WorldWideScience

Sample records for airborne plume monitoring

  1. Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapelushnik, I.; Sheinfeld, M.; Avida, R.; Kadmon, Y.; Ellenbogen, M.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System (ARMS) monitors air or ground radioactive contamination. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. The system is based on two major parts, an airborne unit carried by a helicopter and a ground station carried by a truck. The system enables real time measurement and analysis of radioactive plumes as well as post flight processing. The Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator purpose is to create a virtual space where the trained operators experience full radiation field conditions, without real radiation hazard. The ARMS is based on a flying platform and hence the simulator allows a significant reduction of flight time costs

  2. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-01-01

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  3. Software for airborne radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfeld, M.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.; Elhanany, I.; Gabovitch, A.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System monitors radioactive contamination in the air or on the ground. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. This system is composed of two major parts: Airborne Unit carried by a helicopter, and Ground Station carried by a truck. The Airborne software is intended to be the core of a computerized airborne station. The software is written in C++ under MS-Windows with object-oriented methodology. It has been designed to be user-friendly: function keys and other accelerators are used for vital operations, a help file and help subjects are available, the Human-Machine-Interface is plain and obvious. (authors)

  4. Airborne monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmon, Y.; Gabovitch, A.; Tirosh, D.; Ellenbogen, M.; Mazor, T.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A complete system for tracking, mapping, and performing a composition analysis of a radioactive plume and contaminated area was developed at the NRCN. The system includes two major units : An airborne unit for monitoring and a ground station for analyzing. The airborne unit is mounted on a helicopter and includes file following. Four radiation sensor, two 2'' x 2'' Nal (Tl) sensors horizontally separated by lead shield for mapping and spectroscopy, and two Geiger Mueller (GM) tubes as part of the safety system. A multichannel analyzer card is used for spectroscopy. A navigation system, based on GPS and a barometric altitude meter, is used to locate the plume or ground data. The telemetry system, consisting of a transceiver and a modem, transfers all the data in real time to the ground station. An industrial PC (Field Works) runs a dedicated C++ Windows application to manage the acquired data. An independent microprocessor based backup system includes a recorder, display, and key pad. The ground station is based on an industrial PC, a telemetry system, a color printer and a modem to communicate with automatic meteorology stations in the relevant area. A special software controls the ground station. Measurement results are analyzed in the ground station to estimate plume parameters including motion, location, size, velocity, and perform risk assessment. (authors)

  5. Airborne Detection and Dynamic Modeling of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jamey; Mitchell, Taylor; Whyte, Seabrook

    2015-11-01

    To facilitate safe storage of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4, airborne monitoring is investigated. Conventional soil gas monitoring has difficulty in distinguishing gas flux signals from leakage with those associated with meteorologically driven changes. A low-cost, lightweight sensor system has been developed and implemented onboard a small unmanned aircraft that measures gas concentration and is combined with other atmospheric diagnostics, including thermodynamic data and velocity from hot-wire and multi-hole probes. To characterize the system behavior and verify its effectiveness, field tests have been conducted over controlled rangeland burns and over simulated leaks. In the former case, since fire produces carbon dioxide over a large area, this was an opportunity to test in an environment that while only vaguely similar to a carbon sequestration leak source, also exhibits interesting plume behavior. In the simulated field tests, compressed gas tanks are used to mimic leaks and generate gaseous plumes. Since the sensor response time is a function of vehicle airspeed, dynamic calibration models are required to determine accurate location of gas concentration in (x , y , z , t) . Results are compared with simulations using combined flight and atmospheric dynamic models. Supported by Department of Energy Award DE-FE0012173.

  6. Background Radiance Estimation for Gas Plume Quantification for Airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Idoughi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging in the long-wave infrared (LWIR is a mean that is proving its worth in the characterization of gaseous effluent. Indeed the spectral and spatial resolution of acquisition instruments is steadily decreasing, making the gases characterization increasingly easy in the LWIR domain. The majority of literature algorithms exploit the plume contribution to the radiance corresponding to the difference of radiance between the plume-present and plume-absent pixels. Nevertheless, the off-plume radiance is unobservable using a single image. In this paper, we propose a new method to retrieve trace gas concentration from airborne infrared hyperspectral data. More particularly the outlined method improves the existing background radiance estimation approach to deal with heterogeneous scenes corresponding to industrial scenes. It consists in performing a classification of the scene and then applying a principal components analysis based method to estimate the background radiance on each cluster stemming from the classification. In order to determine the contribution of the classification to the background radiance estimation, we compared the two approaches on synthetic data and Telops Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS Imaging Hyper-Cam LW airborne acquisition above ethylene release. We finally show ethylene retrieved concentration map and estimate flow rate of the ethylene release.

  7. Characterizing the solar reflection from wildfire smoke plumes using airborne multiangle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Varnai, T.; Gautam, R.; Poudyal, R.; Singh, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    To help better understand forest fire smoke plumes, this study examines sunlight reflected from plumes that were observed over Canada during the ARCTAS campaign in summer 2008. In particular, the study analyzes multiangle and multispectral measurements of smoke scattering by the airborne Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR). In combination with other in-situ and remote sensing information and radiation modeling, CAR data is used for characterizing the radiative properties and radiative impact of smoke particles—which inherently depend on smoke particle properties that influence air quality. In addition to estimating the amount of reflected and absorbed sunlight, the work includes using CAR data to create spectral and broadband top-of-atmosphere angular distribution models (ADMs) of solar radiation reflected by smoke plumes, and examining the sensitivity of such angular models to scene parameters. Overall, the results help better understand the radiative properties and radiative effects of smoke particles, and are anticipated to help better interpret satellite data on smoke plumes.

  8. In situ Volcanic Plume Monitoring with small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Cal/Val of Satellite Remote Sensing Data: CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of sensor packages, enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes. Using Costa Rican volcanoes as a Natural Laboratory, the University of Costa Rica as host institution, in collaboration with four NASA centers, have started an initiative to develop low-cost, field-deployable airborne platforms to perform volcanic gas & ash plume research, and in-situ volcanic monitoring in general, in conjunction with orbital assets and state-of-the-art models of plume transport and composition. Several gas sensors have been deployed into the active plume of Turrialba Volcano including a miniature mass spectrometer, and an electrochemical SO2 sensor system with temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and GPS sensors. Several different airborne platforms such as manned research aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered balloons, as well as man-portable in-situ ground truth systems are being used for this research. Remote sensing data is also collected from the ASTER and OMI spaceborne instruments and compared with in situ data. The CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission deployment and follow up measurements successfully demonstrated a path to study and visualize gaseous volcanic emissions using mass spectrometer and gas sensor based instrumentation in harsh environment conditions to correlate in situ ground/airborne data with remote sensing satellite data for calibration and validation purposes. The deployment of such technology improves on our current capabilities to detect, analyze, monitor, model, and predict hazards presented to aircraft by volcanogenic ash clouds from active and impending volcanic eruptions.

  9. Lidar and airborne investigation of smoke plume characteristics: Kootenai Creek Fire case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Urbanski; V. Kovalev; W. M. Hao; C. Wold; A. Petkov

    2010-01-01

    A ground-based scanning lidar was utilized with a set of airborne instruments to acquire measurements of smoke plume dynamics, smoke aerosol distribution and chemical composition in the vicinity of active wildfires in the western U.S. A new retrieval technique was used for processing lidar multiangle measurements. The technique determines the location of...

  10. ZPR-9 airborne plutonium monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusch, G.K.; McDowell, W.P.; Knapp, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne plutonium monitoring system which is installed in the ZPR-9 (Zero Power Reactor No. 9) facility at Argonne National Laboratory is described. The design and operational experience are discussed. This monitoring system utilizes particle size and density discrimination, alpha particle energy discrimination, and a background-subtraction techique operating in cascade to separate airborne-plutonium activity from other, naturally occurring, airborne activity. Relatively high sensitivity and reliability are achieved

  11. Monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scollo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the results of a project ongoing at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV. The objective is to develop and implement a system for monitoring and forecasting volcanic plumes of Etna. Monitoring is based at present by multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite, visual and thermal cameras, and three radar disdrometers able to detect ash dispersal and fallout. Forecasting is performed by using automatic procedures for: i downloading weather forecast data from meteorological mesoscale models; ii running models of tephra dispersal, iii plotting hazard maps of volcanic ash dispersal and deposition for certain scenarios and, iv publishing the results on a web-site dedicated to the Italian Civil Protection. Simulations are based on eruptive scenarios obtained by analysing field data collected after the end of recent Etna eruptions. Forecasting is, hence, supported by plume observations carried out by the monitoring system. The system was tested on some explosive events occurred during 2006 and 2007 successfully. The potentiality use of monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, in a way to prevent threats to aviation from volcanic ash, is finally discussed.

  12. Development and study of airborne spectrometer system being compatible with nuclear emergency monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangqi, Fang; Huaiwu, Wang; Mingkao, Hu; Renkang, Gu

    2002-01-01

    The exploitation and use of nuclear energy are of great importance to developing of national economy and maintaining state security. But it also has a possibility of serious accident. Based on the principles of airborne gamma ray spectrometry in the uranium exploration, nuclear emergency monitoring has been developed. This method has high sensitivity to the radioactive nuclides in the air and on the ground, and with the advantage of fast measuring in large area. Hence, in the middle of 1980s, some developed countries began to survey the scope and degree of nuclear accident contamination and environmental radiation level monitoring in the surrounding nuclear facilities, it can also be used to search for the lost radioactive sources. According to the actual situation and compatible guideline, National Nuclear Emergency Office consigned this project to our Center. After development and study on the Airborne gamma ray spectrometer system associated NaI(Tl) used for the uranium exploration, a compatible spectrometer system associated NaI(Tl) was established in a short period by us, which can fulfill airborne nuclear emergency survey basically. In normal situation, it was proved that the start-up time is less than two hours including transport to the airport. The system has high sensitivity to radioactive plume of 41 Ar and can respond rapidly to artificial sources, such as 192 Ir, 60 Co, 137 Cs and 131 I etc

  13. Wireless Sensor Network Based Subsurface Contaminant Plume Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    Sensor Network (WSN) to monitor contaminant plume movement in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations to advance the sensor networking based...time to assess the source and predict future plume behavior. This proof-of-concept research aimed at demonstrating the use of an intelligent Wireless

  14. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yihua, Xia [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  15. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yihua

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  16. The airborne lava-seawater interaction plume at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Gerlach, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Lava flows into the sea at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, and generates an airborne gas and aerosol plume. Water (H2O), hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gases were quantified in the plume in 2004–2005, using Open Path Fourier Transform infra-red Spectroscopy. The molar abundances of these species and thermodynamic modelling are used to discuss their generation. The range in molar HCl / H2O confirms that HCl is generated when seawater is boiled dry and magnesium salts are hydrolysed (as proposed by [T.M. Gerlach, J.L. Krumhansl, R.O. Fournier, J. Kjargaard, Acid rain from the heating and evaporation of seawater by molten lava: a new volcanic hazard, EOS (Trans. Am. Geophys. Un.) 70 (1989) 1421–1422]), in contrast to models of Na-metasomatism. Airborne droplets of boiled seawater brine form nucleii for subsequent H2O and HCl condensation, which acidifies the droplets and liberates CO2 gas from bicarbonate and carbonate. NO2 is derived from the thermal decomposition of nitrates in coastal seawater, which takes place as the lava heats droplets of boiled seawater brine to 350–400 °C. SO2 is derived from the degassing of subaerial lava flows on the coastal plain. The calculated mass flux of HCl from a moderate-sized ocean entry significantly increases the total HCl emission at Kīlauea (including magmatic sources) and is comparable to industrial HCl emitters in the United States. For larger lava ocean entries, the flux of HCl will cause intense local environmental hazards, such as high localised HCl concentrations and acid rain.

  17. High resolution and simultaneous monitoring of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Muguntha Manikandan, N.; Komura, K.

    2005-01-01

    By using 11 extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory, it became possible to investigate temporal variations of airborne 212 Pb (T 1/2 =10.6 h) along with 210 Pb and 7 Be with order of magnitude higher time resolution. Then, we have measured airborne nuclides at three monitoring points, (1) roof of our laboratory (LLRL; 40 m ASL), (2) Shinshiku Plateau (640 m ASL) located about 8 km from LLRL as a comparison of vertical distribution, and (3) Hegura Island (10 m ASL) at about 50 km from Wajima located north of Noto Peninsula facing on the Sea of Japan (about 180 km to the north-northeast of LLRL), to investigate influence of Asian continent. Airborne nuclides were collected by high volume air samplers at intervals of a few hours at either two or three points simultaneously. In the same manner, high resolution monitoring was carried out also at the time of passage of typhoon and cold front. In this study, we observed drastic temporal variations of airborne radionuclides and correlations of multiple monitoring points. The results indicate that high resolution and simultaneous monitoring is very useful to understand dynamic state of variations of airborne nuclides due to short and long-term air-mass movement. (author)

  18. New developments in continuous monitoring of airborne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Air monitors that operate continuously are used in nuclear facilities to detect unexpected malfunctions in controls that limit levels of airborne radioactivity in occupied area. Monitoring for concentrations of alpha-emitting transuranics is the most difficult task in air monitoring. Workplace monitoring for alpha emitters requires a detection level ∼2% that of nonalpha-emitting radionuclides with a half-life >2 h. Typically, air monitoring is accomplished by passing a volume of the monitored air through a filter to collect the particulates. The filter is located near a detector that monitors the radioactivity of the collected particles and sends an alarm when the activity exceeds established limits. Alpha activity from daughters of thoron and radon, present in all air in variable amounts, hampers monitoring for transuranics. This presentation describes developments that have improved the accuracy and sensitivity for the monitoring of airborne concentration of transuranics

  19. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, N; Hazlehurst, T; Povey, M; Vieira, J; Sundara, R; Sandoz, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product

  20. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N.; Hazlehurst, T.; Povey, M.; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R.; Sandoz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product.

  1. Simulating Fine-Scale Marine Pollution Plumes for Autonomous Robotic Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine plumes exhibit characteristics such as intermittency, sinuous structure, shape and flow field coherency, and a time varying concentration profile. Due to the lack of experimental quantification of these characteristics for marine plumes, existing work often assumes marine plumes exhibit behavior similar to aerial plumes and are commonly modeled by filament based Lagrangian models. Our previous field experiments with Rhodamine dye plumes at Makai Research Pier at Oahu, Hawaii revealed that marine plumes show similar characteristics to aerial plumes qualitatively, but quantitatively they are disparate. Based on the field data collected, this paper presents a calibrated Eulerian plume model that exhibits the qualitative and quantitative characteristics exhibited by experimentally generated marine plumes. We propose a modified model with an intermittent source, and implement it in a Robot Operating System (ROS based simulator. Concentration time series of stationary sampling points and dynamic sampling points across cross-sections and plume fronts are collected and analyzed for statistical parameters of the simulated plume. These parameters are then compared with statistical parameters from experimentally generated plumes. The comparison validates that the simulated plumes exhibit fine-scale qualitative and quantitative characteristics similar to experimental plumes. The ROS plume simulator facilitates future evaluations of environmental monitoring strategies by marine robots, and is made available for community use.

  2. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-01

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these 'legacy' sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  3. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-08

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these "legacy" sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  4. Sediment plume monitoring in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Eynde, D.; Baeye, M.; Fettweis, M.; Francken, F.; Naudts, L.; Van Lancker, V.

    2014-01-01

    OD Nature has a vast experience in monitoring and modelling Suspended Particulate Matter concentration in shelf areas. In the framework of the JPI-Oceans cruise with the RV Sonne in the Belgian, French and German concession zones for deep-sea mining in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, this experience will be used to monitor sediments plumes, caused by deep-sea mning exploration activities.

  5. Mapping methane emissions using the airborne imaging spectrometer AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Thompson, D. R.; Duren, R. M.; Bue, B. D.; Green, R. O.

    2017-12-01

    The next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) has been used to survey large regions and map methane plumes with unambiguous identification of emission source locations. This capability is aided by real time detection and geolocation of gas plumes, permitting adaptive surveys and communication to ground teams for rapid follow up. We present results from AVIRIS-NG flight campaigns in Colorado, New Mexico, and California. Hundreds of plumes were observed, reflecting emissions from the energy sector that include hydraulic fracturing, gas processing plants, tanks, pumpjacks, and pipeline leaks. In some cases, plumes observed by AVIRIS-NG resulted in mitigation. Additional examples will be shown for methane from dairy lagoons, landfills, natural emissions, as well as carbon dioxide from power plants and refineries. We describe the unique capabilities of airborne imaging spectrometers to augment other measurement techniques by efficiently surveying key regions for methane point sources and supporting timely assessment and mitigation. We summarize the outlook for near- and longer-term monitoring capabilities including future satellite systems. Figure caption. AVIRIS-NG true color image subset with superimposed methane plume showing retrieved gas concentrations. Plume extends 200 m downwind of the southern edge of the well pad. Google Earth imagery with finer spatial resolution is also included (red box), indicating that tanks in the inset scene as the source of emissions. Five wells are located at the center of this well pad and all use horizontal drilling to produce mostly natural gas.

  6. Wildfire smoke in the Siberian Arctic in summer: source characterization and plume evolution from airborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present airborne measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, equivalent black carbon (EBC and ultra fine particles over North-Eastern Siberia in July 2008 performed during the YAK-AEROSIB/POLARCAT experiment. During a "golden day" (11 July 2008 a number of biomass burning plumes were encountered with CO mixing ratio enhancements of up to 500 ppb relative to a background of 90 ppb. Number concentrations of aerosols in the size range 3.5–200 nm peaked at 4000 cm−3 and the EBC content reached 1.4 μg m−3. These high concentrations were caused by forest fires in the vicinity of the landing airport in Yakutsk where measurements in fresh smoke could be made during the descent. We estimate a combustion efficiency of 90 ± 3% based on CO and CO2 measurements and a CO emission factor of 65.5 ± 10.8 g CO per kilogram of dry matter burned. This suggests a potential increase in the average northern hemispheric CO mixing ratio of 3.0–7.2 ppb per million hectares of Siberian forest burned. For BC, we estimate an emission factor of 0.52 ± 0.07 g BC kg−1, comparable to values reported in the literature. The emission ratio of ultra-fine particles (3.5–200 nm was 26 cm−3 (ppb CO−1, consistent with other airborne studies.

    The transport of identified biomass burning plumes was investigated using the FLEXPART Lagrangian model. Based on sampling of wildfire plumes from the same source but with different atmospheric ages derived from FLEXPART, we estimate that the e-folding lifetimes of EBC and ultra fine particles (between 3.5 and 200 nm in size against removal and growth processes are 5.1 and 5.5 days respectively, supporting lifetime estimates used in various modelling studies.

  7. New approach to airborne monitoring of radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschl, V.; Jurza, P.; Pavlik, B.

    1997-01-01

    The use of remote sensing methods in the monitoring of an environment is increasing. The best results are obtained when various types of exploration methods are available. This paper presents the use of airborne gamma ray methods, which can be included in a wide scope of works related to environmental problems. It may concern uranium mining areas, areas surrounding various nuclear facilities or areas of Chernobyl fallout. Gamma ray spectrometry data can be combined with airborne magnetic, surface gravity and satellite imagery data to obtain maximum information in data output. Airborne geophysics is able to detect and delineate radioactive contamination and to find important geological trends defining the geological structure of the monitored area. Our company PICODAS Prague Ltd. introduces new sophisticated airborne instrumentation as well as up-to-date data processing and data presentation techniques. In the Czech Cretaceous, a long term project, ''The Structurally-tectonic Survey of the South-West Foreland of the Straz Deposit'' has been undertaken, concerning the ecological load on the environment, especially the pollution of the underground water level horizons due to uranium mining in that area. The major interest is the complicated tectonic structure which interferes heavily with the hydrogeological situation of the region. The paper presents the results of airborne surveys and the interpretation of other geophysical data from the surroundings of Straz pod Ralskem and from Karlovy Vary. (author)

  8. Cost-effective management of hydrocarbon plumes using monitored natural attenuation: case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    Engineered remediation of hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at operating service station sites is expensive, disruptive, does not improve the management of risks to receptors, and does not provide certainty of outcome. When plumes are delineated, potential receptors identified and primary sources removed, monitored natural attenuation (MINA) is a cost-effective remediation option. If available, hydrocarbon concentration data from successive groundwater monitoring events showing that a plume is stable or reducing will provide enough primary evidence that natural attenuation is occurring. Where potential receptors will not be impacted in the short to medium term, MNA provides the same level of risk management as engineered remediation with much less cost, no disruption to the service station business, and with a certainty of meeting the objectives of the remediation

  9. Airborne Gamma-ray Measurements in the Chernobyl Plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasty, R. L.; Hovgaard, Jens; Multala, J.

    1997-01-01

    On 29 April 1986, the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF) survey aircraft with a gamma ray spectrometer flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The aircraft became contaminated and the gamma spectrometer measured radioactivity in the plume as well as radioactivity...

  10. Rates of volcanic CO2 degassing from airborne determinations of SO2 Emission rates and plume CO2SO2: test study at Pu′u ′O′o Cone, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Terrence M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Sutton, A. Jefferson; Elias, Tamar

    1998-01-01

    We present an airborne method that eliminates or minimizes several disadvantages of the customary plume cross-section sampling method for determining volcanic CO2 emission rates. A LI-COR CO2analyzer system (LICOR), a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer system (FTIR), and a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) were used to constrain the plume CO2/SO2 and the SO2 emission rate. The method yielded a CO2 emission rate of 300 td−1 (metric tons per day) for Pu′u ′O′o cone, Kilauea volcano, on 19 September 1995. The CO2/SO2 of 0.20 determined from airborne LICOR and FTIR plume measurements agreed with the CO2/SO2 of 204 ground-based samples collected from vents over a 14-year period since the Pu′u ′O′o eruption began in January 1983.

  11. Airborne systems for emergency radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter, C.; Boyns, P.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of aerial radiological monitoring systems are available to respond to a radiological accident or incident affecting large areas. These are operated by EG and G, Inc. for ERDA's Division of Operational Safety. A survey system can be airborne within approximately two hours after notification. Both airborne and terrestrial radioactivity can be measured and mapped. Special analysis procedures allow discrimination between radioactivity from most man-made radioelements and naturally occurring radioelements. A position accuracy of +-54 feet can be maintained over a large area survey. Detection sensitivity for gamma sources employing NaI detector arrays on board an airplane flying at 500 feet altitude is better than 2 μR/hr for surface planar contaminants and approximately 10 mCi for a point gamma source

  12. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsley, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  13. Monitor for detecting and assessing exposure to airborne nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Johan; Voetz, Matthias; Kiesling, Heinz-Juergen

    2010-01-01

    An important safety aspect of the workplace environment concerns the severity of its air pollution with nanoparticles (NP; <100 nm) and ultrafine particles (UFP; <300 nm). Depending on their size and chemical nature, exposure to these particles through inhalation can be hazardous because of their intrinsic ability to deposit in the deep lung regions and the possibility to subsequently pass into the blood stream. Recommended safety measures in the nanomaterials industry are pragmatic, aiming at exposure minimization in general, and advocating continuous control by monitoring both the workplace air pollution level and the personal exposure to airborne NPs. This article describes the design and operation of the Aerasense NP monitor that enables intelligence gathering in particular with respect to airborne particles in the 10-300 nm size range. The NP monitor provides real time information about their number concentration, average size, and surface areas per unit volume of inhaled air that deposit in the various compartments of the respiratory tract. The monitor's functionality relies on electrical charging of airborne particles and subsequent measurements of the total particle charge concentration under various conditions. Information obtained with the NP monitor in a typical workplace environment has been compared with simultaneously recorded data from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) capable of measuring the particle size distribution in the 11-1086 nm size range. When the toxicological properties of the engineered and/or released particles in the workplace are known, personal exposure monitoring allows a risk assessment to be made for a worker during each workday, when the workplace-produced particles can be distinguished from other (ambient) particles.

  14. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Petra; Alberti, Edoardo; Schaepman, Michael E

    2010-06-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption features present in the Sun, atmosphere, or ground, and their stability. The assessment of instrument performance in two different environments, e.g., laboratory and airborne, using precisely the same calibration reference, has not been possible so far. The Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX), an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer, uses an onboard in-flight characterization (IFC) facility, which makes it possible to monitor the sensor's performance in terms of spectral, radiometric, and geometric stability in flight and in the laboratory. We discuss in detail a new method for the monitoring of spectral instrument performance. The method relies on the monitoring of spectral shifts by comparing instrument-induced movements of absorption features on ground and in flight. Absorption lines originate from spectral filters, which intercept the full field of view (FOV) illuminated using an internal light source. A feature-fitting algorithm is used for the shift estimation based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Environmental parameter monitoring, coregistered on board with the image and calibration data, revealed that differential pressure and temperature in the baffle compartment are the main driving parameters explaining the trend in spectral performance deviations in the time and the space (across-track) domains, respectively. The results presented in this paper show that the system in its current setup needs further improvements to reach a stable performance. Findings provided useful guidelines for the instrument revision currently under way. The main aim of the revision is the stabilization of the instrument for a range of temperature and pressure conditions

  15. Monitoring of airborne bacteria and aerosols in different wards of hospitals - Particle counting usefulness in investigation of airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhoseini, Seyed Hamed; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Khanahmd, Hossein; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The presence of airborne bacteria in hospital environments is of great concern because of their potential role as a source of hospital-acquired infections (HAI). The aim of this study was the determination and comparison of the concentration of airborne bacteria in different wards of four educational hospitals, and evaluation of whether particle counting could be predictive of airborne bacterial concentration in different wards of a hospital. The study was performed in an operating theatre (OT), intensive care unit (ICU), surgery ward (SW) and internal medicine (IM) ward of four educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 80 samples were analyzed for the presence of airborne bacteria and particle levels. The average level of bacteria ranged from 75-1194 CFU/m (3) . Mean particle levels were higher than class 100,000 cleanrooms in all wards. A significant correlation was observed between the numbers of 1-5 µm particles and levels of airborne bacteria in operating theatres and ICUs. The results showed that factors which may influence the airborne bacterial level in hospital environments should be properly managed to minimize the risk of HAIs especially in operating theaters. Microbial air contamination of hospital settings should be performed by the monitoring of airborne bacteria, but particle counting could be considered as a good operative method for the continuous monitoring of air quality in operating theaters and ICUs where higher risks of infection are suspected.

  16. Satellite and Ground Based Monitoring of Aerosol Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Martin; Dorling, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Plumes of atmospheric aerosol have been studied using a range of satellite and ground-based techniques. The Sea-viewing WideField-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has been used to observe plumes of sulphate aerosol and Saharan dust around the coast of the United Kingdom. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) was retrieved from SeaWiFS for two events; a plume of Saharan dust transported over the United Kingdom from Western Africa and a period of elevated sulphate experienced over the Easternregion of the UK. Patterns of AOT are discussed and related to the synoptic and mesoscale weather conditions. Further observation of the sulphate aerosol event was undertaken using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instrument(AVHRR). Atmospheric back trajectories and weather conditions were studied in order to identify the meteorological conditions which led to this event. Co-located ground-based measurements of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were obtained for 4sites within the UK and PM 2.5/10 ratios were calculated in order to identify any unusually high or low ratios(indicating the dominant size fraction within the plume)during either of these events. Calculated percentiles ofPM 2.5/10 ratios during the 2 events examined show that these events were notable within the record, but were in noway unique or unusual in the context of a 3 yr monitoring record. Visibility measurements for both episodes have been examined and show that visibility degradation occurred during both the sulphate aerosol and Saharan dust episodes

  17. Monitoring individual tree-based change with airborne lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Laura; Dubayah, Ralph

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the carbon flux of forests is critical for constraining the global carbon cycle and managing forests to mitigate climate change. Monitoring forest growth and mortality rates is critical to this effort, but has been limited in the past, with estimates relying primarily on field surveys. Advances in remote sensing enable the potential to monitor tree growth and mortality across landscapes. This work presents an approach to measure tree growth and loss using multidate lidar campaigns in a high-biomass forest in California, USA. Individual tree crowns were delineated in 2008 and again in 2013 using a 3D crown segmentation algorithm, with derived heights and crown radii extracted and used to estimate individual tree aboveground biomass. Tree growth, loss, and aboveground biomass were analyzed with respect to tree height and crown radius. Both tree growth and loss rates decrease with increasing tree height, following the expectation that trees slow in growth rate as they age. Additionally, our aboveground biomass analysis suggests that, while the system is a net source of aboveground carbon, these carbon dynamics are governed by size class with the largest sources coming from the loss of a relatively small number of large individuals. This study demonstrates that monitoring individual tree-based growth and loss can be conducted with multidate airborne lidar, but these methods remain relatively immature. Disparities between lidar acquisitions were particularly difficult to overcome and decreased the sample of trees analyzed for growth rate in this study to 21% of the full number of delineated crowns. However, this study illuminates the potential of airborne remote sensing for ecologically meaningful forest monitoring at an individual tree level. As methods continue to improve, airborne multidate lidar will enable a richer understanding of the drivers of tree growth, loss, and aboveground carbon flux.

  18. Remote sensing analysis of thermal plumes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doak, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear reactors of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in Aiken, South Carolina, use cold water diverted from the Savannah River to dissipate unused thermal energy. This water is heated by heat exchangers of the reactors during the materials production process, and then returned to the natural drainage system. Thermal effluents were monitored by an airborne thermal infrared scanner during predawn overlights. Images were generated to show the surface temperature distribution of the thermal outfall plumes into the Savannah River. The thermal analysis provides information related to compliance with permit requirements of the regulatory agencies

  19. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  20. Digitise this! A quick and easy remote sensing method to monitor the daily extent of dredge plumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Evans

    Full Text Available Technological advancements in remote sensing and GIS have improved natural resource managers' abilities to monitor large-scale disturbances. In a time where many processes are heading towards automation, this study has regressed to simple techniques to bridge a gap found in the advancement of technology. The near-daily monitoring of dredge plume extent is common practice using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS imagery and associated algorithms to predict the total suspended solids (TSS concentration in the surface waters originating from floods and dredge plumes. Unfortunately, these methods cannot determine the difference between dredge plume and benthic features in shallow, clear water. This case study at Barrow Island, Western Australia, uses hand digitising to demonstrate the ability of human interpretation to determine this difference with a level of confidence and compares the method to contemporary TSS methods. Hand digitising was quick, cheap and required very little training of staff to complete. Results of ANOSIM R statistics show remote sensing derived TSS provided similar spatial results if they were thresholded to at least 3 mg L(-1. However, remote sensing derived TSS consistently provided false-positive readings of shallow benthic features as Plume with a threshold up to TSS of 6 mg L(-1, and began providing false-negatives (excluding actual plume at a threshold as low as 4 mg L(-1. Semi-automated processes that estimate plume concentration and distinguish between plumes and shallow benthic features without the arbitrary nature of human interpretation would be preferred as a plume monitoring method. However, at this stage, the hand digitising method is very useful and is more accurate at determining plume boundaries over shallow benthic features and is accessible to all levels of management with basic training.

  1. airborne data analysis/monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephison, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    An Airborne Data Analysis/Monitor System (ADAMS), a ROLM 1666 computer based system installed onboard test airplanes used during experimental testing is evaluated. In addition to the 1666 computer, the ADAMS hardware includes a DDC System 90 fixed head disk and a Miltape DD400 floppy disk. Boeing designed a DMA interface to the data acquisition system and an intelligent terminal to reduce system overhead and simplify operator commands. The ADAMS software includes RMX/RTOS and both ROLM FORTRAN and assembly language are used. The ADAMS provides real time displays that enable onboard test engineers to make rapid decisions about test conduct thus reducing the cost and time required to certify new model airplanes, and improved the quality of data derived from the test, leading to more rapid development of improvements resulting in quieter, safer, and more efficient airplanes. The availability of airborne data processing removes most of the weather and geographical restrictions imposed by telemetered flight test data systems. A data base is maintained to describe the airplane, the data acquisition system, the type of testing, and the conditions under which the test is performed.

  2. Studies of the environmental impact of evaporative cooling tower plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    This ongoing research program of the environmental impact of natural-draft evaporative cooling tower plumes consists principally of a comprehensive series of airborne measurements of a variety of the physical characteristics of the plumes and, to a lesser extent, of preliminary studies of remote sodar plume probing techniques and the development of simplified dynamical numerical models suitable for use in conducting field measurement programs. The PSU Doppler sodar was used at the Keystone Power Plant in southwestern Pennsylvania for an extended series of remote measurements of the characteristics of plume turbulent temperature and velocity fluctuations and results are discussed

  3. Development of a calibration system for airborne "1"3"1I monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C.; Tang, F.; He, L.; Xu, Y.; Lu, X.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype calibration system for airborne "1"3"1I monitoring devices was developed at the Shanghai Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology (SIMT). This system consists of a gaseous "1"3"1I_2 generator, an airborne storage chamber, an airborne iodine sampler, and an HPGe spectrometer. With this system, "1"3"1I reference samples in the form of charcoal filters and charcoal cartridges, with activities ranging from 100 to 10,000 Bq, were produced with overall relative standard uncertainties of 2.8% (for filter samples) and 3.5% (for cartridge samples); the activities range could be extended according to need. - Highlights: • Original calibration system for airborne "1"3"1I monitoring devices was developed. • Two types of "1"3"1I reference samples was prepared. • The activity of the produced "1"3"1I reference sample could be easily controlled. • The influence of uneven distribution of "1"3"1I in cartridge samples was considered.

  4. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports

  5. Particle dry-deposition experiment using ambient airborne soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne solid concentrations were measured simultaneously at sampling towers upwind and 305-m downwind of a site. When the wind speed and wind direction were identical at each site, isokinetic air samplers on the sampling towers were automatically activated. The fraction of the airborne solid plume remaining after the 305-m fetch ranged from 0.53 to 1.07

  6. Experiences in monitoring airborne radioactive contamination in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezawa, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Yabe, A.

    1980-01-01

    The following results were obtained at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from experience in air monitoring at the hot cells for handling highly radioactive materials, the glove box containing plutonium and the cell for producing 99 Mo. (1) The ratios of activities of airborne dust to those of whole dust were of the order of 10 -2 for the semi-volatile form of 125 Sb, and 10 -3 to 10 -4 for the particulate form of 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 144 Pr, when irradiated fuels were cut in the hot cells. (2) The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of airborne particle size distributions varied from O.4 to 15 μm with changing geometric standard deviation (sigmasub(g)) 1.7 to 7, depending on types of metallurgical treatment of fuels and on kinds of work in the cells. (3) A resuspension factor (the ratio of the concentration of airborne contamination to the surface contamination) was found to be 4x10 -8 to approximately 2x10 -7 cm -1 for plutonium oxide deposited on the floor surface. (4) The collection efficiency of the charcoal-loaded filter paper for airborne radioiodine, consisting of 60% inorganic and 40% organic iodide, was over 95% under conditions of relative humidity 40 to approximately 80% and face velocity 50 cm/sec, during the production of 99 Mo. (H.K.)

  7. Evaluation of strategies for monitoring and sampling airborne radionuclides in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.; Guilmette, R.A.; Scott, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Protection of workers from intakes of airborne radioactive materials is receiving increased attention as part of the overall emphasis on minimisation of occupational radiation exposures. Because current guidance of the International Commission on Radiological Protection on protection from airborne radionuclides is based on annual limits on intake, ALI, and average annual air concentrations derived from these ALIs, increased effort is being devoted to monitoring exposure levels, directly or indirectly, in the workplace. Possible approaches include the use of fixed air samplers, continuous air monitors, and personal air samplers worn by individual workers. Periodic bioassay of these workers of whole-body counting, chest counting, or excreta analyses can provide useful information on the adequacy with which the above approaches are monitoring the workplace. Because each approach requires a major commitment of institutional resources, it is important that the overall monitoring plan reflect the relative value of these different approaches for the facility and processes being monitored. (Author)

  8. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odorico, D' P.; Alberti, E.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption

  9. Sediment Plumes Resulting from the Port of Miami Dredging: Analysis and Interpretation Using Satellite Data and Long Term Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, B. B.; Hu, C.; Kovach, C.; Silverstein, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    From November 2013 through mid-2015, large turbidity plumes were observed offshore the Port of Miami (Florida, USA), likely associated with a project to deepen and widen the Miami Harbor channels. Using data from local monitoring programs, however, it is difficult to estimate the size, duration, extent, and severity (relative to natural turbidity events) of these plumes. In contrast, satellite observing systems offer a platform from which these plumes can be monitored and placed in historical context. As such, turbidity plumes captured by MODIS (Aqua) and Landsat 8 reflectance data were manually outlined. For MODIS, these delineations were refined using reflectance anomaly thresholds, determined from pre-dredging data. Long term records of local environmental conditions were used to account for conditions (e.g., wind speed, tidal stage) for which elevated reflectance data might be expected in the absence of dredging. The spatial extent of turbidity plumes observed in the Port of Miami region during the dredging period ranged from 127 and 228 km2, at least 5 times that immediately prior to dredging. The frequency of observed plumes in satellite imagery increased from 23% to 84% after dredging began, while temporal differences in plume location, severity, and size were also observed. Turbidity plumes may have large adverse effects on coral communities, and this region is home to many species of coral (including some considered threatened by the US Endangered Species Act). Indeed, over 11 km2 of coral area was affected by these plumes, with some locations within plume delineations on nearly 40% of images. The approaches developed in this work, in particular the focus on historical norms after considering all perturbation factors, may be included in monitoring and assessment of this and future dredging activities, especially where fragile marine ecosystems may potentially be impacted.

  10. Observation of thermal plumes from submerged discharges in the Great Lakes and their implications for modeling and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Frigo, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of thermal plumes from submerged discharges of power plant cooling waters into the Great Lakes provide the opportunity to view the mixing processes at prototype scales and to observe the effects of the ambient environment on those processes. Examples of thermal plume behavior in Great Lakes' ambient environments are presented to demonstrate the importance of measurements of the detailed structure of the ambient environment, as well as of the plumes, for interpretation of prototype data for modeling and monitoring purposes. The examples are drawn from studies by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the Zion Nuclear PowerStation and the D. C. Cook Nuclear Plant on Lake Michigan and at the J. A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant on Lake Ontario. These studies included measurements of water temperatures from a moving boat which provide a quasi-synoptic view of the three-dimensional temperature structure of the thermal plume and ambient water environment. Additional measurements of water velocities, which are made with continuously recording, moored, and profiling current meters, and of wind provide data on the detailed structure of the ambient environment. The detailed structure of the ambient environment, in terms of current, current shear, variable winds, and temperature stratification, often influence greatly thermal plume behavior. Although predictive model techniques and monitoring objectives often ignore the detailed aspects of the ambient environment, useful interpretation of prototype data for model evaluation or calibration and monitoring purposes requires detailed measurement of the ambient environment. Examination of prototype thermal plume data indicates that, in several instances, attention to only the gross characteristics of the ambient environment can be misleading and could result in significant errors in model calibration and extrapolation of data bases gathered in monitoring observations

  11. Satellite infrared imagery for thermal plume contamination monitoring in coastal ecosystem of Cernavoda NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2017-10-01

    Satellite remote sensing is an important tool for spatio-temporal analysis and surveillance of NPP environment, thermal heat waste of waters being a major concern in many coastal ecosystems involving nuclear power plants. As a test case the adopted methodology was applied for 700x2 MW Cernavoda nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the South-Eastern part of Romania, which discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology. The thermal plume signatures in the NPP hydrological system have been investigated based on TIR (Thermal Infrared) spectral bands of NOAA AVHRR, Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI, and MODIS Terra/Aqua time series satellite data during 1990-2016 period. If NOAA AVHRR data proved the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in Danube river and Black Sea coastal areas, Landsat TM/ETM and MODIS data used for WST (Water Surface Temperature) change detection, mapping and monitoring provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. Thermal discharge from two nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Channel and Danube River. From time-series analysis of satellite data during period 1990-2016 was found that during the winter season thermal plume was localized to an area of a few km of NPP, and the mean temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas was about 1.7 oC. During summer and fall, derived mean temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas was of about 1.3°C and thermal plume area was extended up to 5- 10 km far along Danube Black Sea Channel.

  12. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site

  13. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  14. Evaluation of thermal infrared hyperspectral imagery for the detection of onshore methane plumes: Significance for hydrocarbon exploration and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafutto, Rebecca DeĺPapa Moreira; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto; Riley, Dean N.; de Oliveira, Wilson Jose

    2018-02-01

    Methane (CH4) is the main constituent of natural gas. Fugitive CH4 emissions partially stem from geological reservoirs (seepages) and leaks in pipelines and petroleum production plants. Airborne hyperspectral sensors with enough spectral and spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio can potentially detect these emissions. Here, a field experiment performed with controlled release CH4 sources was conducted in the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), Casper, WY (USA). These sources were configured to deliver diverse emission types (surface and subsurface) and rates (20-1450 scf/hr), simulating natural (seepages) and anthropogenic (pipeline) CH4 leaks. The Aerospace Corporation's SEBASS (Spatially-Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System) sensor acquired hyperspectral thermal infrared data over the experimental site with 128 bands spanning the 7.6 μm-13.5 μm range. The data was acquired with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m at 1500 ft and 0.84 m at 2500 ft above ground level. Radiance images were pre-processed with an adaptation of the In-Scene Atmospheric Compensation algorithm and converted to emissivity through the Emissivity Normalization algorithm. The data was processed with a Matched Filter. Results allowed the separation between endmembers related to the spectral signature of CH4 from the background. Pixels containing CH4 signatures (absorption bands at 7.69 μm and 7.88 μm) were highlighted and the gas plumes mapped with high definition in the imagery. The dispersion of the mapped plumes is consistent with the wind direction measured independently during the experiment. Variations in the dimension of mapped gas plumes were proportional to the emission rate of each CH4 source. Spectral analysis of the signatures within the plumes shows that CH4 spectral absorption features are sharper and deeper in pixels located near the emitting source, revealing regions with higher gas density and assisting in locating CH4 sources in the field

  15. Dig-face monitoring during excavation of a radioactive plume at Mound Laboratory, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.; Gehrke, R.J.; Carpenter, M.V.

    1995-12-01

    A dig-face monitoring system consists of onsite hardware for collecting information on changing chemical, radiological, and physical conditions in the subsurface soil during the hazardous site excavation. A prototype dig-face system was take to Mount Laboratory for a first trial. Mound Area 7 was the site of historical disposals of 232 Th, 227 Ac, and assorted debris. The system was used to monitor a deep excavation aimed at removing 227 Ac-contaminated soils. Radiological, geophysical, and topographic sensors were used to scan across the excavation dig-face at four successive depths as soil was removed. A 3-D image of the contamination plumes was developed; the radiation sensor data indicated that only a small portion of the excavated soil volume was contaminated. The spatial information produced by the dig-face system was used to direct the excavation activities into the area containing the 227 Ac and to evaluate options for handling the separate 232 Th plume

  16. Real-time monitoring of non-viable airborne particles correlates with airborne colonies and represents an acceptable surrogate for daily assessment of cell-processing cleanroom performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Jay S; Koch, Eileen; Donnenberg, Albert D

    2012-10-01

    Airborne particulate monitoring is mandated as a component of good manufacturing practice. We present a procedure developed to monitor and interpret airborne particulates in an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 7 cleanroom used for the cell processing of Section 351 and Section 361 products. We collected paired viable and non-viable airborne particle data over a period of 1 year in locations chosen to provide a range of air quality. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine empirically the relationship between non-viable and viable airborne particle counts. Viable and non-viable particles were well-correlated (r(2) = 0.78), with outlier observations at the low end of the scale (non-viable particles without detectable airborne colonies). ROC analysis predicted viable counts ≥ 0.5/feet(3) (a limit set by the United States Pharmacopeia) at an action limit of ≥ 32 000 particles (≥ 0.5 µ)/feet(3), with 95.6% sensitivity and 50% specificity. This limit was exceeded 2.6 times during 18 months of retrospective daily cleanroom data (an expected false alarm rate of 1.3 times/year). After implementing this action limit, we were alerted in real time to an air-handling failure undetected by our hospital facilities management. A rational action limit for non-viable particles was determined based on the correlation with airborne colonies. Reaching or exceeding the action limit of 32 000 non-viable particles/feet(3) triggers suspension of cleanroom cell-processing activities, deep cleaning, investigation of air handling, and a deviation management process. Our full procedure for particle monitoring is available as an online supplement.

  17. The MAFF dry cloth collector programme for monitoring airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.O.; Smith, B.D.; Hunt, G.J.; Thomas, R.E.G.

    1986-01-01

    The history of the MAFF airborne radioactivity monitoring programme and its current operation using dry cloth collectors are described. The detection system has become well established as a sensitive indicator of airborne radioactivity. Details of collector materials, deployment around the major UK nuclear establishments and procedures for radiometric analysis of cloths are given. Typical results for the period 1980-82 show that at most sites only nuclear weapons fallout was detected. The systems's usefulness is exemplified by its response to the release of I-131 from Sellafield in 1981; this release was of negligible radiological significance but was easily detected. The response of dry cloths to various sources of atmospheric radioactivity and factors affecting collection efficiency are discussed. (author)

  18. Airborne measurements of CO2, CH4 and HCN in boreal biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Sebastian J.; Bauguitte, Stephane; Muller, Jennifer B. A.; Le Breton, Michael; Archibald, Alex; Gallagher, Martin W.; Allen, Grant; Percival, Carl J.

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning plays an important role in the budgets of a variety of atmospheric trace gases and particles. For example, fires in boreal Russia have been linked with large growths in the global concentrations of trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and CO (Langenfelds et al., 2002; Simpson et al., 2006). High resolution airborne measurements of CO2, CH4 and HCN were made over Eastern Canada onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft FAAM BAe-146 from 12 July to 4 August 2011. These observations were made as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites). Flights were aimed at transecting and sampling the outflow from the commonly occurring North American boreal forest fires during the summer months and to investigate and identify the chemical composition and evolution of these plumes. CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions were determined using an adapted system based on a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200) from Los Gatos Research Inc, which uses the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique. In-flight calibrations revealed a mean accuracy of 0.57 ppmv and 2.31 ppbv for 1 Hz observations of CO2 and CH4, respectively, during the BORTAS project. During these flights a number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements. HCN is a distinctive and useful marker for forest fire emissions and it was detected using chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS). In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 8.5 ± 0.9 g of CH4 and 1512 ± 185 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies and can be used to calculate budgets for the region. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other

  19. A multidisciplinary system for monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltelli, Mauro; Prestifilippo, Michele; Spata, Gaetano; Scollo, Simona; Andronico, Daniele

    2010-05-01

    One of the most active volcanoes in the world is Mt. Etna, in Italy, characterized by frequent explosive activity from the central craters and from fractures opened along the volcano flanks which, during the last years, caused several damages to aviation and forced the closure of the Catania International Airport. To give precise warning to the aviation authorities and air traffic controller and to assist the work of VAACs, a novel system for monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, was developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, sezione di Catania, the managing institution for the surveillance of Etna volcano. Monitoring is carried out using multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite able to track the volcanic plume with a high time resolution, visual and thermal cameras used to monitor the explosive activity, three continuous wave X-band disdrometers which detect ash dispersal and fallout, sounding balloons used to evaluate the atmospheric fields, and finally field data collected after the end of the eruptive event needed to extrapolate important features of explosive activity. Forecasting is carried out daily using automatic procedures which download weather forecast data obtained by meteorological mesoscale models from the Italian Air Force national Meteorological Office and from the hydrometeorological service of ARPA-SIM; run four different tephra dispersal models using input parameters obtained by the analysis of the deposits collected after few hours since the eruptive event similar to 22 July 1998, 21-24 July 2001 and 2002-03 Etna eruptions; plot hazard maps on ground and in air and finally publish them on a web-site dedicated to the Italian Civil Protection. The system has been already tested successfully during several explosive events occurring at Etna in 2006, 2007 and 2008. These events produced eruption

  20. Spotting Radioactive Sources Buried Underground Using an Airborne Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfeld, M.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Marcus, E.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides theoretical background concerning the capability of the Airborne Radiation Monitoring System [1]to detect fission products buried at 1-meter depth under the ground surface,at a flight altitude of 100 meters above ground.The 137 Cs source was used as a typical fission product. The System monitors radioactive contamination in the air or on the ground using two 2 inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and computerized accessories for analysis purposes

  1. Performance of monitoring networks estimated from a Gaussian plume model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Hienen, J.F.A.

    1990-10-01

    In support of the ECN study on monitoring strategies after nuclear accidents, the present report describes the analysis of the performance of a monitoring network in a square grid. This network is used to estimate the distribution of the deposition pattern after a release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. The analysis is based upon a single release, a constant wind direction and an atmospheric dispersion according to a simplified Gaussian plume model. A technique is introduced to estimate the parameters in this Gaussian model based upon measurements at specific monitoring locations and linear regression, although this model is intrinsically non-linear. With these estimated parameters and the Gaussian model the distribution of the contamination due to deposition can be estimated. To investigate the relation between the network and the accuracy of the estimates for the deposition, deposition data have been generated by the Gaussian model, including a measurement error by a Monte Carlo simulation and this procedure has been repeated for several grid sizes, dispersion conditions, number of measurements per location, and errors per single measurement. The present technique has also been applied for the mesh sizes of two networks in the Netherlands, viz. the Landelijk Meetnet Radioaciviteit (National Measurement Network on Radioactivity, mesh size approx. 35 km) and the proposed Landelijk Meetnet Nucleaire Incidenten (National Measurement Network on Nuclear Incidents, mesh size approx. 15 km). The results show accuracies of 11 and 7 percent, respectively, if monitoring locations are used more than 10 km away from the postulated accident site. These figures are based upon 3 measurements per location and a dispersion during neutral weather with a wind velocity of 4 m/s. For stable weather conditions and low wind velocities, i.e. a small plume, the calculated accuracies are at least a factor 1.5 worse.The present type of analysis makes a cost-benefit approach to the

  2. Monitoring of airborne contamination during the handling of technetium-99m and radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eadie, A.S.; Horton, P.W.; Hilditch, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made using an air sampler to measure airborne radioactivity produced during the routine handling of large activities of technetium-99m, iodine-125 and iodine-131. The results indicate that 99 Tcsup(m) can be safely handled in environments without direct exhaust of the ventilated air but that 125 I and 131 I should always be handled in a ventilated environment such as a fume cupboard or a down-draught work-station of the total-exhaust type. Monitoring of thyroid uptake proves to be the most reliable means of monitoring airborne contamination by these radionuclides, but burdens and radiation doses for typical procedures are well within the maximum permissible limits of the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons from Ionizing Radiation arising from Medical and Dental Use. (author)

  3. Physical and chemical processes of sulphur dioxide in the plume from an oil-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyger, H.; Lewin, E.; Lund Thomsen, E.; Fenger, J.; Lyck, E.; Gryning, S.E.

    1977-03-01

    The Danish contribution to the EUROCOP COST 61a project is described. Work concerned the physical and chemical reactions of sulphur dioxide released from a power station. The investigation was based on the application of two tracers. Inactive, inert SF 6 is used to monitor the dispersion of and deposition from the plume; it was intended to use radioactive 35 SO 2 to determine the degree of oxidation of sulphur released from the stack; so far, however, public reaction has prevented the use of a release of activity in field experiments. The report describes the construction and testing of airborne instruments for continuous registration of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and the tracer SF 6 , as well as for measurements of temperature and humidity. Sulphur samples were collected on filter paper in a specially constructed low volume air sampler, and the subsequent chemical analysis in the laboratory is described. Finally, the problem of navigation is treated. It is shown that nitrogen oxides may be used as an internal tracer in plume experiments. Preliminary experiments based on inactive analysis only indicated an overall half-life for SO 2 in the plume of about half an hour. (author)

  4. Comprehensive simultaneous shipboard and airborne characterization of exhaust from a modern container ship at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shane M; Agrawal, Harshit; Sorooshian, Armin; Padró, Luz T; Gates, Harmony; Hersey, Scott; Welch, W A; Lung, H; Miller, J W; Cocker, David R; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, Haflidi H; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2009-07-01

    We report the first joint shipboard and airborne study focused on the chemical composition and water-uptake behavior of particulate ship emissions. The study focuses on emissions from the main propulsion engine of a Post-Panamax class container ship cruising off the central coast of California and burning heavy fuel oil. Shipboard sampling included micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDI) with subsequent off-line analysis, whereas airborne measurements involved a number of real-time analyzers to characterize the plume aerosol, aged from a few seconds to over an hour. The mass ratio of particulate organic carbon to sulfate at the base of the ship stack was 0.23 +/- 0.03, and increased to 0.30 +/- 0.01 in the airborne exhaust plume, with the additional organic mass in the airborne plume being concentrated largely in particles below 100 nm in diameter. The organic to sulfate mass ratio in the exhaust aerosol remained constant during the first hour of plume dilution into the marine boundary layer. The mass spectrum of the organic fraction of the exhaust aerosol strongly resembles that of emissions from other diesel sources and appears to be predominantly hydrocarbon-like organic (HOA) material. Background aerosol which, based on air mass back trajectories, probably consisted of aged ship emissions and marine aerosol, contained a lower organic mass fraction than the fresh plume and had a much more oxidized organic component. A volume-weighted mixing rule is able to accurately predict hygroscopic growth factors in the background aerosol but measured and calculated growth factors do not agree for aerosols in the ship exhaust plume. Calculated CCN concentrations, at supersaturations ranging from 0.1 to 0.33%, agree well with measurements in the ship-exhaust plume. Using size-resolved chemical composition instead of bulk submicrometer composition has little effect on the predicted CCN concentrations because the cutoff diameter for CCN activation is larger than the

  5. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker, Vera; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume), and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume). Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term.

  6. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Van Lancker

    Full Text Available As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume, and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume. Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term.

  7. RadNet Radiological Air Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Telofski, J.; Askren, D.R.; Petko, Ch.M.; Fraass, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency operates a national environmental radiation monitoring program called RadNet. RadNet monitors airborne particulates, precipitation, milk, and drinking water for radiation levels. The primary purpose of the original program in the 1950's and 1960's was to collect and analyze samples in various media to assess the effects of radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing. As above-ground testing diminished in the 1970's, the program, especially the air network, became critical in evaluating effects of other types of nuclear incidents, such as the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, as well as monitoring trends in environmental radioactive contamination. The value of rapid data collection subsequent to such incidents led to the consideration of developing air monitors with radiation detectors and telecommunication equipment for real-time radiation measurement. The strengthened United States homeland security posture after 2001 led to production and installation of the current real-time RadNet air monitors. There are now 118 stationary, continuously operating air monitoring stations and 40 mobile air monitors for site specific monitoring. The stationary air monitors include radiation detectors, meteorological sensors, a high-volume air sampler, and communication devices for hourly data transfers. When unusual levels are detected, scientists download a full sodium iodide detector spectrum for analysis. The real-time data collected by RadNet stationary systems permit rapid identification and quantification of airborne nuclides with sufficient sensitivity to provide critical information to help determine protective actions. The data also may help to rapidly refine long-range radioactive plume models and estimate exposure to the population. This paper provides an overview of the airborne particulate monitoring conducted during above-ground nuclear weapon testing, summarizes the uses of data from the program

  8. Area 2: Inexpensive Monitoring and Uncertainty Assessment of CO2 Plume Migration using Injection Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Sanjay [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-09-30

    highly efficient and yielded accurate grouping of reservoir models. The plume migration paths probabilistically assessed by the method were confirmed by field observations and auxiliary data. The report also documents the application of the software to answer practical questions such as the optimum location of monitoring wells to reliably assess the migration of CO₂ plume, the effect of CO₂-rock interactions on plume migration and the ability to detect the plume under those conditions and the effect of a slow, unresolved leak on the predictions of plume migration.

  9. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emission Rates from strong Point Sources by Airborne IPDA-Lidar Measurements: Methodology and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, G.; Amediek, A.; Wirth, M.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.

    2016-12-01

    We report on a new method and on the first demonstration to quantify emission rates from strong greenhouse gas (GHG) point sources using airborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Lidar measurements. In order to build trust in the self-reported emission rates by countries, verification against independent monitoring systems is a prerequisite to check the reported budget. A significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emission of CO2 and CH4 originates from localized strong point sources of large energy production sites or landfills. Both are not monitored with sufficiently accuracy by the current observation system. There is a debate whether airborne remote sensing could fill in the gap to infer those emission rates from budgeting or from Gaussian plume inversion approaches, whereby measurements of the GHG column abundance beneath the aircraft can be used to constrain inverse models. In contrast to passive sensors, the use of an active instrument like CHARM-F for such emission verification measurements is new. CHARM-F is a new airborne IPDA-Lidar devised for the German research aircraft HALO for the simultaneous measurement of the column-integrated dry-air mixing ratio of CO2 and CH4 commonly denoted as XCO2 und XCH4, respectively. It has successfully been tested in a serious of flights over Central Europe to assess its performance under various reflectivity conditions and in a strongly varying topography like the Alps. The analysis of a methane plume measured in crosswind direction of a coal mine ventilation shaft revealed an instantaneous emission rate of 9.9 ± 1.7 kt CH4 yr-1. We discuss the methodology of our point source estimation approach and give an outlook on the CoMet field experiment scheduled in 2017 for the measurement of anthropogenic and natural GHG emissions by a combination of active and passive remote sensing instruments on research aircraft.

  10. Continuous monitoring for airborne alpha emitters in a dusty environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Newton, G.J.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes in underground facilities requires continuous monitoring for airborne radioactive materials, both on the surface and underground. In addition to a natural background of nonradioactive and radioactive aerosols, there may be a sizeable dust contribution from ongoing work such as mining and vehicular traffic. In the monitoring of alpha-emitting radionuclides, these aerosols may lead to self-absorption in the source and a deterioration of the energy spectrum of the detected alpha particles. In this paper, the influence of a realistic background aerosol on the performance of an alpha monitoring system is evaluated theoretically. It is shown that depositing alpha emitters and background aerosol on a surface for counting leads rapidly to a considerable loss of counts, a deterioration of the alpha spectra, an eventual saturation of the count rates, and interference from the natural background of Rn daughters

  11. Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia: an airborne survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Junkermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP in the atmosphere may have significant impacts on the regional water and radiation budgets through secondary effects on cloud microphysics. Yet, as these particles are invisible for current remote sensing techniques, knowledge about their three-dimensional distribution, source strengths and budgets is limited. Building on a 40-yr-old Australia-wide airborne survey which provides a reference case study of aerosol sources and budgets, this study presents results from a new airborne survey over Eastern Australia, northern New South Wales and Queensland. Observations identified apparent changes in the number and distribution of major anthropogenic aerosol sources since the early 1970s, which might relate to the simultaneously observed changes in rainfall patterns over eastern Queensland. Coal-fired power stations in the inland areas between Brisbane and Rockhampton were clearly identified as the major sources for ultrafine particulate matter. Sugar mills, smelters and shipping along the coast close to the Ports of Townsville and Rockhampton were comparable minor sources. Airborne Lagrangian plume studies were applied to investigate source strength and ageing properties within power station plumes. Significant changes observed, compared to the measurements in the 1970s, included a significant increase in the number concentration of UFP related to coal-fired power station emissions in the sparsely populated Queensland hinterland coincident with the area with the most pronounced reduction in rainfall.

  12. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, C.

    2016-12-01

    Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit ˜ 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through ˜ 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, natural seeps and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. We will summarize the campaign results and provide an overview of how airborne remote sensing can be used to detect and infer methane fluxes over widespread geographic areas and how new instrumentation could be used to perform similar observations from space.

  13. Development of a real-time monitor for airborne alpha emissions. First quarter report, TTP AL 142003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritzo, R.E.; Fowler, M.M.

    1994-02-01

    This is the first quarterly report for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 for TTP AL 142003, Development of a Real-Time Monitor for Airborne Alpha Emissions. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is developing a new technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of incinerator stacks for low levels of airborne alpha activity. While initially developed for incinerators, this new technology may well find other applications in continuous air monitoring, process monitoring, and monitoring during remediation activities. Referred to as the Large-Volume Flow Thru Detector System (LVFTDS), this technology responds directly to the need for fast responding, high sensitivity effluent monitoring systems. With DOE EM-50 funding, LANL has fabricated a bench-top proof of concept detector system and is conducting tests to evaluate its performance. A second- generation prototype is being designed, based on requirements driven by potential field test sites. An industrial partner is being solicited to license the technology. Field trials of a full-scale detector system are planned for FY 95. Accomplishments during the first quarter of FY 94 are chronicled in this report, including budgetary data. A schedule for the remainder of the fiscal year is also provided.

  14. Thermography of the New River Inlet plume and nearshore currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickadel, C.; Jessup, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the DARLA and RIVET experiments, thermal imaging systems mounted on a tower and in an airplane captured water flow in the New River Inlet, NC, USA. Kilometer-scale, airborne thermal imagery of the inlet details the ebb flow of the estuarine plume water mixing with ocean water. Multiple fronts, corresponding to the preferred channels through the ebb tidal delta, are imaged in the aerial data. A series of internal fronts suggest discreet sources of the tidal plume that vary with time. Focused thermal measurements made from a tower on the south side of the inlet viewed an area within a radius of a few hundred meters. Sub-meter resolution video from the tower revealed fine-scale flow features and the interaction of tidal exchange and wave-forced surfzone currents. Using the tower and airborne thermal image data we plan to provide geophysical information to compare with numerical models and in situ measurements made by other investigators. From the overflights, we will map the spatial and temporal extent of the estuarine plume to correlate with tidal phase and local wind conditions. From the tower data, we will investigate the structure of the nearshore flow using a thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, which is based on tracking motion of the surface temperature patterns. Long term variability of the mean and turbulent two-dimensional PIV currents will be correlated to local wave, tidal, and wind forcing parameters.

  15. Miniaturized inertial impactor for personal airborne particulate monitoring: Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Silvia; Bianchi, Elena; Dubini, Gabriele; Cortelezzi, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations allowed us to conceive and design a miniaturized inertial impactor able to collect fine airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1). We created, by 3D printing, a prototype of the impactor. We first performed a set of experiments by applying a suction pump to the outlets and sampling the airborne particulate of our laboratory. The analysis of the slide showed a collection of a large number of particles, spanning a wide range of sizes, organized in a narrow band located below the exit of the nozzle. In order to show that our miniaturized inertial impactor can be truly used as a personal air-quality monitor, we performed a second set of experiments where the suction needed to produce the airflow through the impactor is generated by a human being inhaling through the outlets of the prototype. To guarantee a number of particles sufficient to perform a quantitative characterization, we collected particles performing ten consecutive deep inhalations. Finally, the potentiality for realistic applications of our miniaturized inertial impactor used in combination with a miniaturized single-particle detector will be discussed. CARIPLO Fundation - project MINUTE (Grant No. 2011-2118).

  16. State of the art atmospheric dispersion modelling. Should the Gaussian plume model still be used?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Cornelia [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    For regulatory purposes with respect to licensing and supervision of airborne releases of nuclear installations, the Gaussian plume model is still in use in Germany. However, for complex situations the Gaussian plume model is to be replaced by a Lagrangian particle model. Now the new EU basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation (EU BSS) [1] asks for a realistic assessment of doses to the members of the public from authorised practices. This call for a realistic assessment raises the question whether dispersion modelling with the Gaussian plume model is an adequate approach anymore or whether the use of more complex models is mandatory.

  17. Integrating wildfire plume rises within atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, D. V.; Kochanski, A.; Wu, D.; Urbanski, S. P.; Krueger, S. K.; Lin, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires can generate significant pyro-convection that is responsible for releasing pollutants, greenhouse gases, and trace species into the free troposphere, which are then transported a significant distance downwind from the fire. Oftentimes, atmospheric transport and chemistry models have a difficult time resolving the transport of smoke from these wildfires, primarily due to deficiencies in estimating the plume injection height, which has been highlighted in previous work as the most important aspect of simulating wildfire plume transport. As a result of the uncertainties associated with modeled wildfire plume rise, researchers face difficulties modeling the impacts of wildfire smoke on air quality and constraining fire emissions using inverse modeling techniques. Currently, several plume rise parameterizations exist that are able to determine the injection height of fire emissions; however, the success of these parameterizations has been mixed. With the advent of WRF-SFIRE, the wildfire plume rise and injection height can now be explicitly calculated using a fire spread model (SFIRE) that is dynamically linked with the atmosphere simulated by WRF. However, this model has only been tested on a limited basis due to computational costs. Here, we will test the performance of WRF-SFIRE in addition to several commonly adopted plume parameterizations (Freitas, Sofiev, and Briggs) for the 2013 Patch Springs (Utah) and 2012 Baker Canyon (Washington) fires, for both of which observations of plume rise heights are available. These plume rise techniques will then be incorporated within a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model (STILT) in order to simulate CO and CO2 concentrations during NASA's CARVE Earth Science Airborne Program over Alaska during the summer of 2012. Initial model results showed that STILT model simulations were unable to reproduce enhanced CO concentrations produced by Alaskan fires observed during 2012. Near-surface concentrations were drastically

  18. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration

  19. Evaluating the capabilities of portable black carbon monitors and photometers for measuring airborne carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Ogura, Isamu, E-mail: i-ogura@aist.go.jp; Kotake, Mari; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Honda, Kazumasa [Technology Research Association for Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (TASC) (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    For daily monitoring of occupational exposure to aerosolized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where CNTs are manufactured and handled, inexpensive real-time measuring methods are preferable. In this study, we evaluated the capabilities of a portable black carbon monitor (BCM; also called an aethalometer) and a light-scattering aerosol photometer in detecting airborne CNTs. The responses of these instruments to airborne CNTs, aerosolized through vortex shaking, were evaluated by comparing the measurements of CNT mass concentrations made by these instruments to those determined through thermal carbon analysis. Results showed that their raw readings underestimated CNT mass concentrations in most cases. Their sensitivities depended on the type of CNTs and decreased with the particle sizes of aerosolized CNT clumps. We also found that the sensitivity of the BCM tended to substantially decrease with increasing filter load, even before the point at which the filter should be replaced as recommended by the manufacturer, which could be attributed to a clean environmental condition (i.e., the absence of ubiquitous light-scattering material). As an example of the use of these instruments for measuring airborne CNTs in the presence of background aerosols, a CNT-handling simulation was also conducted. Although both the BCM and the photometer could detect CNT emissions, the BCM was more sensitive to the detection of emitted CNTs in the presence of background aerosols. The correction factors obtained from the response evaluations could enhance the measurement accuracy of these instruments, which will be helpful for the daily monitoring of CNTs at workplaces.

  20. Evaluating the capabilities of portable black carbon monitors and photometers for measuring airborne carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Ogura, Isamu; Kotake, Mari; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Honda, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    For daily monitoring of occupational exposure to aerosolized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where CNTs are manufactured and handled, inexpensive real-time measuring methods are preferable. In this study, we evaluated the capabilities of a portable black carbon monitor (BCM; also called an aethalometer) and a light-scattering aerosol photometer in detecting airborne CNTs. The responses of these instruments to airborne CNTs, aerosolized through vortex shaking, were evaluated by comparing the measurements of CNT mass concentrations made by these instruments to those determined through thermal carbon analysis. Results showed that their raw readings underestimated CNT mass concentrations in most cases. Their sensitivities depended on the type of CNTs and decreased with the particle sizes of aerosolized CNT clumps. We also found that the sensitivity of the BCM tended to substantially decrease with increasing filter load, even before the point at which the filter should be replaced as recommended by the manufacturer, which could be attributed to a clean environmental condition (i.e., the absence of ubiquitous light-scattering material). As an example of the use of these instruments for measuring airborne CNTs in the presence of background aerosols, a CNT-handling simulation was also conducted. Although both the BCM and the photometer could detect CNT emissions, the BCM was more sensitive to the detection of emitted CNTs in the presence of background aerosols. The correction factors obtained from the response evaluations could enhance the measurement accuracy of these instruments, which will be helpful for the daily monitoring of CNTs at workplaces

  1. Airborne relay-based regional positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-05-28

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations.

  2. Water Quality and River Plume Monitoring in the Great Barrier Reef: An Overview of Methods Based on Ocean Colour Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Devlin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong driver of water quality change in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR is the pulsed or intermittent nature of terrestrial inputs into the GBR lagoon, including delivery of increased loads of sediments, nutrients, and toxicants via flood river plumes (hereafter river plumes during the wet season. Cumulative pressures from extreme weather with a high frequency of large scale flooding in recent years has been linked to the large scale reported decline in the health of inshore seagrass systems and coral reefs in the central areas of the GBR, with concerns for the recovery potential of these impacted ecosystems. Management authorities currently rely on remotely-sensed (RS and in situ data for water quality monitoring to guide their assessment of water quality conditions in the GBR. The use of remotely-sensed satellite products provides a quantitative and accessible tool for scientists and managers. These products, coupled with in situ data, and more recently modelled data, are valuable for quantifying the influence of river plumes on seagrass and coral reef habitat in the GBR. This article reviews recent remote sensing techniques developed to monitor river plumes and water quality in the GBR. We also discuss emerging research that integrates hydrodynamic models with remote sensing and in situ data, enabling us to explore impacts of different catchment management strategies on GBR water quality.

  3. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  4. Airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 to quantify point source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Thomas; Neininger, Bruno; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Lindemann, Carsten; Ruhtz, Thomas; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2018-02-01

    Reliable techniques to infer greenhouse gas emission rates from localised sources require accurate measurement and inversion approaches. In this study airborne remote sensing observations of CO2 by the MAMAP instrument and airborne in situ measurements are used to infer emission estimates of carbon dioxide released from a cluster of coal-fired power plants. The study area is complex due to sources being located in close proximity and overlapping associated carbon dioxide plumes. For the analysis of in situ data, a mass balance approach is described and applied, whereas for the remote sensing observations an inverse Gaussian plume model is used in addition to a mass balance technique. A comparison between methods shows that results for all methods agree within 10 % or better with uncertainties of 10 to 30 % for cases in which in situ measurements were made for the complete vertical plume extent. The computed emissions for individual power plants are in agreement with results derived from emission factors and energy production data for the time of the overflight.

  5. Mapping Pollution Plumes in Areas Impacted by Hurricane Katrina With Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, G. A.; Furlong, E. T.; Livo, K. E.

    2007-12-01

    New Orleans endured flooding on a massive scale subsequent to Hurricane Katrina in August of 2005. Contaminant plumes were noticeable in satellite images of the city in the days following flooding. Many of these plumes were caused by oil, gasoline, and diesel that leaked from inundated vehicles, gas stations, and refineries. News reports also suggested that the flood waters were contaminated with sewage from breached pipes. Effluent plumes such as these pose a potential health hazard to humans and wildlife in the aftermath of hurricanes and potentially from other catastrophic events (e.g., earthquakes, shipping accidents, chemical spills, and terrorist attacks). While the extent of effluent plumes can be gauged with synthetic aperture radar and broad- band visible-infrared images (Rykhus, 2005) (e.g., Radarsat and Landsat ETM+) the composition of the plumes could not be determined. These instruments lack the spectral resolution necessary to do chemical identification. Imaging spectroscopy may help solve this problem. Over 60 flight lines of NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected over New Orleans, the Mississippi Delta, and the Gulf Coast from one to two weeks after Katrina while the contaminated water was being pumped out of flooded areas. These data provide a unique opportunity to test if imaging spectrometer data can be used to identify the chemistry of these flood-related plumes. Many chemicals have unique spectral signatures in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range (0.2 - 2.5 microns) that can be used as fingerprints for their identification. We are particularly interested in detecting thin films of oil, gasoline, diesel, and raw sewage suspended on or in water. If these materials can be successfully differentiated in the lab then we will use spectral-shape matching algorithms to look for their spectral signatures in the AVIRIS data collected over New Orleans and other areas impacted by Katrina. If imaging spectroscopy

  6. Aerosol composition of urban plumes passing over a rural monitoring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellestad, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    A field study conducted at a ground site 100 km north of St. Louis, Mo., to measure the aerosol composition and gaseous concentrations of urban plumes passing the site is discussed. Coarse and fine aerosol elemental concentrations, height scattering, meteorological data and concentrations of SO 2 , CO, O 3 , and NO-NO/sub x/ were measured and then analyzed together with data from associate investigators on fluorocarbon-11, total hydrocarbons, and size distributions. The results show that: (1) gaseous and elemental aerosol concentrations at the ground site 100 km from the St. Louis urban area were clearly influenced by the St. Louis urban plume, (2) the urban plumes of Chicago and Indianapolis, 350 km from the ground site, may have been detected, (3) sulfur compounds, presumably sulfates, accounted for 30-40% of the mass loading within the St. Louis urban plume, and resided almost entirely within the size range below 2.5 microns, (4) the most reliable urban-plume tracers in this study were fine Pb, fluorocarbon-11, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and CO, and (5) over a period of several days, there may have been a regional buildup of fine S, light scattering, aerosol mass, O 3 , and NO/sub x/ and, to a lesser extent, CO and fluorocarbon-11

  7. Estimation of inhalation doses from airborne releases using gross monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Monitoring programs at most nuclear facilities involve continuous gross measurements supplemented by periodic isotopic analyses of release samples. The isotopic measurements are required to accurately assess the potential dose from the various effluent streams, but in between these measurements, one depends on the gross monitors to provide approximate indications of the dose. The effluent streams release a variety of nuclides, each with its own dose factor. This means that the relationship between the counting rate in a gross monitor and the potential dose of the effluent being monitored will depend on the isotopic composition of this release. If this composition changes, then the dose indicated by the gross monitor (calibrated for the original group of isotopes) may be significantly in error. The problem of indicating inhalation doses from gross monitoring of airborne releases is considered. In order for this type of monitor to accurately indicate dose, regardless of the isotopic makeup of a release, the analysis shows that its response to each isotope should be proportional to the dose factor of that isotope. These ideas are applied to the monitoring of air particulates using gross beta and gross gamma monitors. The study shows that the former more closely satisfies this condition and as a result, satisfactorily indicates the actual dose from reactor effluents, as determined from detailed isotopic data published in the literature. On the other hand, the gross gamma monitor, with its poorer fit to the condition, provided less than satisfactory accuracy in its dose estimates. In addition, a variety of other mathematical response functions were considered but their dose estimation capabilities were not much better than the straight beta response. The study shows that reasonably accurate dose estimates can be made using properly selected gross monitors, but that significant errors can result with improper ones. (author)

  8. Ocean outfall plume characterization using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Otero, Mark; Hazard, Lisa; Middleton, William

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring mission to map and characterize the Point Loma Ocean Outfall (PLOO) wastewater plume using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was performed on 3 March 2011. The mobility of an AUV provides a significant advantage in surveying discharge plumes over traditional cast-based methods, and when combined with optical and oceanographic sensors, provides a capability for both detecting plumes and assessing their mixing in the near and far-fields. Unique to this study is the measurement of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the discharge plume and its application for quantitative estimates of the plume's dilution. AUV mission planning methodologies for discharge plume sampling, plume characterization using onboard optical sensors, and comparison of observational data to model results are presented. The results suggest that even under variable oceanic conditions, properly planned missions for AUVs equipped with an optical CDOM sensor in addition to traditional oceanographic sensors, can accurately characterize and track ocean outfall plumes at higher resolutions than cast-based techniques.

  9. A comparison of methods for monitoring low airborne concentrations of argon-41 and tritium, with MIT-PFC design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    Two primary methods, GM- and NaI-detection, of airborne 41 Ar monitoring were compared experimentally to determine the lowest resolvable concentration given reasonable sample sizes. NaI-detectors provided a lower resolvable concentration than GM tubes, primarily due to energy resolution, which greatly reduced background noise. Airborne 3 H collection was compared for two primary collection and one ancillary method (direct condensation). All 3 H detection was performed via liquid scintillation. Tritium collection with water baths yielded higher collection efficiencies than dessicant traps for short sampling durations. As the length of the sampling duration increased, water traps yielded lower collection efficiencies than dessicant traps, primarily due to evaporation of water from the water traps. Direct condensation as a collection method of airborne 3 H was found unsuitable, since large amounts of gas were initially condensed, yet evaporated as the sample's coolant was removed. 41 Ar detection for the MIT-PFC was determined to be best provided by a low 40 K NaI crystal shielded with lead and steel. A Marinelli beaker was used as a monitoring volume to hold the effluent sample. 3 H monitoring at the MIT-PFC was fulfilled with dessicant traps to catalytically separate the [HTO] and [HT] fractions without the use of a carrier gas for the [HT

  10. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  11. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colls, J.J.; Micallef, A.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  12. Airborne Wireless Sensor Networks for Airplane Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional airplane monitoring system (AMS, data sensed from strain, vibration, ultrasound of structures or temperature, and humidity in cabin environment are transmitted to central data repository via wires. However, drawbacks still exist in wired AMS such as expensive installation and maintenance, and complicated wired connections. In recent years, accumulating interest has been drawn to performing AMS via airborne wireless sensor network (AWSN system with the advantages of flexibility, low cost, and easy deployment. In this review, we present an overview of AMS and AWSN and demonstrate the requirements of AWSN for AMS particularly. Furthermore, existing wireless hardware prototypes and network communication schemes of AWSN are investigated according to these requirements. This paper will improve the understanding of how the AWSN design under AMS acquires sensor data accurately and carries out network communication efficiently, providing insights into prognostics and health management (PHM for AMS in future.

  13. Bags with oven-dried moss for the active monitoring of airborne trace elements in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Adamo, P.; Monaci, F.; Pittao, E.; Tretiach, M.; Bargagli, R.

    2009-01-01

    To define a harmonized methodology for the use of moss and lichen bags as active monitoring devices of airborne trace elements in urban areas, we evaluated the element accumulation in bags exposed in Naples in different spring weather conditions for 6- and 12-weeks. Three different pre-exposure treatments were applied to moss and lichen materials: water-washing, acid-washing and oven-drying. During the different exposure periods in the Naples urban environment the moss accumulated always higher amounts of elements (except Hg) than lichens and the element accumulation increased during wetter weather and higher PM 10 conditions. The oven pre-treatment did not substantially modify the morphology and element composition of moss and the exposure in bags of this material for 6-weeks was sufficient to detect the pattern of airborne trace elements. - A 6-week exposure with oven-dried moss bags resulted a suitable approach to evaluate airborne trace elements in a Mediterranean urban environment.

  14. Patos Lagoon Outflow Within the Rio de la Plata Plume Using an Airborne Salinity Mapper: Observing an Embedded Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    19 February 2004. Meteorological observations were also re- depths of several meters. In spite of the apparent inaccuracy, we corded manually from the...Brigada de Mantenimiento , Servicio Application of data from near-coincident airborne and in-situ de Sensores Remotos y Aeroespaciales, and Escuadr6n

  15. Pitfalls with the use of enhancement ratios or normalized excess mixing ratios measured in plumes to characterize pollution sources and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs, also known as enhancement ratios, are a common way to characterize plumes of pollution in atmospheric research. As single-source pollutant plumes disperse in the atmosphere, they are diluted by mixing with the adjacent background air. Changes in the composition of this background air can cause large changes to the NEMR that is subsequently measured by remote-sensing, airborne, or ground-based instruments. This scenario is common when boundary layer plumes enter the free troposphere and could also impact long-range transport or plumes near the top of the troposphere. We provide a context for these issues and an example showing that neglect of this effect could lead to serious errors in data interpretation.

  16. Using tree core samples to monitor natural attenuation and plume distribution after a PCE spill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Burken, J.; Machackova, J.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of using tree core samples to detect and monitor natural attenuation of perchloroethene (PCE) in groundwater was investigated at a PCE-contaminated site. In the area of the known plume with PCE concentrations between 0.004 and >40 mg/L, cores were collected from tree trunks at a hei...... at a height of about 1 m above ground surface. Tree sampling of the site was completed in under six hours. Chlorinated ethenes were analyzed by headspace GC/MS. PCE (0.001 to 7 mg/kg) and natural attenuation products, TCE (...

  17. Air ICP uses for instantaneous monitoring of airborne pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouzeau, F.; Birolleau, J.C.; Fieni, J.M.; Bergey, C.

    1987-01-01

    Recently the development of a pure AIR-ICP which breathes in and excites the analysed air without sample dilution, allowed the application of this technique to the real time analysis of airborne metallic pollutants. First results obtained on airborne Beryllium in a laboratory and a test-site apparatus are presented in this paper

  18. Magnetotelluric Detection Thresholds as a Function of Leakage Plume Depth, TDS and Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buscheck, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mansoor, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carroll, S. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    We conducted a synthetic magnetotelluric (MT) data analysis to establish a set of specific thresholds of plume depth, TDS concentration and volume for detection of brine and CO2 leakage from legacy wells into shallow aquifers in support of Strategic Monitoring Subtask 4.1 of the US DOE National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP Phase II), which is to develop geophysical forward modeling tools. 900 synthetic MT data sets span 9 plume depths, 10 TDS concentrations and 10 plume volumes. The monitoring protocol consisted of 10 MT stations in a 2×5 grid laid out along the flow direction. We model the MT response in the audio frequency range of 1 Hz to 10 kHz with a 50 Ωm baseline resistivity and the maximum depth up to 2000 m. Scatter plots show the MT detection thresholds for a trio of plume depth, TDS concentration and volume. Plumes with a large volume and high TDS located at a shallow depth produce a strong MT signal. We demonstrate that the MT method with surface based sensors can detect a brine and CO2 plume so long as the plume depth, TDS concentration and volume are above the thresholds. However, it is unlikely to detect a plume at a depth larger than 1000 m with the change of TDS concentration smaller than 10%. Simulated aquifer impact data based on the Kimberlina site provides a more realistic view of the leakage plume distribution than rectangular synthetic plumes in this sensitivity study, and it will be used to estimate MT responses over simulated brine and CO2 plumes and to evaluate the leakage detectability. Integration of the simulated aquifer impact data and the MT method into the NRAP DREAM tool may provide an optimized MT survey configuration for MT data collection. This study presents a viable approach for sensitivity study of geophysical monitoring methods for leakage detection. The results come in handy for rapid assessment of leakage detectability.

  19. Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling: A screening technique for plume definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolley, M.; Kappmeyer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling were used to define the extent of volatile organic compounds in ground water. The investigation indicated that the combination of the these techniques is effective for obtaining ground water samples for preliminary plume definition. HydroPunch samples can be collected in unconsolidated sediments and the analytical results obtained from these samples are comparable to those obtained from adjacent monitoring wells. This sampling method is a rapid and cost-effective screening technique for characterizing the extent of contaminant plumes in soft sediment environments. Use of this screening technique allowed monitoring wells to be located at the plume boundary, thereby reducing the number of wells installed and the overall cost of the plume definition program

  20. Wavelength-Agile Optical Sensor for Exhaust Plume and Cryogenic Fluid Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott T.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Gramer, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Two optical sensors developed in UW-Madison labs were evaluated for their potential to characterize rocket engine exhaust plumes and liquid oxygen (LOX) fluid properties. The plume sensor is based on wavelength-agile absorption spectroscopy A device called a chirped white pulse emitter (CWPE) is used to generate the wavelength agile light, scanning, for example, 1340 - 1560 nm every microsecond. Properties of the gases in the rocket plume (for example temperature and water mole fraction) can be monitored using these wavelength scans. We have performed preliminary tests in static gas cells, a laboratory GOX/GH2 thrust chamber, and a solid-fuel hybrid thrust chamber, and these initial tests demonstrate the potential of the CWPE for monitoring rocket plumes. The LOX sensor uses an alternative to wavelength agile sensing: two independent, fixed-wavelength lasers are combined into a single fiber. One laser is absorbed by LOX and the other not: by monitoring the differential transmission the LOX concentration in cryogenic feed lines can be inferred. The sensor was successful in interrogating static LOX pools in laboratory tests. Even in ice- and bubble-laden cryogenic fluids, LOX concentrations were measured to better than 1% with a 3 microsec time constant.

  1. Real-time, high frequency (1 Hz), in situ measurement of HCl and HF gases in volcanic plumes with a novel cavity-enhanced, laser-based instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P. J.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Kern, C.; Clor, L. E.; Baer, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Primary magmatic halogen-containing gases (HCl, HF, HBr, HI in characteristic order of abundance) are of great interest for volcano monitoring and research because, in general, they are more soluble in magma than other commonly-monitored volcanic volatiles (e.g. CO2, SO2, H2S) and thereby can offer unique insights into shallow magmatic processes. Nevertheless, difficulties in obtaining observations of primary volcanic halogens in gas plumes with traditional methods (e.g. direct sampling, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, filter packs) have limited the number of observations reported worldwide, especially from explosive arc volcanoes. With this in mind, the USGS and Los Gatos Research, Inc. collaborated to adapt a commercially-available industrial in situ HCl-HF analyzer for use in airborne and ground-based measurements of volcanic gases. The new, portable instrument is based around two near-IR tunable diode lasers and uses a vibration-tolerant, enhanced-cavity approach that is well-suited for rugged field applications and yields fast (1 Hz) measurements with a wide dynamic range (0 -2 ppm) and sub-ppb precision (1σ: HCl: <0.4 ppb; HF: <0.1 ppb). In spring 2017 we conducted field tests at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, to benchmark the performance of the new instrument and to compare it with an accepted method for halogen measurements (OP-FTIR). The HCl-HF instrument was run in parallel with a USGS Multi-GAS to obtain in situ H2O-CO2-SO2-H2S-HCl-HF plume compositions. The results were encouraging and quasi-direct comparisons of the in situ and remote sensing instruments showed good agreement (e.g. in situ SO2/HCl = 72 vs. OP-FTIR SO2/HCl = 88). Ground-based and helicopter-based measurements made 0 - 12 km downwind from the vent (plume age 0 - 29 minutes) show that plume SO2/HCl ratios increase rapidly from 60 to 300 around the plume edges, possibly due to uptake of HCl onto aerosols.

  2. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plumes of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project, an intensive campaign was launched in the greater Paris region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind of the Paris region. Two mechanisms of secondary OA (SOA) formation are used, both including SOA formation from oxidation and chemical aging of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SI-SOA) in the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. As for SOA formed from traditional VOC (volatile organic compound) precursors (traditional SOA), one applies chemical aging in the VBS framework adopting different SOA yields for high- and low-NOx environments, while another applies a single-step oxidation scheme without chemical aging. Two emission inventories are used for discussion of emission uncertainties. The slopes of the airborne OA levels versus Ox (i.e., O3 + NO2) show SOA formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. The simulated slopes were overestimated slightly by factors of 1.1, 1.7 and 1.3 with respect to those observed for the three airborne measurements, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields for traditional SOA formation in the VBS scheme are used in the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggests that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. The configuration with increased primary

  3. Airborne Deployment of a High Resolution PTR-ToF-MS to Characterize Non-methane Organic Gases in Wildfire Smoke: A Pilot Study During WE-CAN Test Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permar, W.; Hu, L.; Fischer, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    Despite being the second largest primary source of tropospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), biomass burning is poorly understood relative to other sources due in part to its large variability and the difficulty inherent to sampling smoke. In light of this, several field campaigns are planned to better characterize wildfire plume emissions and chemistry through airborne sampling of smoke plumes. As part of this effort, we will deploy a high-resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) on the NSF/NCAR C-130 research aircraft during the collaborative Western wildfire Experiment for Cloud chemistry, Aerosol absorption and Nitrogen (WE-CAN) mission. PTR-ToF-MS is well suited for airborne measurements of VOC in wildfire smoke plumes due to its ability to collect real time, high-resolution data for the full mass range of ionizable organic species, many of which remain uncharacterized or unidentified. In this work, we will report on our initial measurements from the WE-CAN test flights in September 2017. We will also discuss challenges associated with deploying the instrument for airborne missions targeting wildfire smoke and goals for further study in WE-CAN 2018.

  4. Environmental monitoring system based on airborne gamma ray spectrometry developed at Geoinstitut Beograd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milojevic, M.; Strumberger, V.

    1997-01-01

    The continuous hazard of nuclear reactor failures, which may exceed in consequences that of the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, makes it imperative for us to develop and introduce soil, water and air contamination control systems to protect the environment. A most efficient means of the contamination control at the artificial radioactive radiation sources is the complex MONITORING SYSTEM controlled from a centre by competent and recognised experts. Such systems have been used for years now many western world countries (USA, Canada, Sweden, etc.). The modest purpose of this paper is at least to leave a trace of the efforts, both individual and of the institute, made in developing a component of the monitoring system - airborne gamma-ray contamination control, which in western systems is a principal technique of remote detection. (author)

  5. Airborne lidar measurements of the Soufriere eruption of 17 April 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, W. H., Jr.; Sokol, S.; Hunt, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    At the time of the Soufriere, St. Vincent, volcanic eruption of April 17, 1979, a NASA P-3 aircraft with an uplooking lidar (light detection and ranging) system onboard was airborne 130 kilometers east of the island. Lidar measurements of the fresh volcanic ash were made approximately 2 hours after the eruption, 120 kilometers to the northeast and east. On the evening of April 18, the airborne lidar, on a southerly flight track, detected significant amounts of stratospheric material in layers at 16, 17, 18, and 19.5 kilometers. These data, and measurements to the north on April 19, indicate that the volcanic plume penetrated the stratosphere to an altitude of about 20 kilometers and moved south during the first 48 hours after the eruption.

  6. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew K.; Frankenberg, Christian; Thompson, David R.; Duren, Riley M.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Bue, Brian D.; Green, Robert O.; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Borchardt, Jakob; Kort, Eric A.; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Roberts, Dar A.; Dennison, Philip E.

    2017-10-01

    At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  7. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Thorpe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  8. Correlating the electrification of volcanic plumes with ashfall textures at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra M.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Charbonnier, Sylvain; McNutt, Stephen R.; Behnke, Sonja A.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Edens, Harald E.; Thompson, Glenn

    2018-06-01

    Volcanic lightning detection has become a useful resource for monitoring remote, under-instrumented volcanoes. Previous studies have shown that the behavior of volcanic plume electrification responds to changes in the eruptive processes and products. However, there has not yet been a study to quantify the links between ash textures and plume electrification during an actively monitored eruption. In this study, we examine a sequence of vulcanian eruptions from Sakurajima Volcano in Japan to compare ash textural properties (grain size, shape, componentry, and groundmass crystallinity) to plume electrification using a lightning mapping array and other monitoring data. We show that the presence of the continual radio frequency (CRF) signal is more likely to occur during eruptions that produce large seismic amplitudes (>7 μm) and glass-rich volcanic ash with more equant particle shapes. We show that CRF is generated during energetic, impulsive eruptions, where charge buildup is enhanced by secondary fragmentation (milling) as particles travel out of the conduit and into the gas-thrust region of the plume. We show that the CRF signal is influenced by a different electrification process than later volcanic lightning. By using volcanic CRF and lightning to better understand the eruptive event and its products these key observations will help the monitoring community better utilize volcanic electrification as a method for monitoring and understanding ongoing explosive eruptions.

  9. Deposition of airborne metals around the lead-zinc mine in Maarmorilik monitored by lichens and mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilegaard, K.

    1994-01-01

    The deposition of heavy metals around the Pb-Zn mine in Maarmorilik (Greenland) was monitored during the year 1979-1990 by analyses of concentrations in in situ lichens (Cetraria nivalis and Umbilicaria Lyngei) and higher plants (rhododendron lapponicum). Concentrations of the metals Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, S b and Zn decreased with increasing distance from the mining and milling complex according to the model: y = ax b + C where y = concentrations, x = distance, c = background concentration, a and b = constants. The spread was most pronounced west of Maarmorilik. Exposed Pb-Zn mineralizations in the area were found not to influence the overall deposition pattern. The transport of pollutants to higher altitudes was little. Airborne pollution with Cd, Pb and Zn was monitored with suspended Sphagnumbags during a period with ship-loading of concentrates and compared to a period without this activity. There was a strongly increased deposition of airborne Cd, Pb and Zn during periods of ship-loading. The primary sources of pollution were the concentrate conveyor and the ship-loader. Sphagnum-bags were also used to monitor the effects of remedial actions carried out in the mining town. Analyses of the concentrations of Pb in Cetraria during the years 1979 to 1990 showed that pollution during the last years was only about half as large as during the early years. This decrease is attributed to the pollution abatement carried out at the mining complex. (au) (23 refs.)

  10. Argonne National Laboratory's thermal plume measurements: instruments and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, L.S.; Frigo, A.A.; Paddock, R.A.

    1977-12-01

    Instrumentation and techniques were developed at Argonne National Laboratory for measuring the three-dimensional temperature structure of thermal plumes from power plants, along with the limnological, meteorological, and plant operating conditions affecting their behavior. The equipment and procedures were designed to provide field data for use in evaluating predictive models that describe thermal plume behavior, and over 100 sets of these data have been collected. The instrument systems and techniques employed in a typical thermal discharge survey are highly integrated. Continuous monitoring of ambient and plant conditions is coupled with plume mapping from a moving survey boat. The instantaneous location of the boat together with subsurface temperature measurements from a towed thermistor chain provide a quasisynoptic view of the plume structure. Real-time, onboard display of the boat path and vertical temperatures supply feedback to investigators for determining the extent and spatial resolution of measurements required. The unique design, reliability, accuracy, calibration, and historical development of the components of these integrated systems are described. Survey system interfaces with data handling and processing techniques are also explained. Special supportive studies to investigate plume dynamics, values of eddy diffusivities, time-temperature histories of water parcels in thermal plumes, and rapid changes in plume shape are also described along with instrumentation used

  11. Monitoring airborne biotic contaminants in the indoor environment of pig and poultry confinement buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Li, Xiangzhen; Yang, Xufei; Shinkai, Takumi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-06-01

    Given the growing concerns over human and animal health issues related to confined animal feeding operations, an in-depth examination is required to monitor for airborne bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Our 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing revealed that the airborne microbial community skewed towards a higher abundance of Firmicutes (> 59.2%) and Bacteroidetes (4.2-31.4%) within the confinement buildings, while the office environment was predominated by Proteobacteria (55.2%). Furthermore, bioaerosols in the confinement buildings were sporadically associated with genera of potential pathogens, and these genera were more frequently observed in the bioaerosols of pig and layer hen confinement than the turkey confinement buildings and office environment. High abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (9.55 × 10(2) to 1.69 × 10(6) copies ng(-1) DNA) were also detected in the bioaerosols sampled from confinement buildings. Bacterial lineages present in the poultry bioaerosols clustered apart from those present in the pig bioaerosols and among the different phases of pig production, suggesting that different livestock as well as production phase were associated with a distinct airborne microbial community. By understanding the diversity of biotic contaminants associated with the different confinement buildings, this study facilitates the implementation of better management strategies to minimize potential health impacts on both livestock and humans working in this environment. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Airborne Observations of Ozone and Other Trace Gases Upwind of National Parks in California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraci, Laura T.

    2016-01-01

    The Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) is a research project based at Moffett Field, CA, which collects airborne measurements of ozone, carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and formaldehyde, as well as 3-D winds, temperature, pressure, and location. Since its first science flight in 2011, AJAX has developed a wide a variety of mission types, combining vertical profiles (from approximately 8 km to near surface), boundary layer legs, and plume sampling as needed. With an ongoing five-year data set, the team has sampled over 160 vertical profiles, a dozen wildfires, and numerous stratospheric ozone intrusions. Our largest data collection includes 55 vertical profiles at Railroad Valley, NV, approximately 100 miles southwest of Great Basin National Park, and many of those flights include comparisons to surface monitors in the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative network. We have also collected a smaller set of measurements northwest of Joshua Tree National Park, and are looking to develop partnerships that can put this data to use to assess or improve air quality in nearby Parks. AJAX also studies the plumes emitted by wildfires in California, as most emissions inventories are based on prescribed fires. We have sampled a dozen fires, and results will be presented from several, including the Rim (2013), Soberanes and Cedar (2016) Fires.

  13. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.; Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories plume and trend tracking, treatment/storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  14. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.

  15. Airborne radiation monitoring using a manned helicopter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Ishizaki, Azusa; Urabe, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 generated a series of large tsunami waves that caused serious damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station, following which a large amount of radioactive material was discharged from the nuclear power plant into the environment. Airborne radiation measurements using a manned helicopter were applied to measure the radiation distribution immediately after accident as technique to quickly measure the radiation distribution over a wide area. In Japan, this technique was researched and developed in the 1980s. However, this technique and system were not applied immediately after the accident because standardization of analysis was not established and the Japanese system became deteriorated. This technique is important for post-accident studies at a nuclear facility. We summarized the methods of the airborne radiation measurement using a manned helicopter. In addition, measurement results of the dose rate distribution at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station are given in this paper. (author)

  16. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated.

  17. The 4-Corners methane hotspot: Mapping CH4 plumes at 60km through 1m resolution using space- and airborne spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, C.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hook, S. J.; Green, R. O.; Thompson, D. R.; Kort, E. A.; Hulley, G. C.; Vance, N.; Bue, B. D.; Aubrey, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The SCIAMACHY instrument onboard the European research satellite ENVISAT detected a large methane hotspot in the 4-Corners area, specifically in New Mexico and Colorado. Total methane emissions in this region were estimated to be on the order of 0.5Tg/yr, presumably related to coal-bed methane exploration. Here, we report on NASA efforts to augment the TOPDOWN campaign intended to enable regional methane source inversions and identify source types in this area. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory was funded to fly two airborne imaging spectrometers, viz. AVIRIS-NG and HyTES. In April 2015, we used both instruments to continuously map about 2000km2 in the 4-Corners area at 1-5m spatial resolution, with special focus on the most enhanced areas as observed from space. During our weeklong campaign, we detected more than 50 isolated and strongly enhanced methane plumes, ranging from coal mine venting shafts and gas processing facilities through individual well-pads, pipeline leaks and outcrop. Results could be immediately shared with ground-based teams and TOPDOWN aircraft so that ground-validation and identification was feasible for a number of sources. We will provide a general overview of the JPL-led mapping campaign efforts and show individual results, derive source strength estimates and discuss how the results fit in with space borne estimates.

  18. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  19. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Shadel, Craig [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Chapman, Jenny [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; McCurdy, Greg [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Etyemezian, Vicken [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Miller, Julianne J. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Mizell, Steve [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  20. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Dresel, P. Evan; Lindberg, Jon W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Thornton, Edward C.

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The U.S. Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/ frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories: plume and trend tracking, treatment/ storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  1. Volcanic Plume Measurements with UAV (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, H.; Kaneko, T.; Ohminato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles in magmas are the driving force of volcanic eruptions and quantification of volcanic gas flux and composition is important for the volcano monitoring. Recently we developed a portable gas sensor system (Multi-GAS) to quantify the volcanic gas composition by measuring volcanic plumes and obtained volcanic gas compositions of actively degassing volcanoes. As the Multi-GAS measures variation of volcanic gas component concentrations in the pumped air (volcanic plume), we need to bring the apparatus into the volcanic plume. Commonly the observer brings the apparatus to the summit crater by himself but such measurements are not possible under conditions of high risk of volcanic eruption or difficulty to approach the summit due to topography etc. In order to overcome these difficulties, volcanic plume measurements were performed by using manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The volcanic plume measurements by manned aerial vehicles, however, are also not possible under high risk of eruption. The strict regulation against the modification of the aircraft, such as installing sampling pipes, also causes difficulty due to the high cost. Application of the UAVs for the volcanic plume measurements has a big advantage to avoid these problems. The Multi-GAS consists of IR-CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, SO2-H2O chemical sensors and H2 semiconductor sensor and the total weight ranges 3-6 kg including batteries. The necessary conditions of the UAV for the volcanic plumes measurements with the Multi-GAS are the payloads larger than 3 kg, maximum altitude larger than the plume height and installation of the sampling pipe without contamination of the exhaust gases, as the exhaust gases contain high concentrations of H2, SO2 and CO2. Up to now, three different types of UAVs were applied for the measurements; Kite-plane (Sky Remote) at Miyakejima operated by JMA, Unmanned airplane (Air Photo Service) at Shinomoedake, Kirishima volcano, and Unmanned helicopter (Yamaha) at Sakurajima

  2. Study of ocean red tide multi-parameter monitoring technology based on double-wavelength airborne lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Wang, Xinming; Liang, Kun

    2010-10-01

    For monitoring and forecasting of the ocean red tide in real time, a marine environment monitoring technology based on the double-wavelength airborne lidar system is proposed. An airborne lidar is father more efficient than the traditional measure technology by the boat. At the same time, this technology can detect multi-parameter about the ocean red tide by using the double-wavelength lidar.It not only can use the infrared laser to detect the scattering signal under the water and gain the information about the red tise's density and size, but also can use the blue-green laser to detect the Brillouin scattering signal and deduce the temperature and salinity of the seawater.The red tide's density detecting model is firstly established by introducing the concept about the red tide scattering coefficient based on the Mie scattering theory. From the Brillouin scattering theory, the relationship about the blue-green laser's Brillouin scattering frequency shift value and power value with the seawater temperature and salinity is found. Then, the detecting mode1 of the saewater temperature and salinity can be established. The value of the red tide infrared scattering signal is evaluated by the simulation, and therefore the red tide particles' density can be known. At the same time, the blue-green laser's Brillouin scattering frequency shift value and power value are evaluated by simulating, and the temperature and salinity of the seawater can be known. Baed on the multi-parameters, the ocean red tide's growth can be monitored and forecasted.

  3. An Airborne Wireless Sensor System for Near-Real Time Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestis EVANGELATOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades with the rapid growth of industrial zones, manufacturing plants and the substantial urbanization, environmental pollution has become a crucial health, environmental and safety concern. In particular, due to the increased emissions of various pollutants caused mainly by human sources, the air pollution problem is elevated in such extent where significant measures need to be taken. Towards the identification and the qualification of that problem, we present in this paper an airborne wireless sensor network system for automated monitoring and measuring of the ambient air pollution. Our proposed system is comprised of a pollution-aware wireless sensor network and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. It is designed for monitoring the pollutants and gases of the ambient air in three-dimensional spaces without the human intervention. In regards to the general architecture of our system, we came up with two schemes and algorithms for an autonomous monitoring of a three-dimensional area of interest. To demonstrate our solution, we deployed the system and we conducted experiments in a real environment measuring air pollutants such as: NH3, CH4, CO2, O2 along with temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure. Lastly, we experimentally evaluated and analyzed the two proposed schemes.

  4. River plume patterns and dynamics within the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; DiGiacomo, P.M.; Weisberg, S.B.; Nezlin, N.P.; Mengel, M.; Jones, B.H.; Ohlmann, J.C.; Washburn, L.; Terrill, E.J.; Farnsworth, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Stormwater river plumes are important vectors of marine contaminants and pathogens in the Southern California Bight. Here we report the results of a multi-institution investigation of the river plumes across eight major river systems of southern California. We use in situ water samples from multi-day cruises in combination with MODIS satellite remote sensing, buoy meteorological observations, drifters, and HF radar current measurements to evaluate the dispersal patterns and dynamics of the freshwater plumes. River discharge was exceptionally episodic, and the majority of storm discharge occurred in a few hours. The combined plume observing techniques revealed that plumes commonly detach from the coast and turn to the left, which is the opposite direction of Coriolis influence. Although initial offshore velocity of the buoyant plumes was ∼50 cm/s and was influenced by river discharge inertia (i.e., the direct momentum of the river flux) and buoyancy, subsequent advection of the plumes was largely observed in an alongshore direction and dominated by local winds. Due to the multiple day upwelling wind conditions that commonly follow discharge events, plumes were observed to flow from their respective river mouths to down-coast waters at rates of 20–40 km/d. Lastly, we note that suspended-sediment concentration and beam-attenuation were poorly correlated with plume salinity across and within the sampled plumes (mean r2=0.12 and 0.25, respectively), while colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence was well correlated (mean r2=0.56), suggesting that CDOM may serve as a good tracer of the discharged freshwater in subsequent remote sensing and monitoring efforts of plumes.

  5. Great Lakes Hyperspectral Water Quality Instrument Suite for Airborne Monitoring of Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekki, John; Leshkevich, George; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Flatico, Joseph; Prokop, Norman; Kojima, Jun; Anderson, Robert; Demers, James; Krasowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab are collaborating to utilize an airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor suite to monitor Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the western basin of Lake Erie. The HABs are very dynamic events as they form, spread and then disappear within a 4 to 8 week time period in late summer. They are a concern for human health, fish and wildlife because they can contain blue green toxic algae. Because of this toxicity there is a need for the blooms to be continually monitored. This situation is well suited for aircraft based monitoring because the blooms are a very dynamic event and they can spread over a large area. High resolution satellite data is not suitable by itself because it will not give the temporal resolution due to the infrequent overpasses of the quickly changing blooms. A custom designed hyperspectral imager and a point spectrometer mounted on aT 34 aircraft have been used to obtain data on an algal bloom that formed in the western basin of Lake Erie during September 2006. The sensor suite and operations will be described and preliminary hyperspectral data of this event will be presented

  6. Monitoring and modeling crop health and water use via in-situ, airborne and space-based platforms

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    The accurate retrieval of plant water use, health and function together with soil state and condition, represent key objectives in the management and monitoring of large-scale agricultural production. In regions of water shortage or stress, understanding the sustainable use of available water supplies is critical. Unfortunately, this need is all too often limited by a lack of reliable observations. Techniques that balance the demand for reliable ground-based data with the rapid retrieval of spatially distributed crop characteristics represent a needed line of research. Data from in-situ monitoring coupled with advances in satellite retrievals of key land surface variables, provide the information necessary to characterize many crop health and water use features, including evaporation, leaf-chlorophyll and other common vegetation indices. With developments in UAV and quadcopter solutions, the opportunity to bridge the spatio-temporal gap between satellite and ground based sensing now exists, along with the capacity for customized retrievals of crop information. While there remain challenges in the routine application of autonomous airborne systems, the state of current technology and sensor developments provide the capacity to explore the operational potential. While this presentation will focus on the multi-scale estimation of crop-water use and crop-health characteristics from satellite-based sensors, the retrieval of high resolution spatially distributed information from near-surface airborne and ground-based systems will also be examined.

  7. Monitoring and Modeling Crop Health and Water Use via in-situ, Airborne and Space-based Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    The accurate retrieval of plant water use, health and function together with soil state and condition, represent key objectives in the management and monitoring of large-scale agricultural production. In regions of water shortage or stress, understanding the sustainable use of available water supplies is critical. Unfortunately, this need is all too often limited by a lack of reliable observations. Techniques that balance the demand for reliable ground-based data with the rapid retrieval of spatially distributed crop characteristics represent a needed line of research. Data from in-situ monitoring coupled with advances in satellite retrievals of key land surface variables, provide the information necessary to characterize many crop health and water use features, including evaporation, leaf-chlorophyll and other common vegetation indices. With developments in UAV and quadcopter solutions, the opportunity to bridge the spatio-temporal gap between satellite and ground based sensing now exists, along with the capacity for customized retrievals of crop information. While there remain challenges in the routine application of autonomous airborne systems, the state of current technology and sensor developments provide the capacity to explore the operational potential. While this presentation will focus on the multi-scale estimation of crop-water use and crop-health characteristics from satellite-based sensors, the retrieval of high resolution spatially distributed information from near-surface airborne and ground-based systems will also be examined.

  8. Plume Tracker: Interactive mapping of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions with high-performance radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Berk, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We describe the development of Plume Tracker, an interactive toolkit for the analysis of multispectral thermal infrared observations of volcanic plumes and clouds. Plume Tracker is the successor to MAP_SO2, and together these flexible and comprehensive tools have enabled investigators to map sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from a number of volcanoes with TIR data from a variety of airborne and satellite instruments. Our objective for the development of Plume Tracker was to improve the computational performance of the retrieval procedures while retaining the accuracy of the retrievals. We have achieved a 300 × improvement in the benchmark performance of the retrieval procedures through the introduction of innovative data binning and signal reconstruction strategies, and improved the accuracy of the retrievals with a new method for evaluating the misfit between model and observed radiance spectra. We evaluated the accuracy of Plume Tracker retrievals with case studies based on MODIS and AIRS data acquired over Sarychev Peak Volcano, and ASTER data acquired over Kilauea and Turrialba Volcanoes. In the Sarychev Peak study, the AIRS-based estimate of total SO2 mass was 40% lower than the MODIS-based estimate. This result was consistent with a 45% reduction in the AIRS-based estimate of plume area relative to the corresponding MODIS-based estimate. In addition, we found that our AIRS-based estimate agreed with an independent estimate, based on a competing retrieval technique, within a margin of ± 20%. In the Kilauea study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates from 21 May 2012 were within ± 50% of concurrent ground-level concentration measurements. In the Turrialba study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates on 21 January 2012 were in exact agreement with SO2 concentrations measured at plume altitude on 1 February 2012.

  9. Airborne Tactical Intent-Based Conflict Resolution Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Vivona, Robert A.; Roscoe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Trajectory-based operations with self-separation involve the aircraft taking the primary role in the management of its own trajectory in the presence of other traffic. In this role, the flight crew assumes the responsibility for ensuring that the aircraft remains separated from all other aircraft by at least a minimum separation standard. These operations are enabled by cooperative airborne surveillance and by airborne automation systems that provide essential monitoring and decision support functions for the flight crew. An airborne automation system developed and used by NASA for research investigations of required functionality is the Autonomous Operations Planner. It supports the flight crew in managing their trajectory when responsible for self-separation by providing monitoring and decision support functions for both strategic and tactical flight modes. The paper focuses on the latter of these modes by describing a capability for tactical intent-based conflict resolution and its role in a comprehensive suite of automation functions supporting trajectory-based operations with self-separation.

  10. Spatial and temporal migration of a landfill leachate plume in alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Leachate from unlined or leaky landfills can create groundwater contaminant plumes that last decades to centuries. Understanding the dynamics of leachate movement in space and time is essential for monitoring, planning and management, and assessment of risk to groundwater and surface-water resources. Over a 23.4-year period (1986–2010), the spatial extent of the Norman Landfill leachate plume increased at a rate of 7800 m2/year and expanded by 878 %, from an area of 20,800 m2 in 1986 to 203,400 m2 in 2010. A linear plume velocity of 40.2 m/year was calculated that compared favorably to a groundwater-seepage velocity of 55.2 m/year. Plume-scale hydraulic conductivity values representative of actual hydrogeological conditions in the alluvium ranged from 7.0 × 10−5 to 7.5 × 10−4 m/s, with a median of 2.0 × 10−4 m/s. Analyses of field-measured and calculated plume-scale hydraulic conductivity distributions indicate that the upper percentiles of field-measured values should be considered to assess rates of plume-scale migration, spreading, and biodegradation. A pattern of increasing Cl− concentrations during dry periods and decreasing Cl− concentrations during wet periods was observed in groundwater beneath the landfill. The opposite occurred in groundwater downgradient from the landfill; that is, Cl− concentrations in groundwater downgradient from the landfill decreased during dry periods and increased during wet periods. This pattern of changing Cl−concentrations in response to wet and dry periods indicates that the landfill retains or absorbs leachate during dry periods and produces lower concentrated leachate downgradient. During wet periods, the landfill receives more recharge which dilutes leachate in the landfill but increases leachate migration from the landfill and produces a more concentrated contaminant plume. This approach of quantifying plume expansion, migration, and concentration during variable hydrologic

  11. Dilution in Transition Zone between Rising Plumes and Surface Plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The papers presents some physical experiments with the dilution of sea outfall plumes with emphasize on the transition zone where the relative fast flowing vertical plume turns to a horizontal surface plume following the slow sea surface currents. The experiments show that a considerable dilution...

  12. The development of an innovative, real-time monitor for airborne alpha emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzo, R.; Fowler, M.; Wouters, J.

    1994-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is developing a technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of incinerator stacks for low levels of airborne alpha activity. Referred to as the Large-Volume Flow Thru Detector System (LVFTDS), this technology uses a unique design for sensitive, real-time measurements of alpha particle emissions. Scintillating plates are stacked close together so that alpha-particle emissions in the flowing gas stream strike a plate. The light pulses produced when the alpha particle strikes the plate are registered by photomultiplier tubes and processed to determine the concentration of alpha emitting radionuclides present in the air. This technology directly addresses the public's demand for fast responding, high sensitivity effluent monitoring systems. With Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 funding LANL has fabricated a beach-top proof of concept detector system and is conducting tests to evaluate its performance. A second generation prototype is being designed, based on requirements driven by potential field test sites. An industrial partner is being solicited to license the technology. Field trials of a full-scale detector system are planned for fiscal year 1995. In this paper the LVFTDS technology is explained, including the measured performance of a prototype detector. The advantages, disadvantages, and other ramifications of applying this technology to incinerator effluent monitoring are also discussed. An overview of the development effort is also provided

  13. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-01-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr 3 ) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr 3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R 2 =0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. - Highlights: • An airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was developed to measure radionuclide after a nuclear accident. • A spectrum correction algorithm was proposed to obtain precise information on the detected radioactivity within a small area. • The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. • The corresponding spectrum correction coefficients increase first and then stay constant

  14. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ye [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Tang, Xiao-Bin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2015-10-11

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr{sub 3} detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R{sup 2}=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. - Highlights: • An airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was developed to measure radionuclide after a nuclear accident. • A spectrum correction algorithm was proposed to obtain precise information on the detected radioactivity within a small area. • The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. • The corresponding spectrum correction coefficients increase first and then stay constant.

  15. East Asian SO2 pollution plume over Europe – Part 2: Evolution and potential impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first observation-based case study of an aged East Asian anthropogenic SO2 pollution plume over Europe. Our airborne measurements in that plume detected highly elevated SO2 mole fractions (up to 900 pmol/mol between about 5000 and 7000 m altitude. Here, we focus on investigations of the origin, dispersion, evolution, conversion, and potential impact of the observed excess SO2. In particular, we investigate SO2 conversion to gas-phase sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid aerosols. Our FLEXPART and LAGRANTO model simulations, along with additional trace gas measurements, suggest that the plume originated from East Asian fossil fuel combustion sources and, 8–7 days prior to its arrival over Europe, ascended over the coast region of central East Asia to 9000 m altitude, probably in a cyclonic system with an associated warm conveyor belt. During this initial plume ascent a substantial fraction of the initially available SO2 must have escaped from removal by cloud processes. Hereafter, while mostly descending slowly, the plume experienced advection across the North Pacific, North America and the North Atlantic. During its upper troposphere travel, clouds were absent in and above the plume and OH-induced gas-phase conversion of SO2 to gas-phase sulfuric acid (GSA was operative, followed by GSA nucleation and condensation leading to sulfuric acid aerosol formation and growth. Our AEROFOR model simulations indicate that numerous large sulfuric acid aerosol particles were formed, which at least tempora-rily, caused substantial horizontal visibility degradation, and which have the potential to act as water vapor condensation nuclei in liquid water cloud formation, already at water vapor supersaturations as low as about 0.1%. Our AEROFOR model simulations also indicate that those fossil fuel combustion generated soot particles, which have survived cloud induced removal during the initial plume ascent, have experienced extensive H2SO4/H2O

  16. Tropical forest carbon assessment: integrating satellite and airborne mapping approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale carbon mapping is needed to support the UNFCCC program to reduce deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). Managers of forested land can potentially increase their carbon credits via detailed monitoring of forest cover, loss and gain (hectares), and periodic estimates of changes in forest carbon density (tons ha -1 ). Satellites provide an opportunity to monitor changes in forest carbon caused by deforestation and degradation, but only after initial carbon densities have been assessed. New airborne approaches, especially light detection and ranging (LiDAR), provide a means to estimate forest carbon density over large areas, which greatly assists in the development of practical baselines. Here I present an integrated satellite-airborne mapping approach that supports high-resolution carbon stock assessment and monitoring in tropical forest regions. The approach yields a spatially resolved, regional state-of-the-forest carbon baseline, followed by high-resolution monitoring of forest cover and disturbance to estimate carbon emissions. Rapid advances and decreasing costs in the satellite and airborne mapping sectors are already making high-resolution carbon stock and emissions assessments viable anywhere in the world.

  17. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

    1990-05-01

    A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

  18. Utilizing Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry with Airborne Visual and Thermal Images to Monitor Thermal Areas in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, B. B.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) are constantly changing. Persistent monitoring of these areas is necessary to better understand the behavior and potential hazards of both the thermal features and the deeper hydrothermal system driving the observed surface activity. As part of the Park's monitoring program, thousands of visual and thermal infrared (TIR) images have been acquired from a variety of airborne platforms over the past decade. We have used structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques to generate a variety of data products from these images, including orthomosaics, temperature maps, and digital elevation models (DEMs). Temperature maps were generated for Upper Geyser Basin and Norris Geyser Basin for the years 2009-2015, by applying SfM to nighttime TIR images collected from an aircraft-mounted forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera. Temperature data were preserved through the SfM processing by applying a uniform linear stretch over the entire image set to convert between temperature and a 16-bit digital number. Mosaicked temperature maps were compared to the original FLIR image frames and to ground-based temperature data to constrain the accuracy of the method. Due to pixel averaging and resampling, among other issues, the derived temperature values are typically within 5-10 ° of the values of the un-resampled image frame. We also created sub-meter resolution DEMs from airborne daytime visual images of individual thermal areas. These DEMs can be used for resource and hazard management, and in cases where multiple DEMs exist from different times, for measuring topographic change, including change due to thermal activity. For example, we examined the sensitivity of the DEMs to topographic change by comparing DEMs of the travertine terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs, which can grow at > 1 m per year. These methods are generally applicable to images from airborne platforms, including planes, helicopters, and unmanned aerial

  19. Distribution of zooplankton populations within and adjacent to a thermal plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Zooplankton distributions in the 1-m stratum differed between ambient waters and the thermal plume of the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant. Zooplankton were most abundant in the warmest waters of the plume with the region of high densities extending over an approximate area of 0.2 to 0.3 km 2 . Water temperature was not a reliable indicator of alterations in zooplankton populations. Alterations were primarily due to upward vertical displacment of deep-living zooplankton. Large horizontal variability in zooplankton densities and use of conventional sampling procedures (vertically hauled nets, widely spaced stations) prevent traditionally designed monitoring programs from detecting such alterations. Zooplankton may experience indirect mortality losses in the plume if transfer of deep-living zooplankton to the surface layers makes them more visible to visual-feeding fish predators, and turbulences in the plume reduce zooplankters' ability to detect and avoid such predators. (auth)

  20. Aerobyologic monitoring in urban and extra urban areas : analysis of airborne fungal particle concentration; Indagini aerobiologiche in ambiente urbano ed extraurbano componente fungina aerodiffusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, A. [ENEA, Saluggia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia; Caramiello, R.; Fossa, V.; Potenza, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy), Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

    1995-12-01

    In the environmental monitoring studies carried out by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) a research about air quality of Turin and Saluggia (VC) has started in collaboration with the University of Turin. This research concerns the study of pollen and airborne fungal particle concentrations in the atmosphere. In the last few years the interest in airborne spores and hyphal fragments has increased. Indeed these particles play a very important role in allergic reactions, in several other human diseases, and in plant pathology. The incidence and the risk of infections by airborne fungal spores are correlated to the general climate and to the local micro climatic conditions; a complete aerosporological knowledge can be in many cases a useful indicator for infection risks. In this study the concentrations of airborne fungal spores in two different stations (urban station, Turin; and rural station, Saluggia (VC)) has been evaluated and compared, only for the year 1992, in order to verify the influence of climatic conditions and of floristic and vegetational aspects. In order to establish the correlations between the climate and the airborne fungal data, the results of aerosporogical analysis, relative to the Turin station, are reported. This investigation cover a six year period, three of which under standard climatic conditions and three with considerable peculiarities. A comparative evaluation of the efficiency in the collection of aerobiological particles (pollen and spores) by natural traps (mosses) has been attempted in Saluggia. The results obtained by this palinological analysis have been compared with the composition of the local flora and the data monitored by a spore-trap (volumetric pollen trap) positioned on the roof of a building in the ENEA Research Center of Saluggia.

  1. Application of Gauss's theorem to quantify localized surface emissions from airborne measurements of wind and trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Stephen; Faloona, Ian; Mehrotra, Shobhit; Suard, Maxime; Lenschow, Donald H.; Sweeney, Colm; Herndon, Scott; Schwietzke, Stefan; Pétron, Gabrielle; Pifer, Justin; Kort, Eric A.; Schnell, Russell

    2017-09-01

    Airborne estimates of greenhouse gas emissions are becoming more prevalent with the advent of rapid commercial development of trace gas instrumentation featuring increased measurement accuracy, precision, and frequency, and the swelling interest in the verification of current emission inventories. Multiple airborne studies have indicated that emission inventories may underestimate some hydrocarbon emission sources in US oil- and gas-producing basins. Consequently, a proper assessment of the accuracy of these airborne methods is crucial to interpreting the meaning of such discrepancies. We present a new method of sampling surface sources of any trace gas for which fast and precise measurements can be made and apply it to methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide on spatial scales of ˜ 1000 m, where consecutive loops are flown around a targeted source region at multiple altitudes. Using Reynolds decomposition for the scalar concentrations, along with Gauss's theorem, we show that the method accurately accounts for the smaller-scale turbulent dispersion of the local plume, which is often ignored in other average mass balance methods. With the help of large eddy simulations (LES) we further show how the circling radius can be optimized for the micrometeorological conditions encountered during any flight. Furthermore, by sampling controlled releases of methane and ethane on the ground we can ascertain that the accuracy of the method, in appropriate meteorological conditions, is often better than 10 %, with limits of detection below 5 kg h-1 for both methane and ethane. Because of the FAA-mandated minimum flight safe altitude of 150 m, placement of the aircraft is critical to preventing a large portion of the emission plume from flowing underneath the lowest aircraft sampling altitude, which is generally the leading source of uncertainty in these measurements. Finally, we show how the accuracy of the method is strongly dependent on the number of sampling loops and/or time

  2. The Effects of Surface Properties and Albedo on Methane Retrievals with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayasse, A.; Thorpe, A. K.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric methane has increased by a factor of 2.5 since the beginning of the industrial era in response to anthropogenic emissions (Ciais et al., 2013). Although it is less abundant than carbon dioxide it is 86 time more potent on a 20 year time scale (Myhre et al., 2013) and is therefore responsible for about 20% of the total global warming induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (Kirschke et al., 2013). Given the importance of methane to global climate change, monitoring and measuring methane emissions using techniques such as remote sensing is of increasing interest. Recently the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) has proven to be a valuable instrument for quantitative mapping of methane plumes (Frankenberg et al., 2016; Thorpe et al., 2016; Thompson et al., 2015). In this study, we applied the Iterative Maximum a Posterior Differential Optical Spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) methane retrieval algorithm to a synthetic image with variable methane concentrations, albedo, and land cover. This allowed for characterizing retrieval performance, including potential sensitivity to variable land cover, low albedo surfaces, and surfaces known to cause spurious signals. We conclude that albedo had little influence on the IMAP-DOAS results except at very low radiance levels. Water (without sun glint) was found to be the most challenging surface for methane retrievals while hydrocarbons and some green vegetation also caused error. Understanding the effect of surface properties on methane retrievals is important given the increased use of AVIRIS-NG to map gas plumes over diverse locations and methane sources. This analysis could be expanded to include additional gas species like carbon dioxide and to further investigate gas sensitivity of proposed instruments for dedicated gas mapping from airborne and spaceborne platforms.

  3. A compact PTR-ToF-MS instrument for airborne measurements of volatile organic compounds at high spatiotemporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report on the development of a compact proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS for airborne measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The new instrument resolves isobaric ions with a mass resolving power (m/Δm of ~1000, provides accurate m/z measurements (Δm < 3 mDa, records full mass spectra at 1 Hz and thus overcomes some of the major analytical deficiencies of quadrupole-MS-based airborne instruments. 1 Hz detection limits for biogenic VOCs (isoprene, α total monoterpenes, aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes and ketones (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone range from 0.05 to 0.12 ppbV, making the instrument well-suited for fast measurements of abundant VOCs in the continental boundary layer. The instrument detects and quantifies VOCs in locally confined plumes (< 1 km, which improves our capability of characterizing emission sources and atmospheric processing within plumes. A deployment during the NASA 2013 DISCOVER-AQ mission generated high vertical- and horizontal-resolution in situ data of VOCs and ammonia for the validation of satellite retrievals and chemistry transport models.

  4. Solar Coronal Plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar plumes are thin long ray-like structures that project beyond the limb of the Sun polar regions, maintaining their identity over distances of several solar radii. Plumes have been first observed in white-light (WL images of the Sun, but, with the advent of the space era, they have been identified also in X-ray and UV wavelengths (XUV and, possibly, even in in situ data. This review traces the history of plumes, from the time they have been first imaged, to the complex means by which nowadays we attempt to reconstruct their 3-D structure. Spectroscopic techniques allowed us also to infer the physical parameters of plumes and estimate their electron and kinetic temperatures and their densities. However, perhaps the most interesting problem we need to solve is the role they cover in the solar wind origin and acceleration: Does the solar wind emanate from plumes or from the ambient coronal hole wherein they are embedded? Do plumes have a role in solar wind acceleration and mass loading? Answers to these questions are still somewhat ambiguous and theoretical modeling does not provide definite answers either. Recent data, with an unprecedented high spatial and temporal resolution, provide new information on the fine structure of plumes, their temporal evolution and relationship with other transient phenomena that may shed further light on these elusive features.

  5. Advances in the Validation of Satellite-Based Maps of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Berk, A.; Acharya, P. K.; Kennett, R.

    2013-12-01

    The monitoring of volcanic gas emissions with gas cameras, spectrometer arrays, tethersondes, and UAVs presents new opportunities for the validation of satellite-based retrievals of gas concentrations. Gas cameras and spectrometer arrays provide instantaneous observations of the gas burden, or concentration along an optical path, over broad sections of a plume, similar to the observations acquired by nadir-viewing satellites. Tethersondes and UAVs provide us with direct measurements of the vertical profiles of gas concentrations within plumes. This presentation will focus on our current efforts to validate ASTER-based maps of sulfur dioxide plumes at Turrialba and Kilauea Volcanoes (located in Costa Rica and Hawaii, respectively). These volcanoes, which are the subjects of comprehensive monitoring programs, are challenging targets for thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing due the warm and humid atmospheric conditions. The high spatial resolution of ASTER in the TIR (90 meters) allows us to map the plumes back to their source vents, but also requires us to pay close attention to the temperature and emissivity of the surfaces beneath the plumes. Our knowledge of the surface and atmospheric conditions is never perfect, and we employ interactive mapping techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on our estimates of plume composition. To accomplish this interactive mapping we have developed the Plume Tracker tool kit, which integrates retrieval procedures, visualization tools, and a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer (RT) model under a single graphics user interface (GUI). We are in the process of porting the RT calculations to graphics processing units (GPUs) with the goal of achieving a 100-fold increase in the speed of computation relative to conventional CPU-based processing. We will report on our progress with this evolution of Plume Tracker. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  6. Entrainment by turbulent plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Burridge, Henry; Partridge, Jamie; Linden, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Plumes are of relevance to nature and real consequence to industry. While the Morton, Taylor & Turner (1956) plume model is able to estimate the mean physical flux parameters, the process of entrainment is only parametrised in a time-averaged sense and a deeper understanding is key to understanding how they evolve. Various flow configurations, resulting in different entrainment values, are considered; we perform simultaneous PIV and plume-edge detection on saline plumes in water resulting from a point source, a line source and a line source where a vertical wall is placed immediately adjacent. Of particular interest is the effect the large scale eddies, forming at the edge of the plume and engulfing ambient fluid, have on the entrainment process. By using velocity statistics in a coordinate system based on the instantaneous scalar edge of the plume the significance of this large scale engulfment is quantified. It is found that significant mass is transported outside the plumes, in particular in regions where large scale structures are absent creating regions of relatively high-momentum ambient fluid. This suggests that the large scale processes, whereby ambient fluid is engulfed into the plume, contribute significantly to the entrainment.

  7. Plasma plume expansion dynamics in nanosecond Nd:YAG laserosteotome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hamed; Rauter, Georg; Guzman, Raphael; Cattin, Philippe C.; Zam, Azhar

    2018-02-01

    In minimal invasive laser osteotomy precise information about the ablation process can be obtained with LIBS in order to avoid carbonization, or cutting of wrong types of tissue. Therefore, the collecting fiber for LIBS needs to be optimally placed in narrow cavities in the endoscope. To determine this optimal placement, the plasma plume expansion dynamics in ablation of bone tissue by the second harmonic of a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm has been studied. The laserinduced plasma plume was monitored in different time delays, from one nanosecond up to one hundred microseconds. Measurements were performed using high-speed gated illumination imaging. The expansion features were studied using illumination of the overall visible emission by using a gated intensified charged coupled device (ICCD). The camera was capable of having a minimum gate width (Optical FWHM) of 3 ns and the timing resolution (minimum temporal shift of the gate) of 10 ps. The imaging data were used to generate position-time data of the luminous plasma-front. Moreover, the velocity of the plasma plume expansion was studied based on the time-resolved intensity data. By knowing the plasma plume profile over time, the optimum position (axial distance from the laser spot) of the collecting fiber and optimal time delay (to have the best signal to noise ratio) in spatial-resolved and time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can be determined. Additionally, the function of plasma plume expansion could be used to study the shock wave of the plasma plume.

  8. Simulation of plume rise: Study the effect of stably stratified turbulence layer on the rise of a buoyant plume from a continuous source by observing the plume centroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimireddy, Sudheer Reddy; Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2016-11-01

    Buoyant plumes are common in atmosphere when there exists a difference in temperature or density between the source and its ambience. In a stratified environment, plume rise happens until the buoyancy variation exists between the plume and ambience. In a calm no wind ambience, this plume rise is purely vertical and the entrainment happens because of the relative motion of the plume with ambience and also ambient turbulence. In this study, a plume centroid is defined as the plume mass center and is calculated from the kinematic equation which relates the rate of change of centroids position to the plume rise velocity. Parameters needed to describe the plume are considered as the plume radius, plumes vertical velocity and local buoyancy of the plume. The plume rise velocity is calculated by the mass, momentum and heat conservation equations in their differential form. Our study focuses on the entrainment velocity, as it depicts the extent of plume growth. This entrainment velocity is made up as sum of fractions of plume's relative velocity and ambient turbulence. From the results, we studied the effect of turbulence on the plume growth by observing the variation in the plume radius at different heights and the centroid height reached before loosing its buoyancy.

  9. Airborne concentrations of Polybrominated diethyl etherin residential homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahimzadeh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE have been widely applied to different home and offices' appliances as flame retardant additives to inhibit ignition and enhance  the fire safety. Their toxicity, health effects, and resistance to environmental degradation are  matters of great interested among scientists. Airborne concentrations of PBDE in residential  homes were determined in this study.   Methods   In a cross sectional study, 33 residential homes were selected and airborne concentrations of PBDEs were investigated using PUF disk passive air samplers. Also in two building the concentraction of PBDEs were monitored in two rooms of a department in each building for 12 months.   Results   Average airborne concentration of ?PBDE (sum of congener #s 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, and 154 for all locations monitored was 52 (4-245 pgm -3 . While in one of the buildings the contaminant level of bedroom was significantly higher than the living room, PBDE   concentrations remained relatively constant for whole monitoring period.   Conclusion   The range of concentrations results to a wide variation between inhalation intakes of dwellers of the lowest and the highest contaminated homes (~50 folds.  

  10. Fire analog: a comparison between fire plumes and energy center cooling tower plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1977-10-01

    Thermal plumes or convection columns associated with large fires are compared to thermal plumes from cooling towers and proposed energy centers to evaluate the fire analog concept. Energy release rates of mass fires are generally larger than for single or small groups of cooling towers but are comparable to proposed large energy centers. However, significant physical differences exist between cooling tower plumes and fire plumes. Cooling tower plumes are generally dominated by ambient wind, stability and turbulence conditions. Fire plumes, depending on burning rates and other factors, can transform into convective columns which may cause the fire behavior to become more violent. This transformation can cause strong inflow winds and updrafts, turbulence and concentrated vortices. Intense convective columns may interact with ambient winds to create significant downwind effects such as wakes and Karman vortex streets. These characteristics have not been observed with cooling tower plumes to date. The differences in physical characteristics between cooling tower and fire plumes makes the fire analog concept very questionable even though the approximate energy requirements appear to be satisfied in case of large energy centers. Additional research is suggested in studying the upper-level plume characteristics of small experimental fires so this information can be correlated with similar data from cooling towers. Numerical simulation of fires and proposed multiple cooling tower systems could also provide comparative data.

  11. Appearance and water quality of turbidity plumes produced by dredging in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Carl R.; Michaelis, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Turbidity plumes in Tampa Bay, Florida, produced during ship-channel dredging operations from February 1977 to August 1978, were monitored in order to document plume appearance and water quality, evaluate plume influence on the characteristics of Tampa Bay water, and provide a data base for comparison with other areas that have similar sediment, dredge, placement, containment, and tide conditions. The plumes investigated originated from the operation of one hopper dredge and three cutterhead-pipeline dredges. Composition of bottom sediment was found to vary from 85 percent sand and shell fragments to 60 percent silt and clay. Placement methods for dredged sediment included beach nourishment, stationary submerged discharge, oscillating surface discharge, and construction of emergent dikes. Tidal currents ranged from slack water to flow velocities of 0.60 meter per second. Plumes were monitored simultaneously by (1) oblique and vertical 35-millimeter aerial photography and (2) water-quality sampling to determine water clarity and concentrations of nutrients, metals, pesticides, and industrial compounds. Forty-nine photographs depict plumes ranging in length from a few tens of meters to several kilometers and ranging in turbidity level from hopper-dredge unloading operations also produced plumes of low visibility. Primary turbidity plumes were produced directly by dredging and placement operations; secondary plumes were produced indirectly by resuspension of previously deposited material. Secondary plumes were formed both by erosion, in areas of high-velocity tidal currents, and by turbulence from vessels passing over fine material deposited in shallow areas. Where turbidity barriers were not used, turbidity plumes visible at the surface were good indicators of the location of turbid water at depth. Where turbidity barriers were used, turbid bottom water was found at locations having no visible surface plumes. A region of rapidly accelerating then decelerating flow

  12. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, H.

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  13. Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, N R; Fraser, M J; Lamarche, C; Barker, J F; Forsey, S P

    2008-11-14

    The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is >10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates 35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable and random spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed of any of the

  14. Airborne Mission Concept for Coastal Ocean Color and Ecosystems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Morrow, John H.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Palacios, Sherry L.; Torres Perez, Juan L.; Hayashi, Kendra; Dunagan, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA airborne missions in 2011 and 2013 over Monterey Bay, CA, demonstrated novel above- and in-water calibration and validation measurements supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The resultant airborne data characterize contemporaneous coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems spanning a next-generation spectral domain (320-875 nm). This airborne instrument suite for calibration, validation, and research flew at the lowest safe altitude (ca. 100 ft or 30 m) as well as higher altitudes (e.g., 6,000 ft or 1,800 m) above the sea surface covering a larger area in a single synoptic sortie than ship-based measurements at a few stations during the same sampling period. Data collection of coincident atmospheric and aquatic properties near the sea surface and at altitude allows the input of relevant variables into atmospheric correction schemes to improve the output of corrected imaging spectrometer data. Specific channels support legacy and next-generation satellite capabilities, and flights are planned to within 30 min of satellite overpass. This concept supports calibration and validation activities of ocean color phenomena (e.g., river plumes, algal blooms) and studies of water quality and coastal ecosystems. The 2011 COAST mission flew at 100 and 6,000 ft on a Twin Otter platform with flight plans accommodating the competing requirements of the sensor suite, which included the Coastal-Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) for the first time. C-AIR (Biospherical Instruments Inc.) also flew in the 2013 OCEANIA mission at 100 and 1,000 ft on the Twin Otter below the California airborne simulation of the proposed NASA HyspIRI satellite system comprised of an imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared multispectral imager on the ER-2 at 65,000 ft (20,000 m). For both missions, the Compact-Optical Profiling System (Biospherical

  15. Quality assurance program plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies quality assurance program requirements and addresses the various Westinghouse Hanford Company organizations and their particular responsibilities in regards to sample and data handling of radiological airborne emissions. This Quality Assurance Program Plan is prepared in accordance with and to written requirements

  16. Airborne hydrogen cyanide measurements using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer for the plume identification of biomass burning forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Le Breton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN from biomass burning events in Canada using I− reagent ions on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the BORTAS campaign in 2011. The ionisation scheme enabled highly sensitive measurements at 1 Hz frequency through biomass burning plumes in the troposphere. A strong correlation between the HCN, carbon monoxide (CO and acetonitrile (CH3CN was observed, indicating the potential of HCN as a biomass burning (BB marker. A plume was defined as being 6 standard deviations above background for the flights. This method was compared with a number of alternative plume-defining techniques employing CO and CH3CN measurements. The 6-sigma technique produced the highest R2 values for correlations with CO. A normalised excess mixing ratio (NEMR of 3.68 ± 0.149 pptv ppbv−1 was calculated, which is within the range quoted in previous research (Hornbrook et al., 2011. The global tropospheric model STOCHEM-CRI incorporated both the observed ratio and extreme ratios derived from other studies to generate global emission totals of HCN via biomass burning. Using the ratio derived from this work, the emission total for HCN from BB was 0.92 Tg (N yr−1.

  17. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2006-02-28

    This report is one of the major products and deliverables of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessment Projects detailed work plan for FY 2006, and reflects the requirements of The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan (PNNL-15014). This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2005 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the west-central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas. Technetium-99 and uranium plumes exceeding standards are present in the 200 Areas. A uranium plume underlies the 300 Area. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99/uranium plumes. Resource Conservation and

  18. Coal-fired power plant: airborne routine discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    2005-01-01

    The radiological impact from non-nuclear industries is a growing matter of concern to stake holders and regulators. It has been demonstrated that atmospheric discharges from coal-fired power plants can lead to higher dose-impacts to critical groups of the population than nuclear power plants. In Belgium, in the frame of an agreement between electricity producers and national authorities, measures were taken in conventional power plants to restrict airborne discharges of SO 2 , NO x and suspended particles. In the 500 MWe coal-fired power plant of Langerlo, a flue gas purification system was installed, consisting of a denitrification unit and a desulphurization unit, next to the electrostatic dust filter units. These measures have also an important effect on the radioactive atmospheric discharges. The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact of the airborne releases of the power plant under normal working conditions and in particular the influence of the installation of the flue gas purification system. As a first step, we measured the natural radioactivity content of the coal and the radium content of the fly ash . The quantities of the other radioelements discharged through the chimney, were estimated, assuming the same behaviour as radium, except for the more volatile lead and polonium, which will condense preferably on finer ash particles, against which the electro filters are less effective. (A concentration factor of 4 has been adopted). The radon, present in the coal, is assumed to be discharged completely through the chimney. The atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of the discharged radionuclides were modelled, applying the bi-Gaussian plume model IFDM. For the calculations, we used hourly averages of the meteorological observations at Mol over the year 1991. The transfers of the radionuclides from air and soil to the biospheric media, exposing man, were calculated with our biosphere model and the radiological impact to the

  19. Experience with airborne detection of radioactive pollution (ENMOS, IRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAVLIK, B.; ENGELSMANN, J.

    2003-01-01

    Technological advancements of our society create with the increased level of comfort, increased risk of either unintentional or intentional radioactive pollution. New instrumentation and processing techniques can rapidly produce visual images of areas exposed to radiation. Protecting the health of the population in case of a nuclear accident is an essential social priority. Monitoring of existing levels of natural and manmade radioactive contamination, in and around nuclear installations and nuclear materials handling facilities is a valuable reference in case of a nuclear accident. Fast deployment of airborne radiation monitoring systems in the case of nuclear accidents is essential. The portability of the new range of instrumentation with accurate navigation, data acquisition and real time processing can provide fast and low cost estimates of potential problems. Many examples of real situations assessed on the basis of data gained by the airborne measurements demonstrate, that the use of airborne data is reliable, fast and relatively inexpensive. Short period of time required for data acquisition assures data consistency. Practically unrestricted access provides good and homogeneous data. Today advanced measuring and processing techniques are result of many years of hard and slow progress mostly in airborne geophysics, together with advancements in mathematics, physics, data processing and electronics. (authors)

  20. Experience with airborne detection of radioactive pollution (ENMOS, IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAVLIK, B [Pico Envirotec Inc. Division of Eikon Envirotec Technologies Inc., Concord, Ontario (Canada); ENGELSMANN, J [AURA s.r.o., Brno (Czech Republic)

    2003-07-01

    Technological advancements of our society create with the increased level of comfort, increased risk of either unintentional or intentional radioactive pollution. New instrumentation and processing techniques can rapidly produce visual images of areas exposed to radiation. Protecting the health of the population in case of a nuclear accident is an essential social priority. Monitoring of existing levels of natural and manmade radioactive contamination, in and around nuclear installations and nuclear materials handling facilities is a valuable reference in case of a nuclear accident. Fast deployment of airborne radiation monitoring systems in the case of nuclear accidents is essential. The portability of the new range of instrumentation with accurate navigation, data acquisition and real time processing can provide fast and low cost estimates of potential problems. Many examples of real situations assessed on the basis of data gained by the airborne measurements demonstrate, that the use of airborne data is reliable, fast and relatively inexpensive. Short period of time required for data acquisition assures data consistency. Practically unrestricted access provides good and homogeneous data. Today advanced measuring and processing techniques are result of many years of hard and slow progress mostly in airborne geophysics, together with advancements in mathematics, physics, data processing and electronics. (authors)

  1. Seismic Imaging of Mantle Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, Henri-Claude

    The mantle plume hypothesis was proposed thirty years ago by Jason Morgan to explain hotspot volcanoes such as Hawaii. A thermal diapir (or plume) rises from the thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and produces a chain of volcanoes as a plate moves on top of it. The idea is very attractive, but direct evidence for actual plumes is weak, and many questions remain unanswered. With the great improvement of seismic imagery in the past ten years, new prospects have arisen. Mantle plumes are expected to be rather narrow, and their detection by seismic techniques requires specific developments as well as dedicated field experiments. Regional travel-time tomography has provided good evidence for plumes in the upper mantle beneath a few hotspots (Yellowstone, Massif Central, Iceland). Beneath Hawaii and Iceland, the plume can be detected in the transition zone because it deflects the seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depths. In the lower mantle, plumes are very difficult to detect, so specific methods have been worked out for this purpose. There are hints of a plume beneath the weak Bowie hotspot, as well as intriguing observations for Hawaii. Beneath Iceland, high-resolution tomography has just revealed a wide and meandering plume-like structure extending from the core-mantle boundary up to the surface. Among the many phenomena that seem to take place in the lowermost mantle (or D''), there are also signs there of the presence of plumes. In this article I review the main results obtained so far from these studies and discuss their implications for plume dynamics. Seismic imaging of mantle plumes is still in its infancy but should soon become a turbulent teenager.

  2. Stormwater runoff plumes in the Southern California Bight: A comparison study with SAR and MODIS imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Benjamin; Trinh, Rebecca; Gierach, Michelle M

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the Southern California Bight (SCB), resulting from untreated runoff and pollutants from urban watersheds entering the coastal waters after rainstorms. We make use of both satellite SAR and MODIS-Aqua ocean color imagery to examine two different components of runoff plumes, the surface slick and the sediment discharge. We expand on earlier satellite SAR studies by examining an extensive collection of multi-platform SAR imagery, spanning from 1992 to 2014, that provides a more comprehensive view of the plume surface slick characteristics, illustrated with distribution maps of the extent and flow direction of the plumes. The SAR-detected surface plumes are compared with coincident rain and runoff measurements, and with available measured shoreline fecal bacteria loads. We illustrate differences in the detection of SAR surface plumes with the sediment-related discharge plumes derived from MODIS imagery. A conceptual satellite stormwater runoff monitoring approach is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Relationships between air conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, S; Perdrix, A; Baconnier, P

    1999-01-01

    Concurrently with the increase of air-conditioning, potentially severe or frequent new diseases have emerged, giving rise to social and economical consequences. The first part of this work is a state of the art review of the relationships between air-conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health, through a technical, metrological and medical approach. The second part presents four studies performed in this field. Two of them deal with the relationship between airborne microorganisms and technical features of air-conditioning. Measurements performed on actual sites demonstrated the benefit of using high efficiency filters and low risk components in air-conditioning systems. The third study was aimed to look for a relationship between airborne microorganisms and sick building syndrome symptoms. Statistical analyses of individual data revealed significant associations between airborne bacteria or fungi and symptoms. These results may be the first step in determining a dose-response relationship, in order to define threshold limit values in this field. In the fourth study, the contribution of particle counting in assessing exposure to airborne microorganisms was explored by monitoring simultaneous variations of microbial and particle concentrations. The results showed that associating particle counting may allow to detect microbial variations instantaneously, and therefore improve the assessment of exposure to airborne microorganisms.

  4. Airborne anthropogenic radioactivity measurements from an international radionuclide monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, J.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Anthropogenic radioactivity is being measured in near-real time by an international monitoring system designed to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Airborne radioactivity measurements are conducted in-situ by stations that are linked to a central data processing and analysis facility. Aerosols are separated by high-volume air sampling with high-efficiency particulate filters. Radio-xenon is separated from other gases through cryogenic methods. Gamma-spectrometry is performed by high purity germanium detectors and the raw spectral data is immediately transmitted to the central facility via Internet, satellite, or modem. These highly sensitive sensors, combined with the automated data processing at the central facility, result in a system capable of measuring environmental radioactivity on the microbecquerel scale where the data is available to scientists within minutes of the field measurement. During the past year, anthropogenic radioactivity has been measured at approximately half of the stations in the current network. Sources of these measured radionuclides include nuclear power plant emissions, Chernobyl resuspension, and isotope production facilities. The ability to thoroughly characterize site-specific radionuclides, which contribute to the radioactivity of the ambient environment, will be necessary to reduce the number of false positive events. This is especially true of anthropogenic radionuclides that could lead to ambiguous analysis. (author)

  5. Moment analysis description of wetting and redistribution plumes in wettable and water-repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yunwu; Furman, Alex; Wallach, Rony

    2012-02-01

    SummaryWater repellency has a significant impact on water flow patterns in the soil profile. Transient 2D flow in wettable and natural water-repellent soils was monitored in a transparent flow chamber. The substantial differences in plume shape and spatial water content distribution during the wetting and subsequent redistribution stages were related to the variation of contact angle while in contact with water. The observed plumes shape, internal water content distribution in general and the saturation overshoot behind the wetting front in particular in the repellent soils were associated with unstable flow. Moment analysis was applied to characterize the measured plumes during the wetting and subsequent redistribution. The center of mass and spatial variances determined for the measured evolving plumes were fitted by a model that accounts for capillary and gravitational driving forces in a medium of temporally varying wettability. Ellipses defined around the stable and unstable plumes' centers of mass and whose semi-axes represented a particular number of spatial variances were used to characterize plume shape and internal moisture distribution. A single probability curve was able to characterize the corresponding fractions of the total added water in the different ellipses for all measured plumes, which testify the competence and advantage of the moment analysis method.

  6. Airborne observations of formic acid using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Le Breton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first airborne measurements of formic acid mixing ratios over the United Kingdom were measured on the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft on 16 March 2010 with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer using I reagent ions. The I ionization scheme was able to measure formic acid mixing ratios at 1 Hz in the boundary layer.

    In-flight standard addition calibrations from a formic acid source were used to determine the instrument sensitivity of 35 ± 6 ion counts pptv−1 s−1 and a limit of detection of 25 pptv. Routine measurements were made through a scrubbed inlet to determine the instrumental background. Three plumes of formic acid were observed over the UK, originating from London, Humberside and Tyneside. The London plume had the highest formic acid mixing ratio throughout the flight, peaking at 358 pptv. No significant correlations of formic acid with NOx and ozone were found, but a positive correlation was observed between CO and HCOOH within the two plumes where coincident data were recorded.

    A trajectory model was employed to determine the sources of the plumes and compare modelled mixing ratios with measured values. The model underestimated formic acid concentrations by up to a factor of 2. This is explained by missing sources in the model, which were considered to be both primary emissions of formic acid of mainly anthropogenic origin and a lack of precursor emissions, such as isoprene, from biogenic sources, whose oxidation in situ would lead to formic acid formation.

  7. Husbandry Emissions at the Sub-Facility Scale by Fused Mobile Surface In Situ and Airborne Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Melton, C.; Tratt, D. M.; Hall, J. L.; Buckland, K. N.; Frash, J.; Leen, J. B.; Lundquist, T.; Vigil, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Husbandry methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) are strong climate and air pollution drivers. Husbandry emission factors have significant uncertainty and can differ from lab estimates as real-world practices affect emissions including where and how husbandry activities occur, their spatial and temporal relationship to micro-climate (winds, temperature, insolation, rain, and lagoon levels, which vary diurnally and seasonally), and animal care. Research dairies provide a unique opportunity to combine insights on sub-facility scale emissions to identify best practices. Two approaches with significant promise for quantifying husbandry emissions are airborne remote sensing and mobile in situ trace gas with meteorological measurements. Both capture snapshot data to allow deconvolution of temporal and spatial variability, which challenges stationary measurements, while also capturing micro-scale processes, allowing connection of real-world practices to emissions. Mobile in situ concentration data on trace gases and meteorology were collected by AMOG (AutoMObile trace Gas) Surveyor on 10 days spanning 31 months at the California Polytechnic State University Research Dairy, San Luis Obispo, CA. AMOG Surveyor is a commuter vehicle modified for atmospheric science. CH4, NH3, H2O, COS, CO, CO2, H2S, O3, NO, NO2, SO2, NOX, solar spectra, temperature, and winds were measured. The airborne hyperspectral thermal infrared sensor, Mako, collected data on 28 Sept. 2015. Research dairies allow combining insights on sub-facility scale emissions to identify best practices holistically - i.e., considering multiple trace gases. In situ data were collected while transecting plumes, approximately orthogonal to winds. Emission strength and source location were estimated by Gaussian plume inversion, validated by airborne data. Good agreement was found on source strength and location at meter length-scales. Data revealed different activities produced unique emissions with distinct trace gas

  8. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC), US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4-27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis) suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3), aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13-195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC results also

  9. Long-term electrical resistivity monitoring of recharge-induced contaminant plume behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hubbard, Susan S; Watson, David B; Baker, Gregory S; Peterson, John E; Kowalsky, Michael B; Smith, Meagan; Brooks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Geophysical measurements, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data in particular, are sensitive to properties that are related (directly or indirectly) to hydrological processes. The challenge is in extracting information from geophysical data at a relevant scale that can be used to gain insight about subsurface behavior and to parameterize or validate flow and transport models. Here, we consider the use of ERT data for examining the impact of recharge on subsurface contamination at the S-3 ponds of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Tennessee. A large dataset of time-lapse cross-well and surface ERT data, collected at the site over a period of 12 months, is used to study time variations in resistivity due to changes in total dissolved solids (primarily nitrate). The electrical resistivity distributions recovered from cross-well and surface ERT data agrees well, and both of these datasets can be used to interpret spatiotemporal variations in subsurface nitrate concentrations due to rainfall, although the sensitivity of the electrical resistivity response to dilution varies with nitrate concentration. Using the time-lapse surface ERT data interpreted in terms of nitrate concentrations, we find that the subsurface nitrate concentration at this site varies as a function of spatial position, episodic heavy rainstorms (versus seasonal and annual fluctuations), and antecedent rainfall history. These results suggest that the surface ERT monitoring approach is potentially useful for examining subsurface plume responses to recharge over field-relevant scales. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 ± 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of

  11. Energy Efficient Clustering Based Network Protocol Stack for 3D Airborne Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network consists of large number of nodes densely deployed in ad hoc manner. Usually, most of the application areas of WSNs require two-dimensional (2D topology. Various emerging application areas such as airborne networks and underwater wireless sensor networks are usually deployed using three-dimensional (3D network topology. In this paper, a static 3D cluster-based network topology has been proposed for airborne networks. A network protocol stack consisting of various protocols such as TDMA MAC and dynamic routing along with services such as time synchronization, Cluster Head rotation, and power level management has been proposed for this airborne network. The proposed protocol stack has been implemented on the hardware platform consisting of number of TelosB nodes. This 3D airborne network architecture can be used to measure Air Quality Index (AQI in an area. Various parameters of network such as energy consumption, Cluster Head rotation, time synchronization, and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR have been analyzed. Detailed description of the implementation of the protocol stack along with results of implementation has been provided in this paper.

  12. A buoyant plume adjacent to a headland-Observations of the Elwha River plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; Stevens, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Small rivers commonly discharge into coastal settings with topographic complexities - such as headlands and islands - but these settings are underrepresented in river plume studies compared to more simplified, straight coasts. The Elwha River provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of coastal topography on a buoyant plume, because it discharges into the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the western side of its deltaic headland. Here we show that this headland induces flow separation and transient eddies in the tidally dominated currents (O(100. cm/s)), consistent with other headlands in oscillatory flow. These flow conditions are observed to strongly influence the buoyant river plume, as predicted by the "small-scale" or "narrow" dynamical classification using Garvine's (1995) system. Because of the transient eddies and the location of the river mouth on the headland, flow immediately offshore of the river mouth is directed eastward twice as frequently as it is westward. This results in a buoyant plume that is much more frequently "bent over" toward the east than the west. During bent over plume conditions, the plume was attached to the eastern shoreline while having a distinct, cuspate front along its westernmost boundary. The location of the front was found to be related to the magnitude and direction of local flow during the preceding O(1. h), and increases in alongshore flow resulted in deeper freshwater mixing, stronger baroclinic anomalies, and stronger hugging of the coast. During bent over plume conditions, we observed significant convergence of river plume water toward the frontal boundary within 1. km of the river mouth. These results show how coastal topography can strongly influence buoyant plume behavior, and they should assist with understanding of initial coastal sediment dispersal pathways from the Elwha River during a pending dam removal project. ?? 2010.

  13. Chemical composition of aerosol measurements in the air pollution plume during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Lee, J. B.; Lim, Y. J.; Ahn, J.; Park, J. S.; Soo, C. J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.; Lee, Y.; Desyaterik, Y.; Collett, J. L., Jr.; Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Korean peninsula is a great place to study different sources of the aerosols: urban, rural and marine. In addition, Seoul is one of the large metropolitan areas in the world and has a variety of sources because half of the Korean population lives in Seoul, which comprises only 12% of the country's area. To understand the chemical composition of aerosol form long-range transport and local sources better, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed on an airborne platform (NASA DC-8 aircraft). The HR-ToF-AMS is capable of measuring non-refractory size resolved chemical composition of submicron particle(NR-PM1) in the air pollution plume, including mass concentration of organic carbon, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium with 10 seconds time resolution. The measurements were performed twenty times research flight for understanding characteristic of the air pollution from May to June, 2016 on the South Korean peninsula during KORUS-AQ 2016 campaign. The scientific goal of this study is to characterize aerosol chemical properties and mass concentration in order to understand the role of the long-range transport from northeast Asia to South Korea, and influence of the local sources. To brief, organics dominated during all of flights. Also, organics and nitrate were dominant around energy industrial complex near by Taean, South Korea. The presentation will provide an overview of the composition of NR-PM1 measured in air pollution plumes, and deliver detail information about width, depth and spatial distribution of the pollutant in the air pollution plumes. The results of this study will provide high temporal and spatial resolved details on the air pollution plumes, which are valuable input parameters of aerosol properties for the current air quality models.

  14. Characteristics of bubble plumes, bubble-plume bubbles and waves from wind-steepened wave breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de

    2007-01-01

    Observations of breaking waves, associated bubble plumes and bubble-plume size distributions were used to explore the coupled evolution of wave-breaking, wave properties and bubble-plume characteristics. Experiments were made in a large, freshwater, wind-wave channel with mechanical wind-steepened

  15. Measurements at cooling tower plumes. Part 3. Three-dimensional measurements at cooling tower plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortak, H.

    An extended field experiment is described in which cooling tower plumes were studied by means of three-dimensional in situ measurements. The goal was to obtain input data for numerical models of cooling tower plumes. Of special interest were data for testing or developing assumptions for sub-grid parametrizations. Utilizing modern systems for high-resolution aerology and small aircraft, four measuring campaigns were conducted: two campaigns (1974) at the cooling towers of the RWE power station Neurath and also two (1975) at the single cooling tower of the RWE power station Meppen. Because of the broad spectrum of weather situations it can be assumed that the results are representative with regard to the interrelationship between structure of cooling tower plume and large-scale meteorological situation. A large number of flights with a powered glider crossing the plumes on orthogonal tracks was performed. All flights showed that the plume could be identified up to large downwind distances by discontinuous jumps of temperature and vapor pressure. Therefore, a definite geometry of the plume could always be defined. In all cross sections a vertical circulation could be observed. At the boundary, which could be defined by the mentioned jumps of temperature and vapor pressure, a maximum of downward vertical motion could be observed in most cases. Entrainment along the boundary of a cross section seems to be very small, except at the lower part of the plume. There, the mass entrainment is maximum and is responsible for plume rise as well as for enlargement of the cross section. The visible part of the plume (cloud) was only a small fraction of the whole plume. High-resolution aerology is necessary in order to explain the structure and behavior of such plumes. This is especially the case in investigations regarding the dynamic break-through of temperature inversions. Such cases were observed frequently under various meteorological conditions and are described

  16. On predicting mantle mushroom plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Kheng Tan

    2011-04-01

    Top cooling may produce plunging plumes of diameter of 585 km and at least 195 Myr old. The number of cold plumes is estimated to be 569, which has not been observed by seismic tomography or as cold spots. The cold plunging plumes may overwhelm and entrap some of the hot rising plumes from CMB, so that together they may settle in the transition zone.

  17. The 2016 Case for Mantle Plumes and a Plume-Fed Asthenosphere (Augustus Love Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    The process of science always returns to weighing evidence and arguments for and against a given hypothesis. As hypotheses can only be falsified, never universally proved, doubt and skepticism remain essential elements of the scientific method. In the past decade, even the hypothesis that mantle plumes exist as upwelling currents in the convecting mantle has been subject to intense scrutiny; from geochemists and geochronologists concerned that idealized plume models could not fit many details of their observations, and from seismologists concerned that mantle plumes can sometimes not be 'seen' in their increasingly high-resolution tomographic images of the mantle. In the place of mantle plumes, various locally specific and largely non-predictive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origins of non-plate boundary volcanism at Hawaii, Samoa, etc. In my opinion, this debate has now passed from what was initially an extremely useful restorative from simply 'believing' in the idealized conventional mantle plume/hotspot scenario to becoming an active impediment to our community's ability to better understand the dynamics of the solid Earth. Having no working hypothesis at all is usually worse for making progress than having an imperfect and incomplete but partially correct one. There continues to be strong arguments and strong emerging evidence for deep mantle plumes. Furthermore, deep thermal plumes should exist in a mantle that is heated at its base, and the existence of Earth's (convective) geodynamo clearly indicates that heat flows from the core to heat the mantle's base. Here I review recent seismic evidence by French, Romanowicz, and coworkers that I feel lends strong new observational support for the existence of deep mantle plumes. I also review recent evidence consistent with the idea that secular core cooling replenishes half the mantle's heat loss through its top surface, e.g. that the present-day mantle is strongly bottom heated. Causes for

  18. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Thermal plumes in ventilated rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects. Free...... above a point heat source cannot be used. This is caused either by the way of generating the plume including a long intermediate region or by the environmental conditions where vertical temperature gradients are present. The flow has a larger angle of spread and the entrainment factor is greather than...... turbulent plumes from different heated bodies are investigated. The measurements have taken place in a full-scale test room where the vertical temperature gradient have been changed. The velocity and the temperature distribution in the plume are measured. Large scale plume axis wandering is taken...

  20. Life Cycle of Mantle Plumes: A perspective from the Galapagos Plume (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Herzberg, C. T.

    2009-12-01

    Hotspots are localized sources of heat and magmatism considered as modern-day evidence of mantle plumes. Some hotspots are related to massive magmatic production that generated Large Igneous Provinces (LIPS), an initial-peak phase of plume activity with a mantle source hotter and more magmatically productive than present-day hotspots. Geological mapping and geochronological studies have shown much lower eruption rates for OIB compared to lavas from Large Igneous Provinces LIPS such as oceanic plateaus and continental flood provinces. Our study is the first quantitative petrological comparison of mantle source temperatures and extent of melting for OIB and LIP sources. The wide range of primary magma compositions and inferred mantle potential temperatures for each LIP and OIB occurrence suggest that this rocks originated form a hotspot, a spatially localized source of heat and magmatism restricted in time. Extensive outcrops of basalt, picrite, and sometimes komatiite with circa 65-95 Ma ages occupy portions of the pacific shore of Central and South America included in the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). There is general consensus of a Pacific-origin of CLIP and most studies suggest that it was produced by melting in the Galapagos mantle plume. The Galapagos connection is consistent with isotopic and geochemical similarities with lavas from the present-day Galapagos hotspot. A Galapagos link for rocks in South American oceanic complexes (eg. the island of Gorgona) is more controversial and requires future work. The MgO and FeO contents of lavas from the Galapagos related lavas and their primary magmas have decreased since the Cretaceous. From petrological modeling we infer that these changes reflect a cooling of the Galapagos mantle plume from a potential temperature of 1560-1620 C in the Cretaceous to 1500 C at the present time. These temperatures are higher than 1350 C for ambient mantle associated with oceanic ridges, and provide support for the mantle

  1. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Kumar, K S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-06-01

    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  2. Numerical Modeling of Water Thermal Plumes Emitted by Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Durán-Colmenares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of thermal dispersion of plumes emitted by power plants into the sea. Wastewater discharge from power stations causes impacts that require investigation or monitoring. A study to characterize the physical effects of thermal plumes into the sea is carried out here by numerical modeling and field measurements. The case study is the thermal discharges of the Presidente Adolfo López Mateos Power Plant, located in Veracruz, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This plant is managed by the Federal Electricity Commission of Mexico. The physical effects of such plumes are related to the increase of seawater temperature caused by the hot water discharge of the plant. We focus on the implementation, calibration, and validation of the Delft3D-FLOW model, which solves the shallow-water equations. The numerical simulations consider a critical scenario where meteorological and oceanographic parameters are taken into account to reproduce the proper physical conditions of the environment. The results show a local physical effect of the thermal plumes within the study zone, given the predominant strong winds conditions of the scenario under study.

  3. Refinement of the list of constituents for groundwater monitoring at M-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.

    1997-11-01

    For several years Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been examining ways of reducing monitoring costs. Most of these efforts have been aimed at reducing the number of wells sampled or reducing sample frequency. With regards to monitoring around the M-Area Settling Basin, we are now examining a possible reduction in the number of constituents analyzed. It is our opinion that many constituents can be dropped entirely. Several others should be dropped from analyses in the plume definition wells, while retained for analyses at the point of compliance (POC) wells. Constituents that can be dropped entirely are nonhazardous inorganics generally referred to as water quality indicators. Monitoring for these parameters is sensible when a facility is in detection monitoring, but it is much less useful at a facility like the M-Area Basin. The water quality indicators are helpful in detecting whether or not a facility has impacted the environment. But their concentrations are not important in themselves. At M-Area, it is well documented that the facility has impacted groundwater quite seriously with a known group of hazardous constituents. So the concentrations of the nonhazardous constituents are of little interest. Obviously, monitoring for the hazardous constituents should continue, but it should only continue at wells that are likely to yield useful data. At M-Area there are 41 Point of Compliance (POC) wells monitoring an area of about .25 square miles and about 236 plume definition wells monitoring the surround 4 square miles. The locations of well clusters and the point of compliance are shown in figure 1. The POC wells and plume definition wells are intended to serve entirely different purposes and should not, necessarily, be monitored for the same things. The POC wells form a picket line around the facility and are intended to detect any constituents leaching from it. They are also intended to determine whether such constituents exceed action levels. Plume

  4. Ammonia and Methane Dairy Emission Plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from Individual Feedlot to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; hide

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 +/- 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  5. Scaling for turbulent viscosity of buoyant plumes in stratified fluids: PIV measurement with implications for submarine hydrothermal plume turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; He, Zhiguo; Jiang, Houshuo

    2017-11-01

    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to measure instantaneous two-dimensional velocity vector fields of laboratory-generated turbulent buoyant plumes in linearly stratified saltwater over extended periods of time. From PIV-measured time-series flow data, characteristics of plume mean flow and turbulence have been quantified. To be specific, maximum plume penetration scaling and entrainment coefficient determined from the mean flow agree well with the theory based on the entrainment hypothesis for buoyant plumes in stratified fluids. Besides the well-known persistent entrainment along the plume stem (i.e., the 'plume-stem' entrainment), the mean plume velocity field shows persistent entrainment along the outer edge of the plume cap (i.e., the 'plume-cap' entrainment), thereby confirming predictions from previous numerical simulation studies. To our knowledge, the present PIV investigation provides the first measured flow field data in the plume cap region. As to measured plume turbulence, both the turbulent kinetic energy field and the turbulence dissipation rate field attain their maximum close to the source, while the turbulent viscosity field reaches its maximum within the plume cap region; the results also show that maximum turbulent viscosity scales as νt,max = 0.030(B/N)1/2, where B is source buoyancy flux and N is ambient buoyancy frequency. These PIV data combined with previously published numerical simulation results have implications for understanding the roles of hydrothermal plume turbulence, i.e. plume turbulence within the cap region causes the 'plume-cap' entrainment that plays an equally important role as the 'plume-stem' entrainment in supplying the final volume flux at the plume spreading level.

  6. Detection of contaminant plumes released from landfills : Numerical versus analytical solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.; Hensbergen, A.T.; Elfeki, A.M.M.; Dekking, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Contaminant leaks released from landfills are a threat to groundwater quality. The groundwater monitoring systems installed in the vicinity of such facilities are vital. In this study the detection probability of a contaminant plume released from a landfill has been investigated by means of both a

  7. Quality assurance program plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies quality assurance program requirements and addresses the various Westinghouse Hanford Company organizations and their particular responsibilities in regards to sample and data handling of airborne emissions. The Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions requirements are defined in National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1991a). Reporting of the emissions to the US Department of Energy is performed in compliance with requirements of US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE-RL 1988). This Quality Assurance Program Plan is prepared in accordance with and to the requirements of QAMS-004/80, Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (EPA 1983). Title 40 CFR Part 61, Appendix B, Method 114, Quality Assurance Methods (EPA 1991b) specifies the quality assurance requirements and that a program plan should be prepared to meet the requirements of this regulation. This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies NESHAP responsibilities and how the Westinghouse Hanford Company Environmental, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance Division will verify that the methods are properly implemented

  8. Simulated minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) for a real-time UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring system with HPGe and LaBr_3 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-01-01

    An automatic real-time UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring system with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and lanthanum bromide (LaBr_3) detectors (NH-UAV) was developed to precisely obtain small-scope nuclide information in major nuclear accidents. The specific minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) calculation method for NH-UAV in the atmospheric environment was deduced in this study for a priori evaluation and quantification of the suitability of NH-UAV in the Fukushima nuclear accident, where the MDAC values of this new equipment were calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of radioactive source term size and activity concentration on the MDAC values were analyzed to assess the detection performance of NH-UAV in more realistic environments. Finally, the MDAC values were calculated at different shielding thicknesses of the HPGe detector to improve the detection capabilities of the HPGe detector, and the relationship between the MDAC and the acquisition time of the system was deduced. The MDAC calculation method and data results in this study may be used as a reference for in-situ radioactivity measurement of NH-UAV. - Highlights: • A real-time UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring system (NH-UAV) was developed. • The efficiency calculations and MDAC values are given. • NH-UAV is able to monitor major nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima accident. • The source term size can influence the detection sensitivity of the system. • The HPGe detector possesses measurement thresholds on activity concentration.

  9. Predicted and observed cooling tower plume rise and visible plume length at the John E. Amos power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, S R

    1976-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical cloud growth model and several empirical models for plume rise and cloud growth are compared with twenty-seven sets of observations of cooling tower plumes from the 2900 MW John E. Amos power plant in West Virginia. The three natural draft cooling towers are 200 m apart. In a cross wind, the plumes begin to merge at a distance of about 500 m downwind. In calm conditions, with reduced entrainment, the plumes often do not merge until heights of 1000 m. The average plume rise, 750 m, is predicted well by the models, but day-to-day variations are simulated with a correlation coefficient of about 0.5. Model predictions of visible plume length agree, on the average, with observations for visible plumes of short to moderate length (less than about 1 km). The prediction of longer plumes is hampered by our lack of knowledge of plume spreading after the plumes level off. Cloud water concentrations predicted by the numerical model agree with those measured in natural cumulus clouds (about 0.1 to 1 g kg/sup -1/).

  10. Techniques for Continuous Monitoring of Airborne Plutonium Activity and Experience of their Use in a Fuel-Element Fabrication Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, D. C.; Perry, K. E.G. [Atomic Energy Establishment. Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom); Loosemore, W. R.; Sparke, W. G. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1967-12-15

    The development of installed plutonium-in-air monitoring techniques in the U.K.A.E.A. is described together with operational experience in a fuel-element fabrication facility at Winfrith where mixed PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} fuels are manufactured on a tonne scale in freestanding glove boxes for use in reactor physics experiments. Transportable single-point sampling instruments have been designed in which alpha activity collected on a fixed filter paper of area 20 cm{sup 2} is continuously viewed by scintillation or silicon surface barrier detectors. Discrimination against natural alpha activity, typically 10{sup -4}{mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, is achieved by energy analysis: preset alarms operate if an exposure exceeds 5 to 80 maximum permissible concentration hours for plutonium. Evidence is presented which shows that there is no significant chronic exposure to plutonium: inhalation exposure of the workers in this facility results from highly localized releases of airborne activity caused by occasional, minor, often unnoticed damage to box gloves or posting bags. Personal air samplers have been used which show that, in a particular incident, the exposure of an individual may be several orders of magnitude greater than that shown by a continuous monitor only a few metres away, even when many radioactive particles are released. Undesirably large exposures to individuals can occur therefore without an alarm being given by one of the indicating air samplers. In this situation reliance has had to be placed on the early detection of glove damage by frequent surface contamination monitoring. A new monitoring system is now being used to detect localized exposures. Air is monitored at up to 20 positions each near die face of a glove box. Alpha activity on each fixed-filter paper is viewed continuously by silicon surface barrier detectors. An immediate local alarm operates at a count rate equivalent to 80 mpc hours of plutonium. Additionally, each detector is scanned in sequence by a

  11. Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami

  12. Application of High Resolution Air-Borne Remote Sensing Observations for Monitoring NOx Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souri, A.; Choi, Y.; Pan, S.; Curci, G.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Liu, J.; Herman, J. R.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) are one of the air pollutants, responsible for the formation of tropospheric ozone, acid rain and particulate nitrate. The anthropogenic NOx emissions are commonly estimated based on bottom-up inventories which are complicated by many potential sources of error. One way to improve the emission inventories is to use relevant observations to constrain them. Fortunately, Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most successful detected species from remote sensing. Although many studies have shown the capability of using space-borne remote sensing observations for monitoring emissions, the insufficient sample number and footprint of current measurements have introduced a burden to constrain emissions at fine scales. Promisingly, there are several air-borne sensors collected for NASA's campaigns providing high spatial resolution of NO2 columns. Here, we use the well-characterized NO2 columns from the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) onboard NASA's B200 aircraft into a 1×1 km regional model to constrain anthropogenic NOx emissions in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area. Firstly, in order to incorporate the data, we convert the NO2 slant column densities to vertical ones using a joint of a radiative transfer model and the 1x1 km regional model constrained by P3-B aircraft measurements. After conducting an inverse modeling method using the Kalman filter, we find the ACAM observations are resourceful at mitigating the overprediction of model in reproducing NO2 on regular days. Moreover, the ACAM provides a unique opportunity to detect an anomaly in emissions leading to strong air quality degradation that is lacking in previous works. Our study provides convincing evidence that future geostationary satellites with high spatial and temporal resolutions will give us insights into uncertainties associated with the emissions at regional scales.

  13. East Asian SO2 pollution plume over Europe – Part 1: Airborne trace gas measurements and source identification by particle dispersion model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A large SO2-rich pollution plume of East Asian origin was detected by aircraft based CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry measurements at 3–7.5 km altitude over the North Atlantic. The measurements, which took place on 3 May 2006 aboard of the German research aircraft Falcon, were part of the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B campaign. Additional trace gases (NO, NOy, CO, H2O were measured and used for comparison and source identification. The atmospheric SO2 mole fraction was markedly increased inside the plume and reached up to 900 pmol/mol. Accompanying lagrangian FLEXPART particle dispersion model simulations indicate that the probed pollution plume originated at low altitudes from densely populated and industrialized regions of East Asia, primarily China, about 8–12 days prior to the measurements.

  14. Radioactive Contamination Estimation from micro-copters or helicopter Airborne survey: Simulation and real measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, I.; Ghelman, M.; Yehuda-Zada, Y.; Manor, A.; Dadon, S.; Sharon, A.; Yaar, I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main advantages of acquiring aero-radiometric measurements lies in the high collection rate of data over large areas and rough terrain. Typical aero-radiometric system records and saves gamma ray spectrum, correlated with the GPS derived location information in regular time intervals of one to two seconds. Such data can be used to locate radiation anomalies on the ground, map ground contamination or track a radioactive airborne plume. Acquiring spectral data of this type allows separation of natural radioactivity from that of man-made sources and identification of specific isotopes, natural or man-made

  15. Radioactive Contamination Estimation from Micro-Copters or Helicopter Airborne Survey: Simulation and Real Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, I.; Ghelman, M.; Yehuda-Zada, Y.; Manor, A.; Sharon, A.; Yaar, I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main advantages of acquiring aero-radiometric measurements lies in the high collection rate of data over large areas and rough terrain. Typical aero-radiometric system records and saves gamma ray spectrum, correlated with the GPS derived location information in regular time intervals of one to two seconds. Such data can be used to locate radiation anomalies on the ground, map ground contamination or track a radioactive airborne plume. Acquiring spectral data of this type allows separation of natural radioactivity from that of man-made sources and identification of specific isotopes, natural or man-made

  16. Waste and cost reduction using dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for contaminant plume delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the drilling and sampling methods used to delineate a groundwater contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the Groundwater Monitoring IV characterization. The project was unique in that it relied upon dual wall reverse circulation drilling instead of the traditional hollow stem auger method. The Groundwater Monitoring program sought to characterize the boundaries, both vertically and horizontally, of the northeast plume which contains both 99 Tc and trichloroethene. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the drilling method used by investigators

  17. An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xuguo

    2015-08-01

    An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer based control system was developed for small aircraft multispectral imaging application. The multispectral imaging system integrates CMOS camera, filter wheel with eight filters, two-axis stabilized platform, miniature POS (position and orientation system) and embedded computer. The embedded computer has excellent universality and expansibility, and has advantages in volume and weight for airborne platform, so it can meet the requirements of control system of the integrated airborne multispectral imaging system. The embedded computer controls the camera parameters setting, filter wheel and stabilized platform working, image and POS data acquisition, and stores the image and data. The airborne multispectral imaging system can connect peripheral device use the ports of the embedded computer, so the system operation and the stored image data management are easy. This airborne multispectral imaging system has advantages of small volume, multi-function, and good expansibility. The imaging experiment results show that this system has potential for multispectral remote sensing in applications such as resource investigation and environmental monitoring.

  18. Elucidation of Metallic Plume and Spatter Characteristics Based on SVM During High-Power Disk Laser Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiangdong; Liu Guiqian

    2015-01-01

    During deep penetration laser welding, there exist plume (weak plasma) and spatters, which are the results of weld material ejection due to strong laser heating. The characteristics of plume and spatters are related to welding stability and quality. Characteristics of metallic plume and spatters were investigated during high-power disk laser bead-on-plate welding of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel plates at a continuous wave laser power of 10 kW. An ultraviolet and visible sensitive high-speed camera was used to capture the metallic plume and spatter images. Plume area, laser beam path through the plume, swing angle, distance between laser beam focus and plume image centroid, abscissa of plume centroid and spatter numbers are defined as eigenvalues, and the weld bead width was used as a characteristic parameter that reflected welding stability. Welding status was distinguished by SVM (support vector machine) after data normalization and characteristic analysis. Also, PCA (principal components analysis) feature extraction was used to reduce the dimensions of feature space, and PSO (particle swarm optimization) was used to optimize the parameters of SVM. Finally a classification model based on SVM was established to estimate the weld bead width and welding stability. Experimental results show that the established algorithm based on SVM could effectively distinguish the variation of weld bead width, thus providing an experimental example of monitoring high-power disk laser welding quality. (plasma technology)

  19. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1982-06-01

    Results for 1981 of the LBL Environmental Monitoring Program are given. Data include monitoring results for accelerator-produced radiation, airborne and waterborne radionuclides, and nonradioactive pollutants. Population doses resulting from LBL operations are given in terms of accelerator-produced and airborne radioactivities. Trends in the environmental impacts of LBL operations are discussed in terms of accelerator-produced, airborne, and waterborne radionuclides

  20. Aerosol characterization in smoke plumes from a wetlands fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.C.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.; Chuan, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present results from airborne measurements of aerosol mass loading, size distribution, and elemental composition obtained in a smoke plume from the burning of vegetation at a Florida wildlife refuge. These are important parameters in assessing the impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere. The results show that there was a high concentration of carbon-containing aerosols and salt crystals in the 0.1 μm to 0.2 μm size range, giving rise to a relatively strong fine particle size mode, during the hot flaming phase of the burning, compared to that during the smoldering phase, when a higher concentration of coarse particles were produced. They also found that the composition and morphology of the aerosols differed with size. They used the aerosol mass concentration along with CO 2 concentrations to calculate ratios or aerosol and CO 2 , which we found to be higher for the smoldering phase than for the flaming phase of combustion

  1. Hail formation triggers rapid ash aggregation in volcanic plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, Alexa R; Mastin, Larry G; Herzog, Michael; Schwaiger, Hans F; Schneider, David J; Wallace, Kristi L; Clarke, Amanda B

    2015-08-03

    During explosive eruptions, airborne particles collide and stick together, accelerating the fallout of volcanic ash and climate-forcing aerosols. This aggregation process remains a major source of uncertainty both in ash dispersal forecasting and interpretation of eruptions from the geological record. Here we illuminate the mechanisms and timescales of particle aggregation from a well-characterized 'wet' eruption. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, incorporated water from the surface (in this case, a glacier), which is a common occurrence during explosive volcanism worldwide. Observations from C-band weather radar, fall deposits and numerical modelling demonstrate that hail-forming processes in the eruption plume triggered aggregation of ∼95% of the fine ash and stripped much of the erupted mass out of the atmosphere within 30 min. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism of hail-like ash aggregation that contributes to the anomalously rapid fallout of fine ash and occurrence of concentrically layered aggregates in volcanic deposits.

  2. Observation of the volcanic plume of Eyjafjallajoekull over continental Europe by MAX-DOAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, S.; Bobrowski, N.; Friess, U.; Platt, U. [IUP, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Flentje, H. [DWD, Hohenpeissenberg (Germany); Hoermann, C.; Sihler, H. [IUP, University of Heidelberg (Germany); MPI, Mainz (Germany); Kern, C. [USGS, Vancouver (Canada); Wagner, T. [MPI, Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The recent eruption of Eyjafjallajoekull Volcano (Iceland) and the emitted ash plume which disrupted commercial air traffic over Europe has led to an exhaustive debate on how to improve our ability to quantitatively determine the ash load in the atmosphere as a function of time and geographical location. Satellite instruments detecting ash and SO{sub 2} and ground-based LIDAR stations can help constrain atmospheric transport and meteorology models used to predict ash dispersion. However, MAX-DOAS represents an additional tool with considerable potential for the quantitative detection of elevated volcanic ash and SO{sub 2} plumes. It performs especially well during weather conditions in which satellites and LIDARs are impeded in their effectiveness, e.g. in the case of dense clouds above or below the plume, respectively. Here, the advantages and disadvantages of the DOAS technique are discussed, and its potential for monitoring of volcanic ash hazards explored. Results of ash and SO{sub 2} measurements of the Eyjafjallajoekull plume as it passed over Heidelberg are presented as an example of a positive detection of a highly diluted volcanic plume. Their low cost and complementary nature makes MAX-DOAS a promising technology in the field of aviation hazard detection and management.

  3. Modeling and Mechanisms of Intercontinental Transport of Biomass-Burning Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Westphal, D. L.; Christopher, S. A.; Prins, E. M.; Justice, C. O.; Richardson, K. A.; Reid, E. A.; Eck, T. F.

    2003-12-01

    With the aid of fire products from GOES and MODIS, the NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) successfully monitors and predicts the formation and transport of massive smoke plumes between the continents in near real time. The goal of this system, formed under the joint Navy, NASA, and NOAA sponsored Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) project, is to provide 5 day forecasts of large biomass burning plumes and evaluate impacts on air quality, visibility, and regional radiative balance. In this paper we discuss and compare the mechanisms of intercontinental transport from the three most important sources in the world prone to long range advection: Africa, South/Central America, and Siberia. We demonstrate how these regions impact neighboring continents. As the meteorology of these three regions are distinct, differences in transport phenomenon subsequently result, particularly with respect to vertical distribution. Specific examples will be given on prediction and the impact of Siberian and Central American smoke plumes on the United States as well as transport phenomena from Africa to Australia. We present rules of thumb for radiation and air quality impacts. We also model clear sky bias (both positive and negative) with respect to MODIS data, and show the frequency to which frontal advection of smoke plumes masks remote sensing retrievals of smoke optical depth.

  4. Radionuclide inventories for the F- and H-area seepage basin groundwater plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, Robert A [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, Walter P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    Within the General Separations Areas (GSA) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), significant inventories of radionuclides exist within two major groundwater contamination plumes that are emanating from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. These radionuclides are moving slowly with groundwater migration, albeit more slowly due to interaction with the soil and aquifer matrix material. The purpose of this investigation is to quantify the activity of radionuclides associated with the pore water component of the groundwater plumes. The scope of this effort included evaluation of all groundwater sample analyses obtained from the wells that have been established by the Environmental Compliance & Area Completion Projects (EC&ACP) Department at SRS to monitor groundwater contamination emanating from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. Using this data, generalized groundwater plume maps for the radionuclides that occur in elevated concentrations (Am-241, Cm-243/244, Cs-137, I-129, Ni-63, Ra-226/228, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-233/234, U-235 and U-238) were generated and utilized to calculate both the volume of contaminated groundwater and the representative concentration of each radionuclide associated with different plume concentration zones.

  5. Airborne Nicotine, Secondhand Smoke, and Precursors to Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J; Racicot, Simon; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hammond, S Katharine; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) directly increases exposure to airborne nicotine, tobacco's main psychoactive substance. When exposed to SHS, nonsmokers inhale 60% to 80% of airborne nicotine, absorb concentrations similar to those absorbed by smokers, and display high levels of nicotine biomarkers. Social modeling, or observing other smokers, is a well-established predictor of smoking during adolescence. Observing smokers also leads to increased pharmacological exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS. The objective of this study is to investigate whether greater exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS increases the risk for smoking initiation precursors among never-smoking adolescents. Secondary students ( N = 406; never-smokers: n = 338, 53% girls, mean age = 12.9, SD = 0.4) participated in the AdoQuest II longitudinal cohort. They answered questionnaires about social exposure to smoking (parents, siblings, peers) and known smoking precursors (eg, expected benefits and/or costs, SHS aversion, smoking susceptibility, and nicotine dependence symptoms). Saliva and hair samples were collected to derive biomarkers of cotinine and nicotine. Adolescents wore a passive monitor for 1 week to measure airborne nicotine. Higher airborne nicotine was significantly associated with greater expected benefits ( R 2 = 0.024) and lower expected costs ( R 2 = 0.014). Higher social exposure was significantly associated with more temptation to try smoking ( R 2 = 0.025), lower aversion to SHS ( R 2 = 0.038), and greater smoking susceptibility ( R 2 = 0.071). Greater social exposure was significantly associated with more nicotine dependence symptoms; this relation worsened with higher nicotine exposure (cotinine R 2 = 0.096; airborne nicotine R 2 = 0.088). Airborne nicotine exposure via SHS is a plausible risk factor for smoking initiation during adolescence. Public health implications include limiting airborne nicotine through smoking bans in homes and cars, in addition to stringent restrictions

  6. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  7. Data processing of remotely sensed airborne hyperspectral data using the Airborne Processing Library (APL): Geocorrection algorithm descriptions and spatial accuracy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mark A.; Taylor, Benjamin H.; Grant, Michael G.; Shutler, Jamie D.

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing airborne hyperspectral data are routinely used for applications including algorithm development for satellite sensors, environmental monitoring and atmospheric studies. Single flight lines of airborne hyperspectral data are often in the region of tens of gigabytes in size. This means that a single aircraft can collect terabytes of remotely sensed hyperspectral data during a single year. Before these data can be used for scientific analyses, they need to be radiometrically calibrated, synchronised with the aircraft's position and attitude and then geocorrected. To enable efficient processing of these large datasets the UK Airborne Research and Survey Facility has recently developed a software suite, the Airborne Processing Library (APL), for processing airborne hyperspectral data acquired from the Specim AISA Eagle and Hawk instruments. The APL toolbox allows users to radiometrically calibrate, geocorrect, reproject and resample airborne data. Each stage of the toolbox outputs data in the common Band Interleaved Lines (BILs) format, which allows its integration with other standard remote sensing software packages. APL was developed to be user-friendly and suitable for use on a workstation PC as well as for the automated processing of the facility; to this end APL can be used under both Windows and Linux environments on a single desktop machine or through a Grid engine. A graphical user interface also exists. In this paper we describe the Airborne Processing Library software, its algorithms and approach. We present example results from using APL with an AISA Eagle sensor and we assess its spatial accuracy using data from multiple flight lines collected during a campaign in 2008 together with in situ surveyed ground control points.

  8. The theoretical study of full spectrum analysis method for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Weichong

    2011-01-01

    Spectra of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry was found to be the synthesis of spectral components of radioelement sources by analyzing the constitution of radioactive sources for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey and establishing the models of gamma-ray measurement. The mathematical equation for analysising airborne gamma-ray full spectrometric data can be expressed into matrix and related expansions were developed for the mineral resources exploration, environmental radiation measurement, nuclear emergency monitoring, and so on. Theoretical study showed that the atmospheric radon could be directly computed by airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data with full spectrum analysis without the use of the accessional upward-looking detectors. (authors)

  9. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2 or sulphuric acid (H2SO4 aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3° angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the

  10. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado, Granados H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lubcke, P.; Alvarez, Nieves J.M.; Cardenas, Gonzales L.; Platt, U.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized 5 since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in 10 volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to vol- 15 canic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3◦) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to 25 the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection

  11. Airborne geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Bastos, L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne geoid mapping techniques may provide the opportunity to improve the geoid over vast areas of the Earth, such as polar areas, tropical jungles and mountainous areas, and provide an accurate "seam-less" geoid model across most coastal regions. Determination of the geoid by airborne methods...... relies on the development of airborne gravimetry, which in turn is dependent on developments in kinematic GPS. Routine accuracy of airborne gravimetry are now at the 2 mGal level, which may translate into 5-10 cm geoid accuracy on regional scales. The error behaviour of airborne gravimetry is well......-suited for geoid determination, with high-frequency survey and downward continuation noise being offset by the low-pass gravity to geoid filtering operation. In the paper the basic principles of airborne geoid determination are outlined, and examples of results of recent airborne gravity and geoid surveys...

  12. Airborne gamma spectrometry - towards integration of European operational capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A nuclear threat can take several forms. The fallout from nuclear weapons or from an accident in a nuclear power reactor may contaminate a large area (>>100,000 km 2 ) whereas the dispersion of single sources, either accidentally or deliberately (dirty bomb), contaminates a much smaller area, perhaps only a few thousand square kilometres or less. Airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) plays an important role in providing detailed information an the dispersion of radioactive materials. AGS using a fixed-wing or a rotary-wing aircraft is at its best in fallout mapping and in searching for orphan sources. Plume tracking could be a third application but is very complex, and there is a risk of vehicle contamination, which would deteriorate mission capability in the later phases of an accident. Because of obvious advantages, unmanned aerial vehicles could be used to monitor the release rate at the site of an accident and perhaps the plume itself. The aim of the present paper is to discuss ways to utilize existing European airborne monitoring capabilities for multilateral assistance in an accident and to give some thoughts to how an integrated system could be developed to take into account various national measuring strategies. In a large-scale accident, it is to be expected that the European countries use their radiological resources to map their own territory. It is realistic to think of assistance by transferring equipment and staff to another country only in accident scenarios where a country or countries with essential AGS capability would not have been affected by the fallout. Various AGS survey results can be fused only if a common platform for data exchange is available. Formats and protocols have been developed for special cases (ECCOMAGS, Nuclear Fission Safety, 4 th and 5 th Framework Programmes) but there are no universal solutions applicable to different situations and Instruments. The hardware and software among the European AGS teams are tailor

  13. Monitoring the Distribution and Dynamics of an Invasive Grass in Tropical Savanna Using Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun R. Levick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The spread of an alien invasive grass (gamba grass—Andropogon gayanus in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia is a major threat to habitat quality and biodiversity in the region, primarily through its influence on fire intensity. Effective control and eradication of this invader requires better insight into its spatial distribution and rate of spread to inform management actions. We used full-waveform airborne LiDAR to map areas of known A. gayanus invasion in the Batchelor region of the Northern Territory, Australia. Our stratified sampling campaign included wooded savanna areas with differing degrees of A. gayanus invasion and adjacent areas of native grass and woody tree mixtures. We used height and spatial contiguity based metrics to classify returns from A. gayanus and developed spatial representations of A. gayanus occurrence (1 m resolution and canopy cover (10 m resolution. The cover classification proved robust against two independent field-based investigations at 500 m2 (R2 = 0.87, RMSE = 12.53 and 100 m2 (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 14.13 scale. Our mapping results provide a solid benchmark for evaluating the rate and pattern of A. gayanus spread from future LiDAR campaigns. In addition, this high-resolution mapping can be used to inform satellite image analysis for the evaluation of A. gayanus invasion over broader regional scales. Our research highlights the huge potential that airborne LiDAR holds for facilitating the monitoring and management of savanna habitat condition.

  14. African biomass burning plumes over the Atlantic: aircraft based measurements and implications for H2SO4 and HNO3 mediated smoke particle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dörnbrack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles have been made in two aged biomass burning (BB plumes over the East Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea. The plumes originated from BB in the Southern-Hemisphere African savanna belt. On the day of our measurements (13 August 2006, the plumes had ages of about 10 days and were respectively located in the middle troposphere (MT at 3900–5500 m altitude and in the upper troposphere (UT at 10 800–11 200 m. Probably, the MT plume was lifted by dry convection and the UT plume was lifted by wet convection. In the more polluted MT-plume, numerous measured trace species had markedly elevated abundances, particularly SO2 (up to 1400 pmol mol−1, HNO3 (5000–8000 pmol mol−1 and smoke particles with diameters larger than 270 nm (up to 2000 cm−3. Our MT-plume measurements indicate that SO2 released by BB had not experienced significant loss by deposition and cloud processes but rather had experienced OH-induced conversion to gas-phase sulfuric acid. By contrast, a significant fraction of the released NOy had experienced loss, most likely as HNO3 by deposition. In the UT-plume, loss of NOy and SO2 was more pronounced compared to the MT-plume, probably due to cloud processes. Building on our measurements and accompanying model simulations, we have investigated trace gas transformations in the ageing and diluting plumes and their role in smoke particle processing and activation. Emphasis was placed upon the formation of sulfuric acid and ammonium nitrate, and their influence on the activation potential of smoke particles. Our model simulations reveal that, after 13 August, the lower plume traveled across the Atlantic and descended to 1300 m and hereafter ascended again. During the travel across the Atlantic, the soluble mass fraction of smoke particles and their mean diameter increased sufficiently to allow the processed smoke particles to act as water vapor condensation nuclei already at very low water

  15. Evaluation of plume potential and plume abatement of evaporative cooling towers in a subtropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xinhua; Wang Shengwei; Ma Zhenjun

    2008-01-01

    Hong Kong is a typical subtropical region with frequently high humidity in late spring and summer seasons. Plume from evaporative cooling towers, which service air-conditioning systems of civil buildings, has aroused public concerns since 2000 when the fresh water evaporative cooling towers were allowed to be used for high energy efficiency and environmental issues. This paper presents the evaluation of the plume potential and its effect on the sizing of the plume abatement system in a large commercial office building in Hong Kong for practical application. This evaluation was conducted based on a dynamic simulation platform using the typical meteorological year of Hong Kong since the occurrence of the plume heavily depends on the state conditions of the exhaust air from cooling towers and the ambient air, while the state condition of the exhaust air is determined by the total building cooling load and the control strategies of cooling towers employed mainly for improving energy efficiency. The results show that the control strategies have a significant effect on the plume potential and further affect the system design and sizing of the plume abatement system

  16. Using ASCEM Modeling and Visualization to Inform Stakeholders of Contaminant Plume Evolution and Remediation Efficacy at F-Basin Savannah River, SC – 15156

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arora, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faybishenko, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Krishnan, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Moulton, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lipnikov, K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gable, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Freshley, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-28

    Communication with stakeholders, regulatory agencies, and the public is an essential part of implementing different remediation and monitoring activities, and developing site closure strategies at contaminated sites. Modeling of contaminant plume evolution plays a critical role in estimating the benefit, cost, and risk of particular options. At the same time, effective visualization of monitoring data and modeling results are particularly important for conveying the significance of the results and observations. In this paper, we present the results of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) project, including the discussion of the capabilities of newly developed ASCEM software package, along with its application to the F-Area Seepage Basins located in the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). ASCEM software includes state-of-the-art numerical methods for simulating complex flow and reactive transport, as well as various toolsets such as a graphical user interface (GUI), visualization, data management, uncertainty quantification, and parameter estimation. Using this software, we have developed an advanced visualization of tritium plume migration coupled with a data management system, and simulated a three-dimensional model of flow and plume evolution on a high-performance computing platform. We evaluated the effect of engineered flow barriers on a nonreactive tritium plume, through advanced plume visualization and modeling of tritium plume migration. In addition, we developed a geochemical reaction network to describe complex geochemical processes at the site, and evaluated the impact of coupled hydrological and geochemical heterogeneity. These results are expected to support SRS’s monitoring activities and operational decisions.

  17. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  18. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A G; Stordal, F; Knudsen, S [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  19. The Alberta smoke plume observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anderson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A field project was conducted to observe and measure smoke plumes from wildland fires in Alberta. This study used handheld inclinometer measurements and photos taken at lookout towers in the province. Observations of 222 plumes were collected from 21 lookout towers over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2015. Observers reported the equilibrium and maximum plume heights based on the plumes' final levelling heights and the maximum lofting heights, respectively. Observations were tabulated at the end of each year and matched to reported fires. Fire sizes at assessment times and forest fuel types were reported by the province. Fire weather conditions were obtained from the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS. Assessed fire sizes were adjusted to the appropriate size at plume observation time using elliptical fire-growth projections. Though a logical method to collect plume observations in principle, many unanticipated issues were uncovered as the project developed. Instrument limitations and environmental conditions presented challenges to the investigators, whereas human error and the subjectivity of observations affected data quality. Despite these problems, the data set showed that responses to fire behaviour conditions were consistent with the physical processes leading to plume rise. The Alberta smoke plume observation study data can be found on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System datamart (Natural Resources Canada, 2018 at http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/datamart.

  20. The Alberta smoke plume observation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry; Pankratz, Al; Mooney, Curtis; Fleetham, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    A field project was conducted to observe and measure smoke plumes from wildland fires in Alberta. This study used handheld inclinometer measurements and photos taken at lookout towers in the province. Observations of 222 plumes were collected from 21 lookout towers over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2015. Observers reported the equilibrium and maximum plume heights based on the plumes' final levelling heights and the maximum lofting heights, respectively. Observations were tabulated at the end of each year and matched to reported fires. Fire sizes at assessment times and forest fuel types were reported by the province. Fire weather conditions were obtained from the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS). Assessed fire sizes were adjusted to the appropriate size at plume observation time using elliptical fire-growth projections. Though a logical method to collect plume observations in principle, many unanticipated issues were uncovered as the project developed. Instrument limitations and environmental conditions presented challenges to the investigators, whereas human error and the subjectivity of observations affected data quality. Despite these problems, the data set showed that responses to fire behaviour conditions were consistent with the physical processes leading to plume rise. The Alberta smoke plume observation study data can be found on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System datamart (Natural Resources Canada, 2018) at http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/datamart.

  1. Variations of airborne and waterborne Rn-222 in houses in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, C.T.; Weiffenbach, C.V.; Norton, S.A. (Maine Univ., Orono (USA))

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne radon ranging from 0.05 to 135 pCi/L were found in houses in Maine. To investigate the association between elevated radon concentrations in well water and the indoor airborne radon concentrations, the radon in the water supplies of these houses was measured by liquid scintillation. Monitors of airborne radon were used for dynamic studies in 18 houses, determining the component of airborne radon associated with showers, laundry and dishwashing, which liberate radon in bursts. The component of airborne radon associated with water sources was found to vary inversely with ventilation rate and directly with waterborne radon concentration, with 0.8 +- 0.2 pCi Rn/L air per nCi Rn/L water at a ventilation rate of 1.0 air change per hour. The data are pertinent to a study which has revealed significant correlations between county averages, from the National Cancer Institute, or age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in Maine and average values of radon concentrations in water for the counties.

  2. Variations of airborne and waterborne Rn-222 in houses in Maine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Weiffenbach, C.V.; Norton, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne radon ranging from 0.05 to 135 pCi/L were found in houses in Maine. To investigate the association between elevated radon concentrations in well water and the indoor airborne radon concentrations, the radon in the water supplies of these houses was measured by liquid scintillation. Monitors of airborne radon were used for dynamic studies in 18 houses, determining the component of airborne radon associated with showers, laundry and dishwashing, which liberate radon in bursts. The component of airborne radon associated with water sources was found to vary inversely with ventilation rate and directly with waterborne radon concentration, with 0.8 +- 0.2 pCi Rn/L air per nCi Rn/L water at a ventilation rate of 1.0 air change per hour. The data are pertinent to a study which has revealed significant correlations between county averages, from the National Cancer Institute, or age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in Maine and average values of radon concentrations in water for the counties. (author)

  3. Small scale monitoring of a bioremediation barrier using miniature electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Philippe; Hogson, Tom; Keenan, Helen; Kulessa, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, in the laboratory, the efficiency of a barrier of oxygen release compound (ORC) to block and divert a diesel plume migration in a scaled aquifer model using miniature electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) as the monitoring system. Two plumes of contaminant (diesel) were injected in a soil model made of local sand and clay. The diesel plumes migration was imaged and monitored using a miniature resistivity array system that has proved to be accurate in soil resistivity variations in small-scaled models of soil. ERT results reflected the lateral spreading and diversion of the diesel plumes in the unsaturated zone. One of the contaminant plumes was partially blocked by the ORC barrier and a diversion and reorganisation of the diesel in the soil matrix was observed. The technique of time-lapse ERT imaging showed that a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminant like diesel can be monitored through a bioremediation barrier and the technique is well suited to monitor the efficiency of the barrier. Therefore, miniature ERT as a small-scale modelling tool could complement conventional techniques, which require more expensive and intrusive site investigation prior to remediation.

  4. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  5. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  7. Liquid Booster Module (LBM) plume flowfield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    A complete definition of the LBM plume is important for many Shuttle design criteria. The exhaust plume shape has a significant effect on the vehicle base pressure. The LBM definition is also important to the Shuttle base heating, aerodynamics and the influence of the exhaust plume on the launch stand and environment. For these reasons a knowledge of the LBM plume characteristics is necessary. A definition of the sea level LBM plume as well as at several points along the Shuttle trajectory to LBM, burnout is presented.

  8. Measurements on cooling tower plumes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortak, H.

    1975-11-01

    In this paper an extended field experiment is described in which cooling tower plumes were investigated by means of three-dimensional in situ measurements. The goal of this program was to obtain input data for numerical models of cooling tower plumes. Data for testing or developing assumptions for sub-grid parametrizations were of special interest. Utilizing modern systems for high-resolution aerology and small aircraft, four measuring campaigns were conducted: two campaigns (1974) at the cooling towers of the RWE power station at Neurath and also two (1975) at the single cooling tower of the RWE power station at Meppen. Because of the broad spectrum of weather situations, it can be assumed that the results are representative with regard to the interrelationship between the structure of cooling tower plumes and the large-scale meteorological situation. A large number of flights with a powered glider ASK 16 (more than 100 flight hours) crossing the plumes on orthogonal tracks was performed. All flights showed that the plume could be identified up to large downwind distances by discontinuous jumps of temperature and vapour pressure. Therefore a definite geometry of the plume could always be defined. In all cross sections a vertical circulation could be observed. At the plumes boundaries, which could be defined by the mentioned jumps of temperature and vapour pressure, a maximum of downward vertical motion was observed in most cases. Entrainment along the boundary of a cross section seems to be very small, except at the lower part of the plume. There, the mass entrainment is maximum and is responsible for plume rise as well as for enlargement of the cross section. The visible part of the plume (cloud) was only a small fraction of the whole plume. The discontinuities of temperature and vapour pressure show that the plume fills the space below the visible plume down to the ground. However, all effects decrease rapidly towards the ground. It turned out that high

  9. Krypton-85 and other airborne radioactivity measurements throughout Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Murray, M.; Wong, J.; Sequeira, S.; Long, S.C.; Rafferty, B.

    2004-01-01

    In compliance with articles 35 and 36 of the EURATOM Treaty, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) undertakes a comprehensive programme of radioactivity monitoring in the Irish terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The RPII monitors airborne radioactivity concentrations at ten stations throughout Ireland, of which, nine are equipped with low volume particulate samplers and one, in Dublin, with a high volume particulate sampler. The low volume particulate samples are assessed for total beta activity and high volume samples for gamma emitting radionuclides such as caesium-137 and beryllium-7. In addition, air sampled at the RPII laboratory in Dublin, is monitored for krypton-85, a radioactive noble gas, released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Since the inception of the krypton measurements in 1993 a trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations has been observed. The results of the krypton-85 monitoring, as well as the airborne radioactivity concentration measurements, will be presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. Study of the mixing and ageing of polluted plumes from major West Africa cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocquer, Flore; Mari, Céline; Leriche, Maud; Dacciwa Team

    2017-04-01

    Massive economic and population growth, fast urbanization in megacities along the Guinea Coast, would triple anthropogenic emissions by 2030 (Knippertz et al., 2015). Impacts of the rapid increase of atmospheric pollutants on weather and climate in this region are largely unstudied due to a lack of observations. The DACCIWA (Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa) project carried out an important airborne measurements campaign in June-July 2016 together with ground-based observations in urban and remote sites. Urban and industrial, biogenic dominated environment, dust and biomass burning air masses, ship plumes and flaring emissions were sampled successfully. The goal of this work is to investigate the transport and ageing of anthropogenic emissions from major West African megacities during boreal summer. For this purpose, the coupled atmosphere-chemistry mesoscale model Méso-NH was run at kilometric scale and results were compared with in-situ meteorological and chemical data. The study focuses on 06-07-08 July 2016. Three research aircrafts operated over the coastal region sampling downwind pollution from Lomé and Accra and biogenic emissions further inland. Preliminary simulation results will be presented to understand the mixing between and ageing of cities plumes during the post-onset period of the campaign.

  11. Investigation of Balcony Plume Entrainment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Li, B. Z.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation on the scenarios of the spill plume and its equation was presented in this paper. The study includes two aspects, i.e., the small-scale experiment and the numerical simulation. Two balcony spill plume models are assessed by comparing with the FDS (Fire Dynamic Simulation) and small scale model experiment results. Besides validating the spill model by experiments, the effect of different fire location on balcony plume is also discussed.The results show that the balcony equatio...

  12. In-Situ and Remote-Sensing Data Fusion Using Machine Learning Techniques to Infer Urban and Fire Related Pollution Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. B.; Segal-Rozenhaimer, M.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Flynn, C.J.; Johnson, R. R.; Dunagan, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Airmass type characterization is key in understanding the relative contribution of various emission sources to atmospheric composition and air quality and can be useful in bottom-up model validation and emission inventories. However, classification of pollution plumes from space is often not trivial. Sub-orbital campaigns, such as SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) give us a unique opportunity to study atmospheric composition in detail, by using a vast suite of in-situ instruments for the detection of trace gases and aerosols. These measurements allow identification of spatial and temporal atmospheric composition changes due to various pollution plumes resulting from urban, biogenic and smoke emissions. Nevertheless, to transfer the knowledge gathered from such campaigns into a global spatial and temporal context, there is a need to develop workflow that can be applicable to measurements from space. In this work we rely on sub-orbital in-situ and total column remote sensing measurements of various pollution plumes taken aboard the NASA DC-8 during 2013 SEAC4RS campaign, linking them through a neural-network (NN) algorithm to allow inference of pollution plume types by input of columnar aerosol and trace-gas measurements. In particular, we use the 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) airborne measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size proxies, O3, NO2 and water vapor to classify different pollution plumes. Our method relies on assigning a-priori ground-truth labeling to the various plumes, which include urban pollution, different fire types (i.e. forest and agriculture) and fire stage (i.e. fresh and aged) using cluster analysis of aerosol and trace-gases in-situ and auxiliary (e.g. trajectory) data and the training of a NN scheme to fit the best prediction parameters using 4STAR measurements as input. We explore our

  13. Airflow patterns in complex workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Selby, J.M.; Lynch, T.P.; Langer, G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    There are many considerations in obtaining an accurate evaluation of aerosols. One aspect that has been neglected is the study of airflow patterns within the workplace. In many nuclear facilities, the operations performed required extensive equipment (e.g., glove boxes, piping) that create complex arrangements of physical barriers to flow. To provide samples of the airborne materials, particularly particles, knowledge of these complex airflow patterns is required for sampler placement. Recent studies have shown that materials introduced into the air flow within a workplace act as plumes embedded in major airflow streams. Portions of the plumes can recycle through the ventilated area, be lost to dead air pockets, or exhaust through unusual, unexpected outlets. Unusual flow patterns are observed even in relatively uncomplicated arrangements of equipment. This behavior must be factored into sampling/monitoring programs for evaluation of the airborne hazard to personnel within the workplace consistent with the objective of the program. Other factors that also must be considered to provide valid samples of airborne particulate materials are objectives of the sampling program, characteristics of the airborne particulate materials, nonsegregatory transport for the extracted materials, and requirements for the measurement techniques used

  14. Techniques for Estimating Emissions Factors from Forest Burning: ARCTAS and SEAC4RS Airborne Measurements Indicate which Fires Produce Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of emission factors from biomass burning are prone to large errors since they ignore the interplay of mixing and varying pre-fire background CO2 levels. Such complications severely affected our studies of 446 forest fire plume samples measured in the Western US by the science teams of NASA's SEAC4RS and ARCTAS airborne missions. Consequently we propose a Mixed Effects Regression Emission Technique (MERET) to check techniques like the Normalized Emission Ratio Method (NERM), where use of sequential observations cannot disentangle emissions and mixing. We also evaluate a simpler "consensus" technique. All techniques relate emissions to fuel burned using C(burn) = delta C(tot) added to the fire plume, where C(tot) approximately equals (CO2 = CO). Mixed-effects regression can estimate pre-fire background values of C(tot) (indexed by observation j) simultaneously with emissions factors indexed by individual species i, delta, epsilon lambda tau alpha-x(sub I)/C(sub burn))I,j. MERET and "consensus" require more than emissions indicators. Our studies excluded samples where exogenous CO or CH4 might have been fed into a fire plume, mimicking emission. We sought to let the data on 13 gases and particulate properties suggest clusters of variables and plume types, using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). While samples were mixtures, the NMF unmixing suggested purer burn types. Particulate properties (b scant, b abs, SSA, AAE) and gas-phase emissions were interrelated. Finally, we sought a simple categorization useful for modeling ozone production in plumes. Two kinds of fires produced high ozone: those with large fuel nitrogen as evidenced by remnant CH3CN in the plumes, and also those from very intense large burns. Fire types with optimal ratios of delta-NOy/delta- HCHO associate with the highest additional ozone per unit Cburn, Perhaps these plumes exhibit limited NOx binding to reactive organics. Perhaps these plumes exhibit limited NOx binding to

  15. Are splash plumes the origin of minor hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. H.; Bunge, H.-P.

    2006-05-01

    It has been claimed that focused hot cylindrical upwelling plumes cause many of the surface volcanic hotspots on Earth. It has also been argued that they must originate from thermal boundary layers. In this paper, we present spherical simulations of mantle circulation at close to Earth-like vigor with significant internal heating. These show, in addition to thermal boundary layer plumes, a new class of plumes that are not rooted in thermal boundary layers. These plumes develop as instabilities from the edge of bowls of hot mantle, which are produced by cold downwelling material deforming hot sheets of mantle. The resulting bowl and plume structure can look a bit like the “splash” of a water droplet. These splash plumes might provide an explanation for some hotspots that are not underlain by thermal boundary layer sourced plumes and not initiated by large igneous provinces. We suggest that in Earth's mantle, lithospheric instabilities or small pieces of subducting slab could play the role of the model downwelling material in initiating splash plumes. Splash plumes would have implications for interpreting ocean-island basalt geochemistry, plume fixity, excess plume temperature, and estimating core heat flux. Improved seismic imaging will ultimately test this hypothesis.

  16. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The radionuclides considered are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents: tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters, radioiodines, and certain radioactive particulates (Cs, Ru, Sr, Te). The standard focuses on the calculation of radiation doses for external exposures from radioactive material in the cloud; internal exposures for inhalation of radioactive material in the cloud and skin penetration of tritium; and external exposures from radionuclides deposited on the ground. It uses as modified Gaussian plume model to evaluate the time-integrated concentration downwind. (52 refs., 12 tabs., 21 figs.)

  17. Is the 'Fast Halo' around Hawaii as imaged in the PLUME experiment direct evidence for buoyant plume-fed asthenosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. P.; Shi, C.; Hasenclever, J.

    2010-12-01

    An intriguing spatial pattern of variations in shear-wave arrival times has been mapped in the PLUME ocean bottom experiment (Wolfe et al., 2009) around Hawaii. The pattern consists of a halo of fast travel times surrounding a disk of slow arrivals from waves traveling up though the plume. We think it is directly sensing the pattern of dynamic uplift of the base of a buoyant asthenosphere - the buoyancy of the plume conduit lifting a 'rim' of the cooler, denser mantle that the plume rises through. The PLUME analysis inverted for lateral shear velocity variations beneath the lithosphere, after removing the assumed 1-D model velocity structure IASP91. They found that a slow plume-conduit extends to at least 1200 km below the Hawaiian hotspot. In this inversion the slow plume conduit is — quite surprisingly - surrounded by a fast wavespeed halo. A fast halo is impossible to explain as a thermal halo around the plume; this should lead to a slow wavespeed halo, not a fast one. Plume-related shearwave anisotropy also cannot simply explain this pattern — simple vertical strain around the plume conduit would result in an anisotropic slow shear-wavespeed halo, not a fast one. (Note the PLUME experiment’s uniform ‘fast-halo’ structure from 50-400km is likely to have strong vertical streaking in the seismic image; Pacific Plate-driven shear across a low-viscosity asthenosphere would be expected to disrupt and distort any cold sheet of vertical downwelling structure between 50-400km depths so that it would no longer be vertical as it is in the 2009 PLUME image with its extremely poor vertical depth control.) If the asthenosphere is plume-fed, hence more buoyant than underlying mantle, then there can be a simple explanation for this pattern. The anomaly would be due to faster traveltimes resulting from dynamic relief at the asthenosphere-mesosphere interface; uplift of the denser mesosphere by the buoyancy of the rising plume increases the distance a wave travels

  18. The Vapor Plume at Material Disposal Are C in Relation to Pajarito Corridor Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, William B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A vapor plume made up of volatile organic compounds is present beneath Material Disposal Area C (MDA C) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The location and concentrations within the vapor plume are discussed in relation to existing and planned facilities and construction activities along Pajarito Road (the 'Pajarito Corridor') and in terms of worker health and safety. This document provides information that indicates that the vapor plume does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of proposed facilities along Pajarito Road. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) monitors emissions, effluents, and environmental media to meet environmental compliance requirements, determine actions to protect the environment, and monitor the long-term health of the local environment. LANL also studies and characterizes 'legacy' waste from past Laboratory operations to make informed decisions regarding eventual corrective actions and the disposition of that waste. Starting in 1969, these activities have been annually reported in the LANL Environmental Report (formerly Environmental Surveillance Report), and are detailed in publicly accessible technical reports meeting environmental compliance requirements. Included among the legacy sites being investigated are several formerly used material disposal areas (MDAs) set aside by the Laboratory for the general on-site disposal of waste from mission-related activities. One such area is MDA C located in Technical Area 50 (TA-50), which was used for waste disposal between 1948 and 1974. The location of TA-50 is depicted in Figure 1. The present paper uses a series of maps and cross sections to address the public concerns raised about the vapor plume at MDA C. As illustrated here, extensive sampling and data interpretation indicate that the vapor plume at MDA C does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a

  19. Submarine Alkalic Lavas Around the Hawaiian Hotspot; Plume and Non-Plume Signatures Determined by Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D. A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T. J.; Davies, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from the Kauai Channel between Oahu and Kauai, north of Molokai, northwest of Niihau, Southwest Oahu, South Arch and North Arch volcanic fields. Sites located downstream from the center of the hotspot have 3He/4He ratios close to MORB at about 8 Ra, demonstrating that the magmas erupted at these sites had minimum contribution of volatiles from a mantle plume. In contrast, the South Arch, located upstream of the hotspot on the Hawaiian Arch, has 3He/4He ratios between 17 and 21 Ra, indicating a strong plume influence. Differences in noble gas isotopic characteristics between alkalic volcanism downstream and upstream of the hotspot imply that upstream volcanism contains incipient melts from an upwelling mantle plume, having primitive 3He/4He. In combination with lithophile element isotopic data, we conclude that the most likely source of the upstream magmatism is depleted asthenospheric mantle that has been metasomatised by incipient melt from a mantle plume. After major melt extraction from the mantle plume during production of magmas for the shield stage, the plume material is highly depleted in noble gases and moderately depleted in lithophile elements. Partial melting of the depleted mantle impregnated by melts derived from this volatile depleted plume source may explain the isotopic characteristics of the downstream alkalic magmatism.

  20. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The vast and persistent Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill challenged response capabilities, which required accurate, quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Although experienced observers are a spill response's mainstay, few trained observers and confounding factors including weather, oil emulsification, and scene illumination geometry present challenges. DWH spill and impact monitoring was aided by extensive airborne and spaceborne passive and active remote sensing.Oil slick thickness and oil-to-water emulsion ratios are key spill response parameters for containment/cleanup and were derived quantitatively for thick (> 0.1 mm) slicks from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data using a spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of near infrared spectral absorption features. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite, visible-spectrum broadband data of surface-slick modulation of sunglint reflection allowed extrapolation to the total slick. A multispectral expert system used a neural network approach to provide Rapid Response thickness class maps.Airborne and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides synoptic data under all-sky conditions; however, SAR generally cannot discriminate thick (> 100 μm) oil slicks from thin sheens (to 0.1 μm). The UAVSAR's (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR) significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial resolution allowed successful pattern discrimination related to a combination of oil slick thickness, fractional surface coverage, and emulsification.In situ burning and smoke plumes were studied with AVIRIS and corroborated spaceborne CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) observations of combustion aerosols. CALIPSO and bathymetry lidar data documented shallow subsurface oil, although ancillary data were required for confirmation.Airborne hyperspectral, thermal infrared data have nighttime and

  1. Partial nitrification enhances natural attenuation of nitrogen in a septic system plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caschetto, M; Robertson, W; Petitta, M; Aravena, R

    2018-06-01

    Natural attenuation of nitrogen (N) was investigated in a well characterized septic system plume at a campground in Ontario, Canada. Total inorganic N (TIN) concentrations in deeper portions of the plume were about one third of the septic tank value of 40.7mgL -1 . NH 4 + and NO 3 - isotopic characterization were used to provide insight into potential attenuation processes. Concentrations of NH 4 + and NO 3 - were highly variable in the plume, but approached the septic tank TIN value in some shallow zones and exhibited δ 15 N values like the tank value of +6‰. However, isotopic enrichment (up to +24‰ for NH 4 + and +45‰ for NO 3 - ) and declining TIN concentrations in the deeper zones indicated that anaerobic ammonium oxidation contributed to the TIN attenuation. The degree of isotopic enrichment increased at lower NH 4 + concentrations and was consistent with Rayleigh-type distillation with an enrichment factor (Ɛ) of -5.1‰. Additionally, decreasing DOC values with depth and the concomitant enrichment of δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO3 , suggested that denitrification was also active. The N attenuation observed in the Killarney plume was partly due to incomplete nitrification that occurred because of the shallow water table, which varied from only 0.2-0.7m below the tile bed infiltration pipes. Moreover, some of the monitoring locations with the shallowest water table distances from the infiltration pipes, had the highest degree of TIN attenuation (70-90%) in the plume. This behavior suggests that controlling water table distance from the infiltration pipes could be a useful mechanism for enhancing N attenuation in septic system plumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  3. Lithosphere erosion atop mantle plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrusta, R.; Arcay, D.; Tommasi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mantle plumes are traditionally proposed to play an important role in lithosphere erosion. Seismic images beneath Hawaii and Cape Verde show a lithosphere-asthenosphere-boundary (LAB) up to 50 km shallower than the surroundings. However, numerical models show that unless the plate is stationary the thermo-mechanical erosion of the lithosphere does not exceed 30 km. We use 2D petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical models based on a finite-difference method on a staggered grid and marker in cell method to study the role of partial melting on the plume-lithosphere interaction. A homogeneous peridotite composition with a Newtonian temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity is used to simulate both the plate and the convective mantle. A constant velocity, ranging from 5 to 12.5 cm/yr, is imposed at the top of the plate. Plumes are created by imposing a thermal anomaly of 150 to 350 K on a 50 km wide domain at the base of the model (700 km depth); the plate right above the thermal anomaly is 40 Myr old. Partial melting is modeled using batch-melting solidus and liquidus in anhydrous conditions. We model the progressive depletion of peridotite and its effect on partial melting by assuming that the melting degree only strictly increases through time. Melt is accumulated until a porosity threshold is reached and the melt in excess is then extracted. The rheology of the partially molten peridotite is determined using viscous constitutive relationship based on a contiguity model, which enables to take into account the effects of grain-scale melt distribution. Above a threshold of 1%, melt is instantaneously extracted. The density varies as a function of partial melting degree and extraction. Besides, we analyze the kinematics of the plume as it impacts a moving plate, the dynamics of time-dependent small-scale convection (SSC) instabilities developing in the low-viscosity layer formed by spreading of hot plume material at the lithosphere base, and the resulting thermal

  4. Refinement of the list of constituents for groundwater monitoring at M-area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.G.

    1997-11-01

    For several years Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been examining ways of reducing monitoring costs. Most of these efforts have been aimed at reducing the number of wells sampled or reducing sample frequency. With regards to monitoring around the M-Area Settling Basin, we are now examining a possible reduction in the number of constituents analyzed. Constituents that can be dropped entirely are nonhazardous inorganics generally referred to as water quality indicators. Monitoring for these parameters is sensible when a facility is in detection monitoring, but it is much less useful at a facility like the M-Area Basin. The water quality indicators are helpful in detecting whether or not a facility has impacted the environment. But their concentrations are not important in themselves. At M-Area, it is well documented that the facility has impacted groundwater quite seriously with a known group of hazardous constituents. So the concentrations of the nonhazardous constituents are of little interest. At M-Area there are 41 Point of Compliance (POC) wells monitoring an area of about .25 square miles and about 236 plume definition wells monitoring the surround 4 square miles. The POC wells form a picket line around the facility and are intended to detect any constituents leaching from it. They are also intended to determine whether such constituents exceed action levels. Plume definition wells are added to define the plume created a particular set or subset of contaminants. The M-Area plume definition wells were installed in several phases over a ten year time span as SRS struggled to define the extent of a large plume of TCE and PCE. These wells were not located for the purpose of monitoring the numerous inorganics and radionuclides on the unit's monitoring list. Many of the inorganics and radionuclides are relatively immobile in groundwater and cannot be expected to appear in the widely scattered TCE/PCE plume definition wells

  5. Space and time resolved monitoring of airborne particulate matter in proximity of a traffic roundabout in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, Kai E.; Lundkvist, Johanna; Netrval, Julia; Eriksson, Mats; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) are on the rise. Currently monitoring of PM is done on the basis of interpolating a mass of PM by volume (μg/m 3 ) but has the drawback of not taking the chemical nature of PM into account. Here we propose a method of collecting PM at its emission source and employing automated analysis with scanning electron microscopy associated with EDS-analysis together with light scattering to discern the chemical composition, size distribution, and time and space resolved structure of PM emissions in a heavily trafficated roundabout in Sweden. Multivariate methods (PCA, ANOVA) indicate that the technogenic marker Fe follows roadside dust in spreading from the road, and depending on time and location of collection, a statistically significant difference can be seen, adding a useful tool to the repertoiré of detailed PM monitoring and risk assessment of local emission sources. Highlights: •PM monitoring analysis method of the chemical constituents of individual particles. •Automated analysis provides a large output of data concerning chemical nature of PM. •Multivariate statistical methods used to visualize the analysis. •Chemical nature of PM leads to a complete risk assessment of PM exposure. -- Automated SEM–EDS analysis of captured roadside PM at a traffic roundabout in Sweden displaying the time- and space-resolved chemical differences of the captured particles

  6. Multi-temporal dynamics of suspended particulate matter in a macro-tidal river Plume (the Gironde) as observed by satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Sorin; Doxaran, David; Derkacheva, Anna; Novoa, Stéfani; Lavigne, Héloïse

    2018-03-01

    The Gironde River plume area is unique in terms of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) dynamics. Multiple factors contribute to the variations of SPM at multiple time scales, from river outputs to wind stress, currents and tidal cycles. The formation and evolution of the Maximum Turbidity Zone (MTZ) inside the estuary also plays a significant role. Thus, detailed analyses and monitoring of the region is important for better understanding the mechanisms governing the turbid plume dynamics, for proper future management and monitoring of SPM export from the estuary to the coastal ocean. In this study we use an unprecedented volume of satellite data to capture and better understand the dynamics of the river plume. We combine two types of satellite information in order to achieve these goals: data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensors. The integrated information allows accounting for multiple time scales, i.e. from seasonal to diurnal cycles. We show and parameterize the overall effects of river discharge rates over the plume extension. Seasonal variations are also analyzed and an overall relationship between river discharge rates and plume magnitude is computed. For the first time, we clearly observe and explain the diurnal cycle of SPM dynamics in the river plume. Despite the limited capabilities of the SEVIRI sensor, geostationary data was successfully used to derive such information and results similar to in-situ datasets were obtained. The same patterns are observed, with significant increase in SPM plume during spring/ebb tide periods. Results from our study can be further used to refine sediment transport models and to gain a better perspective on the ecological implications of the sediment output in the continental shelf area.

  7. Turbulent forces within river plumes affect spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    When rivers drain into oceans through narrow mouths, hydraulic forces squeeze the river water into buoyant plumes that are clearly visible in satellite images. Worldwide, river plumes not only disperse freshwater, sediments, and nutrients but also spread pollutants and organisms from estuaries into the open ocean. In the United States, the Columbia River—the largest river by volume draining into the Pacific Ocean from North America—generates a plume at its mouth that transports juvenile salmon and other fish into the ocean. Clearly, the behavior and spread of river plumes, such as the Columbia River plume, affect the nation's fishing industry as well as the global economy.

  8. Plume rise measurements at Turbigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfossi, D

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of plume measurements obtained during that campaign by the ENEL ground-based Lidar. The five stacks of Turbigo Power Plant have different heights and emission parameters and their plumes usually combine, so a model for multiple sources was used to predict the plume rises. These predictions are compared with the observations. Measurements of sigma/sub v/ and sigma/sub z/ over the first 1000 m are compared with the curves derived from other observations in the Po Valley, using the no-lift balloon technique over the same range of downwind distance. Skewness and kurtosis distributions are shown, both along the vertical and the horizontal directions. In order to show the plume structure in more detail, we present two examples of Lidar-derived cross sections and the corresponding vertically and horizontally integrated concentration profiles.

  9. Plume meander and dispersion in a stable boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, April L.; Miller, David R.; Nappo, Carmen J.

    2010-11-01

    Continuous lidar measurements of elevated plume dispersion and corresponding micrometeorology data are analyzed to establish the relationship between plume behavior and nocturnal boundary layer dynamics. Contrasting nights of data from the JORNADA field campaign in the New Mexico desert are analyzed. The aerosol lidar measurements were used to separate the plume diffusion (plume spread) from plume meander (displacement). Mutiresolution decomposition was used to separate the turbulence scale (90 s). Durations of turbulent kinetic energy stationarity and the wind steadiness were used to characterize the local scale and submesoscale turbulence. Plume meander, driven by submesoscale wind motions, was responsible for most of the total horizontal plume dispersion in weak and variable winds and strong stability. This proportion was reduced in high winds (i.e., >4 m s-1), weakly stable conditions but remained the dominant dispersion mechanism. The remainder of the plume dispersion in all cases was accounted for by internal spread of the plume, which is a small eddy diffusion process driven by turbulence. Turbulence stationarity and the wind steadiness are demonstrated to be closely related to plume diffusion and plume meander, respectively.

  10. Experimental investigation of bubble plume structure instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco Simiano; Robert Zboray; Francois de Cachard [Thermal-Hydraulics Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Djamel Lakehal; George Yadigaroglu [Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum/CLT, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The hydrodynamic properties of a 3D bubble plume in a large water pool are investigated experimentally. Bubble plumes are present in various industrial processes, including chemical plants, stirred reactors, and nuclear power plants, e.g. in BWR suppression pools. In these applications, the main issue is to predict the currents induced by the bubbles in the liquid phase, and to determine the consequent mixing. Bubble plumes, especially large and unconfined ones, present strong 3D effects and a superposition of different characteristic length scales. Thus, they represent relevant test cases for assessment and verification of 3D models in thermal-hydraulic codes. Bubble plumes are often unsteady, with fluctuations in size and shape of the bubble swarm, and global movements of the plume. In this case, local time-averaged data are not sufficient to characterize the flow. Additional information regarding changes in plume shape and position is required. The effect of scale on the 3D flow structure and stability being complex, there was a need to conduct studies in a fairly large facility, closer to industrial applications. Air bubble plumes, up to 30 cm in base diameter and 2 m in height were extensively studied in a 2 m diameter water pool. Homogeneously sized bubbles were obtained using a particular injector. The main hydrodynamic parameters. i.e., gas and liquid velocities, void fraction, bubble shape and size, plume shape and position, were determined experimentally. Photographic and image processing techniques were used to characterize the bubble shape, and double-tip optical probes to measure bubble size and void fraction. Electromagnetic probes measured the recirculation velocity in the pool. Simultaneous two-phase flow particle image velocimetry (STPFPIV) in a vertical plane containing the vessel axis provided instantaneous velocity fields for both phases and therefore the relative velocity field. Video recording using two CCD

  11. Characteristics of airborne micro-organisms in a neurological intensive care unit: Results from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Yin, Sufeng; Kuan, Yi; Xu, Yingjun; Gao, Xuguang

    2015-06-01

    To describe the characteristics of airborne micro-organisms in the environment in a Chinese neurological intensive care unit (NICU). This prospective study monitored the air environment in two wards (large and small) of an NICU in a tertiary hospital in China for 12 months, using an LWC-1 centrifugal air sampler. Airborne micro-organisms were identified using standard microbiology techniques. The mean ± SD number of airborne bacteria was significantly higher in the large ward than in the small ward (200 ± 51 colony-forming units [CFU]/m(3) versus 110 ± 40 CFU/m(3), respectively). In the large ward only, the mean number of airborne bacteria in the autumn was significantly higher than in any of the other three seasons. A total of 279 airborne micro-organisms were identified (large ward: 195; small ward: 84). There was no significant difference in the type and distribution of airborne micro-organisms between the large and small wards. The majority of airborne micro-organisms were Gram-positive cocci in both wards. These findings suggest that the number of airborne micro-organisms was related to the number of patients on the NICU ward. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. A distribution-based parametrization for improved tomographic imaging of solute plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidlisecky, Adam; Singha, K.; Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2011-01-01

    Difference geophysical tomography (e.g. radar, resistivity and seismic) is used increasingly for imaging fluid flow and mass transport associated with natural and engineered hydrologic phenomena, including tracer experiments, in situ remediation and aquifer storage and recovery. Tomographic data are collected over time, inverted and differenced against a background image to produce 'snapshots' revealing changes to the system; these snapshots readily provide qualitative information on the location and morphology of plumes of injected tracer, remedial amendment or stored water. In principle, geometric moments (i.e. total mass, centres of mass, spread, etc.) calculated from difference tomograms can provide further quantitative insight into the rates of advection, dispersion and mass transfer; however, recent work has shown that moments calculated from tomograms are commonly biased, as they are strongly affected by the subjective choice of regularization criteria. Conventional approaches to regularization (Tikhonov) and parametrization (image pixels) result in tomograms which are subject to artefacts such as smearing or pixel estimates taking on the sign opposite to that expected for the plume under study. Here, we demonstrate a novel parametrization for imaging plumes associated with hydrologic phenomena. Capitalizing on the mathematical analogy between moment-based descriptors of plumes and the moment-based parameters of probability distributions, we design an inverse problem that (1) is overdetermined and computationally efficient because the image is described by only a few parameters, (2) produces tomograms consistent with expected plume behaviour (e.g. changes of one sign relative to the background image), (3) yields parameter estimates that are readily interpreted for plume morphology and offer direct insight into hydrologic processes and (4) requires comparatively few data to achieve reasonable model estimates. We demonstrate the approach in a series of

  13. Monitoring of airborne PM2.5 in the 3d and 4th industrial complex area of Daejeon city in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam; Lim, Jong Myoung; Lee, Jin Hong

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is to enhance the use of a nuclear analytical technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) in the field of air pollution studies through a routine and long-term monitoring. For the collection of fine airborne particulate matter (<2.5 μm EAD), the Gent stacked filter unit (a low volume sampler) and polycarbonate membrane filters were employed. Samples were collected with selected sampling dates at the 3rd and 4th industrial complex of Daejeon city in Korea. Mass concentration of the air particulates was measured and the elemental content in the samples collected were analyzed by using INAA. Variations of the concentrations of the particulate matter and the enrichment factors for the elements analyzed were determined. From the monitoring data, a factor analysis was performed to identify and to classify the emission sources. (author)

  14. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  15. PLUME-MoM 1.0: A new integral model of volcanic plumes based on the method of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Neri, A.; Barsotti, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a new integral mathematical model for volcanic plumes, named PLUME-MoM, is presented. The model describes the steady-state dynamics of a plume in a 3-D coordinate system, accounting for continuous variability in particle size distribution of the pyroclastic mixture ejected at the vent. Volcanic plumes are composed of pyroclastic particles of many different sizes ranging from a few microns up to several centimeters and more. A proper description of such a multi-particle nature is crucial when quantifying changes in grain-size distribution along the plume and, therefore, for better characterization of source conditions of ash dispersal models. The new model is based on the method of moments, which allows for a description of the pyroclastic mixture dynamics not only in the spatial domain but also in the space of parameters of the continuous size distribution of the particles. This is achieved by formulation of fundamental transport equations for the multi-particle mixture with respect to the different moments of the grain-size distribution. Different formulations, in terms of the distribution of the particle number, as well as of the mass distribution expressed in terms of the Krumbein log scale, are also derived. Comparison between the new moments-based formulation and the classical approach, based on the discretization of the mixture in N discrete phases, shows that the new model allows for the same results to be obtained with a significantly lower computational cost (particularly when a large number of discrete phases is adopted). Application of the new model, coupled with uncertainty quantification and global sensitivity analyses, enables the investigation of the response of four key output variables (mean and standard deviation of the grain-size distribution at the top of the plume, plume height and amount of mass lost by the plume during the ascent) to changes in the main input parameters (mean and standard deviation) characterizing the

  16. Fossil plume head beneath the Arabian lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    1992-12-01

    Phanerozoic alkali basalts from Israel, which have erupted over the past 200 Ma, have isotopic compositions similar to PREMA ("prevalent mantle") with narrow ranges of initial ɛ Nd(T) = +3.9-+5.9; 87Sr/ 86Sr(T)= 0.70292-0.70334; 206Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 18.88-19.99; 207Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 15.58-15.70; and 208Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 38.42-39.57. Their Nb/U(43 ± 9) and Ce/Pb(26 ± 6) ratios are identical to those of normal oceanic basalts, demonstrating that the basalts are essentially free of crustal contamination. Overall, the basalts are chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from many ordinary plume basalts, but no plume track can be identified. We propose that these and other, similar, magmas from the Arabian plate originated from a "fossilized" head of a mantle plume, which was unable to penetrate the continental lithosphere and was therefore trapped and stored beneath it. The plume head was emplaced some time between the late Proterozoic crust formation and the initiation of the Phanerozoic magmatic cycles. Basalts from rift environments in other continental localities show similar geochemistry to that of the Arabian basalts and their sources may also represent fossil plume heads trapped below the continents. We suggest that plume heads are, in general, characterized by the PREMA isotopic mantle signature, because the original plume sources (which may have HIMU or EM-type composition) have been diluted by overlying mantle material, which has been entrained by the plume heads during ascent. On the Arabian plate, rifting and thinning of the lithosphere caused partial melting of the stored plume, which led to periodic volcanism. In the late Cenozoic, the lithosphere broke up and the Red Sea opened. N-MORB tholeiites are now erupting in the central trough of the Red Sea, where the lithosphere has moved apart and the fossil plume has been exhausted, whereas E-MORBs are erupting in the northern and southern troughs, still tapping the plume reservoir. Fossil plumes, which are

  17. Lidar technologies for airborne and space-based applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, T.D.; Schmitt, R.L.; Sobering, T.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Stephenson, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    This study identifies technologies required to extend the capabilities of airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) systems and establish the feasibility of autonomous space-based lidars. Work focused on technologies that enable the development of a lightweight, low power, rugged and autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instruments. Applications for airborne or space-based DIAL include the measurement of water vapor profiles in support of climate research and processing-plant emissions signatures for environmental and nonproliferation monitoring. A computer-based lidar performance model was developed to allow trade studies to be performed on various technologies and system configurations. It combines input from the physics (absorption line strengths and locations) of the problem, the system requirements (weight, power, volume, accuracy), and the critical technologies available (detectors, lasers, filters) to produce the best conceptual design. Conceptual designs for an airborne and space-based water vapor DIAL, and a detailed design of a ground-based water vapor DIAL demonstration system were completed. Future work planned includes the final testing, integration, and operation of the demonstration system to prove the capability of the critical enabling technologies identified

  18. Nuclide-specific monitoring of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, R.; Neu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the end of the seventies the Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg ist operating two radioaerosol monitoring stations at the border in the opposite of foreign nuclear power plants. Since the end of the eighties six similar monitoring stations were built up for measuring activity in breathing air in the common environment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. A special filtersystem allows measuring the activity concentration of up to 99 nuclides. The measuring system was optimized by advanced PC-technology, a multitasking operating system and a special software for users and gamma-spectroscopy. These increased the average availability of all monitoring stations to 96% in 1996. (orig.) [de

  19. Buoyant plume calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our plume heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant plumes. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke plume heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the plume depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures

  20. PLUME and research sotware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Veronique; Gomez-Diaz, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The PLUME open platform (https://www.projet-plume.org) has as first goal to share competences and to value the knowledge of software experts within the French higher education and research communities. The project proposes in its platform the access to more than 380 index cards describing useful and economic software for this community, with open access to everybody. The second goal of PLUME focuses on to improve the visibility of software produced by research laboratories within the higher education and research communities. The "development-ESR" index cards briefly describe the main features of the software, including references to research publications associated to it. The platform counts more than 300 cards describing research software, where 89 cards have an English version. In this talk we describe the theme classification and the taxonomy of the index cards and the evolution with new themes added to the project. We will also focus on the organisation of PLUME as an open project and its interests in the promotion of free/open source software from and for research, contributing to the creation of a community of shared knowledge.

  1. Review of quantitative surveys of the length and stability of MTBE, TBA, and benzene plumes in groundwater at UST sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, John A; Kamath, Roopa; Walker, Kenneth L; McHugh, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative information regarding the length and stability condition of groundwater plumes of benzene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has been compiled from thousands of underground storage tank (UST) sites in the United States where gasoline fuel releases have occurred. This paper presents a review and summary of 13 published scientific surveys, of which 10 address benzene and/or MTBE plumes only, and 3 address benzene, MTBE, and TBA plumes. These data show the observed lengths of benzene and MTBE plumes to be relatively consistent among various regions and hydrogeologic settings, with median lengths at a delineation limit of 10 µg/L falling into relatively narrow ranges from 101 to 185 feet for benzene and 110 to 178 feet for MTBE. The observed statistical distributions of MTBE and benzene plumes show the two plume types to be of comparable lengths, with 90th percentile MTBE plume lengths moderately exceeding benzene plume lengths by 16% at a 10-µg/L delineation limit (400 feet vs. 345 feet) and 25% at a 5-µg/L delineation limit (530 feet vs. 425 feet). Stability analyses for benzene and MTBE plumes found 94 and 93% of these plumes, respectively, to be in a nonexpanding condition, and over 91% of individual monitoring wells to exhibit nonincreasing concentration trends. Three published studies addressing TBA found TBA plumes to be of comparable length to MTBE and benzene plumes, with 86% of wells in one study showing nonincreasing concentration trends. © 2014 GSI Environmental Inc. Groundwater published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of National Ground Water Association.

  2. Characterization of redox conditions in pollution plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwart, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Evalution of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few...

  3. Observations of the altitude of the volcanic plume during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, April–May 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arason

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 lasted for 39 days, 14 April–23 May. The eruption had two explosive phases separated by a phase with lava formation and reduced explosive activity. The height of the plume was monitored every 5 min with a C-band weather radar located in Keflavík International Airport, 155 km distance from the volcano. Furthermore, several web cameras were mounted with a view of the volcano, and their images saved every five seconds. Time series of the plume-top altitude were constructed from the radar observations and images from a web camera located in the village Hvolsvöllur at 34 km distance from the volcano. This paper presents the independent radar and web camera time series and performs cross validation. The results show good agreement between the time series for the range when both series are available. However, while the radar altitudes are semi-discrete the data availability was much higher than for the web camera, indicating how essential weather radars are as eruption plume monitoring devices. The echo top radar series of the altitude of the volcanic plume are publicly available from the Pangaea Data Publisher (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.760690.

  4. Io Pele plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Voyager 1 took this narrow-angle camera image on 5 March 1979 from a distance of 450,000 kilometers. At this geometry, the camera looks straight down through a volcanic plume at one of Io's most active volcanos, Pele. The large heart-shaped feature is the region where Pele's plume falls to the surface. At the center of the 'heart' is the small dark fissure that is the source of the eruption. The Voyager Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  5. Io's Active Eruption Plumes: Insights from HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, K. L.; Spencer, J. R.

    2011-10-01

    Taking advantage of the available data, we recently [10] completed a detailed analysis of the spectral signature of Io's Pele-type Tvashtar plume as imaged by the HST Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (HST/WFPC2) via absorption during Jupiter transit and via reflected sunlight in 2007, as well as HST/WFPC2 observations of the 1997 eruption of Io's Prometheus-type Pillan plume (Fig. 1). These observations were obtained in the 0.24-0.42 μm range, where the plumes gas absorption and aerosol scattering properties are most conspicuous. By completing a detailed analysis of these observations, several key aspects of the reflectance and the absorption properties of the two plumes have been revealed. Additionally, by considering the analysis of the HST imaging data in light of previously published spectral analysis of Io's Prometheus and Pele-type plumes several trends in the plume properties have been determined, allowing us to define the relative significance of each plume on the rate of re-surfacing occurring on Io and providing the measurements needed to better assess the role the volcanoes play in the stability of Io's tenuous atmosphere.

  6. Integrated characterization of natural attenuation of a PCE plume after thermal remediation of the source zone - incl. dual isotope and microbial techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina

    dechlorination 1-1.5 km downstream the source area, where the plume descends into more reduced groundwater. The objective of the new (2014) study is to evaluate how the source remediation has impacted the plume and in particular the natural attenuation within the plume. A large monitoring campaign including...... down-gradient which co-inside with the reduction in redox conditions. The findings document a significant increase in cDCE degradation without accumulation of VC. This reduces the risk posed by the contaminant plume to the drinking water resource. This project is unique in the integrated...... area, resulted in the release of dissolved organic matter and some geochemical changes. This has had an effect on redox conditions and biodegradation by reductive dechlorination particularly in the near source area. However, also in the further downstream area of the plume redox and contaminant levels...

  7. Small rocket exhaust plume data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirivella, J. E.; Moynihan, P. I.; Simon, W.

    1972-01-01

    During recent cryodeposit tests with an 0.18-N thruster, the mass flux in the plume back field was measured for the first time for nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and a mixture of nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia at various inlet pressures. This mixture simulated gases that would be generated by a hydrazine plenum attitude propulsion system. The measurements furnish a base upon which to build a mathematical model of plume back flow that will be used in predicting the mass distribution in the boundary region of other plumes. The results are analyzed and compared with existing analytical predictions.

  8. Real-time nondestructive monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process by combined airborne acoustic emission and non-contact ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Basantes-Defaz, Alexandra-Del-Carmen; Abbasi, Zeynab; Yuhas, Donald; Ozevin, Didem; Indacochea, Ernesto

    2018-03-01

    Welding is a key manufacturing process for many industries and may introduce defects into the welded parts causing significant negative impacts, potentially ruining high-cost pieces. Therefore, a real-time process monitoring method is important to implement for avoiding producing a low-quality weld. Due to high surface temperature and possible contamination of surface by contact transducers, the welding process should be monitored via non-contact transducers. In this paper, airborne acoustic emission (AE) transducers tuned at 60 kHz and non-contact ultrasonic testing (UT) transducers tuned at 500 kHz are implemented for real time weld monitoring. AE is a passive nondestructive evaluation method that listens for the process noise, and provides information about the uniformity of manufacturing process. UT provides more quantitative information about weld defects. One of the most common weld defects as burn-through is investigated. The influences of weld defects on AE signatures (time-driven data) and UT signals (received signal energy, change in peak frequency) are presented. The level of burn-through damage is defined by using single method or combine AE/UT methods.

  9. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects....

  10. Mobile Monitoring System for Nuclear Contamination Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broide, A.; Sheinfeld, M.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, it is essential to have extensive knowledge concerning the nature of the radioactive plume expansion, for further analysis. For this purpose a mobile monitoring system may provide important data about the plume characteristics. An advanced Mobile Monitoring System is under development at the Nuclear Research Center-Negev. The system is composed of a network of mobile stations, typically installed onboard vehicles, which transmit radiation measurements along with position information to a central station. The mobile network's communications infrastructure is based on Motorola Mobile Logic Unit devices, which are state-of-the-art reliable modems with an integrated Global Positioning System module. The radiation measurements received by the central station are transferred to a risk assessment program, which evaluates the expected hazards to the populated areas located in the estimated plume's expansion direction

  11. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  12. Comparative performance of two air samplers for monitoring airborne fungal propagules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.F. Távora

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have attempted to evaluate the importance of airborne fungi in the development of invasive fungal infection, especially for immunocompromised hosts. Several kinds of instruments are available to quantitate fungal propagule levels in air. We compared the performance of the most frequently used air sampler, the Andersen sampler with six stages, with a portable one, the Reuter centrifugal sampler (RCS. A total of 84 samples were analyzed, 42 with each sampler. Twenty-eight different fungal genera were identified in samples analyzed with the Andersen instrument. In samples obtained with the RCS only seven different fungal genera were identified. The three most frequently isolated genera in samples analyzed with both devices were Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladophialophora. In areas supplied with a high efficiency particulate air filter, fungal spore levels were usually lower when compared to areas without these filters. There was a significant correlation between total fungal propagule measurements taken with both devices on each sampling occasion (Pearson coefficient = 0.50. However, the Andersen device recovered a broader spectrum of fungi. We conclude that the RCS can be used for quantitative estimates of airborne microbiological concentrations. For qualitative studies, however, this device cannot be recommended.

  13. In-Situ Detection of SO2 Plumes in Costa Rica from Turrialba Volcano using Balloon-borne Sondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, J. A.; Selkirk, H. B.; Morris, G. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Corrales, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Turrialba Volcano near San Jose, Costa Rica regularly emits plumes containing SO2. These plumes have been detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and evidence of these plumes has also appeared in the in-situ Ticosonde project record: a continuous balloon-borne ozonesonde launch experiment conducted in a weekly basis in Costa Rica. In the case of the latter, the interference reaction of SO2 in the cathode cell of the standard electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde results in apparent "notches" in the ozone profile at the altitudes of the plume. In this paper, we present an overview of the Ticosonde observations and correlate the appearance of the notches with air mass back trajectory calculations that link the profiles features to emissions from the volcano. In addition, during February 2012, we deployed the dual O3/SO2 sonde from the University of Costa Rica and detected a plume of SO2 linked by back trajectory calcluations to Turrialba as well as an urban plume resulting from diesel exhaust in the boundary layer. The integrated column SO2 from the sonde profile data agree well with the OMI overpass data for this event. Data from a tethersonde measurement two days prior to the dual sonde reveal concentrations at the ppm level at the volcanic source.

  14. Analyses of thermal plume of Cernavoda nuclear power plant by satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Nicolae, D. N.; Talianu, C. L.; Ciobanu, M.; Ciuciu, J. G.

    2005-10-01

    The synergistic use of multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensing data offers the possibility of monitoring of environment quality in the vicinity of nuclear power plants (NPP). Advanced digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and ASTER data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air for NPP Cernavoda , Romania . Cernavoda Unit 1 power plant, using CANDU technology, having 706.5 MW power, is successfully in operation since 1996. Cernavoda Unit 2 which is currently under construction will be operational in 2007. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactor cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube river. Water temperature distributions captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. Additional information regarding flooding events and earthquake risks is considered . During the winter, the thermal plume is localized to an area within a few km of the power plant, and the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas is about 1.5 oC. During the summer and fall, there is a larger thermal plume extending 5-6 km far along Danube Black Sea Canal, and the temperature change is about 1.0 oC. Variation of surface water temperature in the thermal plume is analyzed. The strong seasonal difference in the thermal plume is related to vertical mixing of the water column in winter and to stratification in summer. Hydrodynamic simulation leads to better understanding of the mechanisms by which waste heat from NPP Cernavoda is dissipated in the environment.

  15. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air monitoring. 835.403 Section 835.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.403 Air monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to...

  16. Galileo observations of volcanic plumes on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.E.; McMillan, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Io's volcanic plumes erupt in a dazzling variety of sizes, shapes, colors and opacities. In general, the plumes fall into two classes, representing distinct source gas temperatures. Most of the Galileo imaging observations were of the smaller, more numerous Prometheus-type plumes that are produced when hot flows of silicate lava impinge on volatile surface ices of SO2. Few detections were made of the giant, Pele-type plumes that vent high temperature, sulfur-rich gases from the interior of Io; this was partly because of the insensitivity of Galileo's camera to ultraviolet wavelengths. Both gas and dust spout from plumes of each class. Favorably located gas plumes were detected during eclipse, when Io was in Jupiter's shadow. Dense dust columns were imaged in daylight above several Prometheus-type eruptions, reaching heights typically less than 100 km. Comparisons between eclipse observations, sunlit images, and the record of surface changes show that these optically thick dust columns are much smaller in stature than the corresponding gas plumes but are adequate to produce the observed surface deposits. Mie scattering calculations suggest that these conspicuous dust plumes are made up of coarse grained “ash” particles with radii on the order of 100 nm, and total masses on the order of 106 kg per plume. Long exposure images of Thor in sunlight show a faint outer envelope apparently populated by particles small enough to be carried along with the gas flow, perhaps formed by condensation of sulfurous “snowflakes” as suggested by the plasma instrumentation aboard Galileo as it flew through Thor's plume [Frank, L.A., Paterson, W.R., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 107, doi:10.1029/2002JA009240. 31-1]. If so, the total mass of these fine, nearly invisible particles may be comparable to the mass of the gas, and could account for much of Io's rapid resurfacing.

  17. Rise of a cold plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Michio

    1977-06-01

    The rise of smoke from the stacks of two research reactors in normal operation was measured by photogrametric method. The temperature of effluent gas is less than 20 0 C higher than that of the ambient air (heat emission of the order 10 4 cal s -1 ), and the efflux velocity divided by the wind speed is between 0.5 and 2.8 in all 16 smoke runs. The field data obtained within downwind distance of 150m are compared with those by plume rise formulas presently available. Considering the shape of bending-over plume, the Briggs' formula for 'jet' gives a reasonable explanation of the observed plume rise. (auth.)

  18. PLUME-MoM 1.0: a new 1-D model of volcanic plumes based on the method of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Neri, A.; Barsotti, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper a new mathematical model for volcanic plumes, named PlumeMoM, is presented. The model describes the steady-state 1-D dynamics of the plume in a 3-D coordinate system, accounting for continuous variability in particle distribution of the pyroclastic mixture ejected at the vent. Volcanic plumes are composed of pyroclastic particles of many different sizes ranging from a few microns up to several centimeters and more. Proper description of such a multiparticle nature is crucial when quantifying changes in grain-size distribution along the plume and, therefore, for better characterization of source conditions of ash dispersal models. The new model is based on the method of moments, which allows description of the pyroclastic mixture dynamics not only in the spatial domain but also in the space of properties of the continuous size-distribution of the particles. This is achieved by formulation of fundamental transport equations for the multiparticle mixture with respect to the different moments of the grain-size distribution. Different formulations, in terms of the distribution of the particle number, as well as of the mass distribution expressed in terms of the Krumbein log scale, are also derived. Comparison between the new moments-based formulation and the classical approach, based on the discretization of the mixture in N discrete phases, shows that the new model allows the same results to be obtained with a significantly lower computational cost (particularly when a large number of discrete phases is adopted). Application of the new model, coupled with uncertainty quantification and global sensitivity analyses, enables investigation of the response of four key output variables (mean and standard deviation (SD) of the grain-size distribution at the top of the plume, plume height and amount of mass lost by the plume during the ascent) to changes in the main input parameters (mean and SD) characterizing the pyroclastic mixture at the base of the plume

  19. Airborne Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Jakobsen, Henrik Byrial; Paulsen, E.

    1999-01-01

    The air around intact feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler and a dynamic headspace technique. No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted f...... for airborne Compositae dermatitis. Potential allergens were found among the emitted monoterpenes and their importance in airborne Compositae dermatitis is discussed....

  20. Well Completion Report for the Fiscal Year 1999 Drilling Within the Chromium Plume West of the 100-D/DR Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, B. H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the fiscal year (FY) 1999 field activities associated with installing 12 groundwater monitoring wells in the vicinity of the 100-D Area chromium plume west of the 100-D/DR Reactors (100-HR-3 Operable Unit [OU]). The wells were installed to further investigate the extent of the hexavalent chromium hot spot west of the 100-D/DR Reactors and to support future remedial action decisions associated with the 100-HR-3 OU. These wells were designed for multi-purpose use (i.e., monitoring, extraction, and injection). In addition, one of the wells was installed to support the initial deployment of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology to remediate the chromium plume

  1. Air quality in the Kootenays: fine particulate (PM10) airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels, 1993-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    Air quality monitoring data collected in the Kootenays over a seven year period from 1993 to 1999 are summarized in an effort to inform the public about air quality in the Kootenays and to assist them in understanding air quality monitoring results. Data includes hourly (TEOM) and weekly (NAPS) data for particulate matter (PM 1 0) airborne metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc) and sulphur dioxide. Analysis of monitoring data showed that particulate matter levels remained constant in most communities, with Johnson Lake and Slocan reporting the lowest levels, while Golden had the highest values during this period. Trail-Butler Park showed a clear declining trend in PM 1 0. Airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels have decreased in the Kootenays during the seven year period, with only occasional exceedances of both Level A and B air quality objectives in some communities. The report includes a detailed description of the sampling methodology and the analyzed results for PM 1 0, airborne metals and sulphur dioxide for 10 communities in the region. 6 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs., 1 map

  2. Monitoring and Method development of Hg in Istanbul Airborne Particulates by Solid Sampling Continuum Source-High Resolution Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectromerty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soydemir E.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a method has been developed and monitoring for the determination of mercury in PM2.5 airborne particulates by solid sampling high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The PM2.5 airborne particulates were collected on quartz filters using high volume samplers (500 L/min in Istanbul (Turkey for 96 hours every month in one year. At first, experimental conditions as well as the validation tests were optimized using collected filter. For this purpose, the effects of atomization temperature, amount of sample intoduced in to the furnace, addition of acids and/or KMnO4 on the sample, covering of graphite tube and platform or using of Ag nanoparticulates, Au nanoparticulates, and Pd solutions on the accuracy and precision were investigated. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the mercury concentrations were determined in the collected filter. The filters with PM2.5 airborne particulates were dried, divided into small fine particles and then Hg concentrations were determined directly. In order to eliminate any error due to the sensitivity difference between aqueous standards and solid samples, the quantification was performed using solid calibrants. The limit of detection, based on three times the standard deviations for ten atomizations of an unused filter, was 30 ng/g. The Hg content was dependent on the sampling site, season etc, ranging from

  3. A numerical study of the Magellan Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Elbio D.; Matano, Ricardo P.

    2012-05-01

    In this modeling study we investigate the dynamical mechanisms controlling the spreading of the Magellan Plume, which is a low-salinity tongue that extends along the Patagonian Shelf. Our results indicate that the overall characteristics of the plume (width, depth, spreading rate, etc.) are primarily influenced by tidal forcing, which manifests through tidal mixing and tidal residual currents. Tidal forcing produces a homogenization of the plume's waters and an offshore displacement of its salinity front. The interaction between tidal and wind-forcing reinforces the downstream and upstream buoyancy transports of the plume. The influence of the Malvinas Current on the Magellan Plume is more dominant north of 50°S, where it increases the along-shelf velocities and generates intrusions of saltier waters from the outer shelf, thus causing a reduction of the downstream buoyancy transport. Our experiments also indicate that the northern limit of the Magellan Plume is set by a high salinity discharge from the San Matias Gulf. Sensitivity experiments show that increments of the wind stress cause a decrease of the downstream buoyancy transport and an increase of the upstream buoyancy transport. Variations of the magnitude of the discharge produce substantial modifications in the downstream penetration of the plume and buoyancy transport. The Magellan discharge generates a northeastward current in the middle shelf, a recirculation gyre south of the inlet and a region of weak currents father north.

  4. ORION: a computer code for evaluating environmental concentrations and dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Nomura, T.; Iwai, M.

    1983-05-01

    The computer code ORION has been developed to evaluate the environmental concentrations and the dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from air-borne radionuclides released from multiple nuclear installations. The modified Gaussian plume model is applied to calculate the dispersion of the radionuclide. Gravitational settling, dry deposition, precipitation scavenging and radioactive decay are considered to be the causes of depletion and deposition on the ground or on vegetation. ORION is written in the FORTRAN IV language and can be run on IBM 360, 370, 303X, 43XX and FACOM M-series computers. 8 references, 6 tables

  5. The evolution of photochemical smog in a power plant plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Menachem; Valente, Ralph J.; Tanner, Roger L.; Gillani, Noor V.; Imhoff, Robert E.; Mueller, Stephen F.; Olszyna, Kenneth J.; Meagher, James F. Present address: Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303, USA.)

    The evolution of photochemical smog in a plant plume was investigated with the aid of an instrumented helicopter. Air samples were taken in the plume of the Cumberland Power Plant, located in central Tennessee, during the afternoon of 16 July 1995 as part of the Southern Oxidants Study - Nashville Middle Tennessee Ozone Study. Twelve cross-wind air sampling traverses were made at six distance groups from 35 to 116 km from the source. During the sampling period the winds were from the west-northwest and the plume drifted towards the city of Nashville TN. Ten of the traverses were made upwind of the city, where the power plant plume was isolated, and two traverses downwind of the city when the plumes were possibly mixed. The results revealed that even six hours after the release, excess ozone production was limited to the edges of the plume. Only when the plume was sufficiently dispersed, but still upwind of Nashville, was excess ozone (up to 109 ppbv, 50-60 ppbv above background levels) produced in the center of the plume. The concentrations image of the plume and a Lagrangian particle model suggests that portions of the power plant plume mixed with the urban plume. The mixed urban power plant plume began to regenerate O 3 that peaked at 120 ppbv at a short distance (15-25 km) downwind of Nashville. Ozone productivity (the ratio of excess O 3 to NO y and NO z) in the isolated plume was significantly lower compared with that found in the city plume. The production of nitrate, a chain termination product, was significantly higher in the power plant plume compared to the mixed plume, indicating shorter chain length of the photochemical smog chain reaction mechanism.

  6. The evolution of photochemical smog in a power plant plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luria, M.; The Hebrew University, Jerusalem; Valente, R.J.; Tanner, R.L.; Imhoff, R.E.; Mueller, S.F.; Olszyna, K.J.; Meagher, J.F.; Gillani, N.V.; University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of photochemical smog in a plant plume was investigated with the aid of an instrumented helicopter. Air samples were taken in the plume of the Cumberland Power Plant, located in central Tennessee, during the afternoon of 16 July 1995 as part of the Southern Oxidants Study - Nashville Middle Tennessee Ozone Study. Twelve cross-wind air sampling traverses were made at six distance groups from 35 to 116 km from the source. During the sampling period the winds were from the west-northwest and the plume drifted towards the city of Nashville TN. Ten of the traverses were made upwind of the city, where the power plant plume was isolated, and two traverses downwind of the city when the plumes were possibly mixed. The results revealed that even six hours after the release, excess ozone production was limited to the edges of the plume. Only when the plume was sufficiently dispersed, but still upwind of Nashville, was excess ozone (up to 109 ppbv, 50-60 ppbv above background levels) produced in the center of the plume. The concentrations image of the plume and a Lagrangian particle model suggests that portions of the power plant plume mixed with the urban plume. The mixed urban power plant plume began to regenerate O 3 that peaked at 120 ppbv at a short distance (15-25 km) downwind of Nashville. Ozone productivity (the ratio of excess O 3 to NO y and NO z ) in the isolated plume was significantly lower compared with that found in the city plume. The production of nitrate, a chain termination product, was significantly higher in the power plant plume compared to the mixed plume, indicating shorter chain length of the photochemical smog chain reaction mechanism. (author)

  7. Better Fire Emissions Estimates for Tricky Species Illustrated with a Simple Empirical Burn-to-Sample Plume Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Andreae, M. O.; Lareau, N.

    2017-12-01

    Methodologies for estimating emission factors (EFs) and broader emission relationship (ERs) (for e.g., O3 production or aerosol absorption) have been difficult to make accurate and convincing; this is largely due to non-fire effects on both CO2 and also fire-emitted trace species. We present a new view of these multiple effects as they affect downwind tracer samples observed by aircraft in NASA's ARCTAS and SEAC4RS airborne missions. This view leads to our method for estimates of ERs and EFs that allow spatially detailed views focusing on individual samples, a Mixed Effects Emission Ratio Technique (MERET). We concentrate on presenting a generalized viewpoint: a simple idealized model of a fire plume entraining air from near-flames upward and then outward to a sampling point, a view base on observations of typical situations. Actual evolution of a plume can depend intricately on the fully history of entrainment, entraining concentration levels of CO2 and tracer species, and mixing. Observations suggest that our simple plume model with just two (analyzed) values for entrained CO2 and one or potentially two values for environmental concentrations for each tracer can serve surprisingly well for mixed-effects regression estimates. Such details appears imperative for long-lived gases like CH4, CO, and N2O. In particular, it is difficult to distinguish fire-sourced emissions from air entrained near the flames, entrained in a way proportional to fire intensity. These entraining concentrations may vary significantly from those later in plume evolution. In addition, such detail also highlights behavior of emissions that react on the path to sampling, e.g. fire-sourced or entrained urban NOx. Some caveats regarding poor sampling situations, and some warning signs, based on this empirical plume description and on MERET analyses, are demonstrated. Some information is available when multiple tracers are analyzed. MERET estimates for ERs of short and these long-lived species are

  8. Airborne Video Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blask, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...

  9. Merging airborne and carborne radiometric data for surveying the Deir Az-Zor area, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.M.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    1997-01-01

    To complete the radiometric map of Syria, and to estimate the natural background radiation levels for environmental monitoring, a carborne survey was undertaken over the Deir Az-Zor area. This area was not covered by a previous airborne survey, except for peripheral regions in the south and west. To complete the radiometric map, results of the carborne and airborne surveys had to be merged. This paper presents the merging procedure which was used after normalizing the two data sets to match each other. No anomalies suitable for radioelement exploration were found. However, the overall radiometric maps resulting from the present work were consistent with the maps of the areas covered by the airborne survey. (author)

  10. Forage: a sensitive indicator of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.M.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of using Ge(Li) γ-ray spectroscopy to measure radioactivity concentration of forage in the vicinity of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Houston County, AL., over a 31/2 yr period. The report period includes 2 yr of pre-operational and 11/2 yr of operational sampling. Although the objective of forage sampling was the measurement of manmade airborne fallout radioactivity, several natural radioisotopes were also found to be present. A summary of natural radioactivity data for all samples measured during the period from August 1975 to December 1978 is given. Approximately 10 days after each of four Chinese atmospheric nuclear tests conducted during the sampling period fresh fission product fallout was measured on the forage. The information from these nuclear tests shows forage sampling to be a convenient and sensitive monitoring tool for airborne fallout radioactivity. (author)

  11. Plume structure in high-Rayleigh-number convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2005-10-01

    Near-wall structures in turbulent natural convection at Rayleigh numbers of 10^{10} to 10^{11} at A Schmidt number of 602 are visualized by a new method of driving the convection across a fine membrane using concentration differences of sodium chloride. The visualizations show the near-wall flow to consist of sheet plumes. A wide variety of large-scale flow cells, scaling with the cross-section dimension, are observed. Multiple large-scale flow cells are seen at aspect ratio (AR)= 0.65, while only a single circulation cell is detected at AR= 0.435. The cells (or the mean wind) are driven by plumes coming together to form columns of rising lighter fluid. The wind in turn aligns the sheet plumes along the direction of shear. the mean wind direction is seen to change with time. The near-wall dynamics show plumes initiated at points, which elongate to form sheets and then merge. Increase in rayleigh number results in a larger number of closely and regularly spaced plumes. The plume spacings show a common log normal probability distribution function, independent of the rayleigh number and the aspect ratio. We propose that the near-wall structure is made of laminar natural-convection boundary layers, which become unstable to give rise to sheet plumes, and show that the predictions of a model constructed on this hypothesis match the experiments. Based on these findings, we conclude that in the presence of a mean wind, the local near-wall boundary layers associated with each sheet plume in high-rayleigh-number turbulent natural convection are likely to be laminar mixed convection type.

  12. Characterizing exposures to airborne metals and nanoparticle emissions in a refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela L; Hintz, Patrick; Habjan, Matt

    2010-07-01

    An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. Two areas within the refinery were characterized: a furnace room and an electro-refining area. In line with standard survey practices, both personal and area air filter samples were collected on 37-mm filters and analyzed for metals by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition to the standard sampling, measurements were conducted using other tools, designed to provide enhanced characterization of the workplace aerosols. The number concentration and number-weighted particle size distribution of airborne particles were measured with a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). Custom-designed software was used to correlate particle concentration data with spatial location data to generate contour maps of particle number concentrations in the work areas. Short-term samples were collected in areas of localized high concentrations and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine particle morphology and elemental chemistry. Analysis of filter samples indicated that all of the workers were exposed to levels of silver above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 0.01 mg m(-3) even though the localized ventilation was functioning. Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. Spatial mapping revealed localized elevated particle concentrations near the furnaces and plumes of particles rising into the stairwells and traveling to the upper work areas. Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. Results of

  13. Comparing plume characteristics inferred from cross-borehole geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Eline Bojsen; Binley, Andrew; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2012-01-01

    significantly influences results of the moment analysis. We compare results of three cross-borehole geophysical approaches for imaging tracer migration arising from a point injection of water in the unsaturated zone: three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), two-dimensional ground......-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography and quasi-three-dimensional GPR tomography. In the studied field experiment, a tracer was injected for a period of 5 d and was monitored both during injection and for 5 d during the subsequent redistribution. The three methods show similar characteristics of the plume development...

  14. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2004-04-12

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2003 (October 2002 through September 2003) on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium, nitrate, and some other contaminants continued to exceed drinking water standards in groundwater discharging to the river in some locations. However, contaminant concentrations in river water remained low and were far below standards. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. Uranium exceeds standards in the 300 Area in the south part of the Hanford Site. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act'' is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon

  15. DSMC Simulations of Io's Pele Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoniel, William; Goldstein, D.; Varghese, P.; Trafton, L.

    2012-10-01

    Io’s Pele plume rises over 300km in altitude and leaves a deposition ring 1200km across on the surface of the moon. Material emerges from an irregularly-shaped vent, and this geometry gives rise to complex 3D flow features. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is used to model the gas flow in the rarefied plume, demonstrating how the geometry of the source region is responsible for the asymmetric structure of the deposition ring and illustrating the importance of very small-scale vent geometry in explaining large observed features of interest. Simulations of small particles in the plume and comparisons to the black “butterfly wings” seen at Pele are used to constrain particle sizes and entrainment mechanisms. Preliminary results for the effects of plasma energy and momentum transfer to the plume will also be presented.

  16. Applying UV cameras for SO2 detection to distant or optically thick volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Werner, Cynthia; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff; Lübcke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) camera systems represent an exciting new technology for measuring two dimensional sulfur dioxide (SO2) distributions in volcanic plumes. The high frame rate of the cameras allows the retrieval of SO2 emission rates at time scales of 1 Hz or higher, thus allowing the investigation of high-frequency signals and making integrated and comparative studies with other high-data-rate volcano monitoring techniques possible. One drawback of the technique, however, is the limited spectral information recorded by the imaging systems. Here, a framework for simulating the sensitivity of UV cameras to various SO2 distributions is introduced. Both the wavelength-dependent transmittance of the optical imaging system and the radiative transfer in the atmosphere are modeled. The framework is then applied to study the behavior of different optical setups and used to simulate the response of these instruments to volcanic plumes containing varying SO2 and aerosol abundances located at various distances from the sensor. Results show that UV radiative transfer in and around distant and/or optically thick plumes typically leads to a lower sensitivity to SO2 than expected when assuming a standard Beer–Lambert absorption model. Furthermore, camera response is often non-linear in SO2 and dependent on distance to the plume and plume aerosol optical thickness and single scatter albedo. The model results are compared with camera measurements made at Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii) and a method for integrating moderate resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy data with UV imagery to retrieve improved SO2 column densities is discussed.

  17. Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happel, A.M.; Rice, D.; Beckenbach, E.; Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R.; Dooher, B.

    1996-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites

  18. Biodiversity and Concentration of Airborne Fungi of Suburban Weekly Market Associated Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K. Pathak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is supposed that the vegetable markets of tropical countries are the significant source of airborne fungal spores, which are generated during transportation, handling and putrefaction. The aim of this work was to monitor the prevalence of the airborne cultivable fungi in the air of weekly market associated environments to evaluate whether the vegetable trading zone of market is a source of airborne cultivable fungal spores of weekly market environment or not. Airborne cultivable fungal spore levels were monitored by using Andersen two-stage viable (microbial particle sampler. The Spearman correlation coefficients and stepwise linear regression analysis test was used to analyze the influence of meteorological factors on spore concentration and paired Student’s t-test was used to compare the bioload of total viable cultivable fungi of vegetable trading area and general item trading area of weekly market extramural environment, the percentage frequency and the percentage contribution of the individual genus was also reported. In both areas, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Penicillium, were the most abundant fungal types observed. The spp. of Candida was reported only at the vegetable trading area. The bioload of fungal spore presented maximum values during the Monsoon and lowest in the season of summer. There is no significant difference in quantity between the mean values of the bioload of total viable cultivable fungi of vegetable trading area and general item trading area of weekly market extramural environment were observed. For present environment, activities of animals and humans were supposed to be the key factor governing aerosolization of microorganism.

  19. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Northwest Plume interceptor system evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laase, A.D.; Clausen, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) recently installed an interceptor system consisting of four wells, evenly divided between two well fields, to contain the Northwest Plume. As stated in the Northwest Plume Record of Decision (ROD), groundwater will be pumped at a rate to reduce further contamination and initiate control of the northwest contaminant plume. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the optimum (minimal) well field pumping rates required for plume hotspot containment. Plume hotspot, as defined in the Northwest Plume ROD and throughout this report, is that portion of the plume with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations greater than 1,000 microg/L. An existing 3-dimensional groundwater model was modified and used to perform capture zone analyses of the north and south interceptor system well fields. Model results suggest that the plume hotspot is not contained at the system design pumping rate of 100 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well field. Rather, the modeling determined that north and south well field pumping rates of 400 and 150 gal/min, respectively, are necessary for plume hotspot containment. The difference between the design and optimal pumping rates required for containment can be attributed to the discovery of a highly transmissive zone in the vicinity of the two well fields

  20. Follow the plume: the habitability of Enceladus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Porco, Carolyn; Tsou, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The astrobiological exploration of other worlds in our Solar System is moving from initial exploration to more focused astrobiology missions. In this context, we present the case that the plume of Enceladus currently represents the best astrobiology target in the Solar System. Analysis of the plume by the Cassini mission indicates that the steady plume derives from a subsurface liquid water reservoir that contains organic carbon, biologically available nitrogen, redox energy sources, and inorganic salts. Furthermore, samples from the plume jetting out into space are accessible to a low-cost flyby mission. No other world has such well-studied indications of habitable conditions. Thus, the science goals that would motivate an Enceladus mission are more advanced than for any other Solar System body. The goals of such a mission must go beyond further geophysical characterization, extending to the search for biomolecular evidence of life in the organic-rich plume. This will require improved in situ investigations and a sample return.

  1. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter in Bandung and Lembang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Achmad Hidayat; Dadang Supriatna

    2004-01-01

    ELEMENTAL QUANTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER IN BANDUNG AND LEMBANG REGION: The contaminated airborne particulates by toxic gases and elements have a potential affect to the human health. Some toxic elements related to air pollution have carcinogenic affect. The quantification of those elements is important to monitor a level of pollutant contained in the airborne particulate. The aim of this work is to analyze the air particulate sample using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other related technique. Two sampling points of Bandung and Lembang that represent and urban and rural area respectively have been chosen to collect the air particulate sample. The samplings were carried out using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler for 24 hours, and two cellulose filters of 8 μm and 0.45 μm pore size were used. Trace elements in the sample collected were determined using NAA based on a comparative method. Elemental distribution on PM 2.5 and PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate was analyzed, the enrichment factor was calculated using Al as reference elements, and the black carbons contents were determined using FEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer analyzed. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. The importance of variations in the deposition velocity assumed for the assessment of airborne radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Hoffman, F.O.; Shaeffer, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    In environmental radiological assessments, the depletion of airborne plumes by dry deposition processes and the subsequent contamination of ground and vegetation have been estimated through the use of a parameter termed the 'deposition velocity'. The sensitivity of environmental assessment models to changes in values of deposition velocity is here examined so that the effect of potential variations of deposition velocity on calculations of radiation dose can be determined. The results show that until more data are available great care must be exercised when applying theoretical ideas and scientific judgement in the selection of a value of the deposition velocity to be used in calculating the dose to man as a result of deposition. (U.K.)

  4. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-03-01

    The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors. Some of them can cause allergy and severe diseases in humans, other animals and plants, with the subsequent economic impact. Despite the harsh conditions, they can be found from land and sea surfaces to beyond the troposphere and have been proposed to play a role also in weather conditions and climate change by acting as nucleation particles and inducing water vapour condensation. In regards to their global distribution, marine environments act mostly as a source for bacteria while continents additionally provide fungal and pollen elements. Within terrestrial environments, their abundances and diversity seem to be influenced by the land-use type (rural, urban, coastal) and their particularities. Temporal variability has been observed for all these organisms, mostly triggered by global changes in temperature, relative humidity, et cetera. Local fluctuations in meteorological factors may also result in pronounced changes in the airbiota. Although biological particles can be transported several hundreds of meters from the original source, and even intercontinentally, the time and final distance travelled are strongly influenced by factors such as wind speed and direction. [Int Microbiol 2016; 19(1):1-1 3]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  5. Birth, life, and death of a solar coronal plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Firenze, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Poletto, Giannina [INAF-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Sterling, Alphonse C., E-mail: stpucci@arcetri.astro.it [Space Science Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We analyze a solar polar-coronal-hole (CH) plume over its entire ≈40 hr lifetime, using high-resolution Solar Dynamic Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data. We examine (1) the plume's relationship to a bright point (BP) that persists at its base, (2) plume outflows and their possible contribution to the solar wind mass supply, and (3) the physical properties of the plume. We find that the plume started ≈2 hr after the BP first appeared and became undetectable ≈1 hr after the BP disappeared. We detected radially moving radiance variations from both the plume and from interplume regions, corresponding to apparent outflow speeds ranging over ≈(30-300) km s{sup –1} with outflow velocities being higher in the 'cooler' AIA 171 Å channel than in the 'hotter' 193 Å and 211 Å channels, which is inconsistent with wave motions; therefore, we conclude that the observed radiance variations represent material outflows. If they persist into the heliosphere and plumes cover ≈10% of a typical CH area, these flows could account for ≈50% of the solar wind mass. From a differential emission measure analysis of the AIA images, we find that the average electron temperature of the plume remained approximately constant over its lifetime, at T {sub e} ≈ 8.5 × 10{sup 5} K. Its density, however, decreased with the age of the plume, being about a factor of three lower when the plume faded compared to when it was born. We conclude that the plume died due to a density reduction rather than to a temperature decrease.

  6. Stormwater Runoff Plumes in Southern California Detected with Satellite SAR and MODIS Imagery - Areas of Increased Contamination Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Gierach, M.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal pollution poses both a major health and environmental hazard, not only for beachgoers and coastal communities, but for marine organisms as well. Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB). The SCB is the final destination of four major urban watersheds and associated rivers, Ballona Creek, the Los Angeles River, the San Gabriel River, and the Santa Ana River, which act as channels for runoff and pollution during and after episodic rainstorms. Previous studies of SCB water quality have made use of both fine resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery and wide-swath medium resolution optical "ocean color" imagery from SeaWiFS and MODIS. In this study, we expand on previous SAR efforts, compiling a more extensive collection of multi-sensor SAR data, spanning from 1992 to 2014, analyzing the surface slick component of stormwater plumes. We demonstrate the use of SAR data in early detection of coastal stormwater plumes, relating plume extent to cumulative river discharge, and shoreline fecal bacteria loads. Intensity maps of the primary extent and direction of plumes were created, identifying coastal areas that may be subject to the greatest risk of environmental contamination. Additionally, we illustrate the differences in the detection of SAR surface plumes with the sediment-related discharge plumes derived from MODIS ocean color imagery. Finally, we provide a concept for satellite monitoring of stormwater plumes, combining both optical and radar sensors, to be used to guide the collection of in situ water quality data and enhance the assessment of related beach closures.

  7. Influence of magma fragmentation on the plume dynamics of Vulcanian explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheu, B.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last 40 years analytical, numerical and experimental studies have provided insights into many aspects of volcanic eruptions, from the fragmentation behaviour of magma to the development of volcanic plumes, subsequent ash dispersal and pyroclastic density currents. Initially research on volcanic plumes was mainly focussed on Plinian-type eruptions with quasi-steady vent conditions. However, several studies have recently investigated the plume dynamics from short-lived, Vulcanian explosions highlighting the importance of conditions at the vent for the evolution of the plume and its transition from buoyant rise to gravitational collapse (Clarke et al. 2002, Odgen et al. 2008). Previous studies have revealed the complex nature of brittle magma fragmentation in discrete fracturing events, with the time interval between two fracturing events depending on pressure evolution over the fragmentation surface (Fowler et al. 2010, McGuinness et al. 2012). In this study we investigate the influence of magma fragmentation on the dynamics of the evolving plume. We conduct rapid decompression experiments (most closely mimicking Vulcanian-type explosions) using pumice samples from the February 2010 eruption period of Soufriere Hills volcano in Montserrat, West Indies. We compare experiments of solid cylindrical samples undergoing brittle fragmentation to experiments conducted with loose granular particles of the same material (previously fragmented). All experiments are conducted at room temperature and monitored with a series of pressure sensors along the experimental conduit. A transparent setup allows us to capture the entire process from pumice fragmentation, expansion in the conduit to the ejection into the atmosphere (low pressure tank) with a high-speed video camera. In both the fragmentation and granular case, at the initial phase of the experiment the vent pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure resulting in supersonic ejection of the gas phase and the formation of a

  8. Scheduling Mission-Critical Flows in Congested and Contested Airborne Network Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    networks for atmospheric, wildlife, and ecological monitoring. They equip airborne nodes with off-the-shelf 802.15.4-compliant Zigbee radios. They...Theoretical Criminology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 239–254, 2011. [51] R. L. Finn and D. Wright, “Unmanned aircraft systems: Surveillance, ethics and privacy in

  9. A Comparative Study of the Monitoring of a Self Aligning Spherical Journal using Surface Vibration, Airborne Sound and Acoustic Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raharjo, P; Tesfa, B; Gu, F; Ball, A D

    2012-01-01

    A Self aligning spherical journal bearing is a plain bearing which has spherical surface contact that can be applied in high power industrial machinery. This type of bearing can accommodate a misalignment problem. The journal bearing faults degrade machine performance, decrease life time service and cause unexpected failure which are dangerous for safety issues. Non-intrusive measurements such as surface vibration (SV), airborne sound (AS) and acoustic emission (AE) measurement are appropriate monitoring methods for early stage journal bearing fault in low, medium and high frequency. This paper focuses on the performance comparison using SV, AS and AE measurements in monitoring a self aligning spherical journal bearing for normal and faulty (scratch) conditions. It examines the signals in the time domain and frequency domain and identifies the frequency ranges for each measurement in which significant changes are observed. The results of SV, AS and AE experiments indicate that the spectrum can be used to detect the differences between normal and faulty bearing. The statistic parameter shows that RMS value and peak value for faulty bearing is higher than normal bearing.

  10. Effect of micro-scale wind on the measurement of airborne pollen concentrations using volumetric methods on a building rooftop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kenji; Kawashima, Shigeto; Fujita, Toshio; Nakamura, Kimihito; Clot, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    Evaluating airborne pollen concentrations is important for the understanding of the spatiotemporal dispersion of pollen grains. Using two identical pollen monitors in parallel, we performed two experiments in order to study the influences of a) the physical characteristics (orientation) of the air inlet and b) the presence of obstacles in proximity to the monitors on airborne pollen concentration data. The first experiment consisted of an evaluation of airborne pollen concentrations using two different types of orifices; 1) a vertically oriented inlet and 2) a wind vane intake, both attached to the same type of automatic pollen sampler. The second experiment investigated the relationship between vertical wind speed and horizontal wind direction around an obstacle with the goal of studying the impact of micro-scale wind on pollen sampling efficiency. The results of the two experiments suggest that the wind path near an obstacle might be redirected in a vertical direction before or after the wind flows over the obstacle, which causes measurement errors of airborne pollen concentrations that are proportional to the vertical wind speed, especially when a vertically oriented inlet is used.

  11. Smoke plumes: Emissions and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan O' Neill; Shawn Urbanski; Scott Goodrick; Sim Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Smoke can manifest itself as a towering plume rising against the clear blue sky-or as a vast swath of thick haze, with fingers that settle into valleys overnight. It comes in many forms and colors, from fluffy and white to thick and black. Smoke plumes can rise high into the atmosphere and travel great distances across oceans and continents. Or smoke can remain close...

  12. Plume Splitting in a Two-layer Stratified Ambient Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongxing; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    A line-source plume descending into a two-layer stratified ambient fluid in a finite sized tank is studied experimentally. Although the total volume of ambient fluid is fixed, lower- and upper-layer fluids are respectively removed and added at a constant rate mimicking marine outfall through diffusers and natural and hybrid ventilated buildings. The influence of the plume on the ambient depends on the value of λ, defined as the ratio of the plume buoyancy to the buoyancy loss of the plume as it crosses the ambient interface. Similar to classical filling-box experiments, the plume can always reach the bottom of the tank if λ > 1 . By contrast, if λ < 1 , an intermediate layer eventually forms as a result of plume splitting. Eventually all of the plume fluid spreads within the intermediate layer. The starting time, tv, and the ending time, tt, of the transition process measured from experiments correlate with the value of λ. A three-layer ambient fluid is observed after transition, and the mean value of the measured densities of the intermediate layer fluid is well predicted using plume theory. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was provided by NSERC.

  13. Teaching the Mantle Plumes Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding whether or not mantle plumes exist. This debate has highlighted a number of issues regarding how Earth science is currently practised, and how this feeds into approaches toward teaching students. The plume model is an hypothesis, not a proven fact. And yet many researchers assume a priori that plumes exist. This assumption feeds into teaching. That the plume model is unproven, and that many practising researchers are skeptical, may be at best only mentioned in passing to students, with most teachers assuming that plumes are proven to exist. There is typically little emphasis, in particular in undergraduate teaching, that the origin of melting anomalies is currently uncertain and that scientists do not know all the answers. Little encouragement is given to students to become involved in the debate and to consider the pros and cons for themselves. Typically teachers take the approach that “an answer” (or even “the answer”) must be taught to students. Such a pedagogic approach misses an excellent opportunity to allow students to participate in an important ongoing debate in Earth sciences. It also misses the opportunity to illustrate to students several critical aspects regarding correct application of the scientific method. The scientific method involves attempting to disprove hypotheses, not to prove them. A priori assumptions should be kept uppermost in mind and reconsidered at all stages. Multiple working hypotheses should be entertained. The predictions of a hypothesis should be tested, and unpredicted observations taken as weakening the original hypothesis. Hypotheses should not be endlessly adapted to fit unexpected observations. The difficulty with pedagogic treatment of the mantle plumes debate highlights a general uncertainty about how to teach issues in Earth science that are not yet resolved with certainty. It also represents a missed opportunity to let students experience how scientific theories evolve, warts

  14. Plume collimation for laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A.

    2014-09-09

    In various embodiments, a device may generally comprise a capillary having a first end and a second end; a laser to emit energy at a sample in the capillary to ablate the sample and generate an ablation plume in the capillary; an electrospray apparatus to generate an electrospray plume to intercept the ablation plume to produce ions; and a mass spectrometer having an ion transfer inlet to capture the ions. The ablation plume may comprise a collimated ablation plume. The device may comprise a flow cytometer. Methods of making and using the same are also described.

  15. Unmanned airborne system in real-time radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafrir, H.; Pernick, A.; Yaffe, U.; Grushka, A.

    1993-01-01

    The unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) platform, equipped with an appropriate payload and capable of carrying a variety of modular sensors, is an effective tool for real-time control of environmental disasters of different types (e.g. nuclear or chemical accidents). The suggested payloads consist of a miniaturised self-collimating nuclear spectrometry sensor and electro-optical sensors for day and night imagery. The system provides means of both real-time field data acquisition in an endangered environment and on-line hazard assessment computation from the down link raw data. All the processing, including flight planning using an expert system, is performed by a dedicated microcomputer located in a Mobile Ground Control Station (MGCS) situated outside the hazardous area. The UAV equipment is part of a system designed especially for the critically important early phase of emergency response. Decisions by the Emergency Response Manager (ERM) are also based on the ability to estimate the potential dose to individuals and the mitigation of dose when protection measures are implemented. (author)

  16. Source identification and long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) in an urban region of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Jong-Hwa Moon; Young-Jin Kim; Jong-Myoung Lim; Jin-Hong Lee

    2006-01-01

    For the identification of air pollution sources, about 500 airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) samples were collected by using a Gent air sampler and a polycarbonate filter in an urban region in the middle of Korea from 2000 to 2003. The concentrations of 25 elements in the samples were measured by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Receptor modeling was performed on the air monitoring data by using the positive matrix factorization (PMF2) method. According to this analysis, the existence of 6 to 10 PMF factors, such as metal-alloy, oil combustion, diesel exhaust, coal combustion, gasoline exhaust, incinerator, Cu-smelter, biomass burning, sea-salt, and soil dust were identified. (author)

  17. Saharan dust plume charging observed over the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri A.; Marlton, Graeme J.; Ryder, Claire L.; Bennett, Alec J.

    2018-05-01

    A plume of Saharan dust and Iberian smoke was carried across the southern UK on 16th October 2017, entrained into an Atlantic cyclone which had originated as Hurricane Ophelia. The dust plume aloft was widely noticed as it was sufficiently dense to redden the visual appearance of the sun. Time series of backscatter from ceilometers at Reading and Chilbolton show two plumes: one carried upwards to 2.5 km, and another below 800 m into the boundary layer, with a clear slot between. Steady descent of particles at about 50 cm s‑1 continued throughout the morning, and coarse mode particles reached the surface. Plumes containing dust are frequently observed to be strongly charged, often through frictional effects. This plume passed over atmospheric electric field sensors at Bristol, Chilbolton and Reading. Consistent measurements at these three sites indicated negative plume charge. The lower edge plume charge density was (‑8.0 ± 3.3) nC m‑2, which is several times greater than that typical for stratiform water clouds, implying an active in situ charge generation mechanism such as turbulent triboelectrification. A meteorological radiosonde measuring temperature and humidity was launched into the plume at 1412 UTC, specially instrumented with charge and turbulence sensors. This detected charge in the boundary layer and in the upper plume region, and strong turbulent mixing was observed throughout the atmosphere’s lowest 4 km. The clear slot region, through which particles sedimented, was anomalously dry compared with modelled values, with water clouds forming intermittently in the air beneath. Electrical aspects of dust should be included in numerical models, particularly the charge-related effects on cloud microphysical properties, to accurately represent particle behaviour and transport.

  18. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licina, Dusan; Bhangar, Seema; Brooks, Brandon; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Tang, Xiaochen; Morowitz, Michael J.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses’ station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3–1 μm) particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3–10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3). Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37–81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18–59% and 1–5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1–10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  19. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Licina

    Full Text Available Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses' station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3-1 μm particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3-10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3. Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37-81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18-59% and 1-5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1-10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  20. Air quality in the Kootenays: fine particulate (PM{sub 1}0) airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels, 1993-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    Air quality monitoring data collected in the Kootenays over a seven year period from 1993 to 1999 are summarized in an effort to inform the public about air quality in the Kootenays and to assist them in understanding air quality monitoring results. Data includes hourly (TEOM) and weekly (NAPS) data for particulate matter (PM{sub 1}0) airborne metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc) and sulphur dioxide. Analysis of monitoring data showed that particulate matter levels remained constant in most communities, with Johnson Lake and Slocan reporting the lowest levels, while Golden had the highest values during this period. Trail-Butler Park showed a clear declining trend in PM{sub 1}0. Airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels have decreased in the Kootenays during the seven year period, with only occasional exceedances of both Level A and B air quality objectives in some communities. The report includes a detailed description of the sampling methodology and the analyzed results for PM{sub 1}0, airborne metals and sulphur dioxide for 10 communities in the region. 6 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs., 1 map.

  1. Husbandry Emissions Estimation: Fusion of Mobile Surface and Airborne Remote Sensing and Mobile Surface In Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Hall, J. L.; Melton, C.; Tratt, D. M.; Chang, C. S.; Buckland, K. N.; Frash, J.; Leen, J. B.; Van Damme, M.; Clarisse, L.

    2017-12-01

    Emissions of methane and ammonia from intensive animal husbandry are important drivers of climate and photochemical and aerosol pollution. Husbandry emission estimates are somewhat uncertain because of their dependence on practices, temperature, micro-climate, and other factors, leading to variations in emission factors up to an order-of-magnitude. Mobile in situ measurements are increasingly being applied to derive trace gas emissions by Gaussian plume inversion; however, inversion with incomplete information can lead to erroneous emissions and incorrect source location. Mobile in situ concentration and wind data and mobile remote sensing column data from the Chino Dairy Complex in the Los Angeles Basin were collected near simultaneously (within 1-10 s, depending on speed) while transecting plumes, approximately orthogonal to winds. This analysis included airborne remote sensing trace gas information. MISTIR collected vertical column FTIR data simultaneously with in situ concentration data acquired by the AMOG-Surveyor while both vehicles traveled in convoy. The column measurements are insensitive to the turbulence characterization needed in Gaussian plume inversion of concentration data and thus provide a flux reference for evaluating in situ data inversions. Four different approaches were used on inversions for a single dairy, and also for the aggregate dairy complex plume. Approaches were based on differing levels of "knowledge" used in the inversion from solely the in situ platform and a single gas to a combination of information from all platforms and multiple gases. Derived dairy complex fluxes differed significantly from those estimated by other studies of the Chino complex. Analysis of long term satellite data showed that this most likely results from seasonality effects, highlighting the pitfalls of applying annualized extensions of flux measurements to a single campaign instantiation.

  2. In situ airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties during photochemical pollution events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Cachier, H.

    2005-02-01

    Dry aerosol optical properties (scattering, absorbing coefficients, and single scattering albedo) were derived from in situ airborne measurements during two photochemical pollution events (25 and 26 June) observed during the Experience sur Site pour Contraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospherique et de Transport d'Emissions (ESCOMPTE) experiment. Two flights were carried out during daytime (one during the morning and one at noon) over a domain, allowing the investigation of how an air pollution event affects the particle optical properties. Both horizontal distribution and vertical profiles are presented. Results from the horizontal mapping show that plumes of enhanced scattering and absorption are formed in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during the day in the sea breeze-driven outflow of the coastal urban-industrial area of Marseille-Fos de Berre. The domain-averaged scattering coefficient (at 550 nm) over land σs changes from 35 (28) Mm-1 during land breeze to 63 (43) Mm-1 during sea breeze on 25 June (26 June), with local maxima reaching > 100 Mm-1. The increase in the scattering coefficient is associated with new particle formation, indicative of secondary aerosol formation. Simultaneously, the domain-averaged absorption coefficient increases from 5.6 (3.4) Mm-1 to 9.3 (8.0) Mm-1. The pollution plume leads to strong gradients in the single scattering albedo ωo over the domain studied, with local values as low as 0.73 observed inside the pollution plume. The role of photochemistry and secondary aerosol formation during the 25 June case is shown to increase ωo and to make the aerosol more `reflecting' while the plume moves away from the sources. The lower photochemical activity, observed in the 26 June case, induces a relatively higher contribution of black carbon, making the aerosol more absorbing. Results from vertical profiles at a single near-urban location in the domain indicate that the changes in optical properties happen almost entirely within

  3. Latest time-lapse seismic data from Sleipner yield new insights into CO2 plume development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadwick, R.A.; Noy, D.; Arts, R.; Eiken, O.

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 1996, the CO2 injection operation at Sleipner has been monitored by 3D time-lapse seismic surveys. Striking images of the CO2 plume have been obtained, showing a multi-tier feature of high reflectivity, interpreted as arising from a number of thin layers of CO2 trapped beneath

  4. Proceedings of plumes, plates and mineralisation symposium: an introduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hatton, CJ

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available of plume-theory. Mechanisms of magma formation are identified and plume positions and distances to their surface expression considered. Mantle plumes are considered as a heat and fluid source for the Witwatersrand gold deposits....

  5. Correlation between airborne Olea europaea pollen concentrations and levels of the major allergen Ole e 1 in Córdoba, Spain, 2012-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.

    2016-12-01

    Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.

  6. Simultaneous retrieval of CO2 and aerosols in a plume from hyper spectral imagery: application to the characterization of forest fire smoke using AVIRIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, Adrien; Marion, Rodolphe; Briottet, Xavier; Foucher, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Hyper spectral imagery is a widely used technique to study atmospheric composition. For several years, many methods have been developed to estimate the abundance of gases. However, existing methods do not simultaneously retrieve the properties of aerosols and often use standard aerosol models to describe the radiative impact of particles. This approach is not suited to the characterization of plumes, because plume particles may have a very different composition and size distribution from aerosols described by the standard models given by radiative transfer codes. This article presents a new method to simultaneously retrieve carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and aerosols inside a plume, combining an aerosol retrieval algorithm using visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths and a CO 2 estimation algorithm using shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths. The micro-physical properties of the plume particles, obtained after aerosol retrieval, are used to calculate their optical properties in the SWIR. Then, a database of atmospheric terms is generated with the radiative transfer code, Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN). Finally, pixel radiances around the 2.0 μm absorption feature are used to retrieve the CO 2 abundances. After conducting a signal sensitivity analysis, the method was applied to two airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) images acquired over areas of biomass burning. For the first image, in situ measurements were available. The results show that including the aerosol retrieval step before the CO 2 estimation: (1) induces a better agreement between in situ measurements and retrieved CO 2 abundances (the CO 2 overestimation of about 15%, induced by neglecting aerosols has been corrected, especially for pixels where the plume is not very thick); (2) reduces the standard deviation of estimated CO 2 abundance by a factor of four; and (3) causes the spatial distribution of retrieved concentrations to be coherent. (authors)

  7. Simplified scheme or radioactive plume calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, T.A.; Montan, D.N.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical scheme to estimate external whole-body γ radiation exposure rates from gaseous radioactive plumes was developed for the Rio Blanco Gas Field Nuclear Stimulation Experiment. The method enables one to calculate swiftly, in the field, downwind exposure rates knowing the meteorological conditions and γ radiation exposure rates measured by detectors positioned near the plume source. The method is straightforward and easy to use under field conditions without the help of mini-computers. It is applicable to a wide range of radioactive plume situations. It should be noted that the Rio Blanco experiment was detonated on May 17, 1973, and no seep or release of radioactive material occurred

  8. Discriminating Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) in the Coastal Ocean Using the Inversion Algorithm Phydotax and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Sherry L.; Schafer, Chris; Broughton, Jennifer; Guild, Liane S.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need in the Biological Oceanography community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand energy flow through ecosystems, to track the fate of carbon in the ocean, and to detect and monitor-for harmful algal blooms (HABs). The ocean color community has responded to this demand with the development of phytoplankton functional type (PFT) discrimination algorithms. These PFT algorithms fall into one of three categories depending on the science application: size-based, biogeochemical function, and taxonomy. The new PFT algorithm Phytoplankton Detection with Optics (PHYDOTax) is an inversion algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass to differentiate among six taxa found in the California Current System: diatoms, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, and cyanophytes. PHYDOTax was developed and validated in Monterey Bay, CA for the high resolution imaging spectrometer, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON - 3.5 nm resolution). PHYDOTax exploits the high spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer and the improved spatial resolution that airborne data provides for coastal areas. The objective of this study was to apply PHYDOTax to a relatively lower resolution imaging spectrometer to test the algorithm's sensitivity to atmospheric correction, to evaluate capability with other sensors, and to determine if down-sampling spectral resolution would degrade its ability to discriminate among phytoplankton taxa. This study is a part of the larger Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) airborne simulation campaign which is collecting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft during three seasons in each of two years over terrestrial and marine targets in California. Our aquatic component seeks to develop and test algorithms to retrieve water quality properties (e.g. HABs and river plumes) in both marine and in

  9. Role of back diffusion and biodegradation reactions in sustaining an MTBE/TBA plume in alluvial media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasa, Ehsan; Chapman, Steven W; Bekins, Barbara A; Fogg, Graham E; Scow, Kate M; Mackay, Douglas M

    2011-11-01

    A methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) / tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) plume originating from a gasoline spill in late 1994 at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) persisted for over 15 years within 200 feet of the original spill source. The plume persisted until 2010 despite excavation of the tanks and piping within months after the spill and excavations of additional contaminated sediments from the source area in 2007 and 2008. The probable history of MTBE concentrations along the plume centerline at its source was estimated using a wide variety of available information, including published details about the original spill, excavations and monitoring by VAFB consultants, and our own research data. Two-dimensional reactive transport simulations of MTBE along the plume centerline were conducted for a 20-year period following the spill. These analyses suggest that MTBE diffused from the thin anaerobic aquifer into the adjacent anaerobic silts and transformed to TBA in both aquifer and silt layers. The model reproduces the observation that after 2004 TBA was the dominant solute, diffusing back out of the silts into the aquifer and sustaining plume concentrations much longer than would have been the case in the absence of such diffusive exchange. Simulations also suggest that aerobic degradation of MTBE or TBA at the water table in the overlying silt layer significantly affected concentrations of MTBE and TBA by limiting the chemical mass available for back diffusion to the aquifer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of utility monitoring and preoperational hydrothermal modeling at three nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Policastro, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper evaluates the preoperational hydrothermal modeling and operational monitoring carried out by utilities as three nuclear-power-plant sites using once-through cooling. Our work was part of a larger study to assess the environmental impact of operating plants for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the suitability of the NRC Environmental Technical Specifications (Tech Specs) as set up for these plants. The study revealed that the plume mappings at the Kewaunee, Zion, and Quad Cities sites were generally satisfactory in terms of delineating plume size and other characteristics. Unfortunately, monitoring was not carried out during the most critical periods when largest plume size would be expected. At Kewaunee and Zion, preoperational predictions using analytical models were found to be rather poor. At Kewaunee (surface discharge), the Pritchard Model underestimated plume size in the near field, but grossly overestimated the plume's far-field extent. Moreover, lake-level variations affected plume dispersion, yet were not considered in preoperational predictions. At Zion (submerged discharge) the Pritchard Model was successful only in special, simple cases (single-unit operation, no stratification, no reversing currents, no recirculation). Due to neglect of the above-mentioned phenomena, the model underpredicted plume size. At Quad Cities (submerged discharge), the undistorted laboratory model predicted plume dispersion for low river flows. These low flow predictions appear to be reasonable extrapolations of the field data acquired at higher flows

  11. Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through the plume and is

  12. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    are relatively narrow and do not in terms of width exceed the width of the landfill. The concept of redox zones being present in the plume has been confirmed by the reported composition of the leachate contaminated groundwater at several landfills and constitutes an important framework for understanding...... the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable...... to be subject to anaerobic oxidation, but the mechanisms are not yet understood. Heavy metals do not seem to constitute a significant pollution problem at landfills, partly because the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate often are low, and partly because of strong attenuation by sorption...

  13. Aircraft-Based measurement of the physico-chemical evolution of atmospheric aerosols in the air pollution plume over a megacity and a remote area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. S.; Lee, T.; Park, T.; Lee, J. B.; Lim, Y. J.; Ahn, J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols influence climate change directly (scattering and absorption) and indirectly (cloud condensation nuclei), also adverse health effects. The Korean peninsula is a great place to study different sources of the aerosols: urban, rural and marine. In addition, Seoul is one of the large metropolitan areas in the world and has a variety of sources because half of the Korean population lives in Seoul, which comprises only 12% of the country's area. To understand the physico-chemical evolution of atmospheric aerosols in the air pollution plume over a megacity and a remote area, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed on an airborne platform (NASA DC-8 and Beechcraft King Air) in June, 2015 and May-June, 2016 during MAPS-Seoul and KORUS-AQ campaigns, respectively, in Korea. The HR-ToF-AMS is capable of measuring non-refractory size resolved chemical composition of submicron particle (NR-PM1). NR-PM1 includes mass concentration of organics, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium with 10 seconds time resolution. Organics was dominated species in aerosol during all of flights. Organics and nitrate were dominant around energy industrial complex near by Taean, South Korea. The presentation will provide an overview of the composition of NR-PM1 measured in air pollution plumes, and deliver detail information about width, depth and spatial distribution of the pollutant in the air pollution plumes. The results of this study will provide high temporal and spatial resolved details on the air pollution plumes, which are valuable input parameters of aerosol properties for the current air quality models.

  14. Direct-reading inhalable dust monitoring--an assessment of current measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew; Walsh, Peter T

    2013-08-01

    Direct-reading dust monitors designed specifically to measure the inhalable fraction of airborne dust are not widely available. Current practice therefore often involves comparing the response of photometer-type dust monitors with the concentration measured with a reference gravimetric inhalable sampler, which is used to adjust the dust monitor measurement. However, changes in airborne particle size can result in significant errors in the estimation of inhalable concentration by this method. The main aim of this study was to assess how these dust monitors behave when challenged with airborne dust containing particles in the inhalable size range and also to investigate alternative dust monitors whose response might not be as prone to variations in particle size or that could be adapted to measure inhalable dust concentration. Several photometer-type dust monitors and a Respicon TM, tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) personal dust monitor (PDM) 3600, TEOM 1400, and Dustrak DRX were assessed for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust during laboratory and field trials. The PDM was modified to allow it to sample and measure larger particles in the inhalable size range. During the laboratory tests, the dust monitors and reference gravimetric samplers were challenged inside a large dust tunnel with aerosols of industrial dusts known to present an inhalable hazard and aluminium oxide powders with a range of discrete particle sizes. A constant concentration of each dust type was generated and peak concentrations of larger particles were periodically introduced to investigate the effects of sudden changes in particle size on monitor calibration. The PDM, Respicon, and DataRam photometer were also assessed during field trials at a bakery, joinery, and a grain mill. Laboratory results showed that the Respicon, modified PDM, and TEOM 1400 observed good linearity for all types of dust when compared with measurements made with a reference IOM sampler; the

  15. Airborne Hyperspectral Sensing of Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms in the Great Lakes Region: System Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekki, John; Anderson, Robert; Avouris, Dulcinea; Becker, RIchard; Churnside, James; Cline, Michael; Demers, James; Leshkevich, George; Liou, Larry; Luvall, Jeffrey; hide

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Lake Erie have been prominent in recent years. The bloom in 2014 reached a severe level causing the State of Ohio to declare a state of emergency. At that time NASA Glenn Research Center was requested by stakeholders to help monitor the blooms in Lake Erie. Glenn conducted flights twice a week in August and September and assembled and distributed the HAB information to the shoreline water resource managers using its hyperspectral imaging sensor (in development since 2006), the S??3 Viking aircraft, and funding resources from the NASA Headquarters Earth Science Division. Since then, the State of Ohio, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have elevated their funding and activities for observing, monitoring, and addressing the root cause of HABs. Also, the communities and stakeholders have persistently requested NASA Glenn??s participation in HAB observation. Abundant field campaigns and sample analyses have been funded by Ohio and NOAA, which provided a great opportunity for NASA to advance science and airborne hyperspectral remote sensing economically. Capitalizing on this opportunity to advance the science of algal blooms and remote sensing, NASA Glenn conducted the Airborne Hyperspectral Observation of harmful algal blooms campaign in 2015 that was, in many respects, twice as large as the 2014 campaign. Focusing mostly on Lake Erie, but also including other small inland lakes and the Ohio River, the campaign was conducted in partnership with a large number of partners specializing in marine science and remote sensing. Airborne hyperspectral observation of HABs holds promise to distinguish potential HABs from nuisance blooms, determine their concentrations, and delineate their movement in an augmented spatial and temporal resolution and under clouds??all of which are excellent complements to satellite observations. Working with collaborators at several Ohio and Michigan

  16. Utilizing The Synergy of Airborne Backscatter Lidar and In-Situ Measurements for Evaluating CALIPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsekeri Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne campaigns dedicated to satellite validation are crucial for the effective global aerosol monitoring. CALIPSO is currently the only active remote sensing satellite mission, acquiring the vertical profiles of the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients. Here we present a method for CALIPSO evaluation from combining lidar and in-situ airborne measurements. The limitations of the method have to do mainly with the in-situ instrumentation capabilities and the hydration modelling. We also discuss the future implementation of our method in the ICE-D campaign (Cape Verde, August 2015.

  17. Airborne radionuclides of concern and their measurement in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.W.; Miley, H.S.; Hensley, W.K.; Abel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting radioanalytical developmental programs with the goal of providing near-real-time analysis technology for airborne signature radionuclides which are indicative of a nuclear weapons test in any of the earth's environments. If a test were conducted in the atmosphere or above the atmosphere, then the full spectrum of fission and activation products, together with residues from the device would be dispersed in the atmosphere. However, if a nuclear test were conducted underground or under water, the emission could range from a major to a very minor vent, and the material released would likely consist mainly of noble gas radionuclides and the radioiodines. Since many of the noble gases decay to form particulate radionuclides, these may serve as the more sensitive signatures. For example, Ba-140 is a daughter of Xe-140 (13.6 s), and Cs-137 is a daughter of Xe-137 (3.82 min). Both of these have been observed in large amounts relative to other fission products in dynamic venting of U.S. underground nuclear detonations. Large amounts of radionuclides are produced from even a comparatively small nuclear detonation. For example, a 10-KT fission device will produce approximately a megacurie of Ba-140 and of several other radionuclides with half-lives of days to weeks. If such a device were detonated in the atmosphere at midlatitude, it would easily be observable at downwind monitoring sites during its first and subsequent circumnavigations of the earth. Efficient and practical methods for the near-real-time analysis of both particulate and gaseous radionuclides are important to an effective monitoring and attribution program in support of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); methods for this purpose are being pursued

  18. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Macroecology of Airborne Pollen in Australian and New Zealand Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Simon G.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Johnston, Fay H.; Beggs, Paul J.; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J.; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K.; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J.; Davies, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

  20. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...

  1. Trace elements in airborne particulates in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vleggaar, C.M.; Van As, D.; Watkins, J.L.; Mingay, D.W.; Wells, R.B.; Briggs, A.B.; Louw, C.W.

    1980-10-01

    Airborne particulate materials were monitored continously with calendar month sampling periods at 5 rural/background, 4 rural/developing/peri-urban, 6 urban and 7 industrial sites in South Africa. Concentrations of Al, Br, Ca, Cs, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, V and Zn were determined with neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) employed on a complementary basis. A review of sources of airborne trace elements is given. The monitoring program, sampling, sample-handling procedures, as well as the analytical methods used, are discussed in detail. The results of related studies, i.e. effects of filter materials; sampling rates and geometry; determinations of collection efficiencies; particle size ranges; effects of internal flux monitors on the precision and accuracy of NAA; trace impurities in blank materials; quality control by routine analysis of reference materials; comparison of results obtained by NAA, AAS, and PIXE analysis; are given, as is a review of air-pollution control and research policy in South Africa and of ambient air quality standards. Results are discussed in terms of general patterns in trace-element concentrations and enrichments, the general pattern in population centres, the variability of monthly concentrations, and in terms of long-term trends at background, rural, developing, peri-urban, urban and industrial sites. Cases of concern in respect of increasing concentrations are pointed out, as are the constantly high Pb levels at urban sites [af

  2. An integral model of plume rise from high explosive detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughton, B.A.; De Laurentis, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed which provides a complete description of the time evolution of both the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud formed when a high explosive is detonated. This simulation employs the integral technique. The model equations are derived by integrating the three-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy over the plume cross section. Assumptions are made regarding (a) plume symmetry; (b) the shape of profiles of velocity, temperature, etc. across the plume; and (c) the methodology for simulating entrainment and the effects of the crossflow induced pressure drag force on the plume. With these assumptions, the integral equations can be reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations on the plume centerline variables. Only the macroscopic plume characteristics, e.g., plume radius, centerline height, temperature and density, are predicted; details of the plume intrastructure are ignored. The model explicitly takes into account existing meteorology and has been expanded to consider the alterations in plume behavior which occur when aqueous foam is used as a dispersal mitigating material. The simulation was tested by comparison with field measurements of cloud top height and diameter. Predictions were within 25% of field observations over a wide range of explosive yield and atmospheric stability

  3. The controversy over plumes: Who is actually right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchkov, V. N.

    2009-01-01

    The current state of the theory of mantle plumes and its relation to classic plate tectonics show that the “plume” line of geodynamic research is in a period of serious crisis. The number of publications criticizing this concept is steadily increasing. The initial suggestions of plumes’ advocates are disputed, and not without grounds. Questions have been raised as to whether all plumes are derived from the mantle-core interface; whether they all have a wide head and a narrow tail; whether they are always accompanied by uplifting of the Earth’s surface; and whether they can be reliably identified by geochemical signatures, e.g., by the helium-isotope ratio. Rather convincing evidence indicates that plumes cannot be regarded as a strictly fixed reference frame for moving lithospheric plates. More generally, the very existence of plumes has become the subject of debate. Alternative ideas contend that all plumes, or hot spots, are directly related to plate-tectonic mechanisms and appear as a result of shallow tectonic stress, subsequent decompression, and melting of the mantle enriched in basaltic material. Attempts have been made to explain the regular variation in age of volcanoes in ocean ridges by the crack propagation mechanism or by drift of melted segregations of enriched mantle in a nearly horizontal asthenospheric flow. In the author’s opinion, the crisis may be overcome by returning to the beginnings of the plume concept and by providing an adequate specification of plume attributes. Only mantle flows with sources situated below the asthenosphere should be referred to as plumes. These flows are not directly related to such plate-tectonic mechanisms as passive rifting and decompression melting in the upper asthenosphere and are marked by time-progressive volcanic chains; their subasthenospheric roots are detected in seismic tomographic images. Such plumes are mostly located at the margins of superswells, regions of attenuation of seismic waves at the

  4. CALIOP-based Biomass Burning Smoke Plume Injection Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Pouliot, G.; Baker, K. R.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Szykman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and aerosols are cycled between terrestrial and atmosphere environments during fire events, and these emissions have strong feedbacks to near-field weather, air quality, and longer-term climate systems. Fire severity and burned area are under the control of weather and climate, and fire emissions have the potential to alter numerous land and atmospheric processes that, in turn, feedback to and interact with climate systems (e.g., changes in patterns of precipitation, black/brown carbon deposition on ice/snow, alteration in landscape and atmospheric/cloud albedo). If plume injection height is incorrectly estimated, then the transport and deposition of those emissions will also be incorrect. The heights to which smoke is injected governs short- or long-range transport, which influences surface pollution, cloud interaction (altered albedo), and modifies patterns of precipitation (cloud condensation nuclei). We are working with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) science team and other stakeholder agencies, primarily the Environmental Protection Agency and regional partners, to generate a biomass burning (BB) plume injection height database using multiple platforms, sensors and models (CALIOP, MODIS, NOAA HMS, Langley Trajectory Model). These data have the capacity to provide enhanced smoke plume injection height parameterization in regional, national and international scientific and air quality models. Statistics that link fire behavior and weather to plume rise are crucial for verifying and enhancing plume rise parameterization in local-, regional- and global-scale models used for air quality, chemical transport and climate. Specifically, we will present: (1) a methodology that links BB injection height and CALIOP air parcels to specific fires; (2) the daily evolution of smoke plumes for specific fires; (3) plumes transport and deposited on the Greenland Ice Sheet; and (4) compare CALIOP-derived smoke plume injection

  5. Derived release limits for airborne effluents at TRIGA - INR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Hirica, O.; Mihai, S.; Oprea, I.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning from fulfilling the purposes of dose limitation system recommended by ICRP, and now accepted in radiation protection, this paper presents an environmental transfer model to calculate derived release limits for airborne and gaseous radioactive effluents at TRIGA-INR, 14 MW Steady State Reactor, in function on INR-Pitesti site. The methodology consists in determination of the principal exposure pathways for different groups of population and dose calculations for each radionuclide. The characterization of radionuclides transfer to environment was made using the compartmental model. The parameter transfer concept was used to describe the distribution of radionuclides between the different compartments. Atmospheric dispersion was very carefully treated, because it is the primary mechanism of the transfer of radionuclides in the environment and it determines all exposure pathways. Calculation of the atmospheric dispersion was made using ORION-II computer code based on the Gaussian plume model which takes account of site's specific climate and relief conditions. Default values recommended by literature were used to calculate some of the parameters when specific site values were not available. After identification of all transfer parameters which characterize the most important exposure pathways, the release rate corresponding to the individual dose rate limit was calculated. This maximum release rate is the derived release limit for each radionuclide and source. In the paper, the derived release limits are calculated for noble gases, radioiodine and other airborne particulate radionuclides, which can be released on the TRIGA-INR reactor stack, and are important to radiation protection. (authors)

  6. On the relative motions of long-lived Pacific mantle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Kevin; Koppers, Anthony A P; Steinberger, Bernhard; Finlayson, Valerie A; Konter, Jasper G; Jackson, Matthew G

    2018-02-27

    Mantle plumes upwelling beneath moving tectonic plates generate age-progressive chains of volcanos (hotspot chains) used to reconstruct plate motion. However, these hotspots appear to move relative to each other, implying that plumes are not laterally fixed. The lack of age constraints on long-lived, coeval hotspot chains hinders attempts to reconstruct plate motion and quantify relative plume motions. Here we provide 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages for a newly identified long-lived mantle plume, which formed the Rurutu hotspot chain. By comparing the inter-hotspot distances between three Pacific hotspots, we show that Hawaii is unique in its strong, rapid southward motion from 60 to 50 Myrs ago, consistent with paleomagnetic observations. Conversely, the Rurutu and Louisville chains show little motion. Current geodynamic plume motion models can reproduce the first-order motions for these plumes, but only when each plume is rooted in the lowermost mantle.

  7. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Hansen, C.

    1979-01-01

    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  8. Analysis of plasmaspheric plumes: CLUSTER and IMAGE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Darrouzet

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmaspheric plumes have been routinely observed by CLUSTER and IMAGE. The CLUSTER mission provides high time resolution four-point measurements of the plasmasphere near perigee. Total electron density profiles have been derived from the electron plasma frequency identified by the WHISPER sounder supplemented, in-between soundings, by relative variations of the spacecraft potential measured by the electric field instrument EFW; ion velocity is also measured onboard these satellites. The EUV imager onboard the IMAGE spacecraft provides global images of the plasmasphere with a spatial resolution of 0.1 RE every 10 min; such images acquired near apogee from high above the pole show the geometry of plasmaspheric plumes, their evolution and motion. We present coordinated observations of three plume events and compare CLUSTER in-situ data with global images of the plasmasphere obtained by IMAGE. In particular, we study the geometry and the orientation of plasmaspheric plumes by using four-point analysis methods. We compare several aspects of plume motion as determined by different methods: (i inner and outer plume boundary velocity calculated from time delays of this boundary as observed by the wave experiment WHISPER on the four spacecraft, (ii drift velocity measured by the electron drift instrument EDI onboard CLUSTER and (iii global velocity determined from successive EUV images. These different techniques consistently indicate that plasmaspheric plumes rotate around the Earth, with their foot fully co-rotating, but with their tip rotating slower and moving farther out.

  9. SO2 plume height retrieval from direct fitting of GOME-2 backscattered radiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, J.; Spurr, R.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Brenot, H.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2012-04-01

    The use of satellite measurements for SO2 monitoring has become an important aspect in the support of aviation control. Satellite measurements are sometimes the only information available on SO2 concentrations from volcanic eruption events. The detection of SO2 can furthermore serve as a proxy for the presence of volcanic ash that poses a possible hazard to air traffic. In that respect, knowledge of both the total vertical column amount and the effective altitude of the volcanic SO2 plume is valuable information to air traffic control. The Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) hosts the ESA-funded Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). This system provides Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) worldwide with near real-time SO2 and volcanic ash data, derived from measurements from space. We present results from our algorithm for the simultaneous retrieval of total vertical columns of O3 and SO2 and effective SO2 plume height from GOME-2 backscattered radiance measurements. The algorithm is an extension to the GODFIT direct fitting algorithm, initially developed at BIRA-IASB for the derivation of improved total ozone columns from satellite data. The algorithm uses parameterized vertical SO2 profiles which allow for the derivation of the peak height of the SO2 plume, along with the trace gas total column amounts. To illustrate the applicability of the method, we present three case studies on recent volcanic eruptions: Merapi (2010), Grímsvotn (2011), and Nabro (2011). The derived SO2 plume altitude values are validated with the trajectory model FLEXPART and with aerosol altitude estimations from the CALIOP instrument on-board the NASA A-train CALIPSO platform. We find that the effective plume height can be obtained with a precision as fine as 1 km for moderate and strong volcanic events. Since this is valuable information for air traffic, we aim at incorporating the plume height information in the SACS system.

  10. Kalman filtration of radiation monitoring data from atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, M.; Lauritzen, B.; Madsen, H.

    2004-01-01

    A Kalman filter method using off-site radiation monitoring data is proposed as a tool for on-line estimation of the source term for short-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. The method is based on the Gaussian plume model, in which the plume parameters including the source term...

  11. Characterization of redox conditions in groundwater contaminant plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Thomas H.; Bjerg, Poul L.; Banwart, Steven A.; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Heron, Gorm; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2000-10-01

    Evaluation of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behaviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few cases have been reported. No standardised or generally accepted approach exists. Slow electrode kinetics and the common lack of internal equilibrium of redox processes in pollution plumes make, with a few exceptions, direct electrochemical measurement and rigorous interpretation of redox potentials dubious, if not erroneous. Several other approaches have been used in addressing redox conditions in pollution plumes: redox-sensitive compounds in groundwater samples, hydrogen concentrations in groundwater, concentrations of volatile fatty acids in groundwater, sediment characteristics and microbial tools, such as MPN counts, PLFA biomarkers and redox bioassays. This paper reviews the principles behind the different approaches, summarizes methods used and evaluates the approaches based on the experience from the reported applications.

  12. Toward Adaptation of fNIRS Instrumentation to Airborne Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey; Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan; Floyd, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews potential applications of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a well-known medical diagnostic technique, to monitoring the cognitive state of pilots with a focus on identifying ways to adopt this technique to airborne environments. We also discuss various fNIRS techniques and the direction of technology maturation of associated hardware in view of their potential for miniaturization, maximization of data collection capabilities, and user friendliness.

  13. Using satellite imagery for qualitative evaluation of plume transport in modeling the effects of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, A.; Janota, P.

    1992-01-01

    To forecast the behavior of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plumes and their possible acute or chronic health effects over the Arabian Gulf region, TASC created a comprehensive health and environmental impacts modeling system. A specially-adapted Lagrangian puff transport model was used to create (a) short-term (multiday) forecasts of plume transport and ground-level concentrations of soot and SO 2 ; and (b) long-term (seasonal and longer) estimates of average surface concentrations and depositions. EPA-approved algorithms were used to transform exposures to SO 2 and soot (as PAH/BaP) into morbidity, mortality and crop damage risks. Absent any ground truth, satellite imagery from the NOAA Polar Orbiter and the ESA Geostationary Meteosat offered the only opportunity for timely qualitative evaluation of the long-range plume transport and diffusion predictions. This paper shows the use of actual satellite images (including animated loops of hourly Meteosat images) to evaluate plume forecasts in near-real-time, and to sanity-check the meso- and long-range plume transport projections for the long-term estimates. Example modeled concentrations, depositions and health effects are shown

  14. Field experimental observations of highly graded sediment plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment in the waters off the south-eastern coast of Cyprus was carried out to study near-field formation of sediment plumes from dumping. Different loads of sediment were poured into calm and limpid waters one at the time from just above the sea surface. The associated plumes......-bed positions gives unique insight into the dynamics of the descending plume and near-field dispersion processes, and enables good understanding of flow and sediment transport processes involved from-release-to-deposition of the load in a non-scaled environment. The high resolution images and footages...... are available through the link provided herein. Observations support the development of a detailed multi-fractional sediment plume model....

  15. Resistivity and self-potential tomography applied to groundwater remediation and contaminant plumes: Sandbox and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Revil, A.; Hort, R. D.; Munakata-Marr, J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Kulessa, B.

    2015-11-01

    Geophysical methods can be used to remotely characterize contaminated sites and monitor in situ enhanced remediation processes. We have conducted one sandbox experiment and one contaminated field investigation to show the robustness of electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential (SP) tomography for these applications. In the sandbox experiment, we injected permanganate in a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated environment under a constant hydraulic gradient. Inverted resistivity tomograms are able to track the evolution of the permanganate plume in agreement with visual observations made on the side of the tank. Self-potential measurements were also performed at the surface of the sandbox using non-polarizing Ag-AgCl electrodes. These data were inverted to obtain the source density distribution with and without the resistivity information. A compact horizontal dipole source located at the front of the plume was obtained from the inversion of these self-potential data. This current dipole may be related to the redox reaction occurring between TCE and permanganate and the strong concentration gradient at the front of the plume. We demonstrate that time-lapse self-potential signals can be used to track the kinetics of an advecting oxidizer plume with acceptable accuracy and, if needed, in real time, but are unable to completely resolve the shape of the plume. In the field investigation, a 3D resistivity tomography is used to characterize an organic contaminant plume (resistive domain) and an overlying zone of solid waste materials (conductive domain). After removing the influence of the streaming potential, the identified source current density had a magnitude of 0.5 A m-2. The strong source current density may be attributed to charge movement between the neighboring zones that encourage abiotic and microbially enhanced reduction and oxidation reactions. In both cases, the self-potential source current density is located in the area of strong resistivity

  16. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-08-12

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  17. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  18. The effect of coal-fired power-plant SO2 and NOx control technologies on aerosol nucleation in the source plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Knipping

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleation in coal-fired power-plant plumes can greatly contribute to particle number concentrations near source regions. The changing emissions rates of SO2 and NOx due to pollution-control technologies over recent decades may have had a significant effect on aerosol formation and growth in the plumes with ultimate implications for climate and human health. We use the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM large-eddy simulation model with the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS microphysics algorithm to model the nucleation in plumes of coal-fired plants. We test a range of cases with varying emissions to simulate the implementation of emissions-control technologies between 1997 and 2010. We start by simulating the W. A. Parish power plant (near Houston, TX during this time period, when NOx emissions were reduced by ~90% and SO2 emissions decreased by ~30%. Increases in plume OH (due to the reduced NOx produced enhanced SO2 oxidation and an order-of-magnitude increase in particle nucleation in the plume despite the reduction in SO2 emissions. These results suggest that NOx emissions could strongly regulate particle nucleation and growth in power-plant plumes. Next, we test a range of cases with varying emissions to simulate the implementation of SO2 and NOx emissions-control technologies. Particle formation generally increases with SO2 emission, while NOx shows two different regimes: increasing particle formation with increasing NOx under low-NOx emissions and decreasing particle formation with increasing NOx under high-NOx emissions. Next, we compare model results with airborne measurements made in the W. A. Parish power-plant plume in 2000 and 2006, confirming the importance of NOx emissions on new particle formation and highlighting the substantial effect of background aerosol loadings on this process (the more polluted background of the 2006 case caused more than an order-of-magnitude reduction in particle formation in the plume compared to

  19. Highly Protable Airborne Multispectral Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnemann, Robert; Mcnamee, Todd

    2001-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is described that includes and airborne and a ground-based subsytem. It can acquire multispectral image data over swaths of terrain ranging in width from about 1.5 to 1 km. The system was developed especially for use in coastal environments and is well suited for performing remote sensing and general environmental monitoring. It includes a small,munpilotaed, remotely controlled airplance that carries a forward-looking camera for navigation, three downward-looking monochrome video cameras for imaging terrain in three spectral bands, a video transmitter, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) reciever.

  20. Airborne measurements of reactive organic trace gases in the atmosphere - with a focus on PTR-MS measurements onboard NASA's flying laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven Arne; Feil, Stefan; Hanel, Gernot; Jordan, Alfons; Mutschlechner, Paul; Crawford, James H.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Millet, Dylan

    2017-04-01

    Reactive organic gases (ROGs) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry as they affect the rates of ozone production, particle formation and growth, and oxidant consumption. Measurements of ROGs are analytically challenging because of their large variety and low concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere, and because they are easily affected by measurement artefacts. On aircraft, ROGs are typically measured by canister sampling followed by off-line analysis in the laboratory, fast online gas chromatography or online chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In this work, we will briefly sum up the state-of-the-art in this field before focusing on proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and its deployment onboard NASA's airborne science laboratories. We will show how airborne PTR-MS was successfully used in NASA missions for characterizing emissions of ROGs from point sources, for following the photochemical evolution of ROGs in a biomass burning plume, for determining biosphere-atmosphere fluxes of selected ROGs and for validating satellite data. We will also present the airborne PTR-MS instrument in its most recent evolution which includes a radiofrequency ion funnel and ion guide combined with a compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer and discuss its superior performance characteristics. The development of the airborne PTR-MS instrument was supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit) through the Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP) of the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) (grants #833451, #847967). This work was also partly supported by NASA under grant #NNX14AP89G.

  1. Magnetic Field Effects on the Plume of a Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster

    KAUST Repository

    Matlock, Taylor

    2010-07-25

    The Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster (DCFT) uses three permanent ring magnets of alternating polarity to create a unique magnetic topology intended to reduce plasma losses to the discharge chamber surfaces. The magnetic field strength within the DCFT discharge chamber (up to 4 kG on axis) is much higher than in thrusters of similar geometry, which is believed to be a driving factor in the high measured anode efficiencies. The field strength in the near plume region is large as well, which may bear on the high beam divergences measured, with peaks in ion current found at angles of around 30-35 from the thruster axis. Characterization of the DCFT has heretofore involved only one magnetic topology. It is then the purpose of this study to investigate changes to the near-field plume caused by altering the shape and strength of the magnetic field. A thick magnetic collar, encircling the thruster body, is used to lower the field strength outside of the discharge chamber and thus lessen any effects caused by the external field. Changes in the thruster plume with field topology are monitored by the use of normal Langmuir and emissive probes interrogating the near-field plasma. Results are related to other observations that suggest a unified conceptual framework for the important near-exit region of the thruster.

  2. Atmospheric plume progression as a function of time and distance from the release point for radioactive isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Ted W; Cameron, Ian M; Hayes, James C; Miley, Harry S

    2015-10-01

    The radionuclide network of the International Monitoring System comprises up to 80 stations around the world that have aerosol and xenon monitoring systems designed to detect releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere from nuclear explosions. A rule of thumb description of plume concentration and duration versus time and distance from the release point is useful when designing and deploying new sample collection systems. This paper uses plume development from atmospheric transport modeling to provide a power-law rule describing atmospheric dilution factors as a function of distance from the release point. Consider the plume center-line concentration seen by a ground-level sampler as a function of time based on a short-duration ground-level release of a nondepositing radioactive tracer. The concentration C (Bq m(-3)) near the ground varies with distance from the source with the relationship C=R×A(D,C) ×e (-λ(-1.552+0.0405×D)) × 5.37×10(-8) × D(-2.35) where R is the release magnitude (Bq), D is the separation distance (km) from the ground level release to the measurement location, λ is the decay constant (h(-1)) for the radionuclide of interest and AD,C is an attenuation factor that depends on the length of the sample collection period. This relationship is based on the median concentration for 10 release locations with different geographic characteristics and 365 days of releases at each location, and it has an R(2) of 0.99 for 32 distances from 100 to 3000 km. In addition, 90 percent of the modeled plumes fall within approximately one order of magnitude of this curve for all distances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Calculation of doses received while crossing a plume of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherpelz, R.I.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1981-04-01

    A method has been developed for determining the dose received by a person while crossing a plume of radioactive material. The method uses a Gaussian plume model to arrive at a dose rate on the plume centerline at the position of the plume crossing. This dose rate may be due to any external or internal dose pathway. An algebraic formula can then be used to convert the plume centerline dose rate to a total dose integrated over the total time of plume crossing. Correction factors are presented for dose pathways in which the dose rate is not normally distributed about the plume centerline. The method is illustrated by a study done at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and results of this study are presented

  4. Anaerobic biodegradation of dissolved ethanol in a pilot-scale sand aquifer: Variability in plume (redox) biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Heather C.; Roy, James W.; Slater, Gregory F.; Smith, James E.

    2018-01-01

    The use of ethanol in alternative fuels has led to contamination of groundwater with high concentrations of this easily biodegradable organic compound. Previous laboratory and field studies have shown vigorous biodegradation of ethanol plumes, with prevalence of reducing conditions and methanogenesis. The objective of this study was to further our understanding of the dynamic biogeochemistry processes, especially dissolved gas production, that may occur in developing and aging plume cores at sites with ethanol or other organic contamination of groundwater. The experiment performed involved highly-detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of ethanol biodegradation in a 2-dimensional (175 cm high × 525 cm long) sand aquifer tank for 330 days, with a vertical shift in plume position and increased nutrient inputs occurring at Day 100. Rapid onset of fermentation, denitrification, sulphate-reduction and iron(III)-reduction occurred following dissolved ethanol addition, with the eventual widespread development of methanogenesis. The detailed observations also demonstrate a redox zonation that supports the plume fringe concept, secondary reactions resulting from a changing/moving plume, and time lags for the various biodegradation processes. Additional highlights include: i) the highest dissolved H2 concentrations yet reported for groundwater, possibly linked to vigorous fermentation in the absence of common terminal electron-acceptors (i.e., dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulphate, and iron(III)-minerals) and methanogenesis; ii) evidence of phosphorus nutrient limitation, which stalled ethanol biodegradation and perhaps delayed the onset of methanogenesis; and iii) the occurrence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, which has not been reported for ethanol biodegradation to date.

  5. Development of internet service for airborne dust monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakowiuk, A.

    2006-01-01

    During use of the system for acquisition and presentation of measuring data from dust monitors AMIZ-2004G, it became evident that creation of an internet service should be very useful. The task of such a service would be presentation of the idea of dust monitoring system that was put into operation, as well as presentation of measuring results from already existing measuring stations. Such an internet service was created and is accessible now on web page www.amiz.ajaksoft.com.pl. Description of the dust monitoring system, instruction how to operate the program for acquisition of measured data, operating instruction of the monitor AMIZ-2004G, and leaflets of the system can also be found there

  6. Airborne fungi in an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of airborne fungi in Intensive Care Unit (ICUs is associated with increased nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of airborne fungi presented in an ICU from the University Hospital of Pelotas – RS, with the attempt to know the place’s environmental microbiota. 40 Petri plates with Sabouraud Dextrose Agar were exposed to an environment of an ICU, where samples were collected in strategic places during morning and afternoon periods for ten days. Seven fungi genera were identified: Penicillium spp. (15.18%, genus with the higher frequency, followed by Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Paecelomyces spp., Curvularia spp., Alternaria spp., Zygomycetes and sterile mycelium. The most predominant fungi genus were Aspergillus spp. (13.92% in the morning and Cladosporium spp. (13.92% in the afternoon. Due to their involvement in different diseases, the identified fungi genera can be classified as potential pathogens of inpatients. These results reinforce the need of monitoring the environmental microorganisms with high frequency and efficiently in health institutions.

  7. Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes. Proceedings of a Symposium on Operating and Developmental Experience in the Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium convened by the IAEA in co-operation with the USAEC and Harvard University and held in New York 26-30 August 1968. The meeting was attended by 150 participants and 80 observers from 17 countries and five international organizations. Contents: Monitoring air contaminants (3 papers), Characteristics of air contaminants from nuclear reactors (8 papers), Filtration design development cost (7 papers), Testing high efficiency filters (4 papers), Removal of noble gases (3 papers), Special problems related to heat and moisture (6 papers), Developments in the removal of iodine and its compounds (4 papers), Recent developments in spray technology (5 papers), Airborne wastes from incineration (4 papers), Operational experience in the treatment of airborne wastes (8 papers), Panel discussions, List of participants, Author index. Each paper is in its original language (44 English, 7 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  8. Experiments on Plume Spreading by Engineered Injection and Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, D. C.; Jones, M.; Tigera, R. G.; Neupauer, R.

    2014-12-01

    The notion that groundwater remediation is transport-limited emphasizes the coupling between physical (i.e., hydrodynamic), geochemical, and microbiological processes in the subsurface. Here we leverage this coupling to promote groundwater remediation using the approach of engineered injection and extraction. In this approach, inspired by the literature on chaotic advection, uncontaminated groundwater is injected and extracted through a manifold of wells surrounding the contaminated plume. The potential of this approach lies in its ability to actively manipulate the velocity field near the contaminated plume, generating plume spreading above and beyond that resulting from aquifer heterogeneity. Plume spreading, in turn, promotes mixing and reaction by chemical and biological processes. Simulations have predicted that engineered injection and extraction generates (1) chaotic advection whose characteristics depend on aquifer heterogeneity, and (2) faster rates and increased extent of groundwater remediation. This presentation focuses on a complimentary effort to experimentally demonstrate these predictions experimentally. In preparation for future work using refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, the experiments reported here use a Hele-Shaw apparatus containing silicone oil. Engineered injection and extraction is used to manipulate the geometry of an initially circular plume of black pigment, and photographs record the plume geometry after each step of injection of extraction. Image analysis, using complimentary Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, reveals the thickness and variability of the dispersion zone surrounding the deformed plume of black pigment. The size, shape, and evolution of this dispersion zone provides insight into the interplay between engineered injection and extraction, which generates plume structure, and dispersion (here Taylor dispersion), which destroys plume structure. These experiments lay the groundwork for application of engineered

  9. Airborne radionuclide waste-management reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.; Christian, J.D.; Thomas, T.R.

    1983-07-01

    This report provides the detailed data required to develop a strategy for airborne radioactive waste management by the Department of Energy (DOE). The airborne radioactive materials of primary concern are tritium (H-3), carbon-14 (C-14), krypton-85 (Kr-85), iodine-129 (I-129), and radioactive particulate matter. The introductory section of the report describes the nature and broad objectives of airborne waste management. The relationship of airborne waste management to other waste management programs is described. The scope of the strategy is defined by considering all potential sources of airborne radionuclides and technologies available for their management. Responsibilities of the regulatory agencies are discussed. Section 2 of this document deals primarily with projected inventories, potential releases, and dose commitments of the principal airborne wastes from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. In Section 3, dose commitments, technologies, costs, regulations, and waste management criteria are analyzed. Section 4 defines goals and objectives for airborne waste management

  10. Improvements in the detection of airborne plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    It is shown how it is possible to compensate individually for each of the background components on the filter paper used to collect samples. Experimentally it has been shown that the resulting compensated background count-rate averages zero with a standard deviation very close to the fundamental limit set by random statistical variations. Considerable improvements in the sensitivity of detecting airborne plutonium have been achieved. Two new plutonium-in-air monitors which use the compensation schemes described in this report are now available. Both have operated successfully in high concentrations of radon daughters. (author)

  11. Io with Loki Plume on Bright Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Voyager 1 image of Io showing active plume of Loki on limb. Heart-shaped feature southeast of Loki consists of fallout deposits from active plume Pele. The images that make up this mosaic were taken from an average distance of approximately 490,000 kilometers (340,000 miles).

  12. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted by prescribed fires in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Burling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have measured emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5 from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as conifer forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps to close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous observations that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured both the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform and the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions with our ground-based platform. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including high 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts for smoke that disperses at ground level. We also show that the often ignored unlofted emissions can significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence suggests large emissions of monoterpenes in the residual smoldering smoke. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar temperate ecosystems.

  13. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  14. Laser-generated plasma plume expansion: Combined continuous-microscopic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itina, Tatiana E.; Hermann, Jörg; Delaporte, Philippe; Sentis, Marc

    2002-12-01

    The physical phenomena involved in the interaction of a laser-generated plasma plume with a background gas are studied numerically. A three-dimensional combined model is developed to describe the plasma plume formation and its expansion in vacuum or into a background gas. The proposed approach takes advantages of both continuous and microscopic descriptions. The simulation technique is suitable for the simulation of high-rate laser ablation for a wide range of background pressure. The model takes into account the mass diffusion and the energy exchange between the ablated and background species, as well as the collective motion of the ablated species and the background-gas particles. The developed approach is used to investigate the influence of the background gas on the expansion dynamics of the plume obtained during the laser ablation of aluminum. At moderate pressures, both plume and gas compressions are weak and the process is mainly governed by the diffusive mixing. At higher pressures, the interaction is determined by the plume-gas pressure interplay, the plume front is strongly compressed, and its center exhibits oscillations. In this case, the snowplough effect takes place, leading to the formation of a compressed gas layer in front of the plume. The background pressure needed for the beginning of the snowplough effect is determined from the plume and gas density profiles obtained at various pressures. Simulation results are compared with experimentally measured density distributions. It is shown that the calculations suggest localized formation of molecules during reactive laser ablation.

  15. Laser-generated plasma plume expansion: Combined continuous-microscopic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itina, Tatiana E.; Hermann, Joerg; Delaporte, Philippe; Sentis, Marc

    2002-01-01

    The physical phenomena involved in the interaction of a laser-generated plasma plume with a background gas are studied numerically. A three-dimensional combined model is developed to describe the plasma plume formation and its expansion in vacuum or into a background gas. The proposed approach takes advantages of both continuous and microscopic descriptions. The simulation technique is suitable for the simulation of high-rate laser ablation for a wide range of background pressure. The model takes into account the mass diffusion and the energy exchange between the ablated and background species, as well as the collective motion of the ablated species and the background-gas particles. The developed approach is used to investigate the influence of the background gas on the expansion dynamics of the plume obtained during the laser ablation of aluminum. At moderate pressures, both plume and gas compressions are weak and the process is mainly governed by the diffusive mixing. At higher pressures, the interaction is determined by the plume-gas pressure interplay, the plume front is strongly compressed, and its center exhibits oscillations. In this case, the snowplough effect takes place, leading to the formation of a compressed gas layer in front of the plume. The background pressure needed for the beginning of the snowplough effect is determined from the plume and gas density profiles obtained at various pressures. Simulation results are compared with experimentally measured density distributions. It is shown that the calculations suggest localized formation of molecules during reactive laser ablation

  16. Application examples of APC-03-2 and APC-03-2A airborne particle counters under various contamination conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czitrovszky, A.; Jani, P.

    1997-01-01

    Several application examples of the airborne particle counters APC-03-2 and APC-03-2A for monitoring particle size distribution and concentration in air and other gases are described. The computer controlled fast data evaluation and storage provide efficient presentation of the measured data in a variety of table- and histogram-forms, presenting of alarm levels for each size range, observation of alarm history, etc. The device can be applied not only for clean room monitoring and laminar box testing, but also for measuring contamination in health care facilities in workshops using hazardous airborne compounds (e.g. in pharmacology), and in toxicology where the concentration of the contamination may be very high. (author)

  17. Field experimental observations of highly graded sediment plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-06-15

    A field experiment in the waters off the south-eastern coast of Cyprus was carried out to study near-field formation of sediment plumes from dumping. Different loads of sediment were poured into calm and limpid waters one at the time from just above the sea surface. The associated plumes, gravitating towards the seafloor, were filmed simultaneously by four divers situated at different depths in the water column, and facing the plume at different angles. The processes were captured using GoPro-Hero-series cameras. The high-quality underwater footage from near-surface, mid-depth and near-bed positions gives unique insight into the dynamics of the descending plume and near-field dispersion processes, and enables good understanding of flow and sediment transport processes involved from-release-to-deposition of the load in a non-scaled environment. The high resolution images and footages are available through the link provided herein. Observations support the development of a detailed multi-fractional sediment plume model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiological surveillance of airborne contaminants in the working environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Contamination of the air of the working environment may result from incidental or accidental releases during the handling of radioactive materials. Representative sampling and measurement are complicated by a variety of factors, arising mainly from the physical and chemical properties of radioactive aerosols. The following topics are presented in detail: sources and types of airborne contaminants, sampling techniques and instruments, measurement techniques and instruments, interpretation of measurements, examples of air monitoring programmes

  19. Real-time monitoring of the laser hot-wire welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Ma, Junjie; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-04-01

    The laser hot-wire welding process was investigated in this work. The dynamics of the molten pool during welding was visualized by using a high-speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted by a green laser as an illumination source. It was found that the molten pool is formed by the irradiation of the laser beam on the filler wire. The effect of the hot-wire voltage on the stability of the welding process was monitored by using a spectrometer that captured the emission spectrum of the laser-induced plasma plume. The spectroscopic study showed that when the hot-wire voltage is above 9 V a great deal of spatters occur, resulting in the instability of the plasma plume and the welding process. The effect of spatters on the plasma plume was shown by the identified spectral lines of the element Mn I. The correlation between the Fe I electron temperature and the weld-bead shape was studied. It was noted that the electron temperature of the plasma plume can be used to real-time monitor the variation of the weld-bead features and the formation of the weld defects.

  20. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V. [eds.] [and others

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems.

  1. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems

  2. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for Fiscal Year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E. [eds.] [and others

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1997 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction continued in the 200-West Area to remove carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-vapor monitoring, and analysis and characterization of sediments sampled below a vadose-zone monitoring well. Source-term analyses for strontium-90 in 100-N Area vadose-zone sediments were performed using recent groundwater-monitoring data and knowledge of strontium`s ion-exchange properties. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1996 and June 1997. Water levels near the Columbia River increased during this period because the river stage was unusually high. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level.

  3. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for Fiscal Year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1997 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction continued in the 200-West Area to remove carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-vapor monitoring, and analysis and characterization of sediments sampled below a vadose-zone monitoring well. Source-term analyses for strontium-90 in 100-N Area vadose-zone sediments were performed using recent groundwater-monitoring data and knowledge of strontium's ion-exchange properties. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1996 and June 1997. Water levels near the Columbia River increased during this period because the river stage was unusually high. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level

  4. Plume rise from stacks with scrubbers: a state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzmann, M.; Policastro, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of predicting plume rise from stacks with scrubbers is evaluated critically. The significant moisture content of the scrubbed plume upon exit leads to important thermodynamic effects during plume rise that are unaccounted for in the usual dry plume rise theories. For example, under conditionally unstable atmospheres, a wet scrubbed plume treated as completely dry acts as if the atmosphere were stable, whereas in reality the scrubbed plume behaves instead as if the atmosphere were unstable. Even the use of moist plume models developed for application to cooling tower plume rise is not valid since these models 1) employ the Boussinesq approximation, 2) use a number of additional simplifying approximations that require small exit temperature differences between tower exit and ambient temperatures, and 3) are not calibrated to stack data

  5. Diagnostics of laser ablated plasma plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, S.; Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    The effect of an ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of laser ablated plasmas has been studied for two systems by exploiting different diagnostic techniques. First, the dynamics of a MgB2 laser produced plasma plume in an Ar atmosphere has been investigated by space-and time-resolved optical...... of the laser ablated plasma plume propagation in a background gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved....

  6. A new method to monitor water vapor cycles in active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona, T.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Taisne, B.

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous monitoring of different gas species of volcanic plumes is crucial to understand the mechanisms involved in persistent degassing, and to anticipate volcanic unrest episodes and magma ascent towards the surface. Progress in gas remote-sensing techniques during the last decades has led to the development of ultraviolet absorption spectrometers and UV cameras, which enable to monitor SO2 emission cycles in real time, at very high-frequency (~ 1Hz), and from several kilometers away from the volcanic plume. However, monitoring of the more abundant gases, i.e., H2O and CO2, is limited to volcanoes where infrared spectrometers and infrared lamps can be installed at both sides of the crater rims. In this study, we present a new and simple methodology to register H2O emission cycles from long distances (several kilometers), which is based on the light scattered by the micrometric water droplets of condensed plumes. The method only requires a commercial digital camera and a laptop for image processing, since, as we demonstrate, there is a linear correlation between the digital brightness of the plume and its volcanogenic water content. We have validated the method experimentally by generating controlled condensed plumes with an ultrasonic humidifier, and applied it to the plume of Erebus volcano using a 30 minutes-long movie [1]. The wavelet transforms of the plume brightness and SO2 time series (measured with DOAS [1]) show two common periodic components in the bands ~100­-250 s and ~500-­650 s. However, there is a third periodic component in the band ~300-­450 s in the SO2 time series that is absent in the brightness time series. We propose that the common periodic components are induced by magmatic foams collapsing intermittently beneath shallow geometrical barriers composed by bubbles with high content of both H2O and SO2, whereas the third periodic component could be induced by foams collapsing beneath a deeper geometrical barrier composed by bubbles with

  7. Mantle plumes on Venus revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.

    1992-01-01

    The Equatorial Highlands of Venus consist of a series of quasicircular regions of high topography, rising up to about 5 km above the mean planetary radius. These highlands are strongly correlated with positive geoid anomalies, with a peak amplitude of 120 m at Atla Regio. Shield volcanism is observed at Beta, Eistla, Bell, and Atla Regiones and in the Hathor Mons-Innini Mons-Ushas Mons region of the southern hemisphere. Volcanos have also been mapped in Phoebe Regio and flood volcanism is observed in Ovda and Thetis Regiones. Extensional tectonism is also observed in Ovda and Thetis Regiones. Extensional tectonism is also observed in many of these regions. It is now widely accepted that at least Beta, Atla, Eistla, and Bell Regiones are the surface expressions of hot, rising mantel plumes. Upwelling plumes are consistent with both the volcanism and the extensional tectonism observed in these regions. The geoid anomalies and topography of these four regions show considerable variation. Peak geoid anomalies exceed 90 m at Beta and Atla, but are only 40 m at Eistla and 24 m at Bell. Similarly, the peak topography is greater at Beta and Atla than at Eistla and Bell. Such a range of values is not surprising because terrestrial hotspot swells also have a side range of geoid anomalies and topographic uplifts. Kiefer and Hager used cylindrical axisymmetric, steady-state convection calculations to show that mantle plumes can quantitatively account for both the amplitude and the shape of the long-wavelength geoid and topography at Beta and Atla. In these models, most of the topography of these highlands is due to uplift by the vertical normal stress associated with the rising plume. Additional topography may also be present due to crustal thickening by volcanism and crustal thinning by rifting. Smrekar and Phillips have also considered the geoid and topography of plumes on Venus, but they restricted themselves to considering only the geoid-topography ratio and did not

  8. Bio-Physical Coupling of Seabirds and Prey with a Dynamic River Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E. M.; Horne, J. K.; Zamon, J. E.; Adams, J.

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater plumes and plume density fronts are important regions of bio-physical coupling. On the west coast of North America, discharge from the Columbia River into the northern California Current creates a large, dynamic plume and multiple plume fronts. These nutrient-rich, productive waters fuel primary and secondary production, supporting a wide variety of small pelagic prey fish, large populations of Pacific salmon, seabirds, and marine mammals. To determine the influence of the Columbia River plume on marine predators, we analyzed at-sea seabird counts, in situ environmental data, surface trawl densities of prey fish, and acoustic backscatter measurements collected from research vessels in May and June 2010-2012. Concurrent distribution patterns of satellite-tagged sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) and common murres (Uria aalge) were compared with seabird counts from ship surveys. To evaluate plume use by satellite-tagged birds, daily surface salinity values from SELFE hindcast models were extracted at each tag location. Both seabird species occurred in plume waters disproportionate to the total surveyed area, concentrating in the river plume when river flow and plume volume decreased. Murres were consistently within 20 km of the geographic mean center of the river plume. In contrast, shearwaters consistently occurred 100 km to the north of the plume center, where high densities of prey fish occur. Although acoustically detected prey also occurred in greater densities within the plume when volume decreased, surface catches of prey in the plume did not vary with changing plume conditions. Geographic indices of colocation (GIC) were low between murres and prey species caught in surface trawls, whereas GICs were >0.5 between shearwaters and prey species including squid (Loligo opalescens), juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon. We conclude that the river plume and associated fronts are identifiable, predictable, and

  9. ALOFT-PC a smoke plume trajectory model for personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W.D.; McGrattan, K.B.; Mullin, J.V.

    1996-01-01

    A computer model, named ALOFT-PC, was developed for use during in-situ burning of oil spills to predict smoke plume trajectory. The downwind distribution of smoke particulate is a complex function of fire parameters, meteorological conditions, and topographic features. Experimental burns have shown that the downwind distribution of smoke is not Gaussian and simple smoke plume models do not capture the observed plume features. ALOFT-PC consists of the Navier-Stokes equations using an eddy viscosity over a uniform grid that spans the smoke plume and its surroundings. The model inputs are wind speed and variability, atmospheric temperature profile, and fire parameters and the output is the average of the plume. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Loire and Gironde turbid plumes: Characterization and influence on thermohaline properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costoya, X.; Fernández-Nóvoa, D.; deCastro, M.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge and predictability of turbid river plumes is of great importance because they modulate the properties of the seawater adjacent to river mouths. The Loire and Gironde Rivers form the most important plumes in the Bay of Biscay, as they provide > 75% of total runoff. The development of the turbid plume under the influence of its main drivers was analyzed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data from the period 2003-2015. River discharge was found to be the main driver, followed by wind, which also had an important effect in modulating the turbid plume during periods of high river discharge. Seaward and upwelling favorable winds enhanced the dispersion of plumes on seawater, whereas landward and downwelling favorable winds limited mixing with the adjacent ocean water. The maximum extension of the turbid plume was reached under landward winds. In addition, the spatio-temporal evolution of the East Atlantic pattern and the North Atlantic Oscillation was observed to affect the dynamics of plumes: positive values of both indices favored a greater extension of the plume. Thermohaline properties differed inside and outside the area affected by both rivers. In particular, these rivers maintain winter stratification inside the turbid plume, which results in a different warming ratio when compared with the adjacent ocean.

  11. Airborne Tactical Crossload Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Regiment AGL above ground level AO area of operation APA American psychological association ASOP airborne standard operating procedure A/C aircraft...awarded a research contract to develop a tactical crossload tool. [C]omputer assisted Airborne Planning Application ( APA ) that provides a

  12. Fusing Mobile In Situ Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing of Chemical Release Emissions to Improve Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Leifer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and spacebased remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and space-based remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Understanding urban atmospheric transport in the Los Angeles Basin, where topographic influences on transport patterns are significant, was improved by leveraging the Aliso Canyon leak as an atmospheric tracer. Plume characterization data was collected by the AutoMObile trace Gas (AMOG Surveyor, a commuter car modified for science. Mobile surface in situ CH4 and winds were measured by AMOG Surveyor under Santa Ana conditions to estimate an emission rate of 365±30% Gg yr-1. Vertical profiles were collected by AMOG Surveyor by leveraging local topography for vertical profiling to identify the planetary boundary layer at ~700 m. Topography significantly constrained plume dispersion by up to a factor of two. The observed plume trajectory was used to validate satellite aerosol optical depth-inferred atmospheric transport, which suggested the plume first was driven offshore, but then veered back towards land. Numerical long-range transport model predictions confirm this interpretation. This study demonstrated a novel application of satellite aerosol remote

  13. Immunological Assays as an Opportunity of Assessment of Health Risks of Airborne Particle Mixture Including Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzicová, Tána; Danihelka, Pavel; Micka, Vladimír; Lochman, Ivo; Lach, Karel; Lochmanová, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate perspectives of the assessment of nonspecific biological effects of airborne particulate matter including nanoparticles using appropriate immunological assays. We have selected various in vitro immunological assays to establish an array allowing us to monitor activation of the cell-mediated and humoral response of both the innate and adaptive immunity. To assess comprehensive interactions and effects, the assays were performed in whole blood cultures from healthy volunteers and we used an original airborne particle mixture from high pollution period in Ostrava region representing areas with one of the most polluted air in Europe. Even if certain effects were observed, the results of the immunological assays did not prove significant effects of airborne particles on immune cells' functions of healthy persons. However, obtained data do not exclude health risks of long-term exposure to airborne particles, especially in case of individuals with genetic predisposition to certain diseases or already existing disease. This study emphasizes the in vitro assessment of complex effects of airborne particles in conditions similar to actual ones in an organism exposed to particle mixture present in the polluted air.

  14. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2000 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath each of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. RCRA groundwater monitoring continued during fiscal year 2000. Vadose zone monitoring, characterization, remediation, and several technical demonstrations were conducted in fiscal year 2000. Soil gas monitoring at the 618-11 burial ground provided a preliminary indication of the location of tritium in the vadose zone and in groundwater. Groundwater modeling efforts focused on 1) identifying and characterizing major uncertainties in the current conceptual model and 2) performing a transient inverse calibration of the existing site-wide model. Specific model applications were conducted in support of the Hanford Site carbon tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Technology; to support the performance assessment of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility; and in development of the System Assessment Capability, which is intended to predict cumulative site-wide effects from all significant Hanford Site contaminants.

  15. The Green Propellant Infusion Mission Thruster Performance Testing for Plume Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Matthew C.; Reed, Brian D.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Williams, George J.; Kojima, Jun J.; Kinzbach, McKenzie I.; McLean, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) is sponsored by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) office. The goal of GPIM is to advance the technology readiness level of a green propulsion system, specifically, one using the monopropellant, AF-M315E, by demonstrating ground handling, spacecraft processing, and on-orbit operations. One of the risks identified for GPIM is potential contamination of sensitive spacecraft surfaces from the effluents in the plumes of AF-M315E thrusters. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is conducting activities to characterize the effects of AF-M315E plume impingement and deposition. GRC has established individual plume models of the 22-N and 1-N thrusters that will be used on the GPIM spacecraft. The model simulations will be correlated with plume measurement data from Laboratory and Engineering Model 22-N, AF-M315E thrusters. The thrusters are currently being tested in a small rocket, altitude facility at NASA GRC. A suite of diagnostics, including Raman spectroscopy, Rayleigh spectroscopy, and Schlieren imaging are being used to acquire plume measurements of AF-M315E thrusters. Plume data will include temperature, velocity, relative density, and species concentration. The plume measurement data will be compared to the corresponding simulations of the plume model. The GRC effort will establish a data set of AF-M315E plume measurements and a plume model that can be used for future AF-M315E applications.

  16. a Study of Co-Planing Technology of Spaceborne, Airborne and Ground Remote Sensing Detecting Resource, Driven by Disaster Emergency Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F.; Chen, H.; Tu, K.; Wen, Q.; He, J.; Gu, X.; Wang, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Facing the monitoring needs of emergency responses to major disasters, combining the disaster information acquired at the first time after the disaster and the dynamic simulation result of the disaster chain evolution process, the overall plan for coordinated planning of spaceborne, airborne and ground observation resources have been designed. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of major disaster observation tasks, the key technologies of spaceborne, airborne and ground collaborative observation project are studied. For different disaster response levels, the corresponding workflow tasks are designed. On the basis of satisfying different types of disaster monitoring demands, the existing multi-satellite collaborative observation planning algorithms are compared, analyzed, and optimized.

  17. Biodegradation at Dynamic Plume Fringes: Mixing Versus Reaction Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpka, O. A.; Eckert, D.; Griebler, C.; Haberer, C.; Kürzinger, P.; Bauer, R.; Mellage, A.

    2014-12-01

    Biodegradation of continuously emitted plumes is known to be most pronounced at the plume fringe, where mixing of contaminated water and ambient groundwater, containing dissolved electron acceptors, stimulates microbial activity. Under steady-state conditions, physical mixing of contaminant and electron acceptor by transverse dispersion was shown to be the major bottleneck for biodegradation, with plume lengths scaling inversely with the bulk transverse dispersivity in quasi two-dimensional settings. Under these conditions, the presence of suitable microbes is essential but the biokinetic parameters do not play an important role. When the location of the plume shifts (caused, e.g., by a fluctuating groundwater table), however, the bacteria are no more situated at the plume fringe and biomass growth, decay, activation and deactivation determine the time lag until the fringe-controlled steady state is approached again. During this time lag, degradation is incomplete. The objective of the presented study was to analyze to which extent flow and transport dynamics diminish effectiveness of fringe-controlled biodegradation and which microbial processes and related biokinetic parameters determine the system response in overall degradation to hydraulic fluctuations. We performed experiments in quasi-two-dimensional flow through microcosms on aerobic toluene degradation by Pseudomonas putida F1. Plume dynamics were simulated by vertical alteration of the toluene plume position and experimental results were analyzed by reactive-transport modeling. We found that, even after disappearance of the toluene plume for two weeks, the majority of microorganisms stayed attached to the sediment and regained their full biodegradation potential within two days after reappearance of the toluene plume. Our results underline that besides microbial growth and maintenance (often subsumed as "biomass decay") microbial dormancy (that is, change into a metabolically inactive state) and

  18. The Entrainment Rate for Buoyant Plumes in a Crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenish, B. J.; Rooney, G. G.; Webster, H. N.; Thomson, D. J.

    2010-03-01

    We consider large-eddy simulations (LES) of buoyant plumes from a circular source with initial buoyancy flux F 0 released into a stratified environment with constant buoyancy frequency N and a uniform crossflow with velocity U. We make a systematic comparison of the LES results with the mathematical theory of plumes in a crossflow. We pay particular attention to the limits {tilde{U}≪1} and {tilde{U}≫ 1}, where {tilde{U}=U/(F_0 N)^{1/4}}, for which analytical results are possible. For {tilde{U}≫ 1}, the LES results show good agreement with the well-known two-thirds law for the rise in height of the plume. Sufficiently far above the source, the centreline vertical velocity of the LES plumes is consistent with the analytical z -1/3 and z -1/2 scalings for respectively {tilde{U}≪ 1} and {tilde{U}≫ 1}. In the general case, where the entrainment is assumed to be the sum of the contributions from the horizontal and vertical velocity components, we find that the discrepancy between the LES data and numerical solutions of the plume equations is largest for {tilde{U}=O(1)}. We propose a modified additive entrainment assumption in which the contributions from the horizontal and vertical velocity components are not equally weighted. We test this against observations of the plume generated by the Buncefield fire in the U.K. in December 2005 and find that the results compare favourably. We also show that the oscillations of the plume as it settles down to its final rise height may be attenuated by the radiation of gravity waves. For {tilde{U}≪ 1} the oscillations decay rapidly due to the transport of energy away from the plume by gravity waves. For {tilde{U}>rsim 1} the gravity waves travel in the same direction and at the same speed as the flow. In this case, the oscillations of the plume do not decay greatly by radiation of gravity waves.

  19. The planet beyond the plume hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D.; Lewis, Charles

    1999-12-01

    Acceptance of the theory of plate tectonics was accompanied by the rise of the mantle plume/hotspot concept which has come to dominate geodynamics from its use both as an explanation for the origin of intraplate volcanism and as a reference frame for plate motions. However, even with a large degree of flexibility permitted in plume composition, temperature, size, and depth of origin, adoption of any limited number of hotspots means the plume model cannot account for all occurrences of the type of volcanism it was devised to explain. While scientific protocol would normally demand that an alternative explanation be sought, there have been few challenges to "plume theory" on account of a series of intricate controls set up by the plume model which makes plumes seem to be an essential feature of the Earth. The hotspot frame acts not only as a reference but also controls plate tectonics. Accommodating plumes relegates mantle convection to a weak, sluggish effect such that basal drag appears as a minor, resisting force, with plates having to move themselves by boundary forces and continents having to be rifted by plumes. Correspondingly, the geochemical evolution of the mantle is controlled by the requirement to isolate subducted crust into plume sources which limits potential buffers on the composition of the MORB-source to plume- or lower mantle material. Crustal growth and Precambrian tectonics are controlled by interpretations of greenstone belts as oceanic plateaus generated by plumes. Challenges to any aspect of the plume model are thus liable to be dismissed unless a counter explanation is offered across the geodynamic spectrum influenced by "plume theory". Nonetheless, an alternative synthesis can be made based on longstanding petrological evidence for derivation of intraplate volcanism from volatile-bearing sources (wetspots) in conjunction with concepts dismissed for being incompatible or superfluous to "plume theory". In the alternative Earth, the sources for

  20. Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Hannah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Ciotti, Michael [H2 Fueling and CIP Markets Engineering

    2017-11-16

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage is a viable approach to assuring sufficient hydrogen capacity at commercial fuelling stations. Presently, LH2 is produced at remote facilities and then transported to the end-use site by road vehicles (i.e., LH2 tanker trucks). Venting of hydrogen to depressurize the transport storage tank is a routine part of the LH2 delivery process. The behaviour of cold hydrogen plumes has not been well-characterized because empirical field data is essentially non-existent. The NFPA 2 Hydrogen Storage Safety Task Group, which consists of hydrogen producers, safety experts, and CFD modellers, has identified the lack of understanding of hydrogen dispersion during LH2 venting of storage vessel as a critical gap for establishing safety distances at LH2 facilities, especially commercial hydrogen fuelling stations. To address this need, the NREL sensor laboratory, in collaboration with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group developed the Cold Hydrogen Plume Analyzer to empirically characterize the hydrogen plume formed during LH2 storage tank venting. A prototype Analyzer was developed and field-deployed at an actual LH2 venting operation with critical findings that included: - H2 being detected as much as 2 m lower than the release point, which is not predicted by existing models - A small and inconsistent correlation between oxygen depletion and the hydrogen concentration - A negligible to non-existent correlation between in-situ temperature and the hydrogen concentration The Analyzer is currently being upgraded for enhanced metrological capabilities including improved real-time spatial and temporal profiling of the plume and tracking of prevailing weather conditions. Additional deployments are planned to monitor plume behaviour under different wind, humidity, and temperatures. This data will be shared with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group and ultimately will be used support theoretical models and code requirements prescribed in NFPA 2.

  1. On regulation of radioactive airborne discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroganov, A.A.; Kuryndin, A.V.; Shapovalov, A.S.; Orlov, M.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Authors present the Russian regulatory basis of radioactive airborne discharges which was updated after enactment of the Methodology for airborne discharge limits development. Criteria for establishing of airborne discharge limits, scope and other features of methodology are also considered in the article [ru

  2. Real-time Environmental Monitoring Data on the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, N.I.; Maruo, Y.; Tobita, K.; Takeyasu, M.

    2000-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) places great emphasis on safety, information disclosure and communication with the local community. The Real-time Environmental Monitoring Data (REMD) was made to provide to the public on the JNC web-site (http://www.jnc.go.jp/). It is the first organization having nuclear facilities in Japan to open REMD on the Internet web-site. JNC Tokai Works included Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) started to open REMD in Oct. 1998. O-arai Engineering Center (OEC) included the Experimental Fast Reactor JOYO opened in April 1999. OEC produced this web-site in both Japanese and English (http://www.jnc.go.jp/zooarai/Oantai_e/html/index.html). REMD means airborne gamma radiation dose rate, and Meteorological Observation Data. Tokai Works has 13 Monitoring Posts/Stations and OEC has 8 Monitoring Posts to measure airborne gamma radiation dose. The data from these Monitoring Posts/Stations are shown on the web-site. The Meteorological Observation Data in this web-site are wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, precipitation, and atmospheric stability. Atmospheric stability provides information on the state of the atmosphere concerned with air diffusion. REMD web-site provides all these data mentioned above as current data, data tables, trend graphs, and additional information. They are updated every hour. The current data are shown with a graphical map around the JNC site. Data tables are shown within 7 days. Daily highest and lowest temperature and precipitation are also shown as a table. There are three kinds of trend graphs of airborne radiation dose rate, the latest 24 hours trend graph, 48 hours, and 7 days. Each graph is shown with a graph of precipitation, so that variation of airborne gamma radiation with rainfall can be seen. Some explanations of this web-site are expressed as additional information. The topics of them are airborne Radiation, Meteorology, Radioactivity and Radiation, and Rainfall and Radiation. A set

  3. Ablation plume dynamics in a background gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during the expa......The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during...... the expansion. The model also leads to an insightful treatment of the stopping behavior in dimensionless units for plumes and background gases of different atomic/molecular masses. The energetics of the plume dynamics can also be treated with this model. Experimental time-of-flight data of silver ions in a neon...... background gas show a fair agreement with predictions from the PM-model. Finally we discuss the validity of the model, if the work done by the pressure of the background gas is neglected....

  4. Monitoring land use and degradation using satellite and airborne data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Thomas G.; Blom, Ronald G.; Crippen, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    In July 1990 AVIRIS and AIRSAR data were collected over the Manix Basin Area of the Mojave Desert to study land degradation in an arid area where centerpivot irrigation had been in use. The Manix Basin is located NE of Barstow, California, along Interstate-15 at 34 deg 57 min N 116 deg 35 min W. This region was covered by a series of lakes during the Late Pleistocence and Early Holocene. Beginning in the 1960's, areas were cleared of the native creosote bush-dominated plant community to be used for agricultural purposes. Starting in 1972 fields have been abandoned due to the increased cost of electricity needed to pump the irrigation water, with some fields abandoned as recently as 1988 and 1992. These circumstances provide a time series of abandoned fields which provide the possibility of studying the processes which act on agricultural fields in arid regions when they are abandoned. Ray et al. reported that polarimetric SAR (AIRSAR) could detect that the concentric circular planting furrows plowed on these fields persists for a few years after abandonment and then disappear over time and that wind ripples which form on these fields over time due to wind erosion can be detected with polarimetric radar. Ray et al. used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) bandpasses to generate NDVI images of the Manix Basin which showed that the fields abandoned for only a few years had higher NDVI's than the undisturbed desert while the fields abandoned for a longer time had NDVI levels lower than that of the undisturbed desert. The purpose of this study is to use a fusion of a time series of satellite data with airborne data to provide a context for the airborne data. The satellite data time series will additionally help to validate the observation and analysis of time-dependent processes observed in the single AVIRIS image of fields abandoned for different periods of time.

  5. Subsurface oil release field experiment - observations and modelling of subsurface plume behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, H.; Brandvik, P.J.; Reed, M.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at sea, in which oil was released from 107 metres depth, in order to study plume behaviour. The objective of the underwater release was to simulate a pipeline leakage without gas and high pressure and to study the behaviour of the rising plume. A numerical model for the underwater plume behaviour was used for comparison with field data. The expected path of the plume, the time expected for the plume to reach the sea surface and the width of the plume was modelled. Field data and the numerical model were in good agreement. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  6. Observed rise of visible plumes from hyperbolic natural draft cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P T [Smith-Singer Meteorologists, Inc., Amityville, NY; Seymour, D E; Butler, M J; Kramer, M L; Smith, M E; Frankenberg, T T

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of natural draft cooling tower plumes and related meteorological variables have been measured from aircraft near three major plants of the American Electric Power System. The rise of those plumes which persisted long enough to reach a stabilized height depended primarily upon the height of the capping inversion aloft. All such plumes rose to elevations of 425 m or more above grade. No significant relationships between plume rise and wind speed, plant load, or ambient temperature were found. We conclude that simple temperature humidity soundings in the vicinity of the towers would serve as effective predictors of plume rise and persistence.

  7. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  8. Appearance property and mechanism of plume produced by pulsed ultraviolet laser ablating copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qingju; Li Fuquan; Wang Honghua

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of plume emission spectra by pulsed ultraviolet laser ablating copper in neon were analyzed, and the photographs of plume from laser ablating copper were taken. The experimental results show that plume has different colours in different ranges. At low pressure the centre layer and middle layer colours of plume are mixed colour, and the outer layer colours of plume are yellow and green. At middle pressure the centre layer and middle layer colours of plume are white, and the outer layer colour of plume is pea green. At high pressure the centre layer and middle layer colours of plume are white, and the outer layer colour of plume is faintness green. The plume range is pressed with the rising of ambient gas pressure, and the range colour gets thin with the rising of ambient gas pressure. The plume excitation radiation mechanism in pulsed ultraviolet laser ablating copper was discussed. The primary excitation radiation mechanism in plume is electron collision energy transfer and atom collision energy transfer at low pressure and middle pressure, and it is electrons Bremsstrahlung and recombination excitation radiation of electron and ion at high pressure. The model can be used to explain the experimental result qualitatively. (authors)

  9. Airborne geophysical radon hazard mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.

    1993-01-01

    Shales containing uranium pose a radon health hazard even when covered by several meters of overburden. Such an alum shale in southern Norway has been mapped with a joint helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM) and radiometric survey. Results are compared with ground spectrometer, radon emanometer and radon gas measurements in dwellings, and a model to predict radon gas concentrations from the airborne data is developed. Since the shale is conductive, combining the HEM data with the radiometric channel allows the shale to be mapped with greater reliability than if the radiometric channel were used alone. Radiometrically more active areas which do not pose a radon gas hazard can thus be separated from the shales which do. The ground follow-up work consisted of spectrometer and radon emanometer measurements over a uranium anomaly coinciding with a conductor. The correlation between the airborne uranium channel, the ground uranium channel and emanometry is extremely good, indicating that airborne geophysics can, in this case, be used to predict areas having a high radon potential. Contingency tables comparing both radon exhalation and concentration in dwellings with the airborne uranium data show a strong relationship exists between exhalation and the airborne data and while a relationship between concentration and the airborne data is present, but weaker

  10. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2 greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  11. Quantifying air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport in an aircraft cabin mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijun

    The health, safety and comfort of passengers during flight inspired this research into cabin air quality, which is closely related to its airflow distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport. The experimental facility is a full-scale aircraft cabin mockup. A volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (VPTV) technique was enhanced by incorporating a self-developed streak recognition algorithm. Two stable recirculation regions, the reverse flows above the seats and the main air jets from the air supply inlets formed the complicated airflow patterns inside the cabin mockup. The primary air flow was parallel to the passenger rows. The small velocity component in the direction of the cabin depth caused less net air exchange between the passenger rows than that parallel to the passenger rows. Different total air supply rate changed the developing behaviors of the main air jets, leading to different local air distribution patterns. Two indices, Local mean age of air and ventilation effectiveness factor (VEF), were measured at five levels of air supply rate and two levels of heating load. Local mean age of air decreased linearly with an increase in the air supply rate, while the VEF remained consistent when the air supply rate varied. The thermal buoyancy force from the thermal plume generated the upside plume flow, opposite to the main jet flow above the boundary seats and thus lowered the local net air exchange. The airborne transport dynamics depends on the distance between the source and the receptors, the relative location of pollutant source, and air supply rate. Exposure risk was significantly reduced with increased distance between source and receptors. Another possible way to decrease the exposure risk was to position the release source close to the exhaust outlets. Increasing the air supply rate could be an effective solution under some emergency situations. The large volume of data regarding the three-dimensional air velocities was

  12. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  13. MERGING AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA AND SATELLITE SAR DATA FOR BUILDING CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yamamoto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A frequent map revision is required in GIS applications, such as disaster prevention and urban planning. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LIDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, attribute data acquisition and classification depend on manual editing works including ground surveys. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LiDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, these approaches classify geometrical attributes. Moreover, ground survey and manual editing works are finally required in attribute data classification. On the other hand, although geometrical data extraction is difficult, SAR data have a possibility to automate the attribute data acquisition and classification. The SAR data represent microwave reflections on various surfaces of ground and buildings. There are many researches related to monitoring activities of disaster, vegetation, and urban. Moreover, we have an opportunity to acquire higher resolution data in urban areas with new sensors, such as ALOS2 PALSAR2. Therefore, in this study, we focus on an integration of airborne LIDAR data and satellite SAR data for building extraction and classification.

  14. Can molecular diffusion explain Space Shuttle plume spreading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R. R.; Plane, John M. C.; Stevens, Michael H.; Paxton, L. J.; Christensen, A. B.; Crowley, G.

    2010-04-01

    The satellite-borne Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) has produced more than 20 images of NASA Space Shuttle main engine plumes in the lower thermosphere. These reveal atomic hydrogen and, by inference, water vapor transport over hemispherical-scale distances with speeds much faster than expected from models of thermospheric wind motions. Furthermore, the hydrogen plumes expand rapidly. We find rates that exceed the horizontal diffusion speed at nominal plume altitudes of 104-112 km. Kelley et al. (2009) have proposed a 2-D turbulence mechanism to explain the observed spreading rates (and rapid advection) of the plumes. But upon further investigation, we conclude that H atom diffusion can indeed account for the observed expansion rates by recognizing that vertical diffusion quickly conveys atoms to higher altitudes where horizontal diffusion is much more rapid. We also find evidence for H atom production directly during the Shuttle's main engine burn.

  15. Laboratory sensor design for fiber-optic detection of 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Knopf, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    The goal of the fiber-optic detection of 85 Kr project is to produce a sensor to detect 85 Kr in real-time from either an airborne or ground-based platform. The 85 Kr gas is a fission product which is released in large quantities during fuel reprocessing and in minor quantities during nuclear reactor operations. Thus an airborne plume of 85 Kr is a radioactive signature of proliferation. Since 85 Kr has a 10.72 year half life, it is difficult for a proliferator to contain the gas for several half lives to avoid releasing the radioactive signature of proliferation. The long half life also results in a plume that can extend several kilometers from the source, which allows initial proliferation monitoring from large distances. The sensor can be used to make stand-alone, real-time measurements of 85 Kr that can be used as direct evidence for proliferation and/or as a screening sensor to determine when to collect air samples for further laboratory analysis. This report provides a summary of the 85 Kr beta sensor design that PNL will use in the laboratory to: (1) demonstrate the measurement technique, (2) establish minimum detection limits, and (3) optimize the sensor design for the final airborne sensor package. The goal of the final airborne sensor package will be to measure 85 Kr at activity levels as low as or as close to ambient background levels as possible with a reasonably sized sensor

  16. The fractal nature of the european network for airborne radioactivity monitoring and its implications for the detectability of radioactive clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, F.; Graziani, G.

    1990-01-01

    Both the European Communities (EC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have agreed upon a rapid exchange of radiological data among their member states, in case of nuclear emergencies. This will happen through an information network operated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and/or through the Global Telecommunications System of WMO. Data coming from nation wide on-line monitoring networks will be among the very first to be exchanged. They will constitute an important source of information for the real-time assessment of the situation after large accidents with national and international impact. In particular when data on airborne radioactivity are availably early after an accidental release, they might be used to update long range transport model predictions for the period to follow. It is therefore important to analyze the national networks in an international context, to see what information they can offer and what limitations exist

  17. Analysis of plume rise data from five TVA steam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfossi, D.

    1985-01-01

    A large data set containing the measurements of the rise of plumes emitted by five TVA steam plants was examined. Particular attention was paid to the problem of the merging of the plumes emitted by adjacent stacks and to the role played by the wind angle in this respect. It was demonstrated that there is a noticeable rise enhancement of merged plumes with respect to single emissions, both in neutral and in stable conditions, as far as transversal and parallel plumes are concerned. For plumes advected normal to the row of the stacks the enhancement is noticeable only in the final stage of rise. The existence of a critical angle for merging suggested enhancement is noticeable only in the final stage of rise. The existence of a critical angle for merging suggested by Briggs was examined. Finally, a formula to describe plume rise in the transitional and in the final phase, both in neutral and stable conditions, is proposed; it was obtained by interpolation of two familiar Brigg's equations

  18. Post-closure permit application for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 Plant: New Hope Pond and Eastern S-3 ponds plume. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The intent of this Post-Closure, Permit Application (PCPA) is to satisfy the post-closure permitting requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-11. This application is for the entire Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV). This PCPA has been prepared to include the entire East Fork Regime because, although there are numerous contaminant sources within the regime, the contaminant plumes throughout the East Fork Regime have coalesced and can no longer be distinguished as separate plumes. This PCPA focuses on two recognized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units: New Hope Pond (NHP) and the eastern S-3 Ponds plume. This PCPA presents data from groundwater assessment monitoring throughout the regime, performed since 1986. Using this data, this PCPA demonstrates that NHP is not a statistically discernible source of groundwater contaminants and that sites upgradient of NHP are the likely sources of groundwater contamination seen in the NHP vicinity. As such, this PCPA proposes a detection monitoring program to replace the current assessment monitoring program for NHP

  19. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, Kent S. Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Natural attenuation of TCE under aerobic conditions at the INEEL Test Area North site was demonstrated largely on the basis of preferential loss of TCE relative to conservative solutes (PCE and H-3) along groundwater flow paths. First order degradation half-lives were calculated from the rate of preferential TCE loss. We are utilizing the same approach at other DOE sites that have aerobic TCE plumes to determine if aerobic natural attenuation of TCE is rapid enough at these sites to be environmentally significant, i.e. if natural attenuation can reduce concentrations to acceptable levels before groundwater reaches potential receptors. The first step in this process was to identify TCE plumes at DOE sites that have the appropriate site conditions and data needed to perform this analysis. The site conditions include the presence of TCE in groundwater at appreciable concentrations in an aerobic aquifer, a co-mingled contaminant that can be used as a conservative tracer (e.g. PCE, H-3, Tc-99), a flow path that represents at least a decade of travel time, and several monitoring wells located along this flow path. Candidate sites were identified through interviews with knowledgeable individuals in the DOE system and by screening the U.S. Dept. of Energy Groundwater Database using the keywords ''TCE'' and ''groundwater''. The initial screening yielded 25 plumes for consideration. These sites had anywhere from one to 37 individual plumes containing TCE. Of the 25 sites, 13 sites were further evaluated because they met the screening criteria or were promising. After contacting DOE personnel from the respective sites, they were divided into three groups: (1) sites that meet all the project criteria, (2) sites that could potentially be used for the project, and (3) DOE sites that did not meet the criteria. The five sites with plumes that met the criteria were: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats

  20. EM Modelling of RF Propagation Through Plasma Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, L.; Bandinelli, M.; Araque Quijano, J. L.; Vecchi, G.; Pawlak, H.; Marliani, F.

    2012-05-01

    Electric propulsion is a commercially attractive solution for attitude and position control of geostationary satellites. Hall-effect ion thrusters generate a localized plasma flow in the surrounding of the satellite, whose impact on the communication system needs to be qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. An electromagnetic modelling tool has been developed and integrated into the Antenna Design Framework- ElectroMagnetic Satellite (ADF-EMS). The system is able to guide the user from the plume definition phases through plume installation and simulation. A validation activity has been carried out and the system has been applied to the plume modulation analysis of SGEO/Hispasat mission.

  1. Laser beam-plasma plume interaction during laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jacek; Moscicki, Tomasz; Szymanski, Zygmunt

    2003-10-01

    Laser welding process is unstable because the keyhole wall performs oscillations which results in the oscillations of plasma plume over the keyhole mouth. The characteristic frequencies are equal to 0.5-4 kHz. Since plasma plume absorbs and refracts laser radiation, plasma oscillations modulate the laser beam before it reaches the workpiece. In this work temporary electron densities and temperatures are determined in the peaks of plasma bursts during welding with a continuous wave CO2 laser. It has been found that during strong bursts the plasma plume over the keyhole consists of metal vapour only, being not diluted by the shielding gas. As expected the values of electron density are about two times higher in peaks than their time-averaged values. Since the plasma absorption coefficient scales as ~N2e/T3/2 (for CO2 laser radiation) the results show that the power of the laser beam reaching the metal surface is modulated by the plasma plume oscillations. The attenuation factor equals 4-6% of the laser power but it is expected that it is doubled by the refraction effect. The results, together with the analysis of the colour pictures from streak camera, allow also interpretation of the dynamics of the plasma plume.

  2. DeepBlow - a Lagrangian plume model for deep water blowouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Oeistein

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a sub-sea blowout model designed with special emphasis on deep-water conditions. The model is an integral plume model based on a Lagrangian concept. This concept is applied to multiphase discharges in the formation of water, oil and gas in a stratified water column with variable currents. The gas may be converted to hydrate in combination with seawater, dissolved into the plume water, or leaking out of the plume due to the slip between rising gas bubbles and the plume trajectory. Non-ideal behaviour of the gas is accounted for by the introduction of pressure- and temperature-dependent compressibility z-factor in the equation of state. A number of case studies are presented in the paper. One of the cases (blowout from 100 m depth) is compared with observations from a field experiment conducted in Norwegian waters in June 1996. The model results are found to compare favourably with the field observations when dissolution of gas into seawater is accounted in the model. For discharges at intermediate to shallow depths (100-250 m), the two major processes limiting plume rise will be: (a) dissolution of gas into ambient water, or (b) bubbles rising out of the inclined plume. These processes tend to be self-enforcing, i.e., when a gas is lost by either of these processes, plume rise tends to slow down and more time will be available for dissolution. For discharges in deep waters (700-1500 m depth), hydrate formation is found to be a dominating process in limiting plume rise. (Author)

  3. A study of space shuttle plumes in the lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R. R.; Stevens, Michael H.; Plane, John M. C.; Emmert, J. T.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, I.; Paxton, L. J.; Christensen, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    During the space shuttle main engine burn, some 350 t of water vapor are deposited at between 100 and 115 km. Subsequent photodissociation of water produces large plumes of atomic hydrogen that can expand rapidly and extend for thousands of kilometers. From 2002 to 2007, the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) on NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite imaged many of these hydrogen plumes at Lyman α (121.567 nm) while viewing in the nadir. The images reveal rapid plume expansion and occasional very fast transport to both north and south polar regions. Some plumes persist for up to 6 d. Near-simultaneous direct detections of water vapor were made with the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, also on TIMED. We compare the spreading of the hydrogen plume with a two-dimensional model that includes photodissociation as well as both vertical and horizontal diffusion. Molecular diffusion appears to be sufficient to account for the horizontal expansion, although wind shears and turbulent mixing may also contribute. We compare the bulk motion of the observed plumes with wind climatologies derived from satellite observations. The plumes can move much faster than predictions of wind climatologies. But dynamical processes not contained in wind climatologies, such as the quasi-two-day wave, can account for at least some of the high speed observations. The plume phenomena raise a number of important questions about lower thermospheric and mesospheric processes, ranging from dynamics and chemistry to polar mesospheric cloud formation and climatology.

  4. Fractal analysis: A new tool in transient volcanic ash plume characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournigand, Pierre-Yves; Peña Fernandez, Juan Jose; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Perugini, Diego; Sesterhenn, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Transient volcanic plumes are time-dependent features generated by unstable eruptive sources. They represent a threat to human health and infrastructures, and a challenge to characterize due to their intrinsic instability. Plumes have been investigated through physical (e.g. visible, thermal, UV, radar imagery), experimental and numerical studies in order to provide new insights about their dynamics and better anticipate their behavior. It has been shown experimentally that plume dynamics is strongly dependent to source conditions and that plume shape evolution holds key to retrieve these conditions. In this study, a shape evolution analysis is performed on thermal high-speed videos of volcanic plumes from three different volcanoes Sakurajima (Japan), Stromboli (Italy) and Fuego (Guatemala), recorded with a FLIR SC655 thermal camera during several field campaigns between 2012 and 2016. To complete this dataset, three numerical gas-jet simulations at different Reynolds number (2000, 5000 and 10000) have been used in order to set reference values to the natural cases. Turbulent flow shapes are well known to feature scale-invariant structures and a high degree of complexity. For this reason we characterized the bi-dimensional shape of natural and synthetic plumes by using a fractal descriptor. Such method has been applied in other studies on experimental turbulent jets as well as on atmospheric clouds and have shown promising results. At each time-step plume contour has been manually outlined and measured using the box-counting method. This method consists in covering the image with squares of variable sizes and counting the number of squares containing the plume outline. The negative slope of the number of squares in function of their size in a log-log plot gives the fractal dimension of the plume at a given time. Preliminary results show an increase over time of the fractal dimension for natural volcanic plume as well as for the numerically simulated ones, but at

  5. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides in the pan-Japan sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Abe, T.; Murata, Y.M.; Manikandan, N.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    By the use of ultra low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory (OUL), it became possible to detect extremely low levels of environmental radionuclides. In this study, we tried to measure high resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides at three monitoring points, i.e., 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL 40m asl) in Nomi City as the regular monitoring point, 2) Hegura Island Located 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to investigate the influence of Asian continent or mainland of Japan, and 3) Shishiku Plateau (640m asl) located about 8 km from LLRL to know vertical difference. Pb-210 and Be-7 were measured nondestructively by ultra low background gamma spectrometry at OUL, Po-210 by alpha spectrometry using Si detectors after the chemical treatment. Various interesting results on the concentrations and variation patterns of airborne radionuclides were obtained, particularly, during drastic meteorological changes such as the passage of typhoon, snow fall and so on. We have been analyzing the influence of the arrival of yellow sand occurred in this spring. (author)

  6. Oceanic magmatic evolution during ocean opening under influence of mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Melanholina, Elena; Belyatsky, Boris; Krymsky, Robert; Migdisova, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    Petrology, geochemistry and geophysics as well as numerical simulation of spreading processes in plume impact environments on examples of Atlantic Ocean Iceland and the Central Atlantic plumes and Kerguelen plume in the Indian Ocean reveal: - under interaction of large plume and continental landmass the plume can contribute to splitting off individual lithosphere blocks, and their subsequent movement into the emergent ocean. At the same time enriched plume components often have geochemical characteristics of the intact continental lithosphere by early plume exposure. This is typical for trap magmatism in Antarctica, and for magmatism of North and Central Atlantic margins; - in the course of the geodynamic reconstruction under the whole region of the South Atlantic was formed (not in one step) metasomatized enriched sub-oceanic mantle with pyroxenite mantle geochemical characteristics and isotopic composition of enriched HIMU and EM-2 sources. That is typical for most of the islands in the West Antarctic. This mantle through spreading axes jumping involved in different proportions in the melting under the influence of higher-temperature rising asthenospheric lherzolite mantle; - CAP activity was brief enough (200 ± 2 Ma), but Karoo-Maud plume worked for a longer time and continued from 180 to 170 Ma ago in the main phase. Plume impact within Antarctica distributed to the South and to the East, leading to the formation of extended igneous provinces along the Transantarctic Mountains and along the east coast (Queen Maud Land province and Schirmacher Oasis). Moreover, this plume activity may be continued later on, after about 40 million years cessation, as Kerguelen plume within the newly-formed Indian Ocean, significantly affects the nature of the rift magmatism; - a large extended uplift in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean - Southeastern Indian Ridge (SEIR) was formed on the ancient spreading Wharton ridge near active Kerguelen plume. The strongest plume

  7. Ozone production efficiency of a ship-plume: ITCT 2K2 case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun S; Kim, Yong H; Han, Kyung M; Kim, Jhoon; Song, Chul H

    2016-01-01

    Ozone production efficiency (OPE) of ship plume was first evaluated in this study, based on ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model simulations and the ship-plume composition data measured during the ITCT 2K2 (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002) aircraft campaign. The averaged instantaneous OPEs (OPE(i)‾) estimated via the ship-plume photochemical/dynamic modeling for the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume ranged between 4.61 and 18.92, showing that the values vary with the extent of chemical evolution (or chemical stage) of the ship plume and the stability classes of the marine boundary layer (MBL). Together with OPE(i)‾, the equivalent OPEs (OPE(e)‾) for the entire ITCT 2K2 ship-plume were also estimated. The OPE(e)‾ values varied between 9.73 (for the stable MBL) and 12.73 (for the moderately stable MBL), which agreed well with the OPE(e)‾ of 12.85 estimated based on the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume observations. It was also found that both the model-simulated and observation-based OPE(e)‾ inside the ship-plume were 0.29-0.38 times smaller than the OPE(e)‾ calculated/measured outside the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume. Such low OPEs insides the ship plume were due to the high levels of NO and non-liner ship-plume photochemistry. Possible implications of this ship-plume OPE study in the global chemistry-transport modeling are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Apollo Video Photogrammetry Estimation Of Plume Impingement Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip T.; Clements, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Project's planned return to the moon requires numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the Lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. Much work is needed to understand the physics of plume impingement during landing in order to protect hardware surrounding the landing sites. While mostly qualitative in nature, the Apollo Lunar Module landing videos can provide a wealth of quantitative information using modem photogrammetry techniques. The authors have used the digitized videos to quantify plume impingement effects of the landing exhaust on the lunar surface. The dust ejection angle from the plume is estimated at 1-3 degrees. The lofted particle density is estimated at 10(exp 8)- 10(exp 13) particles per cubic meter. Additionally, evidence for ejection of large 10-15 cm sized objects and a dependence of ejection angle on thrust are presented. Further work is ongoing to continue quantitative analysis of the landing videos.

  9. Comparing the performance of geostatistical models with additional information from covariates for sewage plume characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Monego, Maurici; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano; Ramos, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    In this work, kriging with covariates is used to model and map the spatial distribution of salinity measurements gathered by an autonomous underwater vehicle in a sea outfall monitoring campaign aiming to distinguish the effluent plume from the receiving waters and characterize its spatial variability in the vicinity of the discharge. Four different geostatistical linear models for salinity were assumed, where the distance to diffuser, the west-east positioning, and the south-north positioning were used as covariates. Sample variograms were fitted by the Matèrn models using weighted least squares and maximum likelihood estimation methods as a way to detect eventual discrepancies. Typically, the maximum likelihood method estimated very low ranges which have limited the kriging process. So, at least for these data sets, weighted least squares showed to be the most appropriate estimation method for variogram fitting. The kriged maps show clearly the spatial variation of salinity, and it is possible to identify the effluent plume in the area studied. The results obtained show some guidelines for sewage monitoring if a geostatistical analysis of the data is in mind. It is important to treat properly the existence of anomalous values and to adopt a sampling strategy that includes transects parallel and perpendicular to the effluent dispersion.

  10. Unique Dispersal of the Changjiang-Diluted Water Plume in the East China Sea Revealed from Satellite Monitoring of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM)

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Sasaki; Yasushi Gomi; Takamasa Asai; Masashi Shibata; Yoko Kiyomoto; Kazumaro Okamura; Kou Nishiuchi; Toru Hasegawa; Haruya Yamada

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) plume water were investigated during the summer of 2009 and 2010. The absorption coefficient of CDOM at 325 nm (aCDOM) increased inversely with decreasing sea-surface salinity (SSS), implying that aCDOM can be used as a natural tracer of Changjiang-diluted water (CDW). This aCDOM vs. SSS relationship, however, differed between 2009 and 2010. For mapping the CDW plume, the aCDOM was retrieved fr...

  11. Dynamics of vapor plume in transient keyhole during laser welding of stainless steel: Local evaporation, plume swing and gas entrapment into porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shengyong; Chen, Xin; Shao, Xinyu; Gong, Shuili; Xiao, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    In order to better understand the local evaporation phenomena of keyhole wall, vapor plume swing above the keyhole and ambient gas entrapment into the porosity defects, the 3D time-dependent dynamics of the metallic vapor plume in a transient keyhole during fiber laser welding is numerically investigated. The vapor dynamical parameters, including the velocity and pressure, are successfully predicted and obtain good agreements with the experimental and literature data. It is found that the vapor plume flow inside the keyhole has complex multiple directions, and this various directions characteristic of the vapor plume is resulted from the dynamic evaporation phenomena with variable locations and orientations on the keyhole wall. The results also demonstrate that because of this dynamic local evaporation, the ejected vapor plume from the keyhole opening is usually in high frequency swinging. The results further indicate that the oscillation frequency of the plume swing angle is around 2.0-8.0 kHz, which is of the same order of magnitude with that of the keyhole depth (2.0-5.0 kHz). This consistency clearly shows that the swing of the ejected vapor plume is closely associated with the keyhole instability during laser welding. Furthermore, it is learned that there is usually a negative pressure region (several hundred Pa lower than the atmospheric pressure) of the vapor flow around the keyhole opening. This pressure could lead to a strong vortex flow near the rear keyhole wall, especially when the velocity of the ejected metallic vapor from the keyhole opening is high. Under the effect of this flow, the ambient gas is involved into the keyhole, and could finally be entrapped into the bubbles within a very short time (keyhole.

  12. Airborne laser altimetry and multispectral imagery for modeling Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven E. Sesnie; James M. Mueller; Sarah E. Lehnen; Scott M. Rowin; Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Robust models of wildlife population size, spatial distribution, and habitat relationships are needed to more effectively monitor endangered species and prioritize habitat conservation efforts. Remotely sensed data such as airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and digital color infrared (CIR) aerial photography combined with well-designed field studies can help fill these...

  13. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  14. Plume expansion dynamics during laser ablation of manganates in oxygen atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoruso, S.; Sambri, A.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of the plasma plume generated by excimer laser ablation of a LaMnO 3 target is investigated by using fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy. The plume propagation in an oxygen environment is examined with pressure ranging from vacuum to few hundreds Pa. Imaging analysis of the plume emission has allowed following the changes in the plume front dynamics as a function of time and pressure. The expansion dynamics of the plume front is examined by means of a theoretical description of plume evolution and shock-wave propagation in dimensionless variables. Optical emission spectroscopy analysis showed that the oxides are mainly formed in the gas-phase through reaction of the ablated atomic species with ambient oxygen. Moreover, we observed that the formation of oxides is strongly favoured at a pressure level where the formation of a shock-wave occurs

  15. Tracing Mantle Plumes: Quantifying their Morphology and Behavior from Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, K. A.; Eakin, C. M.; Jones, T. D.; Garcia, E.; Robson, A.; Mittal, T.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Jackson, M. G.; Lekic, V.; Rudolph, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Hotspot volcanism provides a direct link between the deep mantle and the surface, but the location, depth and source of the mantle plumes that feed hotspots are highly controversial. In order to address this issue it is important to understand the journey along which plumes have travelled through the mantle. The general behavior of plumes in the mantle also has the potential to tell us about the vigor of mantle convection, net rotation of the mantle, the role of thermal versus chemical anomalies, and important bulk physical properties of the mantle such as the viscosity profile. To address these questions we developed an algorithm to trace plume-like features in shear-wave (Vs) seismic tomographic models based on picking local minima in velocity and searching for continuous features with depth. We apply this method to several of the latest tomographic models and can recover 30 or more continuous plume conduits that are >750 km long. Around half of these can be associated with a known hotspot at the surface. We study the morphology of these plume chains and find that the largest lateral deflections occur near the base of the lower mantle and in the upper mantle. We analyze the preferred orientation of the plume deflections and their gradient to infer large scale mantle flow patterns and the depth of viscosity contrasts in the mantle respectively. We also retrieve Vs profiles for our traced plumes and compare with velocity profiles predicted for different mantle adiabat temperatures. We use this to constrain the thermal anomaly associated with these plumes. This thermal anomaly is then converted to a density anomaly and an upwelling velocity is derived. We compare this to buoyancy fluxes calculated at the surface and use this in conjunction with our measured plume tilts/deflections to estimate the strength of the "mantle wind".

  16. Calibration of angle response of a NaI(Tl) airborne spectrometer to 137Cs and 60Co point sources on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Zhang Yongxing; Gu Renkang; Shen Ensheng

    1998-01-01

    The angle response function F(φ,θ) is a basic calibration of airborne spectrometers in airborne surveying for nuclear emergency monitoring. The author describes the method and results of angle response function calibration of a NaI(Tl) airborne spectrometer for 137 Cs and 60 Co point sources on the ground, with less than 20% uncertainty. By using the results, the calibration factors of the NaI(Tl) airborne spectrometer fixed in Yun-5 plane at different flying heights are calculated by numerical integral method for 137 Cs uniform area source on ground surface, with less than 25% uncertainty. The minimum detection limits (L D ) are calculated at 90 m and 120 m flying heights in the range of over Shijiazhuang airborne surveying for 137 Cs uniform area source on ground surface to be 3.83 and 5.62 kBq/m 2 , respectively

  17. Remote sensing to monitor uranium tailing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report concerns the feasibility of using remotely-sensed data for long-term monitoring of uranium tailings. Decommissioning of uranium mine tailings sites may require long-term monitoring to confirm that no unanticipated release of contaminants occurs. Traditional ground-based monitoring of specific criteria of concern would be a significant expense depending on the nature and frequency of the monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether available remote-sensing data and techniques were applicable to the long-term monitoring of tailings sites. This objective was met by evaluating to what extent the data and techniques could be used to identify and discriminate information useful for monitoring tailings sites. The cost associated with obtaining and interpreting this information was also evaluated. Satellite and aircraft remote-sensing-based activities were evaluated. A monitoring programme based on annual coverage of Landsat Thematic Mapper data is recommended. Immediately prior to and for several years after decommissioning of the tailings sites, airborne multispectral and thermal infrared surveys combined with field verification data are required in order to establish a baseline for the long-term satellite-based monitoring programme. More frequent airborne surveys may be required if rapidly changing phenomena require monitoring. The use of a geographic information system is recommended for the effective storage and manipulation of data accumulated over a number of years

  18. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  19. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  20. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Carlile, J.M.V.; Dirkes, R.L.; Jaquish, R.E.; Trevathan, M.S.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1985-05-01

    Environmental surveillance activities performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Hanford Site for 1984 are discussed in this report. Samples of environmental media were collected in support of the Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program to determine radionuclide concentrations in the Hanford environs. Radiological impacts in terms of radiation dose equivalents as a result of Hanford operations are also discussed. Gross beta radioactivity concentrations in airborne particulates at all sampling locations were lower in 1984 than during 1983 as a result of declining levels of worldwide fallout. Slightly higher levels of 85 Kr and 129 I were noted at several onsite and offsite locations. The sampling location in close proximity to the PUREX plant also detected increased 3 H. Very low levels of radionuclides were detected in samples of Columbia River water during 1984. An extensive groundwater monitoring program was performed for the Hanford Site during 1984. The 3 H and nitrate plumes continued to move slowly toward the Columbia River. All 3 H results were within applicable concentration guides. Samples of deer, rabbits, game birds, waterfowl and fish were collected onsite or in the Columbia River at locations where the potential for radionuclide uptake was most likely, or at the nearest locations where wildlife samples were available. Radioisotope levels were measured. Dose rates from external penetrating radiation measured in the vicinity of residential areas were similar to those observed in the previous years, and no contribution from Hanford activities could be identified. An assessment of the 1984 potential radiological impacts attributable to the Hanford operations indicated that measured and calculated radiation doses to the public continued to be low, and well below applicable regulatory limits. 21 refs., 48 figs., 83 tabs

  1. Dispersal of the Pearl River plume over continental shelf in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Gong, Wenping; Cai, Huayang; Chen, Yunzhen; Zhang, Heng

    2017-07-01

    Satellite images of turbidity were used to study the climatological, monthly, and typical snapshot distributions of the Pearl River plume over the shelf in summer from 2003 to 2016. These images show that the plume spreads offshore over the eastern shelf and is trapped near the coast over the western shelf. Eastward extension of the plume retreats from June to August. Monthly spatial variations of the plume are characterized by eastward spreading, westward spreading, or both. Time series of monthly plume area was quantified by applying the K-mean clustering method to identify the turbid plume water. Decomposition of the 14-year monthly turbidity data by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis isolated the 1st mode in both the eastward and westward spreading pattern as the time series closely related to the Pearl River discharge, and the 2nd mode with out-of-phase turbidity anomalies over the eastern and western shelves that is associated with the prevailing wind direction. Eight typical plume types were detected from the satellite snapshots. They are characterized by coastal jet, eastward offshore spreading, westward spreading, bidirectional spreading, bulge, isolated patch, offshore branch, and offshore filaments, respectively. Their possible mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Transmission of Airborne Bacteria across Built Environments and Its Measurement Standards: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, So; Tanaka, Daisuke; Maruyama, Fumito

    2017-01-01

    Human health is influenced by various factors including microorganisms present in built environments where people spend most of their lives (approximately 90%). It is therefore necessary to monitor and control indoor airborne microbes for occupational safety and public health. Most studies concerning airborne microorganisms have focused on fungi, with scant data available concerning bacteria. The present review considers papers published from 2010 to 2017 approximately and factors affecting properties of indoor airborne bacteria (communities and concentration) with respect to temporal perspective and to multiscale interaction viewpoint. From a temporal perspective, bacterial concentrations in built environments change depending on numbers of human occupancy, while properties of bacterial communities tend to remain stable. Similarly, the bacteria found in social and community spaces such as offices, classrooms and hospitals are mainly associated with human occupancy. Other major sources of indoor airborne bacteria are (i) outdoor environments, and (ii) the building materials themselves. Indoor bacterial communities and concentrations are varied with varying interferences by outdoor environment. Airborne bacteria from the outdoor environment enter an indoor space through open doors and windows, while indoor bacteria are simultaneously released to the outer environment. Outdoor bacterial communities and their concentrations are also affected by geographical factors such as types of land use and their spatial distribution. The bacteria found in built environments therefore originate from any of the natural and man-made surroundings around humans. Therefore, to better understand the factors influencing bacterial concentrations and communities in built environments, we should study all the environments that humans contact as a single ecosystem. In this review, we propose the establishment of a standard procedure for assessing properties of indoor airborne bacteria using

  3. Transmission of Airborne Bacteria across Built Environments and Its Measurement Standards: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Fujiyoshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human health is influenced by various factors including microorganisms present in built environments where people spend most of their lives (approximately 90%. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control indoor airborne microbes for occupational safety and public health. Most studies concerning airborne microorganisms have focused on fungi, with scant data available concerning bacteria. The present review considers papers published from 2010 to 2017 approximately and factors affecting properties of indoor airborne bacteria (communities and concentration with respect to temporal perspective and to multiscale interaction viewpoint. From a temporal perspective, bacterial concentrations in built environments change depending on numbers of human occupancy, while properties of bacterial communities tend to remain stable. Similarly, the bacteria found in social and community spaces such as offices, classrooms and hospitals are mainly associated with human occupancy. Other major sources of indoor airborne bacteria are (i outdoor environments, and (ii the building materials themselves. Indoor bacterial communities and concentrations are varied with varying interferences by outdoor environment. Airborne bacteria from the outdoor environment enter an indoor space through open doors and windows, while indoor bacteria are simultaneously released to the outer environment. Outdoor bacterial communities and their concentrations are also affected by geographical factors such as types of land use and their spatial distribution. The bacteria found in built environments therefore originate from any of the natural and man-made surroundings around humans. Therefore, to better understand the factors influencing bacterial concentrations and communities in built environments, we should study all the environments that humans contact as a single ecosystem. In this review, we propose the establishment of a standard procedure for assessing properties of indoor airborne

  4. Hybrid cooling tower Neckarwestheim 2 cooling function, emission, plume dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuning, G.; Ernst, G.; Maeule, R.; Necker, P.

    1990-01-01

    The fan-assisted hybrid cooling tower of the 1300 MW power plant Gemeinschafts-Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim 2 was designed and constructed based on results from theoretical and experimental studies and experiences from a smaller prototype. The wet part acts in counterflow. The dry part is arranged above the wet part. Each part contains 44 fans. Special attention was payed to the ducts which mix the dry into the wet plume. The cooling function and state, mass flow and contents of the emission were measured. The dispersion of the plume in the atmosphere was observed. The central results are presented in this paper. The cooling function corresponds to the predictions. The content of drifted cooling water in the plume is extremely low. The high velocity of the plume in the exit causes an undisturbed flow into the atmosphere. The hybrid operation reduces visible plumes strongly, especially in warmer and drier ambient air

  5. An overview of emergency radiation monitoring in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Mok, H.Y.; Chan, Y.K.

    2000-01-01

    In relation to the operation of a nuclear power station located some 50 km to the northeast of Hong Kong, a contingency plan has been formulated in Hong Kong to manage the local response in the event of a severe accident occurring at the nuclear power station. As an integral component of the contingency plan, the Hong Kong Observatory has specifically designed and implemented an emergency radiation monitoring programme. The primary objective of emergency monitoring in the early phase of a nuclear accident is to rapidly detect and document the presence of radioactive materials for determining the impact of the release. Even in the case when Hong Kong is outside the plume coverage, the verification that there is no radioactive plume or deposition over Hong Kong is essential for providing reassurance to the local population. Although Hong Kong is a small place, it has a dense network of fixed-station monitors for continuous measurement of the ambient gamma dose-rate over the territory. At Ping Chau, one of the fixed-station closest to the nuclear power station (about 13 km), an automatic gamma spectrometry system is also operated to monitor the activity concentrations of man-made nuclides in air. This system provides both qualitative and quantitative isotopic information on the cause of any rise in ambient gamma dose-rate detected at the station. A number of fire stations over the territory can also be activated during an emergency to conduct ambient gamma dose-rate measurements using portable survey meters. The fixed-station radiation data will be supplemented by measurements taken en-route emergency surveys. Three mobile survey teams can be deployed within an hour of notice. Two of the survey teams will conduct surveys at ground surface. The third survey team will conduct aerial surveys at various altitudes over Hong Kong and the adjacent seas. Environmental samples, including airborne particulate, radioiodine, deposition, soil and water samples are collected at the

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H. S.; Lee, J. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    At Pusan Regional Monitoring Station in Busan have been measured periodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Pusan, vegetables, fishes, shellfish, drinking water (total 23ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KlNS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  7. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A.

    2003-12-01

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants

  9. Meteorological factors had more impact on airborne bacterial communities than air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Quan; Deng, Ye; Wang, Yaqing; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Hongxing; Sun, Xu; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2017-12-01

    Airborne bacteria have gained increasing attention because they affect ecological balance and pose potential risks on human health. Recently, some studies have focused on the abundance and composition of airborne bacteria under heavy, hazy polluted weather in China, but they reached different conclusions about the comparisons with non-polluted days. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that meteorological factors could have a higher impact on shaping airborne bacterial communities than air pollutants by systematically monitoring the communities for 1year. Total suspended particles in Beijing were sampled for 20 consecutive days in each season of 2015. Bacterial abundance varied from 8.71×10 3 to 2.14×10 7 ribosomal operons per cubic meter according to the quantitative PCR analysis. There were relatively higher bacterial counts in spring and in autumn than in winter and summer. Airborne bacterial communities displayed a strong seasonality, according to the hierarchical cluster analysis. Only two exceptions overtook the seasonal trend, and both occurred in or after violent meteorological changes (sandstorm or rain). Aggregated boosted tree analysis performed on bacterial abundance showed that the dominant factors shaping bacterial communities were meteorological. They were air pressure in winter, air temperature and relative humidity in spring, RH in summer, and vapor pressure in autumn. Variation partition analysis on community structure showed that meteorological factors explained more variations than air pollutants. Therefore, both of the two models verified our hypothesis that the differences in airborne bacterial communities in polluted days or non-polluted days were mainly driven by the discrepancies of meteorological factors rather than by the presence of air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs

  11. Selection of monitoring times to assess remediation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueper, B.H.; Mundle, K. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering, Geoengineering Centre

    2007-07-01

    Several factors determine the time needed for a plume to respond to non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone remediation. Most spills of NAPLs (fuels, chlorinated solvents, PCB oils, creosote and coal tar) require mass removal in order to implement remediation technologies such as chemical oxidation, thermal treatments, alcohol flushing, surfactant flushing and hydraulic displacement. While much attention has been given to the development of these remediation technologies, little attention has been given to the response of the plume downstream of the treatment zone and selection of an appropriate monitoring time scale to adequately evaluate the impacts of remediation. For that reason, this study focused on the prevalence of diffusive sinks, the mobility of the contaminant and the hydraulic conductivity of subsurface materials. Typically, plumes in subsurface environments dominated by diffusive sinks or low permeability materials need long periods of time to detach after source removal. This paper presented generic plume response model simulations that illustrated concentration rebound following the use of in-situ chemical oxidation in fractured clay containing trichloroethylene. It was determined that approximately 2 years are needed to reach peak rebound concentration after cessation remedial action. It was concluded that downgradient monitoring well concentrations may be greatly reduced during remedial action due to the fact that oxidant occupies the fracture and because oxidant diffuses into the clay matrix, creating a short period of contaminant reduction in the area of flowing groundwater. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Selection of monitoring times to assess remediation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueper, B.H.; Mundle, K.

    2007-01-01

    Several factors determine the time needed for a plume to respond to non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone remediation. Most spills of NAPLs (fuels, chlorinated solvents, PCB oils, creosote and coal tar) require mass removal in order to implement remediation technologies such as chemical oxidation, thermal treatments, alcohol flushing, surfactant flushing and hydraulic displacement. While much attention has been given to the development of these remediation technologies, little attention has been given to the response of the plume downstream of the treatment zone and selection of an appropriate monitoring time scale to adequately evaluate the impacts of remediation. For that reason, this study focused on the prevalence of diffusive sinks, the mobility of the contaminant and the hydraulic conductivity of subsurface materials. Typically, plumes in subsurface environments dominated by diffusive sinks or low permeability materials need long periods of time to detach after source removal. This paper presented generic plume response model simulations that illustrated concentration rebound following the use of in-situ chemical oxidation in fractured clay containing trichloroethylene. It was determined that approximately 2 years are needed to reach peak rebound concentration after cessation remedial action. It was concluded that downgradient monitoring well concentrations may be greatly reduced during remedial action due to the fact that oxidant occupies the fracture and because oxidant diffuses into the clay matrix, creating a short period of contaminant reduction in the area of flowing groundwater. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  13. Plume tracer experiments at Hinkley Point 'A' [Nuclear Power Station] during 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, P.M.

    1988-11-01

    The results of the first part of a programme of plume dispersion measurements at the Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station are described. Using SF 6 gas and pyrotechnic smoke tracer techniques developed during an earlier study at Oldbury, measurements of ground level plume behaviour out to about 4 km and elevated plume behaviour out to about 1 km have been made in a series of twelve 1 hour trials and one 15 minute trial. Whereas the Oldbury study considered passive emissions, attention in this study has been focussed on the behaviour of the buoyant shield cooling air emission. Data on plume rise and the degree of plume entrainment by the building wake and on the effects of entrainment and wind meander on plume width and concentration, are presented and discussed in relation to current modelling recommendations. A limited number of 10 minute averaged measurements of plume concentration and 41-Ar decay gamma count were also made at 2 km range and their correlation and variability examined. (author)

  14. Temporal dynamics of airborne lead-210 in Missouri (USA): implications for geochronological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheets, R.W.; Lawrence, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Lead-210 ( 210 Pb) deposited from the atmosphere is used in the dating of certain geological materials such as glacial ice and lacustrine sediments, but its long-term atmospheric behavior has been little studied. The present investigation reports measurements of airborne 210 Pb at 21 monitoring stations in Springfield, Missouri, during 1975-1995. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of atmospheric concentrations are established, and the mean annual concentrations of 210 Pb in ground level air during the 20-year period are examined. Although airborne 210 Pb concentrations are found to vary diurnally and seasonally, mean annual concentrations in southwest Missouri have remained relatively constant during this time period. This finding is important for geochronological methods that assume a constant 210 Pb flux from the atmosphere. (orig.)

  15. Seasonal and Inter-Annual Patterns of Phytoplankton Community Structure in Monterey Bay, CA Derived from AVIRIS Data During the 2013-2015 HyspIRI Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.; Guild, L. S.; Gao, B. C.; Green, R. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    There is a need in the ocean color community to discriminate among