranium, radioactive contaminated cables, or various components of technological purposes from the enterprises. A significant problem is the legal and illegal collection of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. This made at places of realization of nuclear tests (former Semipalatinsk nuclear test-site (STS), Azgir, Lyra and others) and at working and closed uranium mines. Nominally, the incidents can be divided into three groups: - heft of materials, hazardous in term of nonproliferation; - heft of materials, non-hazardous in terms of nonproliferation (radioactive scrap metal, sealed radioactive sources); - heft due to an inefficient system of physical protection (the tank for transportation of radioactive waste products at Institute of Atomic Energy of NNC RK)

  7. Quality assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All activities related to the safe transport of radioactive material should be covered by a quality assurance programme. This publication recognizes that a single transport operation often involves several different organizations, each having specific responsibilities. Hence, it is unlikely that the operation will be covered by a single quality assurance programme. Each quality assurance programme should be tailored to the specific organizational structure for which the programme is prepared, with account taken of the particular transport activities of that organization and the interfaces with other organizations. The aim of this publication is to give a detailed interpretation of what must be done by whom to produce a quality assurance programme for radioactive material transport. This publication provides guidance on methods and practical examples to develop QA programmes for the safe transport of radioactive material. It provides information on how to develop the programme, the standards and the common features of a QA programme

  8. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured

  9. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  10. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  11. Ontario Hydro's transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any exposure to the public or release to the environment. However, there have been three accidents involving Hydro's shipments of radioactive material. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation's ability to respond, to effectively control and contain the situation, site remediation, and to provide emergency public information in the event of a road accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes their commitment to worker safety, public safety and impact to the environment. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations in Canada

  12. Natural radioactivity in Algerian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of natural and manufactured building materials collected from Algiers have been analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using a high-resolution HPGe spectrometry system. The specific concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, for the selected building materials, were ranging from (12 - 65 Bq.kg-1), (7 - 51 Bq.kg-1) and (36 - 675 Bq.kg-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared to the reported data of other countries and to the world average activity of soil. Radium equivalent activities were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in construction of dwellings. All building materials showed Raeq activities lower than the limit set up in the OECD report (370 Bq.kg-1), equivalent to external gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.y-1. (author)

  13. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  14. Determination of radioactivity levels from some Egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our world is radioactive and has been, since it was created. Over 60 radionuclides (radioactive elements) can be found in nature. Radon is naturally occurring radioactive gas, that is produced by the radioactive decay of radium. Breathing high concentration of radon can cause lung cancer. A set of experiments were carried out using Cr-39 as solid state nuclear track detectors with the optimum etching conditions, 6.25 N Na OH at 70oC for 8 hours. The radon-222 activity in this survey was found to be in the range of 0.303 kBq/m3 to 5.04 KBq/m3 for different building materials in Egypt

  15. Estimate of total effective dose to members of the public due to airborne materials release in the event of a sever accident at the Tehran research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, total effective dose to members of the public due to airborne materials release in the event of a severe accident at the Tehran Research Reactor (T R R) has been estimated. The severe accident at the T R R is a loss-of-coolant accident. Dose assessments have been made by using computer developed program AIREMN1. In this program, Pasquill-Gifford atmospheric dispersion model has been used. External gamma and beta exposures by the passing radioactive cloud and by the submerging receptor while the radioactive cloud, is passing internal exposure by inhaled radioactivity have been considered as the exposure pathways. The resulting value for total effective dose has been estimated as 23 mSv occurred in downwind distance equals to 310 meters from the reactor stack. This value has relatively good agreement with respect to the reported value (approximately 30 mSv) in the T.R.R' safety analysis report

  16. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Philosophy and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international and national regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1(ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series Nos 7and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series Nos 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS no.113), compliance assurance (SS no. 112), the training manual and others

  17. Environmental radioactivity in the UK: the airborne geophysical view of dose rate estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study considers UK airborne gamma-ray data obtained through a series of high spatial resolution, low altitude surveys over the past decade. The ground concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides Potassium, Thorium and Uranium are converted to air absorbed dose rates and these are used to assess terrestrial exposure levels from both natural and technologically enhanced sources. The high resolution airborne information is also assessed alongside existing knowledge from soil sampling and ground-based measurements of exposure levels. The surveys have sampled an extensive number of the UK lithological bedrock formations and the statistical information provides examples of low dose rate lithologies (the formations that characterise much of southern England) to the highest sustained values associated with granitic terrains. The maximum dose rates (e.g. >300 nGy h−1) encountered across the sampled granitic terrains are found to vary by a factor of 2. Excluding granitic terrains, the most spatially extensive dose rates (>50 nGy h−1) are found in association with the Mercia Mudstone Group (Triassic argillaceous mudstones) of eastern England. Geological associations between high dose rate and high radon values are also noted. Recent studies of the datasets have revealed the extent of source rock (i.e. bedrock) flux attenuation by soil moisture in conjunction with the density and porosity of the temperate latitude soils found in the UK. The presence or absence of soil cover (and associated presence or absence of attenuation) appears to account for a range of localised variations in the exposure levels encountered. The hypothesis is supported by a study of an extensive combined data set of dose rates obtained from soil sampling and by airborne geophysical survey. With no attenuation factors applied, except those intrinsic to the airborne estimates, a bias to high values of between 10 and 15 nGy h−1 is observed in the soil data. A wide range of

  18. Aspects of safety in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive materials behaves to the equal that other chemical products, certain risks that its are necessary to know how to evaluate and to minimize, adopting all kinds of measures technician-administrative, with object of being able to guarantee that this risks stay in an acceptable level for the population potentially affected for the workers of the one sector and for the environment. To be able to evaluate the risk acceptable it is a difficult task, for that, national and international organizations have established a commitment to develop standards of radiological protection, to make every day but sure the transport of radioactive materials

  19. Safe transport of radioactive material - A training experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training is a key component in the packaging and storage of radioactive materials. This paper offers a method by which suitable training may be provided. It is based on experiences of organizing and managing and international course in England for the International Atomic Energy Agency on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and in spite of its title, packaging was also included. The training course, of three weeks duration, was hosted by the Central Electricity Generating Board at its Nuclear Power Training Center on behalf of the British Government under the IAEAInterregional Training Program

  20. Consequences of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear or Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explosion of a nuclear yield device is probably the worst consequence of Illicit Trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.The nuclear yield device might be a stolen nuclear weapon, or an improvised nuclear device. An improvised nuclear device requires nuclear material design, and construction ability. Use of a radioactive dispersal device probably would not result in large numbers of casualties.However economic losses can be enormous. Non-Technical effects of nuclear trafficking (e.g. public panic, work disruption, etc.) and political and psychological consequences can far exceed technical consequences

  1. Measurement of radioactivity in building materials in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a comprehensive study of natural radioactivity in 720 building materials imported in Serbia in 2012. Radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the studied samples range from -1, respectively. The maximum values of 226Ra and 232Th activity concentrations were found in zirconium mineral, while the highest 40K activity concentration was in the feldspar. Based on the obtained radionuclide concentrations, radium equivalent activity, air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices, gamma and alpha index due to radon inhalation were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. (author)

  2. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  4. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  5. Radioactivity in building materials in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in 45 samples of different building materials used in Iraq were measured using gamma-spectroscopy system based on high-purity germanium detector with an efficiency of 40 %. Radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index due to radon inhalation originating from building materials were measured to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to range from below detection limit (BDL) to 223.7±9, BDL to 93.0±3 and BDL to 343.1±12, respectively. Values of average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, indoor and outdoor annual effective doses, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index ranged from 6.5 to 124.9, 16.2 to 89.5 (nGy h-1), 0.08 to 0.44 mSv, 0.02-0.11 mSv, 0.09 to 0.53, 0.13 to 0.69 and 0.03 to 0.62, respectively. These values indicate a low dose. Therefore, the building materials used in the current study are quite safe to be used as building materials. (author)

  6. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium. PMID:26569554

  7. Natural radioactivity of building materials in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hundred sample of natural and manufactured Syrian building materials have been studied. A high pure Germanium detector in use was connected to S-100 MCA Master board and samples have been analysed by using micro sampo gamma spectrum analysis for their Thorium-232, Radium-226 and Potassium-40 content. Fourteen kinds of building materials were studied; bricks ceramic and fire soil, generally showed the greatest concentration of the above mentioned radionuclides. While the other products like sand, cement, marble, and limestone, contained very low activity. All samples fitted the range of criteria set up in the OECD-NEA report 1979. (author). 7 refs., 21 tabs., 24 figs

  8. Natural matrix radioactivity standards and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the precise definition of Natural Matrix Standard (NMS) and Natural Matrix Reference Material (NMRM) remain somewhat unclear, few doubt their extreme usefulness in virtually all programs involving measurements of radioacitivity. Rigorous quality assurance/quality control is difficult, if not impossible, particularly in studies requiring radiochemical/radiometric analyses of environmental matrices, when lacking good NMSs and NMRMs. A fairly comprehensive range of these materials is now available internationally, at a reasonable cost. Progress on the National Bureau of Standards NMS program as well as EML's Quality Assessment Program are discussed. In addition 99Tc in vegetation is presented as a specific example of the methodology of preparing a NMRM. (orig.)

  9. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This educative booklet give a general overview of radioactivity: history, structure of matter, radiations, radioactivity law, origin of radioactivity, radioactivity uses, radioprotection and measurement units. (J.S.)

  10. Radioactive Materials in Medical Institutions as a Potential Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In numerous health institutions ionizing sources are used in everyday practice. Most of these sources are Roentgen machines and accelerators which produce radiation only when in use. However, there are many institutions, e.g., Nuclear medicine units, where radioactive materials are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This institutions store a significant amount of radioactive materials in form of open and closed sources of radiation. Overall activity of open radiation sources can reach over a few hundred GBq. Open sources of radiation are usually so called short-living isotopes. Since they are used on daily basis, a need for a continuous supply of the radioactive materials exists (on weekly basis). Transportation phase is probably the most sensitive phase because of possible accidents or sabotage. Radiological terrorism is a new term. Legislation in the area of radiological safety is considered complete and well defined, and based on the present regulatory mechanism, work safety with radiation sources is considered relatively high. However, from time to time smaller accidents do happen due to mishandling, loose of material (possible stealing), etc. Lately, the safety issue of ionizing sources is becoming more important. In this matter we can expect activities in two directions, one which is going towards stealing and 'smuggling' of radioactive materials, and the other which would work or provoke accidents at the location where the radiation sources are.(author)

  11. Emergency preparedness and response in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been providing clean, affordable electricity in many parts of the world for nearly half a century. The national and international transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials is essential to support this activity. To sustain the nuclear power industry, fuel cycle materials have to be transported safely and efficiently. The nature of the industry is such that most countries with large-scale nuclear power industries cannot provide all the necessary fuel services themselves and consequently nuclear fuel cycle transport activities are international. The radioactive material transport industry has an outstanding safety record spanning over 45 years; however the transport of radioactive materials cannot and most not be taken for granted. Efficient emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material is an important element to ensure the maximum safety in accident conditions. The World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), founded by International Nuclear Services (INS) of the United Kingdom, AREVA of France an the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) of Japan, represents the collective interest of the radioactive material transport sector, and those who rely on safe, effective and reliable transport. As part of its activities, WNTI has conducted two surveys through its members on emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material and emergency exercises. After recalling the International Atomic Energy Agency approach on emergency response, this paper will be discussing the main conclusion of surveys, in particular the national variations in emergency response and preparedness on the national and local levels of regulations, the emergency preparedness in place, the emergency response organisation (who and how), communication and exercises. (author)

  12. An Airborne Survey of Natural Radioactivity on Bornholm 1997 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Bargholz, Kim; Korsbech, Uffe C C;

    1999-01-01

    From mesurements performed by The Danish Emergency Management and DTU of the island Bornholm maps showing the contents of natural radioactivity have been produced. The mapping of Bornholm is related to the Danish Radon-project.......From mesurements performed by The Danish Emergency Management and DTU of the island Bornholm maps showing the contents of natural radioactivity have been produced. The mapping of Bornholm is related to the Danish Radon-project....

  13. Development of a wireless radioactive material sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our team at the United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has designed and developed a low-power, compact, wireless-networked gamma sensor (WGS) array. The WGS system provides high sensitivity gamma photon detection and remote warning for a broad range of radioactive materials. This sensor identifies the presence of a 1 μCi Cs137 source at a distance of 1.5 m. The networked array of sensors presently operates as a facility and laboratory sensor for the movement of radioactive check sources. Our goal has been to apply this architecture for field security applications by incorporating low-power design with compact packaging. The performance of this radiation measurement network is demonstrated for both detection and location of radioactive material.

  14. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  15. The new context for transport of radioactive and nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials involves all modes of transportation with a predominance for road and for air. It is but a minute fraction dangerous good transportation. Around 10 millions of radioactive packages are shipped annually all over the world of which ninety percent total corresponds to shipments of radioisotopes. In spite of the small volume transported, experience, evolution of transport means and technologies, the trend to constantly improve security and safety and public acceptance have modified the transport environment. During the last few years, new evolutions have applied to the transport of radioactive and nuclear materials in various fields and especially: - Safety - Security - Logistics means - Public acceptance - Quality Assurance. We propose to examine the evolution of these different fields and their impact on transportation methods and means. (authors)

  16. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration. - Highlights: • Actual ASF of the dwells is very important to estimate the inhalation dose. • A simple model is developed to describe ASF. • The key parameter of ASF is obtained from the measurement of NIRS. • The ASF of any dwellings can be obtained by our model and relatively parameters

  17. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yanliang, E-mail: hytyl@163.com [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Ishikawa, Tetsuo [Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima (Japan); Janik, Miroslaw [Regulatory Science Research Program, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tokonami, Shinji [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan); Hosoda, Masahiro [Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Science, Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan); Sorimachi, Atsuyuki [Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima (Japan); Kearfott, Kimberlee [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration. - Highlights: • Actual ASF of the dwells is very important to estimate the inhalation dose. • A simple model is developed to describe ASF. • The key parameter of ASF is obtained from the measurement of NIRS. • The ASF of any dwellings can be obtained by our model and relatively parameters.

  18. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  19. International Regulations for Transport of Radioactive Materials, History and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.

  20. Incident involving radioactive material in steel scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early March of 1996, a wagon with steel scrap heading from the Czech Republic to Italy was returned as a strongly contaminated material. Based on the integral dose (dose rate 650 mGy/h in front of the wagon) and spectrometric measurement and evaluation, it was concluded that an unshielded cobalt-60 source (1.6 TBq) was present. The history of the event (notification, assessment, intervention planning, intervention) is highlighted and the lesson learned from the incident is discussed. (P.A.)

  1. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well

  2. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  3. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  4. IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation gives the history of transportation of radioactive materials which began in early 1900s while the need for transport regulations was identified in early 1950s. The also paper covers the recognized standards of transport for various quantities, forms and standards. The philosophy of the regulations include adequate package to ensure safety and all conditions of transport and accidents

  5. The new context for transport of radioactive nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials, involves all modes of transportation (road, air, sea, rail) with predominance for road and for air (air for radioisotopes). In this paper we examine the impact of new evolutions in the fields of safety, security, logistics means, public acceptance and quality assurance

  6. Qualification test of packages for transporting radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1979 the Waste Treatment Division of Nuclear Tecnology Development Center has been developed and tested packagings for transporting radioactive materials and wastes. The Division has designed facilities for testing Type A packages in accordance with the adopted regulations. The Division has tested several packages for universities, research centers, industries, INB, FURNAS, etc. (author)

  7. 44 years of testing radioactive materials packages at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly reviews the package testing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1960 and then examines the trends in the testing activities that occurred during the same period. Radioactive material shipments have been made from ORNL since the 1940s. The first fully operating reactor built at the ORNL site was patterned after the graphite pile constructed by Enrico Fermi under Stagg Field in Chicago. After serving as a test bed for future reactors, it became useful as a producer of radioactive isotopes. The Isotopes Division was established at ORNL to furnish radioactive materials used in the medical community. Often these shipments have been transported by aircraft worldwide due to the short half-lives of many of the materials. This paper touches briefly on the lighter and smaller radioisotope packages that were being shipped from ORNL in large numbers and then deals with the testing of packages designed to handle large radioactive sources, such as spent fuel, and other fissile materials

  8. The issue of safety in the transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses and discusses the various hazards associated with transports of radioactive materials, their prevention, intervention measures, and precautions to be taken by rescuers, notably how these issues are addressed in regulations. For each of these issues, this report proposes guidelines, good practices, or procedures to handle the situation. The author first addresses hazards related to a transport of radioactive products: multiplicity of hazards, different hazards due to radioactivity, hazards due to transport modes, scale of dangerous doses. The second part addresses precautionary measures: for road transports, for air transports, for maritime transports, control procedures. The third part addresses the intervention in case of accident: case of a road accident with an unhurt or not vehicle crew, role of the first official rescuers, other kinds of accidents. The fourth part briefly addresses the case of transport of fissile materials. The fifth part discusses the implications of safety measures. Appendices indicate standards, and give guidelines for the construction of a storage building for radioactive products, for the control and storage of parcels containing radioactive products, and for the establishment of instructions for the first aid personnel

  9. Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program

  10. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  11. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE's cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials

  12. Determination of radioactivity in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two major counting techniques in use in most laboratories today are those utilizing liquid or crystal scintillation counters. A discussion of liquid scintillation counting is inextricably linked with the problems of sample preparation and both are emphasized in this chapter. Radiochromatography and autoradiography are also discussed. Chromatography is one of the most important techniques for the separation of chemical compounds from biological material. Most of the detection mechanisms applicable to radiochromatography use x-ray film, a β-particle detector, or a luminescence detector. In biological autoradiography, labeled substances in the organism, tissue, or cell, are made visible by preparing thin sections and exposing them to a suitable photographic film. Light and electron microscope autoradiography were also discussed. 12 figures, 6 tables

  13. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  14. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  15. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Radioactive materials in construction projects; Radioaktive Stoffe bei Baumassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank [Baugrund Dresden IGmbH, Dresden (Germany); Kaltz, Andrea Christine [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Ref. 53 (Strahlenschutz)

    2014-07-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  17. Packaging, carriage and dispatching fuel and radioactive materials, IAEA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to bring fuel and other radioactive substances into a nuclear power plant and to send out irradiated or contaminated materials: spent fuel, activated equipment, used filters, resin and clothing, etc. gives rise to the question: How can these materials be transported safely and economically. The purpose of this paper is to answer that question by providing information on the regulatory requirements that have been developed for packaging, labelling and handling and on the containers which are being employed. (orig./RW)

  18. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible.

  19. Environmental radioactivity in the UK: the airborne geophysical view of dose rate estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, David

    2014-12-01

    This study considers UK airborne gamma-ray data obtained through a series of high spatial resolution, low altitude surveys over the past decade. The ground concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides Potassium, Thorium and Uranium are converted to air absorbed dose rates and these are used to assess terrestrial exposure levels from both natural and technologically enhanced sources. The high resolution airborne information is also assessed alongside existing knowledge from soil sampling and ground-based measurements of exposure levels. The surveys have sampled an extensive number of the UK lithological bedrock formations and the statistical information provides examples of low dose rate lithologies (the formations that characterise much of southern England) to the highest sustained values associated with granitic terrains. The maximum dose rates (e.g. >300 nGy h(-1)) encountered across the sampled granitic terrains are found to vary by a factor of 2. Excluding granitic terrains, the most spatially extensive dose rates (>50 nGy h(-1)) are found in association with the Mercia Mudstone Group (Triassic argillaceous mudstones) of eastern England. Geological associations between high dose rate and high radon values are also noted. Recent studies of the datasets have revealed the extent of source rock (i.e. bedrock) flux attenuation by soil moisture in conjunction with the density and porosity of the temperate latitude soils found in the UK. The presence or absence of soil cover (and associated presence or absence of attenuation) appears to account for a range of localised variations in the exposure levels encountered. The hypothesis is supported by a study of an extensive combined data set of dose rates obtained from soil sampling and by airborne geophysical survey. With no attenuation factors applied, except those intrinsic to the airborne estimates, a bias to high values of between 10 and 15 nGy h(-1) is observed in the soil data. A wide range of

  20. Comparative levels of radioactive air pollutants from industry and fallout. A progress report of radioecological investigations of airborne radioactivity in the Utah environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported of measurements carried on during the year 1971 and the first two months of 1972 on the radioactivity from natural as compared to artificial radiation sources in the environment in Utah. During this time, a major portion of our work was devoted to analyses of the data and preparation of a report related to the Baneberry venting event and the accumulation of data on fallout from the January 7, 1972 Chinese nuclear explosion. Calibration procedures were developed for air samplers for the establishment of the numbers of pCi/m3 in air. The responses of the air monitors in relationship to the ventilation index, seasonal effect, and the industrial complexity of the area were analyzed. Continuous measurements were made of the levels of radioactive materials in soils and vegetation and the results of these studies are presented mainly in tabular form. Comparisons have been made of the levels of radioactive materials in soils on the basis of square mile levels and the distribution of the radioactive materials in the soil profiles. Measurements of farm crops, including the major sources from which dairy products would be produced, have been made, and some comparisons by year and location have been made. Studies of secondary aerosols have been made using the dust accumulated on farm implements as the indicator of the kinds of secondary aerosols to which farmers and outdoorsmen might be exposed. These results would also be indicative of the kinds of dusts produced when high winds resuspend soil deposited radionuclides

  1. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs

  2. Calculations and observations of induced radioactivity in spaceborne materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All material in space becomes radioactive due to nuclear interactions with cosmic rays, radiation belt protons and solar flare particles. This poses a particular problem for gamma-ray detectors as the energy depositions fall in the precise window of interest. On the positive side, samples returned to earth can be monitored to provide information on the primary and secondary radiations experienced. Here, radiation transport calculations are compared with observations of induced radioactivity obtained from the OSSE experiment on the Compton Observatory and the CREAM experiment on Space Shuttle. These results illustrate the importance of secondary particles

  3. Death of a patient treated with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials have been used for medical treatments ever since they were first discovered. Some of the materials used have short half-lives so they can be permanently located in the area of the body requiring treatment, and they deliver their dose while they decay away. The materials may be taken by the patient either as a radiopharmaceutical that is selectively taken up by a target organ (such as iodine-131 which is naturally taken up by the thyroid and is commonly used for treating hyperthyroidism), or the radioactive material may be sealed in small metal capsules and injected (such as iodine-125 'seeds' used to treat prostate cancer). The therapeutic process will continue for days or weeks depending on the half-life of the material. The patient is given instructions on any precautions that may be necessary during this time to ensure radiation exposures of other people are minimised. However, there is always the possibility that the patient may die before the radioactive material has decayed away, either from the disease being treated, or from an unrelated cause. This may give rise to some risk of radiation exposure for anyone who comes in contact with the body or remains. (author)

  4. The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: An overview (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook provides information on the design, operation, and maintenance of shipping packages. The 500-page document was published in June 1998 and will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M.E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and provides a wealth of technical guidance that gives designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses to be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials. Even though the Handbook is concerned with both small and large packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting fissile, radioactive sources (e.g. spent fuel). The safety analysis reports for packagings (SARPs), which are submitted to a competent authority and form the basis of their review, must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet US and international regulations. (author)

  5. Training of personnel in the field of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training of personnel in the whole nuclear fuel cycle and also in the other fields of the use of radioactivity is one of the essentials with respect to compliance assurance. The transport of radioactive material is the only activity that takes place outside a facility: on roads, on railways, on the sea or in the air. A high level of safety is therefore an absolute requirement for all transport operations. To ensure this high level the training of the personnel involved in these activities plays an important role. Many studies show that most of the incidents in radioactive materials transport are caused by man-made errors: even so there have been no events with serious radiological consequences anywhere worldwide. There are many requirements in the various national and international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material with regard to training. An overview is given of the special regulations, e.g. for road transport drivers, for safety advisers in the whole field of the transport of dangerous goods, for specially educated personnel in sea and air transports. In addition, the newest developments in the European Community in this field are discussed. An evaluation of the present regulations and proposals for further rules are also given. (Author)

  6. New Monitoring System to Detect a Radioactive Material in Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illegal radioactive material transportation detection, by terrorist for example, is problematic in urban public transportation. Academics and industrials systems include Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) to detect radioactive matters transported in vehicles or carried by pedestrians. However, today's RPMs are not able to efficiently detect a radioactive material in movement. Due to count statistic and gamma background, false alarms may be triggered or at the contrary a radioactive material not detected. The statistical false alarm rate has to be as low as possible in order to limit useless intervention especially in urban mass transportation. The real-time approach depicted in this paper consists in using a time correlated detection technique in association with a sensor network. It is based on several low-cost and large area plastic scintillators and a digital signal processing designed for signal reconstruction from the sensor network. The number of sensors used in the network can be adapted to fit with applications requirements or cost. The reconstructed signal is improved by comparing other approaches. This allows us to increase the device speed that has to be scanned while decreasing the risk of false alarm. In the framework of a project called SECUR-ED Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration, this prototype system will be used during an experiment in the Milan urban mass transportation. (authors)

  7. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector

  8. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector.

  9. Reduction of airborne radioactive dust by means of a charged water spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigu, J; Grenier, M G

    1989-07-01

    An electrostatic precipitator based on charged water spray technology has been used in an underground uranium mine to control long-lived radioactive dust and short-lived aerosol concentration in a mine gallery where dust from a rock breaking/ore transportation operation was discharged. Two main sampling stations were established: one upstream of the dust precipitator and one downstream. In addition, dust samplers were placed at different locations between the dust discharge and the end of the mine gallery. Long-lived radioactive dust was measured using cascade impactors and nylon cyclone dust samplers, and measurement of the radioactivity on the samples was carried out by conventional methods. Radon and thoron progeny were estimated using standard techniques. Experiments were conducted under a variety of airflow conditions. A maximum radioactive dust reduction of about 40% (approximately 20% caused by gravitational settling) at a ventilation rate of 0.61 m3/sec was obtained as a result of the combined action of water scrubbing and electrostatic precipitation by the charged water spray electrostatic precipitator. This represents the optimum efficiency attained within the range of ventilation rates investigated. The dust reduction efficiency of the charged water spray decreased with increasing ventilation rate, i.e., decreasing air residence time, and hence, reduced dust cloud/charged water droplets mixing time. PMID:2756864

  10. Reduction of airborne radioactive dust by means of a charged water spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrostatic precipitator based on charged water spray technology has been used in an underground uranium mine to control long-lived radioactive dust and short-lived aerosol concentration in a mine gallery where dust from a rock breaking/ore transportation operation was discharged. Two main sampling stations were established: one upstream of the dust precipitator and one downstream. In addition, dust samplers were placed at different locations between the dust discharge and the end of the mine gallery. Long-lived radioactive dust was measured using cascade impactors and nylon cyclone dust samplers, and measurement of the radioactivity on the samples was carried out by conventional methods. Radon and thoron progeny were estimated using standard techniques. Experiments were conducted under a variety of airflow conditions. A maximum radioactive dust reduction of about 40% (approximately 20% caused by gravitational settling) at a ventilation rate of 0.61 m3/sec was obtained as a result of the combined action of water scrubbing and electrostatic precipitation by the charged water spray electrostatic precipitator. This represents the optimum efficiency attained within the range of ventilation rates investigated. The dust reduction efficiency of the charged water spray decreased with increasing ventilation rate, i.e., decreasing air residence time, and hence, reduced dust cloud/charged water droplets mixing time

  11. Competent authority regulatory control of the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this guide is to assist competent authorities in regulating the transport of radioactive materials and to assist users of transport regulations in their interactions with competent authorities. The guide should assist specifically those countries which are establishing their regulatory framework and further assist countries with established procedures to harmonize their application and implementation of the IAEA Regulations. This guide specifically covers various aspects of the competent authority implementation of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. In addition, physical protection and safeguards control of the transport of nuclear materials as well as third party liability aspects are briefly discussed. This is because they have to be taken into account in overall transport regulatory activities, especially when establishing the regulatory framework

  12. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  13. The european legislation on the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal basis for the actions of the European Commission in the field of transport of nuclear materials has its origin both in the EC and the EURATOM Treaties. While recommendations on the transport of radioactive materials are drawn up by the IAEA in Vienna and transposed into the national legislation of each country, the European Community must ensure that these provisions are in conformity with its own requirements and that they facilitate the functioning of the internal market. To advise the Commission on issues related to the transport of radioactive materials, a standing working group was established in 1982. The Commission also helps in gathering information by financing studies on various aspects such as surveys of legislation or of events or investigations related to technical matters. (author)

  14. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic trademark programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them

  15. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R.; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole

    2015-11-17

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  16. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002). IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  17. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These technical days were organized by the Environment section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Time was given to some exchange about the societal aspects of radioactive waste management as well as about the legal context but the most part of the debates delt with the actual management modalities of the different types of wastes, both in France and in foreign countries, and with the related stakes, in particular in terms of impact. This document brings together the presentations (slides) of the following talks: - Contributions of radiation protection to the long-term safety management of radioactive wastes (Jean-Paul MINON - ONDRAF); - The national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes (Arnaud LECLAIRE - ANDRA); - The high activity, medium activity-long living wastes in debate - a co-building approach (ANCCLI/Clis of Bure/IRSN) to share stakes, enlighten, and develop thought (Ludivine GILLI - IRSN, Yves LHEUREUX - ANCCLI); - Social aspects of Radioactive Waste Management - The International Learning (Claudio PESCATORE - AEN/OCDE); - Citizens involvement and ACRO's point of view on radioactive wastes management (Pierre BARBEY - ACRO); - New CIPR recommendations about the geologic disposal of long-living radioactive wastes (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); - Overview of processes under the views of radiation protection principles (Didier GAY - IRSN); - The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (Loic TANGUY - ASN); - Joint convention on spent fuel management safety and on radioactive waste management safety - status and main stakes (Isabelle FOREST - ASN); - Transport of radioactive wastes (Bruno DESNOYERS - AREVA); - Optimisation and limitation of the environmental impacts of very-low level wastes - valorisation and processes selection (Michel PIERACCINI - EDF), Philippe PONCET - AREVA); - Management of hospital wastes - Example of Montpellier's University Regional Hospital (Bertille SEGUIN - CHRU de Montpellier); - Waste

  18. Risk Prevention for Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper investigates the parameters which may have effects on the safety of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources used in peaceful applications of atomic energy. The emergency response planning in such situations are also indicated. In synergy with nuclear safety measures, an approach is developed in this study for risk prevention. It takes into consideration the collective implementation of measures of nuclear material accounting and control, physical protection and monitoring of such strategic and dangerous materials in an integrated and coordinated real-time mode at a nuclear or radiation facility and in any time

  19. Radioactive diffusion gaseous probes in defectoscopy of film materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perspectives of use of dynamic variant of diffusion-probe defectoscopy for diagnostics of film materials (packing films, membranes, foils) are considered. Basic attention is centered to application of radioactive gaseous probes for detection of defects and structural heterogeneity in moving film products. Comparison of efficiency of different regimes of diagnostics (permittivity, sorption, desorption) is done. It is shown that diffusion defectoscopes permit to control operatively composition of film materials and filled and lamellar composites among them, to detect and identify in materials different types of defects

  20. Radioactive Substances Act 1960. Keeping and use of radioactive materials; list of registrations in England and Wales issued under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 (RSA 60), Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (Radioactive Substances) (HMIP) exercises control, on behalf of the Secretary of State for the Environment, over the keeping and use of radioactive material and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive waste in England. HMIP also provides technical advice to the Secretary of State for Wales in connection with the enforcement of RSA 60 in Wales. Registrations under RSA 60 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials in England and Wales are issued respectively by the Secretaries of State for the Environment and Wales, following careful assessment of the radiological consequences for members of the public. Registrations impose strict limits and conditions and premises and apparatus are subject to scrutiny by HMIP Inspectors to ensure compliance. A list contains names and addresses of those registered in England and Wales for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile apparatus

  1. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and efficiency

  2. Natural radioactivity of building materials used in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactive content of building materials used in Malaysia. The materials analysed include both old and new clay bricks, cement bricks, mortar, cement, sands, ceramic tiles and gypsum. Samples of the first three materials were collected from the 12 states of the Malay Peninsula. Radium-226 (from the U-238 series) and Ra-228 (from the Th-232 series), these both representing naturally occurring radionuclides, were analysed using high-resolution HpGe gamma spectrometers. The results of our investigations showed that some old clay bricks contain high levels (at more than 5 times the normal soil concentration) of natural radionuclides, with maximum concentrations of 590 Bq/kg and 480 Bq/kg for respectively Ra-226 and Ra-228. The reasons behind this finding were not clearly understood. As there are people living in old buildings, i.e. built using old clay bricks, there is a possibility that they are being exposed to significant radiation doses. However, there proved to be no significant overall difference between old and new clay bricks in terms of the natural radioactivity levels determined, at a 95% confidence level. The overall mean concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 observed in Malaysian clay bricks were respectively 118 ± 58 Bq/kg and 120 ± 42 Bq/kg. The radioactive content of other materials was found to be not much different from that to be determined in normal soil from Malaysia. The data obtained can be used as a basis for reaching decisions on the regulatory limits for radioactivity levels in building materials in Malaysia. (orig.)

  3. Illicit trafficking of radioactive materials and regulatory issues in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recycle and reuse of materials have been increasing during recent years, particularly because of recognition of the economic opportunities presented, but also because of an increased societal awareness of the desirability of conserving raw materials and natural resources. Lost, stolen and abandoned sources appearing in recycled metals constitute a world wide problem. Radioactive sources sometimes incorporate into scrap metal for subsequent recycling. Most of these incidents have resulted in significant levels of radioactive contamination with the attendant risks to employees and the general public. During the past decade there have been numerous accidents where these shielded sources have been accidentally mixed with scrap metal, and have been subsequently melted or ruptured particularly in steel making process. For controlling of incoming trucks and trains in case the presence of radioactive sources hidden in the scrap, there is a need to establish a radiation detecting system. In Turkey in addition to pocket sized or hand held radiation monitors, fixed or mobile panel detection systems will also be used in the detection of illicit trafficking of radiation sources and contaminated scrap material. But besides this activity; training courses have been carried out to improve the knowledge and skills of workers and the customs officers dealing with radiation sources and scrap materials

  4. Predicting emissions of SVOCs from polymeric materials and their interaction with airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Little, John C

    2006-01-15

    A model that predicts the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials is extended and used to predict the emission rate of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from polymeric materials. Reasonable agreement between model predictions and gas-phase di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) concentrations is achieved using data collected in a previous experimental study that measured emissions of DEHP from vinyl flooring in two very different chambers. While emissions of highly volatile VOCs are subject to "internal" control (the material-phase diffusion coefficient), emissions of the very low volatility SVOCs are subject to "external" control (partitioning into the gas phase, the convective mass-transfer coefficient, and adsorption onto interior surfaces). The effect of SVOCs partitioning onto airborne particles is also examined. The DEHP emission rate is increased when the gas-phase concentration is high, and especially when partitioning to the airborne particles is strong. Airborne particles may play an important role in inhalation exposure as well as in transporting SVOCs well beyond the source. Although more rigorous validation is needed, the model should help elucidate the mechanisms governing emissions of phthalate plasticizers, brominated flame retardants, biocides, and other SVOCs from a wide range of building materials and consumer products. PMID:16468389

  5. Inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment: Sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste have been disposed at more than 50 sites in the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The last known disposal operation was in 1982, at a site about 550 km off the European continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean. Since 1957, the IAEA has provided specific guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. In 1972, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter designated the IAEA as the competent international authority in matters related to sea disposal of radioactive waste. The Contracting Parties requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive wastes entering the marine environment from all sources as an information base with which the impact of radioactive materials from disposal operations can be more adequately assessed. The continuous compilation of these data could ensure that the IAEA recommendations on the disposal rate in a single basin are not overstepped. The inventory shows that between 1946 to 1982 an estimated 46 PBq1 (1.24 MCi) of radioactive waste coming from research, medicine, the nuclear industry and military activities were packaged, usually in metal drums lined with a concrete or bitumen matrix, and disposed of at sea. This inventory includes some unpackaged wastes and liquid wastes which were disposed of from 1950 to 1960. Beta-gamma emitters represent more than 98% of the total radioactivity of the waste and tritium alone represents one third of the total radioactivity disposed at the North East Atlantic sites. The other beta-gamma emitters radionuclides include 90Sr, 137Cs, 55Fe, 58Co, 60Co, 125I and 14C. The wastes also contain low quantities of alpha-emitting nuclides with plutonium and americium isotopes representing 96% of

  6. Natural radioactivity level of main building materials in Baotou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was done on natural radioactivity level and annual effective dose rate of main building materials in Baotou, China. The natural radionuclides of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in main building materials collected from Baotou were measured using NaI γ-ray spectrometry and the measured data were analyzed according to the national standards and radiological protection principles of the European Commission. The specific activities of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in the building materials samples were 218.82-1145.92, 19.75-1.32.50 and 11.46-82.66 Bq/kg, respectively. The internal and external exposure indexes of building materials were 0.06-0.41 and 0.28-0.70, respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent was 0.41-0.97 mSv/y. This justifies the production and sale of the main building materials, as both the internal and external exposure indexes of building materials are less than 1. The effective dose rate of ash brick is 0.97 mSv/y, while the maximum acceptable value is 1 mSv/y. Therefore, it is necessary to control the amount of industrial waste residue in building materials to avoid unnecessary radioactive exposure to residents. (authors)

  7. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  8. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  9. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12., it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  10. Enhanced thermal testing of type b radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety is the top priority in the transport of radioactive material. Safety is primarily ensured using the appropriate type of package in compliance with the requirements specified within the national and international regulations. According to the IAEA Transport Regulations, type B packages must fulfill certain performance criteria in order to demonstrate that they will withstand normal and accident conditions of transport. The qualifications tests for packages, used for transport and storage in Romania, can be performed at INR Pitesti where a Testing Facility for type A and B packages with a maximum weight up to 5 tones has been developed. The paper presents a detailed description of the fire testing facility, designed and developed by Reliability and Testing Laboratory within INR, and the thermal test performed for type B radioactive material package. Also an experimental prototype that offers a solution for enhancing the thermal test conditions is described. (authors)

  11. Border Control of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second half of year 2006, stationary detection systems for nuclear and other radioactive materials were installed on Border Crossing Bregana, Croatia. Yantar 2U, which is the commercial name of the system, is integrated automatic system capable of detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials prepared for fixed-site customs applications (Russian origin). Installed system contains portal monitors, camera, communication lines and communication boxes and server. Two fully functional separate systems has been installed on BC Bregana, one on truck entrance and another one on car entrance. In this article the operational experience of installed system is presented. This includes statistical analysis of recorded alarms, evaluation of procedures for operational stuff and maintenance and typical malfunction experience, as well as some of the recommendation for future use of detection systems.(author)

  12. Digital Radiography of a Drop Tested 9975 Radioactive Materials Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of radiography as a tool for evaluating damage to radioactive material packaging subjected to regulatory accident conditions. The Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 71, presents the performance based requirements that must be used in the development (design, fabrication and testing) of a radioactive material packaging. The use of various non-destructive examination techniques in the fabrication of packages is common. One such technique is the use of conventional radiography in the examination of welds. Radiography is conventional in the sense that images are caught one at a time on film stock. Most recently, digital radiography has been used to characterize internal damage to a package subjected to the 30-foot hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) drop. Digital radiography allows for real time evaluation of the item being inspected. This paper presents a summary discussion of the digital radiographic technique and an example of radiographic results of a 9975 package following the HAC 30-foot drop

  13. National inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials 2006. Descriptive catalogue of radioactive waste families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real comprehensive overview of radioactive wastes, the national inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials describes the situation in France of the wastes that can be conditioned (in their definitive form) or not. It presents also the waste production quantities foreseen for 2010, 2020 and beyond. This document is a complement to the synthesis report and to the geographic inventory of radioactive wastes in France and details the classification of wastes by families (wastes with similar characteristics). For each family of wastes, the description comprises a general presentation and some photos. It comprises also some data such as the position of the family in the French classification, the industrial activity at the origin of the waste, the production situation of the waste in concern (finished, in progress, not started). Some information about the raw waste are given and the conditioning process used is described. Some figures complete the description, like: the past and future production quantities, the evaluation of the radioactivity of the waste family in 2004 and 2020, and the evaluation of the thermal power when available. Finally, some information are given about the presence of compounds with a specific risk of toxicity. (J.S.)

  14. Emergency room preparation for injuries caused by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing number of nuclear power plants and expanding use of radioactive materials in industry and medicine, the potential for inadvertent exposure of the public and the work force to radiation has increased greatly. The recent experience in Chernobyl underscored the need for the emergency rooms of the nation's largest hospitals to prepare for such disasters. This paper discusses a plan developed at the University of Alabama in Birmingham (UAB) to provide medical care related to such events

  15. Shielding integrity testing of radioactive material transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although this Code of Practice is intended primarily to cover shielding integrity test requirements for off-site shielded radioactive material transport packaging, it may also be partly applicable to containers and specialised handling equipment (e.g. fuelling machines) used only on site, and to radiation shielding generally. The code is not concerned with proving adequacy of shielding design or with its absolute shielding value. (author)

  16. RADTRAN: a computer code to analyze transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code is presented which predicts the environmental impact of any specific scheme of radioactive material transportation. Results are presented in terms of annual latent cancer fatalities and annual early fatility probability resulting from exposure, during normal transportation or transport accidents. The code is developed in a generalized format to permit wide application including normal transportation analysis; consideration of alternatives; and detailed consideration of specific sectors of industry

  17. Guide for disposition of radioactive-material sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide has been prepared to assist DOE Energy Technology Centers in disposing of radioactive-material sources. The guide describes the steps and requirements necessary to dispose of unwanted sources. The steps include obtaining approvals, source characterization, source disposition, packaging requirements, and shipment preparation. A flow chart is provided in the guide to assist the user in the necessary sequential steps of source disposition

  18. Emergency response planning for transport accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents a basic discussion of the various aspects and philosophies of emergency planning and preparedness along with a consideration of the problems which might be encountered in a transportation accident involving a release of radioactive materials. Readers who are responsible for preparing emergency plans and procedures will have to decide on how best to apply this guidance to their own organizational structures and will also have to decide on an emergency planning and preparedness philosophy suitable to their own situations

  19. MARINRAD, Health Hazard from Radioactive Material Release into Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A - Description of program or function: The program system MARINRAD evaluates the consequences from release of radioactive waste into the ocean. It consists of two programs: (1) MARRAD computes nuclide concentration caused by ocean transport and generates food chain concentration factors; (2) MAROUT evaluates a pathway-to-man dose model, generates print reports, and produces graphic plots. B - Method of solution: The systems model is divided into three distinct parts: - An Ocean Transport Model. The ocean is partitioned into an arbitrary number of sediment and water compartments. The model computes the concentration of each radionuclide released into the system in each compartment as a function of time (MARRAD). - A Steady-State Food-Chain Model. Stable element concentration factors are used to calculate radionuclide concentrations in compartment biota. A food-chain model computes concentration factors for biota that prey on compartment biota but do not reside in that compartment (MARRAD). - A Pathway-to-Man Model. Doses and health effects are calculated for all pathways that lead to exposure of man. These include ingestion of aquatic biota, external exposure to contaminated water or sediments, inhalation of airborne spray or shore sediments, and several additional miscellaneous pathways. Doses to aquatic biota are also calculated (MAROUT)

  20. Safety and security of radioactive materials - The Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a phenomenal increase in the use of radiation sources in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research and teaching in India and elsewhere. Though the radiation safety record in these applications has been good, there have been a few incidents/accidents during transport/use of radioactive materials. Current status and various aspects of regulatory control to ensure safety and security of radioactive material including incidents of missing/orphan sources in India are discussed in this paper. Regulatory Infrastructure: Government of India enacted the Atomic Energy Act in 1962 to provide a regulatory infrastructure for control and use of radioactive materials and radiation sources. Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, were promulgated under this Act and Chairman, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was appointed as the Competent Authority to enforce these rules. Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RP and AD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre provides technical and executive support to AERB in implementation of the regulations in the non-nuclear applications of radiation. Under the Rules, the Competent Authority has notified the surveillance procedures for various applications. Various codes and guides on regulatory procedures relating to specific applications of radioactive material have also been issued by the Competent Authority. As per the regulatory procedures, each practice and source requires specific authorisation. The pre-requisites for the procurement of radioactive material for various applications are: (a) Approved source and equipment, (b) Approved installation, (c) Provision of an exclusive safe and secure storage facility for radioactive material when not in use or pending installation, (d) Trained manpower duly approved by the competent authority, (e) Radiation monitoring devices (area and personnel), (f) Emergency preparedness and (g) Commitment from the licensee for safe disposal of disused/decayed sources. In

  1. Over-the-road testing of radioactive materials packagins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has an ongoing program to characterize the environments encountered during normal surface transport of radioactive materials. This effort consists of obtaining experimental data from both road simulator and over-the-road tests and of analyzing the data to obtain numerical models to simulate those environments. These data and models have been used to define the design basis for resistance to shock and vibration and the requirements for tiedowns of truck-transported radioactive materials. This work is in conjunction with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards development for radioactive materials transport. This paper summarizes the data, from a series of over-the-road tests performed with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. equipment near Barnwell, South Carolina. The data include packaging responses to driving over various road types as well as measurements of packaging and trailer responses to hard braking and turning events. The data also include the responses of both flexible and rigid tiedown systems. The results indicate that the tiedown forces for these tests were less than 0.06 g based on packaging weight. (J.P.N.)

  2. Management System for Regulating Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN) management system applied to the transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TMR from now on. ARN's management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TMR process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of the system. Such sub processes were defined taking into account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials. For each of this processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to achieve continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measures sub processes as a way to show objective evidence of conformity with objectives. Finally, as conclusions of this paper, they will be showed the main obstacles and troubleshooting found in the design and implementation of management system as well as their solutions and state of advance. (authors)

  3. Qualifications of and acceptance criteria for transporting special form radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special form radioactive material is a radioactive material that is in an inert, insoluble, indispersible form such that even in the event of an accident, it will not be dispersed into the environment in a way that could have an adverse impact on public health and safety. Methods of qualifying a special form radioactive material are discussed. Interpretation of acceptance criteria are proposed for the transportation of Type B quantities of a special form radioactive material. 11 refs

  4. Survey of naturally radioactive level of some new type wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in seven new type wall materials were surveyed. The radioactivity was determined with HPGe-γ spectrometer. The red mud has the highest radioactivity concentration, followed by slag building blocks, fly-ash building blocks (bricks), gangue bricks and light weight board materials, gypsum blocks. Fly-ash and slag contain higher NORM, which contributes the major part of the radioactivity in new wall materials. (authors)

  5. The role of the central registry in the safety and security of radioactive materials in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief overview of the Hungarian legislation and regulatory infrastructure the report provides information on the number of companies and licensees using radioactive materials and explains also the role of the established central registry of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Hungary for improving the safety and security of radioactive materials in the country. It concludes that a reliable nationwide central registry can be a very useful tool for increasing the safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials. (author)

  6. Studies on natural radioactivity of some egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high-resolution y-rays spectrometry, the natural radioactivity of 14 samples of natural and o manufactured Egyptian building materials have been investigated. The samples were collected from local market and construction sites. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The radium equivalent activity in each sample was estimated. Radiological evaluations of these materials indicate that all materials meet the external gamma-ray dose limitation. Calculation of concentration indices by assuming a Markkanen room model is constructed from these materials, to find the excess gamma-ray dose taken over that received from the outdoors. The Austrian Standard ONORM S 5200 is used in testing the building materials

  7. Response to a radioactive materials release having a transboundary impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared with an accidental release of radioactive material which is confined to the accident State, a transboundary release has added dimensions which were not fully anticipated in publications dealing with response to accidents at nuclear facilities. The new aspects to the problem may be summarized as follows: (1) A transboundary release of radioactive material, as distinct from a release which affects only the accident State, has international repercussions in the following ways: Potentially at least, the difficulties associated with a transboundary release may be magnified in those States that have no nuclear facilities of their own and may, therefore, have foreseen no need for resources to assess and deal with radioactive contamination of their food supplies, their water and their environment appropriately. International trade, in food commodities particularly, may be severely affected. Issues of compensation may arise for which the dispute settlement mechanisms are weak or non-existent. (2) Many Member States are in such geographic locations that they could be affected by a transboundary release occurring in any of their surrounding neighbour States. Planning for and responding to such an event is necessarily more difficult than planning for an accidental release from a single, identified nuclear facility. (3) Deposits of radioactive material from a distant source are apt to be highly unpredictable. Depending on weather conditions, they may be localized in a random fashion or widespread. Because of the international dimension of the problem and its essentially unpredictable character it is recommended here that planning for such events should be carried at the national or federal government level rather than at provincial government level. 14 refs

  8. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Nathan, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Loftin, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  9. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  10. Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help users of radioactive materials to handle the radioactive material without exposing themselves or others to radiation doses in excess of maximum permissible limits. The discussion of radiation levels is in terms of readings from dosimeters and survey instruments. Safety in the handling of radioactive materials in…

  11. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must be taken into account in... (radioactive) material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to— (1) The impact test and the percussion test of this section provided that the mass of the special form radioactive material is less...

  12. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  13. Characterisation of natural occurring radioactive materials in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (U,Th and K) are known to be present in significant amounts in soil, building materials and recycled industrial waste products. These findings are of our concern since we are continuously being exposed to radiations from such radionuclides, be it at home or workplace. In the study, we have chosen several commonly used building materials such as; cement brick, roof asbestos, red-clay brick, ceiling asbestos and also cement produce which form a vital component in the construction industry. The gamma gross counting method was used to analyse gamma rays at energies 609 keV, 583 keV and 1460 keV using hyperpure germanium counter with 20% efficiency. The radium equivalent activity, Raeq were computed and our findings have shown that some of the samples exhibit a high level of radium equivalent activity, exceeding those of the normal limit recommended by UNSCEAR. (Author)

  14. Denial of shipments of radioactive materials in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Denials, Delays and Abandonment of the Radioactive Materials is a problem at world level that has been increased in the last times with more emphasis starting from the attack of September 11 the 2001 in the USA. From then radioactive materials have been denial or delayed and until abandoned. The materials of short periods used mainly in nuclear medicine as the 99mTc or the 131I, when they are rejected, delayed it usually causes the lost of the material because it has surpassed their useful life and in many cases they are abandoned. The rejections, delays and later abandonment of the materials in special of Medical use have originated serious damages for the nuclear medicine patients as much of diagnoses as of treatments, in Teleterapia for many patients of cancer who could not be treated. In the petroliferous prospecting and Industry has originated numerous economic damages due to the delays since most of the used sources they are of long period but the delay causes an important increase in the cost. (author)

  15. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of members of the public can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of natural radioactivity. This phenomenon has attracted attention in recent years, and in this review, an attempt is made to the quantify exposures incurred under various circumstances. The second section of the review is a general survey of those building materials, mostly industrial wastes, that have aroused interest in Member countries. The probability that environmental pressures may cause such wastes to be used more and more by building industries may lead to similar situations in the future. Other review material of a relevant nature is described in the third section. Primordial radionuclides only are considered here. They are: potassium-40 (K-40); radium-226 (Ra-226) and its decay products; the series headed by thorium-232 (Th-232). The important radiological consequences of the natural radioactivity in building materials are two-fold, irradiation of the body by gamma rays and irradiation of the lung tissues by radon-222 (Rn-222) decay products or daughters. These consequences cannot be explored quantitatively except in relation to the specific activities of the nuclides of interest, and the approach adopted in this review is to assess the consequences in terms of the incremental radiation exposures that would be incurred by occupants of substantial dwellings entirely constructed of materials with various specific activities or combinations thereof. Gamma rays are dealt with in the fourth section and radon daughters in the fifth

  16. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it is known, for the fact that the illicit trafficking and trading of nuclear materials are being increased over the past few years because of the huge demand of third world states. Nuclear materials like uranium, plutonium, and thorium are used in nuclear explosives that have very attractive features for crime groups, terrorist groups and, the states that are willing to have this power. Crime groups that make illegal trade of nuclear material are also trying to market strategic radioactive sources like red mercury and Osmium. This kind of illegal trade threats public safety, human health, environment also it brings significant threat on world peace and world public health. For these reasons, both states and international organizations should take a role in dealing with illicit trafficking. An important precondition for preventing this kind of incidents is the existence of a strengthened national system for control of all nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. Further, Governments are responsible for law enforcement within their borders for prevention of illegal trading and trafficking of nuclear materials and radiation sources

  17. RESRAD-BUILD: A computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; LePoire, D.J.; Jones, L.G. [and others

    1994-11-01

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The transport of radioactive material inside the building from one compartment to another is calculated with an indoor air quality model. The air quality model considers the transport of radioactive dust particulates and radon progeny due to air exchange, deposition and resuspension, and radioactive decay and ingrowth. A single run of the RESRAD-BUILD code can model a building with up to: three compartments, 10 distinct source geometries, and 10 receptor locations. A shielding material can be specified between each source-receptor pair for external gamma dose calculations. Six exposure pathways are considered in the RESRAD-BUILD code: (1) external exposure directly from the source; (2) external exposure to materials deposited on the floor; (3) external exposure due to air submersion; (4) inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; (5) inhalation of aerosol indoor radon progeny; and (6) inadvertent ingestion of radioactive material, either directly from the sources or from materials deposited on the surfaces of the building compartments. 4 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. RESRAD-BUILD: A computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The transport of radioactive material inside the building from one compartment to another is calculated with an indoor air quality model. The air quality model considers the transport of radioactive dust particulates and radon progeny due to air exchange, deposition and resuspension, and radioactive decay and ingrowth. A single run of the RESRAD-BUILD code can model a building with up to: three compartments, 10 distinct source geometries, and 10 receptor locations. A shielding material can be specified between each source-receptor pair for external gamma dose calculations. Six exposure pathways are considered in the RESRAD-BUILD code: (1) external exposure directly from the source; (2) external exposure to materials deposited on the floor; (3) external exposure due to air submersion; (4) inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; (5) inhalation of aerosol indoor radon progeny; and (6) inadvertent ingestion of radioactive material, either directly from the sources or from materials deposited on the surfaces of the building compartments

  19. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from decommissioning of offshore installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Decommissioning of offshore installations can produce large amount of scale and sludge containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). Because of its radioactivity there are special considerations for both working with and disposal of NORM. There are approximately 600 installations in the North Sea - North Atlantic areas. These will eventually be decommissioned. This is an upcoming challenge considering both safe work and disposal of low-radioactive waste. When oil and gas is produced, water is also produced. The produced water (brine) often includes a large concentration of inorganic salts (up to 30%). Decay products of U-238 (Ra-226, Pb-210) and Th-232 (Ra-228) can occur at elevated concentrations in the produced water. These isotopes can precipitate as deposits (scale) in process equipment (pipes, vessels, etc.) at the offshore production installations. The radioactive scale is normally found in largest quantities on platforms where water has been injected in the underlying reservoir. The main radionuclide in NORM from The North Sea is radium-226 (Ra-226) which has a half-live of 1600 years. Disposal and handling of NORM in Denmark requires an authorisation from the National Board of Health/ National Institute of Radiation Protection (NIRP) and in some cases also other authorities. Disposal options include re-injected into abandoned wells and storage at temporary storage sites on land. The NORM issue must be considered both for the safe work during the decommissioning, and because NORM waste will be part of the outcome of the decommissioning activity. A national facility for disposal of NORM in Denmark will meet the need from the industry for a permanent solution to the waste problem. A solution could be to include NORM in a National repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste. The decision for establishing such a repository is pending. (author)

  20. Prevention of radioactive gas seeping into buildings through constructive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of possible method of realization of the terrorist acts is using gases and liquids, which easily permeate through the constructive materials of walls, floor, ceiling, roof, etc. into buildings by the capillary action of the pores. Toxic volatile organic compounds, organic and inorganic gases, radioactive elements, especially, which emits alpha particles can be used as the dangerous substances. Increased ventilation may help in removing the gases, but can actually increase the gases level by increasing the suction through the pores of concrete. If the gases and liquids are soluble in water and are easily volatilized from it, they can also get by groundwater up to underground structures and penetrate inside through opening and pores in concrete or pushed by hydrostatic pressure. The purpose of this work is creating a method to reduce concentration of toxic and radioactive gases in homes, buildings, underground buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, bomb shelters, etc. The most effective method to prevent penetration of radionuclides into premises of buildings and underground structures through walls, roofs, floors is using special chemicals, which seal micropores inside the construction materials against gases. Worked out chemicals which consist of blend of polymeric compounds are described in the paper. Radioactive gases permeability in constructive materials after treatment by chemicals was studied. Influence of types of cement, sand and gypsum, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric compounds, time between treatments, moisture of materials, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of materials (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) were examined. Experiments have shown that our method allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability 200 - 400 times

  1. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth's crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine open-quotes concentrationsclose quotes, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn't be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930's, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980's. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed

  2. Study on airborne radioactivity levels in dwellings along Godavari river basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements on indoor radioactivity levels were carried out along the Godavari river belt in Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, India to establish radiation profile along the river eco-system. Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (S.S.N.T.D.) based dosimetric systems were used to estimate the indoor radon/thoron and their progeny levels. The measured average values of indoor radon and thoron concentrations were found to be 43.2±13.9 and 22.6±16.8 Bq m-3 and the corresponding progeny levels were 3.57 and 8.12 m WL ( working level), respectively. The season-wise variations of radon/thoron concentrations and their progeny levels were also studied. The annual effective dose estimations were carried out using UNSCEAR dose conversion factors. The natural background gamma radiation levels were also measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters and μR-survey meter. (authors)

  3. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts

  4. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts.

  5. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  6. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg-1, respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings. (authors)

  7. Radiation dose assessments for materials with elevated natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides practical information needed for evaluating the radiation dose to the general public and workers caused by materials containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides. The report presents criteria, exposure scenarios and calculations used to assess dose with respect to the safety requirements set for construction materials in accordance with the Finnish Radiation Act. A method for calculating external gamma exposure from building materials is presented in detail. The results for most typical cases are given as specific dose rates in table form to enable doses to be assessed without computer calculation. A number of such dose assessments is presented, as is the corresponding computer code. Practical investigation levels for the radioactivity of materials are defined. (23 refs.)

  8. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  9. Workplace characterizations in case of rail transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive fuel and wastes are frequently transported for storage and/or reprocessing purposes. The main part of this transport is generally done by train. Before, during and after the journey, operators and drivers, who work directly in contact with and in the vicinity of the wagons, are exposed to external irradiations due to the radioactive materials that are confined inside the containers. In order to evaluate the dose that its personnel is liable to receive during such transports, the French National Railway Company (SNCF) has requested to the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) a series of workplaces characterizations for convoys of different types, that are considered to be representative of all types of possible transports. Each one is associated to a given radioactive material (low and medium activity wastes, new and used fuel, MOX, uranium fluoride, etc... ), involving photon or mixed neutron-photon fields. This measurement campaign has started in May 2004 and by the end of 2004 at least four types of radioactive convoys will have been investigated (three have already been measured). By using survey meters and spectrometers, the study consists in measuring the external exposure for different stages of the work that is done beside the wagons (for example coupling / decoupling two wagons, or checking the brakes) and inside the locomotive (driving). For each one of these workplaces, the exposure is estimated in terms of the ambient dose equivalent H*(10) by summing the dose all along the different phases carried out by the operator. In addition, a dosimetric characterization of each convoy is made by performing measurements along the wagons and spectrometric information about the photon and/or neutron fields are collected. This study provides helpful data to predict the dose that the operators are liable to integrate over long periods, typically one year. (author)

  10. Transport of radioactive materials of short half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: It is well known the importance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in diagnosis of heart diseases and oncology. In Brazil, the production of fluorine-18 (18F) is performed in Sao Paulo and in Rio de Janeiro. 18F is a radionuclide with a half life of less than one hour which requires an efficient and prompt transport infrastructure from the point where it is produced to the place where it will be used. This may be a problem in big cities like Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro where heavy traffic is a daily experience. To fulfill the growing demand for 18F it would be necessary to have an adequate number of cyclotrons machines providing this radionuclide where and when it is necessary. However, due to their high costs, cyclotrons seem to be a long term solution. Consequently, there is a need for an immediate solution. In this connection, carriers have exercised a number of alternatives as, for example, a dedicated transportation team and the identification and use of optimal routes. These alternatives have demonstrated satisfactory results but represent higher costs. Method and Materials: Observations of the experience in transport of other goods have provided an indication of possible solutions for the prompt transport of 18F. In big Brazilian cities, the use of 2 wheel vehicles like motorcycles has proven to be an alternative to solve problems related to the transport of radioactive material of short half-lives. As any other activity involving the transport of radioactive material, there is a need for a license to be granted by competent authorities. However, the use of 2 wheel vehicles for the transport of dangerous goods is not addressed in the transport regulations. Therefore there is a need of technical approach to obtain the necessary authorization. To accomplish this goal, it was simulated a shipment of radioactive material using a 2 wheel vehicle. In this simulation, 2 routes were chosen: the longest one, 45 kin, and the shortest one, 12

  11. Radioactive and geological analysis of airborne gamma spectrometric data for locating favorable traps for uranium prospecting in the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical analysis has been applied to the airborne spectrometric data for the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria in order to characterize and isolate the anomalous uranium radioactive zones. Equivalent uranium eU values vary between a minimum of 0.01 and a maximum of 32.74 ppm. Uranium prospecting methodology recently proposed is successfully applied in order to explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies related to Area-1. The dominant geological conditions effectively contributing to the uranium radioactive anomalies in the study area have been determined through the analysis of five radioactive-geological profiles. Different favorable traps have been identified and localized for uranium prospecting. Those uranium traps merit further detailed exploration for determining their uranium potential with depth. - Highlights: ► Determine the radioactive characteristics of Area-1. ► Apply a uranium prospecting methodology for guiding uranium exploration activities in Area-1. ► Explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies in Area-1. ► Relate the structural and geological conditions with the anomalous radioactive occurrences.

  12. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive fission product 131I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134Cs and 137Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m-3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134Cs and 137Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m-3) variation of stable cesium (133Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument

  13. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakama, M., E-mail: minorusakama@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Nagano, Y. [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Kitade, T. [Department of Laboratory, M and S Instruments Inc., Osaka 532-0005 (Japan); Shikino, O. [Department of Inorganic Analysis, PerkinElmer Japan Co. Ltd., Yokohama 240-0005 (Japan); Nakayama, S. [Department of Nuclear Science, Institute of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  14. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  15. The Transport of Radioactive Materials under special arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material rule the international transport of these materials and provide the basis of national and regional regulations. The Regulations establish the technical, operational and administrative requirements which shall be accomplished to carry out the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). They also allow the transport in different conditions of those currently applicable and, in such cases, establish that the transport shall be made under special arrangement. To approve a transport under special arrangement the involved Competent Authority shall be satisfied that the alternative provisions are adequate to ensure that the overall level of safety in transport and in-transit storage is at least equivalent to that which would be provided if all the applicable requirements had been met (para. 2ll of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 6). This paper explains some difficulties the Argentine Competent. Authority has experienced trying by comparing the equivalence between the level of safety resulting from the compliance with current requirements and the overall level of safety which is provided by the application of alternative provisions. As most of the experience gained come from the transport of RAM by road, only this mode of transport is considered. (J.P.N.)

  16. Trade in radioactive materials - Potential problems and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening of radiation protection regulations (including border controls) in consumer countries may potentially lead to the partial or complete loss of market for some mineral producers, and the resulting economic and logistical constraints have become a serious consideration for individual industries. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1) and Advisory Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-G-1.1) provide detailed instructions on the transport of material with elevated concentrations of natural radionuclides. However, these documents are somewhat complex for a common user and this paper presents an overview of a simplified step by step guideline developed for both the minerals industry and the appropriate regulatory authorities. Also presented are considerations for the regulatory control of natural radioactivity in international transport and trade and the potential radiation protection and regulatory problems that may arise during transport and at international border crossings. Solutions for these problems are offered in the conclusion. (author)

  17. An Experimental Study of Indoor Dispersion of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Red House' (RH) project, conducted in Israel, aimed at increasing the preparedness for terrorism events where radioactive material is silently released inside a shopping mall or governmental facility. During the tests, a set of releases of 50 mCi's of liquid 99mTc were conducted, and radiation levels were measured, on the ground and in the air. Special attention was given to the air ventilation system, and measurements were taken from the air filters. This paper describes the project objectives, the experimental setups, the results obtained during the tests and a preliminary analysis of them

  18. Recycling of radioactively contaminated materials: Public policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling radioactively contaminated materials requires varying degrees of interaction among Federal regulatory agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State governments and regulators, the public, and the Department of Energy. The actions of any of these parties can elicit reactions from the other parties and will raise issues that must be addressed in order to achieve a coherent policy on recycling. The paper discusses potential actions and reactions of Federal regulatory agencies (defined as NRC and EPA), the States, and the Department and the policy issues they raise

  19. Application of radiation protection programmes to transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The principles for implementing radiation protection programmes (RPP) are detailed in the draft IAEA safety guide TS-G-1.5 'Radiation protection programmes for transport of radioactive material'. The document is described in this paper and analysis is made for typical applications to current operations carried out by consignors, carriers and consignees. Systematic establishment and application of RPPs is a way to control radiological protection during different steps of transport activity. The most widely transported packages in the world are radiopharmaceuticals by road. It is described an application of RPP for an organization involved in road transport of Type A packages containing radiopharmaceuticals. Considerations based on the radionuclides, quantities and activities transported are the basis to design and establish the scope of the RPP for the organizations involved in transport. Next stage is the determination of roles and responsibilities for each activity related to transport of radioactive materials. An approach to the dose received by workers is evaluated considering the type, category and quantity of packages, the radionuclides, the frequency of consignments and how long are the storages. The average of transports made in the last years must be taken into account and special measures intended to optimize the protection are evaluated. Tasks like monitoring, control of surface contamination and segregation measures, are designed based on the dose evaluation and optimization. The RPP also indicates main measures to follow in case of emergency during transport taking account of radionuclides, activities and category of packages for different accident scenarios. Basis for training personnel involved in handling of radioactive materials to insure they have appropriate knowledge about preparing packages, measuring dose rates, calculating transport index, labelling, marking and placarding, transport documents, etc, are considered. The RPP is a part

  20. Compliance assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to assist competent authorities in the development and maintenance of compliance assurance programmes in connection with the transport of radioactive material, and to assist applicants, licensees and organizations in their interactions, with competent authorities. In order to increase co-operation between competent authorities and to promote uniform application of international regulations and recommendations it is desirable to adopt a common approach to regulatory activities. This book is intended to assist in accomplishing such uniform application by laying down most of the actions that competent authorities need to provide for in their programmes for ensuring regulatory compliance. 23 refs, figs and tabs

  1. Economic effects of detecting and confiscating illicitly trafficked radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development smuggling and confiscation of illicit radioactive materials demands taking into account its financial implications. The real beneficiaries of smuggling are often difficult to identify. Generally the violation cases are impossible to solve. Who would pay? How the costs of detection, analysis and decontamination could be covered. One of the primary solutions could be better charge of different parties (prisoners). It could as well be the responsibility of involved parties (transporters, enterprises, etc.). Another possibility would be to apply the principle of responsibility for payment by the party responsible for contamination

  2. Education and training in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the approach adopted by the Department of Transportation of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, in the creation of the course of education and training distance for transport companies, as well as for national institutions directly involved with the theme transportation of radioactive materials. The course will consist of 20 modules containing exercises and further assessment of learning, and enable participants to understand the regulatory terminology, assimilating the philosophy of nuclear and radiation safety, prepare the shipment and identify and fill the complete documents required in an operation transport

  3. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), for NRC Approved Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, is applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  4. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226Ra, 228Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  5. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices

  6. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass

  7. CERN: Materials science with radioactive isotopes from ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Among the major physics objectives at CERN's ISOLDE on-line isotope separator is the growth field of nuclear solid state physics, where the goals are both technological and scientific. ISOLDE research entered a new era when the facility began operations last year in its new home at the 1 GeV Booster synchrotron (July 1992, page 5). Nuclear solid state physics accounts for about 30% of ISOLDE beam time, other research highlights being nuclear physics, atomic physics, nuclear astrophysics, and biophysics. The achievements so far and ongoing goals of nuclear solid state research were covered in a recent workshop - 'Materials Science with Radioactive Isotopes' - held at CERN from 5-7 April. This carried on from where the 'Radioactive Implants in Materials Science' meeting in Bad Honnef left off in January 1992. The main aims of the CERN meeting were: - to show the outstanding possibilities offered by ISOLDE for solid state experiments using short-lived isotopes; - to stimulate discussion between physicists using nuclear techniques and those employing other methods; and - to look for collaboration opportunities between present ISOLDE users and other researchers: small teams could be strengthened to provide a very cost-effective way of exploiting ISOLDE beams. Nuclear solid state physics at ISOLDE is mainly focused on the investigation of defects and impurities in semiconductors, but will also be used for metals, surfaces and interfaces, using nuclear techniques such as radiotracer diffusion, emission channeling, and Mössbauer or Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy (PACS). The hitherto serious limitation of many nuclear methods due to a restricted range of chemically different suitable radioactive probe atoms can be easily overcome by ISOLDE'S lengthy isotope menu. Thus whole new classes of semiconductors become accessible for PACS, yielding information on the annealing of radiation damage after heavy ion implantation and

  8. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first edition in 1961, the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the IAEA (IAEA Regulations) have served as the basis of safety for the transport of radioactive material worldwide. In the discussions leading to the first edition of the IAEA Regulations, it was realized that there was need for a publication to supplement the Regulations which could give information of individual provisions as to their purpose, their scientific background and how to apply them in practice. In response, the Agency published Safety Series No. 7, entitled, in its first edition in 1961, 'Notes on Certain Aspects of the Regulations'. An additional source of information on the Regulations, providing advice on 'how' the user should comply with them which could be augmented from time to time in the light of latest experience, was provided by the Agency, initially in relation to the 1973 edition of the Regulations. This was entitled 'Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' and designated Safety Series No. 37. This document is the result of combining the two Safety Series in a single publication. Thus the primary purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to users on proven and acceptable ways of complying with the Regulations. This Advisory Material is not a stand-alone text and it only has significance when used as a companion to the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. ST-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1996 edition)

  9. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from 137Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for 131I and 137Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times. - Highlights: • A real-time airborne radioactivity monitor was developed. • The monitor is formed using two scintillation detectors for gamma-ray spectrometry. • The detectors are shielded with Pb. One detector is pointing up and the other down. • The monitors were calibrated using experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations. • The efficiency calculations and MDAC values are given

  10. Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: A case study of Irish Sea beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16 l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq 137Cs within large areas (10–20 km2 h−1), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15 m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1–2 km2 h−1 can detect buried 137Cs sources of 0.5 MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq 137Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at −1 ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed. -- Highlights: ► Validated Monte Carlo simulations used to model mobile gamma spectrometry response to radioactive particless. ► Detection limits for airborne and ground based surveys

  11. Doses to road transport workers from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year approximately 750,000 packages of radioactive materials are shipped throughout Canada. Regulatory controls on these shipments are designed to keep radiation doses received by transport workers well within acceptable limits. Since many of these workers are not monitored for radiation exposure, however, little factual information has been available in Canada to support theoretical estimates. A study to document actual radiation doses received by a select group of transport workers that is actively involved in the shipment of radioactive materials, was carried out in 1987 and 1988. This study involved the monitoring of 31 candidates from nine transport companies from across the country that handle medical isotopes, industrial isotopes, uranium fuel cycle materials and associated radioactive wastes. Each of the candidates (consisting of driver, dock workers, sorters, and supervisors) was issued personal thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges that were worn each day during the six month monitoring period. Some of the candidates were also issued cab or area dosimeters that were left in the cabs of the vehicles or in work areas so that the dose received in these areas could be differentiated from total personal exposure. During the monitoring program, the candidates filled out reporting sheets at the end of each working day to document information such as the quantity of materials handled, handling times and vehicle size. This information and the dosimetry data were used in the development of correlations between materials handled and doses reported so that doses for other handling similar materials could be estimated. Based on the results of the study, it was learned that while most of the transport workers receive doses that are at or near background levels, other (particularly those handling medical isotopes) are exposed to levels of radiation that may result in their receiving doses above the 5 mSv per annum limit set for members of the general public. On

  12. State surveillance of radioactive material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this final report on the state surveillance of the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) is to suggest the most cost-effective inspection areas where enforcement actions might be taken by the states during their participation in the State Hazardous Materials Enforcement Development (SHMED) Program. On the basis of the lessons learned from the surveillance program, these actions are enforcement at low-level radioactive burial sites by means of civil penalties and site use suspension; enforcement at airports and at terminals that forward freight; and enforcement of courier companies. More effective and efficient enforcement can be achieved through instrumented police patrol cars and remote surveillance because they require the least amount of time of enforcement personnel. In addition, there is a strong relationship between effective emergency response and enforcement because the appropriate shipping papers, placarding and knowledge of appropriate emergency response procedures lead to improved emergency response. These lessons originate from a ten-state surveillance program from 1977 through 1981 jointly sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and DOT. The states give recommendations in the categories of education, training, expanded surveillance, coordination and enforcement. The topics of special interest covered include low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, airports, cargo terminals, highways, ports, and accidents and incidents. The three most common problems in compliance with RAM transportation regulations reported by the states are incorrect package labeling; improper shipping papers; and incorrect or missing placards. Other common problems reported by the states are summarized. The relationship to other studies, the status of the SHMED Program, a synopsis of state RAM surveillance reports, and NRC/DOT expenditures are given

  13. Organization of customs control of fissionable and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the routine inspection tasks of the Sheremetyevo customs office are tasks stemming from international commitments of Russia to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons and material that can be used for making these weapons. These tasks are: radiation monitoring of all vehicles, passengers, their luggage and goods crossing the state border; inspection of fissionable and radioactive materials (FRM) legally transported by participants in the foreign trade activities with a view to checking that the declared data fully correspond to the actual radioactive cargo. Organizational measures and technical measures at the Sheremetyevo customs office are described in detail. The efficiency of the scheme is illustrated by the following figures. In 1997, when appropriate technical means and trained personnel were lacking, there were only 2 events of detecting items with a rather high radioactivity level in the luggage. In 1999, after the entire radiation monitoring system was fully deployed (i.e. the flight checkpoint was equipped with technical means of radiation monitoring, personnel was trained, special technologies and algorithms were developed), there were 61 events of radiation detection, and in 2000 there have been 90 events, including breaches of legal FRM traffic regulations through disagreement of declared and actual parameters. We believe that the above-considered organization of radiation monitoring allows effective and quite reliable control of and adequate response to possible illicit transport of FRM through the airport Sheremetyevo to other countries, including CIS. In the near future we plan to increase the efficiency of the radiation monitoring by integrating the currently operational customs-used stationary FRM detection systems into a single information network capable of providing simultaneous video-aided continuous nuclear monitoring at three terminals (Sheremetyevo-1, Sheremetyevo-2, Sheremetyevo-Cargo) with display of information at the workstation

  14. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site's suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling

  15. Quality assurance in the transport and packaging of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality Assurance (QA) is a requirement of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6 ''Regulations for Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials.'' It is also, increasingly, a customer requirement. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Transport Division has established an integrated management system (including quality and safety) which is being extended to cover environmental aspects. The management system covers the design, procurement, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance, inspection and decommissioning of all packages used for the transport of radioactive materials and for interim storage. It also covers planning, programming and transport operations. These arrangements cover all modes of transport by road, rail, sea and air. The QA arrangements developed enable Transport Division to demonstrate to Competent Authorities, customers and the general public that the systems in place meet all regulatory requirements. This paper discusses what quality assurance is, why QA arrangements should be introduced and how they were established within Transport Division. Finally, the further developments in the Division's quality arrangements using the tools and techniques of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the European Foundation for Quality Management Model for Self Assessment are described

  16. Natural radioactivity measurements in some Indian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the radioactivity measurements of some Indian building materials using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration obtained for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K ranged from 8.3 to 88.47, 8.45 to 95.29 and 23.43 to 155.46 Bq kg-1, with the mean values of 42.57, 34.85 and 63.25 Bq kg-1 respectively. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity in the samples, the radium equivalent activity the absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index were also calculated. The study yields an annual effective dose equivalent in the range of 0.6 to 11.73 x 10-5 Sv with a mean value of 5.77 x 10-5 Sv. The results suggest that the use of such building materials in the construction of domestic dwellings or workplaces in India is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. The uranium calculated using fission track registration technique and the values ranged from 0.69 to 2.28 ppm. (author)

  17. Natural radioactivity in building materials and phosphate fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction industry is one of the most thriving industries in Kerala these days. The objective of the present study is to understand the various radionuclides present in some of the building materials used for construction of buildings in Kerala. The inhabitants as well as the construction workers of the building will be the suffering group if these materials are highly radioactive. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K measured in the different samples of building analysed is found to be greater than the values given in the references cited in the literature. The outdoor absorbed dose rate values and annual effective dose values were also determined. A newspaper reported recently that grains like rice and wheat are being transported to the ware houses of Food Corporation of India in Kerala from other states in the same wagon in which cement and fertilizers were transported. This news motivated us to analyse one fertilizer sample also for radioactivity. The activity concentrations of different radionuclides in the phosphate fertilizers, commonly used by farmers in Kerala is reported. (author)

  18. Dose control in road transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation doses to workers in the transport of radioactive material should be as low as reasonably achievable. The average doses of drivers and loaders, sampled in this thesis should be decreased. The demonstration of doses control in a road vehicle with radioactive material required by the current Brazilian regulation, CNEN NE 5.01 should be written in its own printed form with exposure values obtained in normally occupied positions from workers and members of the public, even when the consignment does not need 'exclusive use' (⅀IT ≤50). Through bibliographic research, modeling and field research, this research work shows that this demonstration of the control should be done by writing the registration accumulation of load, limited (⅀IT ≤50), also in the own printed form. It is for a better control method, in order to avoid the use of measuring equipment, to build standardization with foreign regulations, to the current occupational doses of radioprotection technicians, the costs and time, (important for consignment with radiopharmaceuticals short half-life) would be all smaller. Exposure values of the parameters used with this method are smaller than regulatory limits. The segregation distances between loads and the cabins of vehicles shall be showed by Brazilian regulation updated to contribute to these aims. (author)

  19. Crush loadings to radioactive material transport packages during ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident-resistant Type B packages are used to transport radioactive materials such as spent fuel and vitrified high level waste in all surface modes, in accordance with national and international regulations. As with other modes, a sea-going conveyance (vessel) carrying radioactive material (RAM) may be involved in a collision accident. If the vessel is struck by another commercial vessel with sufficient tonnage and velocity, the RAM package may be impacted by the penetrating bow of the striking ship. The impact on the RAM package by the bow is less damaging to the package than the regulatory 9 m drop test. This is because the velocity is always lower and the bow always less rigid than the essentially unyielding target required for the drop test. Thus, the only remaining mechanism for gross damage to the package is crush loading. For the package to be crushed, forces must act on two opposing sides. In this paper, the bow of the impacting ship is assumed to be able to impart an infinite force to one side of the package. The opposing force is supplied by the hull of the struck ship on the side away from the collision. Resistance of this hull to penetration by the package determines the maximum magnitude of the crush force. Work described in this paper is aimed at determining an upper bound for this force. (author)

  20. Combating illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material. Reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended for individuals and organizations that may be called upon to deal with the detection of and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material. It will also be useful for legislators, law enforcement agencies, government officials, technical experts, lawyers, diplomats and users of nuclear technology. This manual emphasizes the international initiatives for improving the security of nuclear and other radioactive material. However, it is recognized that effective measures for controlling the transfer of equipment, non-nuclear material, technology or information that may assist in the development of nuclear explosive devices, improvised nuclear devices (INDs) or other radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) are important elements of an effective nuclear security system. In addition, issues of personal integrity, inspection and investigative procedures are not discussed in this manual, all of which are essential elements for an effective overall security system. The manual considers a variety of elements that are recognized as being essential for dealing with incidents of criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material. Depending on conditions in a specific State, including its legal and governmental infrastructure, some of the measures discussed will need to be adapted to suit that State's circumstances. However, much of the material can be applied directly in the context of other national programmes. This manual is divided into four main parts. Section 2 discusses the threat posed by criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the policy and legal bases underlying the international effort to restrain such activities. Sections 3 and 4 summarize the major international undertakings in the field. Sections 5-8 provide some basic technical information on radiation, radioactive material, the health consequences of radiation

  1. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary legislation governing safety in uses of ionizing radiation in Ireland is the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. This Act provided for the establishment in 1992 of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, and gives the Institute the functions and powers which enable it to be the regulatory body for all matters relating to ionizing radiation. A Ministerial Order made under the Act in 2000 consolidates previous regulations and, in particular, provides for the implementation in Irish law of the 1996 European Union Directive which lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. Under the legislation, the custody, use and a number of other activities involving radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus require a licence issued by the Institute. Currently some 1260 licences are in force. Of these, some 850 are in respect of irradiating apparatus only and are issued principally to dentists and veterinary surgeons. The remaining licences involve sealed radiation sources and/or unsealed radioactive substances used in medicine, industry or education. A schedule attached to each licence fully lists the sealed sources to which the licence applies, and also the quantities of radioactive substances which may be acquired or held under the licence. It is an offence to dispose of, or otherwise relinquish possession of, any licensable material other than in accordance with terms and conditions of the licence. Disused sources are returned to the original supplier or, where this is not possible, stored under licence by the licensee who used them. Enforcement of the licensing provisions relies primarily on the programme of inspection of licensees, carried out by the Institute's inspectors. The Institute's Regulatory Service has a complement of four inspectors, one of whom is the Manager of the Service. The Manager reports to one of the Institute's Principal

  2. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  3. Environmental hazards and distribution of radioactive black sand along the Rosetta coastal zone in Egypt using airborne spectrometric and remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometry, conducted in 2003, was used to estimate radioactive elements spatial abundance along the Rosetta coastal zone area. It was noticed that both Uranium and Thorium are concentrated in the black sand deposits along the beach. In contrary, Potassium was observed in high level abundance at the cultivated Nile Delta lands due to the accumulated usage of fertilizers. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) and Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR) were calculated to evaluate the radiation background influence in human. Results indicated that the human body in the study sites is subjected to radiation hazards exceeds the accepted limit for long duration exposure. In addition, the areas covered by the highest concentration of Uranium and Thorium show the highest level of radiogenic heat production. Detection the environmental hazards of the radioactive black sands in the study site encouraged this research to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of these sediments. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired in 1990, 2003 and 2013 were analyzed using remote sensing image processing techniques. Image enhancements, classification and changes detection indicated a positive significant relationship between the patterns of coastline changes and distribution of the radioactive black sand in the study sites. The radioactive black sands are usually concentrated in the eroded areas. Therefore, in 1990 high concentration of the radioactive black sands were observed along the eastern and western flanks of the Rosetta promontory. Distribution of these sediments decreased due to the construction of the protective sea walls. Most of the radioactive black sands are transported toward the east in Abu Khashaba bay under the effect of the longshore currents and toward the west in Alexandria and Abu Quir bay under the action of the seasonal reverse currents. - Highlights: • Spatial and temporal distributions of the black sand were

  4. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  5. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  6. Radon concentration due to naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (N.O.R.M.) are and always have been a part of our world. Our planet and its atmosphere contain many different naturally occurring radioactive species. N.O.R.M. can be of cosmogenic origin and terrestrial origin (singly occurring radionuclides and series decay) It is well known that N.O.R.M., as uranium and thorium are hazardous to health and it has long been recognized that work with N.O.R.M. can raise significantly the exposure in the workforce. Inhalation of radon (222Rn), from the 238U series, represents the main contribution to the effective dose received by the workers. At the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, there is a facility dealing with great uranium and thorium concentrations, the nuclear materials storage site. In order to estimates afterwards the inhalation effective committed dose for the workers, it is being assessed the radon concentrations in air at the place. The aim of this study is to determine the radon levels at the IPEN nuclear materials storage site. It is being monitored fifteen points inside the workplace. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid state nuclear track detectors (Makrofol E), because of their simplicity and long-term integrated read-out. The exposure period is three months, covering one year minimum, in order to determine the long-term average levels of the indoor radon concentrations with varying seasons. The first run, covering the period from December 2004 to June 2005, showed radon concentrations varying from 341 ± 41 Bq/m3 to 2224 ± 330 Bq/m3. (authors)

  7. Decree Law No.12 dated March 2, 1985. Approves regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This regulation established the conditions that the transport of radioactive materials must comply with for all types of land, aquatic or air transport as long as the radioactive materials are not an integral part of the transport medium. Accidental transport inherent in using radioactive materials in included. All transport of radioactive materials requires the Competent Authority or other agency authorized to provide it

  8. Dose rate measurements around consignments of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material require compliance with various radiation protection control measures and also require the competent authority to arrange for periodic assessments of the radiation doses to workers and to members of the public. It is a two-fold approach of controls and assessments. Periodic reviews of the radiological impact arising from the transport of radioactive materials by road, rail, sea and air, have been undertaken by NRPB on behalf of the UK Competent Authority. Dose assessments were made using estimated exposure times together with measured and extrapolated dose rates from 'near-field' regions close to consignments, 'mid-field' regions occupied by transiently exposed persons and 'far-field' regions occupied by members of the public. The results show that annual doses to workers and public are generally small fractions of dose limits. The exception is a small group of driver/handlers involved with packages for medical and industrial use. Compliance with the Regulations has ensured that a sufficient degree of control exists. Originally, most packages were small compared with the distances to exposed persons. Point source geometry was therefore used. More recently, it has been estimated that only a minority of all consignments of radioactive material is of sufficiently small dimensions for point source geometry to continue to apply. Instead, initial despatches of radionuclide packages can consist of consignments of several cubic metres in size, and only at tertiary despatch level would point source geometry prevail. However, for all physically large loads, the measured dose rates do not decline as rapidly as point source geometry would suggest based on the Tl value. Development of the methodology adopted by the IAEA Regulations over some 40 years has introduced parameters to compensate in part for these levels of dose rate, and, together with operational improvements

  9. Workplace characterisation in case of rail transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRSN has been asked by SNCF (French Railways) to carry out measurements in order to establish the values of ambient dose equivalents H*(10) in the vicinity of shipments of radioactive materials to assess the external exposure to ionising radiation to which employees may be subjected during the carriage of radioactive goods. Detailed dosimetric characterisations of the wagons have been made and the external exposure at different stages of the work that is done by the employees have been measured in terms of H* (10). For the study presented in this paper, and corresponding to a used fuel shipment composed of UO2 and UO2-PuO2, it has been observed that the photon and neutron doses are very similar. In addition, the order of magnitude of the total dose integrated by an employee who would carry out 100 times the series of essential operational tasks, has been found to be ∼250 μSv. This value is compared with those observed for other previously investigated shipments involving the exposure to photon fields only. (authors)

  10. Priorities for technology development and policy to reduce the risk from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standing Committee on International Security of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials in the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Division conducted its fourth annual workshop in February 2010 on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials. This workshop examined new technologies in real-time tracking of radioactive materials, new risks and policy issues in transportation security, the best practices and challenges found in addressing illicit radioactive materials trafficking, industry leadership in reducing proliferation risk, and verification of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, Article VI. Technology gaps, policy gaps, and prioritization for addressing the identified gaps were discussed. Participants included academia, policy makers, radioactive materials users, physical security and safeguards specialists, and vendors of radioactive sources and transportation services. This paper summarizes the results of this workshop with the recommendations and calls to action for the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) membership community.

  11. A guide to the suitability of elastomeric seal materials for use in radioactive material transport packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vince, D.J. [Department for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Elastomeric seals are a frequently favoured method of sealing Radioactive Material Transport (RMT) packages. The sealing technology has been proven for many years in a wide range of industrial applications. The requirements of the RMT package applications, however, are significantly different from those commonly found in other industries. This guide outlines the Regulatory performance requirements placed on an RMT package sealing system by TS-R-1, and then summarises the material, environment and geometry characteristics of elastomeric seals relevant to RMT applications. Tables in the guide list typical material properties for a range of elastomeric materials commonly used in RMT packages.

  12. A guide to the suitability of elastomeric seal materials for use in radioactive material transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastomeric seals are a frequently favoured method of sealing Radioactive Material Transport (RMT) packages. The sealing technology has been proven for many years in a wide range of industrial applications. The requirements of the RMT package applications, however, are significantly different from those commonly found in other industries. This guide outlines the Regulatory performance requirements placed on an RMT package sealing system by TS-R-1, and then summarises the material, environment and geometry characteristics of elastomeric seals relevant to RMT applications. Tables in the guide list typical material properties for a range of elastomeric materials commonly used in RMT packages

  13. Natural Radioactivity in Clay and Building Materials Used in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of natural radionuclide concentration and activity index study in materials used for construction in Latvia. Special attention is given to clay and clay ceramics. Concentrations of K-40 and Th- 232, U-238 radioactivity were determined using gamma-spectrometry method. In some building ware, maximal concentration of K-40 was 1440 Bq/kg, and of U-238 - 175 Bq/kg. In granite, the determined maximum concentration of Th-232 was 210 Bq/kg. It was found that radionuclide content in different period clay deposits can differ by more than two times, and up to five times in different clay ceramics. The results obtained are compared with analogous data from the other Baltic and North European countries.

  14. Study on tracking system for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a transportation accident occurs, all entities including the shipper, the transportation organization, local governments, and emergency response organizations must have organized and planned for civil safety, property, and environmental protection. When a transportation accident occurs, many related organizations will be involved, and their cooperation determines the success or failure of the response. The point where the accident happens cannot be pinpointed in advance. Nuclear fuel transportation also requires a quick response from a viewpoint of security. A tracking system for radioactive material transport is being developed for use in Japan. The objective of this system is, in the rare event of an accident, for communication capabilities to share specific information among relevant organizations, the transporter, and so on

  15. Radioprotection from design to exploitation of radioactive material transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author gives an overview of the various aspects, methods and trends related to the design, test and use of packaging used for the transportation of radioactive materials. He evokes the currently existing calculation methods and codes which are used to assess irradiation sources and to study the propagation of such irradiation through matter. He discusses the qualification process of a radioprotection calculation scheme and gives and comments comparison between computed and measured results of effective dose flow rate about packaging. He presents the 'Transportability' tool which uses a database of fuel assembly characteristics, a code to assess neutron and gamma sources, a packaging model used to compute the different contributions to effective dose flow rates, a validation stage, and a fixed margin

  16. Logistics of radioactive materials: optimization of laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article considers the problems of the Russian authorization system in the field of radioactive materials (RM) logistics which does not meet the needs of their application in medicine, science and industry. To correct the situation, first of all, it is necessary to revise the licensing system. For optimization of licensing in the field of RM transportation, a radical revision is needed for the Regulations of transportation of dangerous cargoes by automobiles, sanitary regulations, the GOST Dangerous Cargoes, numerous federal codes and norms issued by Rostekhnadzor in recent years. It is also necessary to review and coordinate various sanitary regulations for radiation safety, develop the Agreement on transit transportation of RM between the countries of the CIS

  17. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  18. Regulatory control and management of radioactive materials in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) by virtue of Republic Act 2067, as amended, Republic Act 5207 and Executive Order 128 (1987), was mandated to promote, advance and regulate the safe and peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology in the Philippines. The PNRI was formerly the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, established in 1958. This report aims to share the information and experience of PNRI as a regulatory authority on the administrative, technical and managerial aspects to ensure the safety and security of radioactive material in the country. It describes the country's regulatory framework, operational experiences, international co-operation including reporting system and database, and radiological safety assessment and compliance monitoring. It also briefly discusses the current development of the country's radiological emergency response plan and the radiation protection services offered by the PNRI. In the discussion and recommendations, some of the results of the regulatory information conferences conducted with the end-users are enumerated. (author)

  19. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  20. Data assimilation on atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin

    2006-01-01

    During a nuclear accident in which radionuclides are released to the atmosphere, off-site dose assessment using atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in facilitating optimized interventions, i.e. for mitigating the radiological consequences. By using data assimilation methods......, radiological observations, e.g. dose rate measurements, can be used to improve these model predictions and to obtain real-time estimates of the atmospheric dispersion parameters. This thesis examines data assimilation in the context of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. In particular, it presents...... greatly improved dose rate assessment. The Kalman filter method is found to be computationally efficient and therefore has the potential of becoming an efficient operational assimilation tool for nuclear emergency management. Empirical dispersion data are crucial in order to evaluate dose rate models and...

  1. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  2. Prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over six years the customs service of Russian Federation has been dealing with the new problem of preventing the illicit trafficking of FRM (fissionable and radioactive material) through customs. This retaliatory measure of the Russian government was undertaken after the incident with plutonium at the Munich airport in 1994. This new function is realized by solving two principal tasks: 1. Detection at the checkpoints of persons, goods, or means of transportation containing illegally transported FRM. 2. Organization of customs procedures and customs controls for FRM (export, import, and transit) in order to prevent FRM smuggling by their replacing or trafficking in quantities not corresponding to that declared on the state customs declaration. It would be impossible to fulfill these goals without specially designed technical means of detection and identification of FRM for customs control and without trained customs officers

  3. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry. Government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated 'lead department', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies. For their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nationwide response capability. (author)

  4. Spoken commands control robot that handles radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several robotic systems have been developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to handle radioactive material. Because of safety considerations, the robotic system must be under direct human supervision and interactive control continuously. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that permits this control, yet allows the robot to perform complex preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. To provide better interactive control, we connected to the robot's control computer, a speech synthesis unit, which provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus upon completion of a task or if an emergency arises, an appropriate spoken message can be reported by the control computer. The training programming and operation of this commercially available system are discussed, as are the practical problems encountered during operations

  5. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards

  6. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability

  7. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN SOME BUILDING MATERIALS USING A GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER

    OpenAIRE

    AKKURT, Iskender; Betül MAVİ

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for the natural radioactivity in the earth is decay series of 40K, 238U and 232Th radionuclides. Because all building materials are soil product, they contain these radionuclides as natural so that building materials have different amounts of radioactivity. In this study the concentrations of natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used natural building materials in Isparta region have been determined. The samples have been analysed using a NaI(Tl) ƒ×-ray spectrometer sy...

  8. Transportation of radioactive materials issued from the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the context of radioactive material transportation (types of transported materials, applicable constraints), the author describes the different kinds of packaging used during the different stages of the fuel cycle in the case of light water reactors: ore concentrates, UF4 and UF6, low enriched uranium oxide, impoverished uranium oxide, plutonium oxide, new UO2 and MOX fuel assemblies, irradiated fuel assemblies aimed at processing-recycling, uranyl nitrate, warehousing of irradiated fuels before final storage, wastes (high, very low, low and medium activity). He briefly evokes packaging for the case of fast neutron or fusion reactors. He discusses the various aspects of packaging design: safety function, applicable constraints and tests, design and material choice with respect with various issues (criticality, confinement, biological protection, heat transfer, mechanical resistance and shock damping properties, radiolysis and thermolysis, interfaces with transportation installations and means). He describes how packaging is exploited: life cycle management, fabrication, exploitation, maintenance and spare parts, end of life, documentation. He addresses how transportation is organised by evoking transport means and modes, and transport commissioning

  9. Assessment of the US Department of Transportation's radioactive materials routing report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) requires postnotification of highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and NRC-licensed shippers of designated quantities of radioactive materials provide this post-notification to DOT. DOT compiles the routing data in the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT). The RAMRT may be a useful source of data for research and development leading to improved safety and efficiency of highway shipments of radioactive materials

  10. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material provide standards for ensuring a high level of safety of people, property and the environment against radiation and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive material. The basic requirements to be met are: Effective containment of radioactive material; Effective control of radiation emitted from the package; A subcritical condition for any fissile material; and Adequate dissipation of any heat generated within the package. Effective quality assurance and compliance assurance programmes are required, for example: (a) Appropriate and sound packages are used; (b) The activity of radioactive material in each package does not exceed the regulatory activity limit for that material and that package type; (c) The radiation levels external to, and the contamination levels on, surfaces of packages do not exceed the appropriate limits; (d) Packages are properly marked and labelled and transport documents are completed; (e) the number of packages containing radioactive material in a conveyance is within the regulatory limits; (f) Packages of radioactive material are stowed in conveyances and are stored at a safe distance from persons and photosensitive materials; (g) Only those transport and lifting devices which have been tested are used in loading, conveying and unloading packages of radioactive material; and (h) Packages of radioactive material are properly secured for transport. The control of the transport of radioactive materials may be necessary also for other reasons, e.g. safeguards control and physical protection of nuclear materials and control of a property. For radioactive materials having other dangerous properties, the regulations of Member States, modal conventions and agreements, and other relevant documents of international organizations need to be applied. A Member State may require in its national regulations that an additional approval be

  11. Development and Building of Radioactive Concrete Pads for calibration of the airborne and ground gamma-ray spectrometers, used in mineral exploration and hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight transportable calibration pads were built in to be used as concentration standards for portable and airborne gamma-ray spectrometers calibrations. The pads construction procedure is described in full detail. The pads, with dimensions of 1 m x 1 m x 0,30 m and masses between 593 kg and 673 kg were made radioactive by the addition of different amounts of k-feldspar, caldasite and monazitic sand to the concrete masses. The potassium, uranium and thorium concentration vary significantly in the pads, reaching maximum values of 5,7% of K, 45,6 ppm eU and 137 ppm eTh. The distribution of the gamma radiation flux from the pads surfaces and the heterogeneity magnitudes of the radioactive elements concentration were experimentally established. An example of gamma-ray spectrometer calibration is presented. (author)

  12. Prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Countries like Russia, which have a large nuclear industry, export a significant number of radioactive sources and substances. Some of them are nuclear material. In general, it is the task of the customs inspectors to verify that the content of the shipment is in agreement with the declaration (as safeguards inspectors verify operators declarations). In case of other goods, this is easy. The consignment can be opened and the content can be seen and compared with the declaration. In the case of radioactive shipments this cannot be done. The radioactive substance is in a shielded container and opening is often only possible in a hot cell. Opening of the package and measurement of the removed source in presence of the customs inspector is impossible because the customs inspector is impossible because the customs control begins only after the declaration has been registered. Therefore, the Russian customs authorities have contracted a company to develop a gamma spectrometer, which can be used to verify the source, even if inside the shielded shipping container. Throughout the country - near the where many shipments or receivables take place - there are 18 customs offices, equipped with gamma spectrometers and special software. If a container arrives for customs inspection, its design is called from a database. Then the gamma spectrum outside the container is measured and the measured gamma peak energy and intensity is compared with the expected, which is calculated by software based on the design information of the container. This approach works well. Several cases were already discovered in Russia, where there were attempts to use legal shipments for smuggling radioactive sources. I would like to mention some technical problems concerning control of legal export and import of radioactive sources: a) There are not enough commercial suppliers, which offer the needed equipment; because of lack of competition prices for the equipment are too high b) Presently

  13. Radioactive materials deposition in Iwate prefecture, northeast japan, due to the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideyuki

    2013-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011, and additional tsunami gave the big damage along the pacific coastline of the northeast Japan. Tsunami also caused the accident of Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP), released of massive amount of radioactive materials to all over the northeast to central Japan. Ministry of Education, cultural, sports, science and technology (MEXT), Japan, carried out the airborne monitoring survey on several times, however, it is impossible to know the deposition of low level radiation under 0.1μSv/h. On the other hand, radioactive material was detected in Iwate by farm and livestock products, and it was necessary to understand an accurate contamination status in Iwate prefecture. Behavior of radioactive material is very similar to the ashfall by the volcanic eruption. Therefore, it is possible to apply the knowledge of volcanology to evaluation of the natural radiation dose. The author carried out the detailed contamination mapping across the Iwate prefecture. To γ-ray measurement, using scintillation counter A2700 of the clearpulse, measured on 1m grass field above ground, for one minute. The total measurement point became more than 800 point whole in Iwate. Field survey were carried out from April to November, 2011, therefore, it is necessary to consider to the half - life of the radioactive element of the cesium 134 and 137. In this study, the author reconstructed a deposition of April, 2011, just after the accident. In addition, the author also carried out the revision of the natural radiation dose included in the granite and so on. From the result, Concentration of radioactive materials depend on the topography, it tend to high concentrate in the basin or along the valley. The feeble deposition 0.01-0.2μsv/h with the radioactive material was recognized in whole prefecture. High contamination area distributed over the E-W directions widely in the southern part of the prefecture, and it also existence of the

  14. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1988. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  15. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A., E-mail: A.Shakhashiro@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Wershofen, H. [Environmental Radioactivity, PTP, Braunschweig (Germany); Bollhoefer, A. [Environmental Radioactivity, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Darwin (Australia); Kim, C.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kim, C.S. [Department of Environmental Radioactivity Assessment, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Former collaborator) (Korea, Republic of); Kis-Benedek, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Korun, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lee, S.H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tarjan, S. [Central Radiological Laboratory, Hungarian Agricultural Authority, Budapest (Hungary); Al-Masri, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2011-01-15

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  16. Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials: 1987 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From time to time, the issue as to whether the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NARM) is raised. Because NARM exists in the environment, in homes, in workplaces, in medical institutions, and in consumer products, the issue of Federal controls over NARM is very old and very complex. This report presents a review of NARM sources and uses as well as incidents and problems associated with those materials. A review of previous congressional and Federal agency actions on radiation protection matters, in general, and on NARM, in particular, is provided to develop an understanding of existing Federal regulatory activity in ionizing radiation and in control of NARM. In addition, State controls over NARM are reviewed. Eight questions are examined in terms of whether the NRC should seek legislative authority to regulate NARM. The assessment of these questions serves as the basis for developing and evaluating five options. The evaluation of those options leads to two recommendations

  17. Development of a sampler to characterize radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to find a method of decontamination for nuclear contaminated objects without generating large amounts of radioactive waste. In order to develop an appropriate method it's necessary to know how much the object is contaminated and what the contaminant is. The project focus was to develop a sampler that may give this information with high precision, generating few waste and easy to operate. The sampler used a pulsed Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) laser in its fundamental wavelength of 1064nm to ablate the materials surface, then the particulates generated by the ablation were sucked by a vacuum pump, collected by a filter and then analyzed in a gamma spectrometer to determine which contaminants were present in the sample. A set of two mirrors attached to two DC motors was controlled by a computer interface using the software LabView to make the laser beam scan and ablate a determined area of the materials surface. (author)

  18. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA Safety Series No 6 and SAGSTRAM have gone - long live ST-1 and TRANSSAC. Yes, the styles remain the same but improvements have occurred and should continue. At IAEA, transport safety previously had a senior advisory group SAGSTRAM (Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material). With the establishment of the Department of Nuclear Safety at IAEA, a review of supporting advisory committees was undertaken. There are now four Safety Standards Advisory Committees, one each for transport, waste, radiation and nuclear safety. An advisory Commission on Safety Standards has also been established as an overseeing commission. The Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC) currently has 18 members together with observers from international organisations and advisers: it had its second meeting in March 1997. IAEA publications are now known as the 'Safety Standards Series' and those related to transport safety are in the category 'safe transport' with publication numbers prefixed by 'ST'. The 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations is ST-1. There are some major changes, with a new high integrity package (Type C), radionuclide-specific exemption values and a new material category of low dispersible material (LDM). In addition, there are revisions relating to criticality safety and to packages containing uranium hexafluoride. There is a register of UN numbers linked to the Schedules of Requirements for Specified Consignments. The regulations remain complex with extensive cross-referencing. Names and numbers are a useful means of identification but policy and content are the important matters. With the recent publication of the latest edition of the IAEA transport regulations, TRANSSAC had the opportunity to review the draft revisions of the supporting documents. The explanatory and advisory material have been combined into one document (ST-2) and transport emergency response information will be published as ST-3. TRANSSAC agreed

  19. A proposal for an international tagging system for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In an earlier paper based on our experience with lost or abundant radiation sources, we have discussed the need of an international tagging system for radioactive materials for the purpose of insuring trackability, accountability and safety. In this paper we take our discussion further by presenting a proposal of establishing such an international tagging system for radioactive materials which we call ITS-RM. The elements of ITS-RM: IAEA is to be the international authority in charge of ITS-RM; Each 'significant' radiation source is to be labeled with a unique number at the point of production. This number is identified as ITS-RM number; The term 'significant' can be defined in light of current international standards; As each source is naturally possessed by some legal notion or international entity, each time this entity is changed (e.g. the source is sold, resold, transported, decommissioned etc.) the process of changing hand is registered at IAEA via the ITS-RM number; No source is to change hands without triggering ITS-RM; Even if a source finds its way to a waste facility it will remain tagged indefinitely. The requirement for ITS-RM: Legal requirement: this issue needs to be studied to find out weather anew international treaty needs to be established or ITS-RM can be applied under existing treaties; Organizational requirements: This can be easily done with the framework if IAEA and national counterparts; Consultation requirements: ITS-RM can only work if it is done through complete consultation and cooperation with manufactures. Old and current sources: An effort is to be made to survey and tag current sources; Priorities will be given as follows: first to new sources second to current sources the comes last old sources, particularly those in storage facilities; ITS-RM is not to compete with any existing safety system, national or internationally, to the contrary is to support safety. ITS-RM advantages are many but in particular we have

  20. Compatibility of radioactive materials transportation with railroad operations: two views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has a growing need for safe, economical and efficient transport of nuclear spent fuel and similar radioactive materials. In most cases railroads are the clearly economic mode of transport. Many US rail carriers have shown an increasing reluctance - in some instances an outright refusal - to handle these commodities. This is in spite of very stringent packaging and safety regulations, and a virtually perfect accident record to date. Following several years of fruitless discussions with the railroads on this issue, the nuclear industry filed several complaints with the Interstate Commerce Commission seeking to force the railroads to handle this traffic in normal operations. The history and results of the investigations stemming from these complaints are covered in other papers. The testimony, exhibits and briefs submitted in these cases illustrate the reasons for the railroads' safety concerns and why they believe certain train operating restrictions will produce a safer transport environment. Despite the acknowledged sturdiness of spent fuel casks, the rail industry has not been convinced that the tests and model simulations used by the nuclear industry to design and certify casks adequately portrayed the forces actually generated in a railroad accident. The most significant of the operating changes proposed by the carriers in response to this concern was the requirement that spent fuel be moved only in special trains.According to the railroads, this would permit closer monitoring; reduce both the probability and consequences of accidents; permit better control of speeds; and minimize switching and terminal handling. A review of the material submitted by both the protestants and respondents in these proceedings provides a clearer understanding of the litigants' respective positions, as well as some insights into practical railroading as it pertains to the transportation of nuclear materials

  1. Radiation and Radioactivity Levels Survey of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) at PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) is the largest oil company sharing contractor with Pertamina, located in Riau Province, Central Sumatera, employs about 6,800 employees and works together with 28,000 business partner employees. Currently CPI produces about 510,000 bbls crude oil. The production process mobilizes the naturally occurring radionuclides from deep reservoir rock that are deposited as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in well tubes, surface pipes, vessels and other processing equipment. NORM has a potential to be externally exposed during production process due to the accumulation of gamma emitting radionuclides and internal exposure to employees/business partners particularly during maintenance, sludge processing and decontamination of equipment. Understanding of the possible NORM hazards to human life, CPI initiated a NORM survey in order to obtain a clear picture of the magnitude of NORM in CPI operations. The survey has been conducted in 2001 and 2002 involved experts from Chevron Texaco USA, BATAN and BAPETEN Jakarta. The survey covered the determination of gamma exposure rates and the concentration of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K in several samples taken from scale, sludge, tank bottom and sand. To safely management of NORM, the Industrial Health Team of Corporate Health, Environment and Safety in coordination with Training Center Team and BATAN have conducted a NORM training for Industrial Hygienist and employees exposed to NORM, developed Standard Operating Procedure for NORM Handling and Disposal and continuously performed NORM survey and mapping of all suspected areas. (author)

  2. Software Development of Display Interface in Walk-Through Metal and Radioactive Materials Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yong; WANG; Qiang; GAO; Qi; TIAN; Li-jun; YANG; Lu; ZHENG; Yu-lai; GUO; Feng-mei

    2012-01-01

    <正>With the advanced digital detecting technology, Walk-through metal and radioactive materials detector (MRMD) was specifically designed for detecting metal and radioactive materials carried on a person. It has advantages of safe, high sensitivity, fine anti-interference capability, 24 h continually working, sound and light alarming.

  3. Probability and severity of fires on board ships carrying radioactive materials. Annex 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the five UK contributions to the International Atomic Energy Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Accident Severity at Sea During Transport of Radioactive Material (CRP) on Accident Severity at Sea During Transport of Radioactive Material. (author)

  4. Users manual. Pursuit program of use licenses of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the program 'Databases for the pursuit of licenses of use of radioactive material', it consists on the application of a computer system carried out in dbase IV that it allows the control of the all the information related with those licenses for use, possession and storage of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations. (Author)

  5. Law project on the radioactive materials and wastes management 2006 recommendations presented by Anne Duthilleul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides recommendations on the law project concerning the radioactive material and wastes management. It precises the law objectives, the french particularities concerning the radioactive wastes and materials management, the public debate in France, the evaluation of the researches, the recommendations of the economic and social council. (A.L.B.)

  6. Manual of use and accounting of radioactive material and procedures of radiological protection for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual of use and accounting of material radioactive and procedures of radiological safety tries to facilitate workings of protection of material radioactive in services of medicine nuclear, during diagnosis (examinations with x-rays, or those that are made in nuclear medicine), or during the processing of diseases, mainly of the carcinomas (x-ray)

  7. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1996--June 6, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1997 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1996 and June 6, 1997. Fifty bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste, storage and emergency response. Also summarized are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  8. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year, the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation. The 1995 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. Forty-six bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency responsiveness. Also included are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  9. Monitoring for Radioactive Material in International Mail Transported by Public Postal Operators. Reference Manual (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The illegal transport of conventional explosives and biological material has been observed in public mail and could lead to serious health hazards. In response to Member States' requests to establish guidance for detecting the movement of radioactive material in international mail, the IAEA and the Universal Postal Union (UPU) undertook a joint effort to prepare this publication. It considers how radioactive materials in international mail might be detected, how best to monitor for these materials in mail facilities and how to respond appropriately. This publication brings together a concise but comprehensive description of the various techniques and equipment used to detect and control radioactive material during mail processing.

  10. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the problems of 'small users' of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is the independent body that advises the UK Government, including the devolved administrations for Scotland and Wales, on issues relating to the management of civil radioactive waste. Radioactive wastes are produced by the civil nuclear industry, by the Ministry of Defence, and by a varied group of organisations known as 'Small Users'. Small Users include hospitals, universities and some non-nuclear industries, which use radioactive materials and, in turn, produce radioactive waste. In 1991, and again in 1996, RWMAC provided the Government with advice on the problems encountered by Small Users. These difficulties were associated both with specific aspects of the radioactive waste management required and with the controls exercised by the regulators. As part of its work programme for 1999-2000, Ministers asked the Committee to return to these issues. In volume, Small User radioactive wastes make up only a small part of the total UK inventory. However, like those produced by the nuclear and defence sectors, it is vital that they are managed properly, as some carry the potential for considerable harm. Equally, it is important that the financial costs imposed on Small Users as a result of regulation are commensurate with the actual health risk involved. Otherwise, for example, the benefits accruing from use of radioactive materials in medicine might be prejudiced. We have tried to strike an appropriate balance in arriving at the views set out in our report. The report draws attention to a number of areas that Government could usefully consider in respect of Small User waste management, possibly as part of its forthcoming radioactive waste management policy review. A key issue is the need to get to grips with the problem of historic redundant radioactive sources held under registration by Small Users. Many such sources are in the public sector and, under current funding arrangements, Small Users encounter

  11. Route-specific analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses a methodology for route-specific analysis, of which route-selection is one aspect. Identification and mitigation of specific hazards along a chosen route is another important facet of route-specific analysis. Route-selection and route-specific mitigation are two tools to be used in minimizing the risk of radioactive materials transportation and promoting public confidence. Other tools exist to improve the safety of transportation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Selection of a transportation mode and other, non-route-specific measures, such as improved driver training and improved cask designs, are additional tools to minimize transportation risk and promote public confidence. This report addresses the route-specific analysis tool and does not attempt to evaluate its relative usefulness as compared to other available tools. This report represents a preliminary attempt to develop a route-specific analysis methodlogy. The Western Interstate Energy Board High-Level Waste Committee has formed a Route-Specific Analysis Task Force which will build upon the methodology proposed in this Staff Report. As western states continue to investigate route-specific analysis issues, it is expected that the methodology will evolve into a more refined product representing the views of a larger group of interested parties in the West

  12. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials on conveyances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commission of the European Communities has financed some research work carried out jointly by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'' and the belgian company ''TRANSNUBEL'', in the field of stowing containers for radioactive materials on trucks. 2 reference type accidents are selected: . a front-end collision against a rigid barrier at an impact speed of 50 km/h . a side-on collision of an impacting vehicle at a speed of 25-35 km/h against a truck loaded with a container. A mathematical model has been developed by means of the CEA Trico code to compute a frontal impact in which the container (1.3 t weight), is stowed by means of 4 tie-down members, each for a nominal load of 2 t. Results indicate the stowing being insufficient and the attachment points too weak to keep the container on the platform. Real tests have been performed to verify these results. Tie-down members and chocks have been defined on the basis of static- and dynamic tests for being used in 8 crash tests. Different containers (low- and high center of gravity) and different ways of stowing have been tried out. An attempt is made to work a code of good practice for stowing, by means of tie-down members and chocks, packages on a truck platform. 19 refs

  13. IAEA reference materials for quality assurance of marine radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory has been assisting laboratories in Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) for the analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment since the early seventies. AQCS through world-wide and regional intercomparison exercises and the provision of reference methods and reference materials (RM) have been recognized as an important component of quality assurance/quality control. A total of 43 intercomparison exercises were organized and 37 RM were produced for marine radioactivity studies. All important marine matrices were covered, e.g., seawater, marine sediments of different chemical compositions, fish, shellfish and seaplants. RM were prepared from samples collected at contaminated sites (e.g., the Irish Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Arabian Sea, Mururoa and Bikini Atolls, etc.) as well as from sites affected only by global fallout (e.g., the Pacific Ocean). Available RM are listed in the IAEA biennial catalogue and can be purchased at a minimal price. An overview of prepared RM for radionuclides in marine matrices is presented and discussed in more detail. (author)

  14. Safe transport of radioactive material : revised international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1961 the IAEA at the request of the United Nations Economic and Social Council has issued advisory Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, published as IAEA Safety Series No. 6. These regulations have come to be recognized throughout the world as the uniform basis for both national and international transport safety requirements in this area. Requirements based on the IAEA regulations are known to have been adopted in 59 countries, as well a by the International Civil Aviation Organization the Internatioanl Maritime Organization, and regional transport organizations. Recognizing the need to keep the regulations up-to-date with the latest radiation protection principles and evolving transport technologies, the IAEA has regularly issued revisions to the transport regulations. Most recently the revisions have taken place at approximately 10-year intervals and the latest revision began in 1986. In September 1996 the IAEA Board of Governors approved the 1996 draft for publication. From a technical perspective, this article briefly reviews the major changes incorporated in the latest revision of the newly issued regulations. (author)

  15. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packages must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved quality assurance program

  16. Sor/89-426, 24 August 1989, transport packaging of radioactive materials regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations of 24 September 1983 were amended mainly to clarify the original text and further specify certain requirements. In particular, the definitions of A1, A2, Fissile Class III package and special Form Radioactive Material have been revoked and replaced by new definitions. Also, a new condition has been added regarding Special Form Radioactive Material. Henceforth, no such material may be transported without a certificate attesting that the material meets the requirements set out in Schedule XII of the Regulations

  17. Sorption-reagent materials in liquid radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the factors causing ecological problems at nuclear power units functioning is a large quantity of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) formed. LRW treatment and, in particular, removal of long-lived radionuclides comprise a serious problem from the ecological safety point of view. Good prospects of using selective sorbents and new sorption-reagent materials (SRM) developed in the Institute of Chemistry (Far East Department, Russian Academy of Sciences) in LRW management have been shown. Mechanism of sorption and factors affecting the strontium sorption efficiency has been analyzed with using SRM on the basis of inorganic hydroxides as an example. The principal difference between sorption-reagent systems (SRS) and other sorbents is that in the former, simultaneously with ion exchange reactions, takes place the formation of insoluble precipitate inside the sorbent porous matrix. This process results in increasing selectivity of strontium removal from high-salinity solutions. Such a mechanism combining ion exchange and chemical reactions (RIEX) enables one to benefit on precipitation process advantages (removal of radionuclide non-ionic forms) without excessive complication of the process technological setup at large. It is possible to use SRM successfully in the simplest and the best in economical terms dynamic regime (filtration of solution through a stationary sorbent layer). Application of SRM in real LRW management is considered on the example of pilot-plant tests of the sorption installation Barrier at the Russian Pacific Navy facilities and LRW decontamination unit used at decommissioned nuclear submarines. Technological setups and test results are presented. They show that use of sorption-reagent materials enables one to achieve LRW decontamination factors up to 106 and, therefore, provide a reliable decontamination of LRW from submarines to be decommissioned. (Author)

  18. Radiological dose assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials in concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that the natural radioactivity contained in building materials have significantly influenced the dose rates in dwelling. Exposure to natural radiation in building has been of concerned since almost 80 % of our daily live are spend indoor. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the radiological risk associated by natural radioactivity in soil based building materials to dwellers. A total of 13 Portland cement, 46 sand and 43 gravel samples obtained from manufacturers or bought directly from local hardware stores in Peninsular of Malaysia were analysed for their radioactivity concentrations. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the studied building materials samples were found to be in the range of 3.7-359.3, 2.0-370.8 and 10.3-1,949.5 Bq kg-1 respectively. The annual radiation dose rates (μSv year-1) received by dwellers were evaluated for 1 to 50 years of exposure using Resrad-Build Computer Code based on the activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K found in the studied building material samples. The rooms modelling were based on the changing parameters of concrete wall thickness and the room dimensions. The annual radiation dose rates to dwellers were found to increase annually over a period of 50 years. The concrete thicknesses were found to have significantly influenced the dose rates in building. The self-absorption occurred when the concrete thickness was thicker than 0.4 m. Results of this study shows that the dose rates received by the dwellers of the building are proportional to the size of the room. In general the study concludes that concrete building materials; Portland cements, sands, and gravels in Peninsular of Malaysia does not pose radiological hazard to the building dwellers. (author)

  19. Determination of macroconstituents and trace elements in naturally occurring radioactive material in oil exploration waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) contain radionuclides, such as radium, thorium, and uranium. The existence of NORM remains an issue for oil and gas exploration because once the material becomes concentrated through technological activity, it becomes a radioactive contamination hazard or a radioactive waste. Pipes and tanks used to handle large volumes of produced water at some oil-field sites are coated with scale deposits that contain high levels 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb. Experiments were conducted using thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression for the determination of macroconstituents and trace elements in the radioactive scale sample. (author)

  20. International measures needed to protect metal recycling facilities from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In almost every major city and region of every country, there is a recycling facility that is designed to process or consume scrap metal. These same countries will probably have widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. This material and equipment will have metal as a primary component of its housing or instrumentation. It is this metal that will cause these sources of radioactivity, when lost, stolen or mishandled, to be taken to a metal recycling facility to be sold for the value of the metal. This is the problem that has faced scrap recycling facilities for many years. The recycling industry has spent millions of dollars for installation of radiation monitors and training in identification of radioactive material. It has expended millions more for the disposal of radioactive material that has mistakenly entered these facilities. Action must be taken to prevent this material from entering the conventional recycling process. There are more than 2,300 known incidents of radioactive material found in recycled metal scrap. Worldwide, more than 50 smeltings of radioactive sources have been confirmed. Seven fatal accidents involving uncontrolled radioactive material have also been documented. Hazardous exposures to radioactive material have plagued not just the workers at metal recycling facilities. The families of these workers, including their children, have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of radioactivity. The threat from this material does not stop there. Radioactive material that is not caught at recycling facilities can be melted and the radioactivity has been found in construction materials used to build homes, as well as shovels, fencing material, and furniture offered for sale to the general public. The time has come for the international community to address the issue of the uncontrolled sources of radioactive material. The following are the key points that must be addressed. (i) Identification of sources