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Sample records for airborne particulate samples

  1. Computer-controlled sampling system for airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.F.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Koval, J.S.; Phelps, P.L.; Steinhaus, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A self-contained, mobile, computer-controlled air-sampling system has been designed and fabricated that also collects and records the data from eight meteorological sensors. The air-samplers are activated automatically when the collected meteorological data meet the criteria specified at the beginning of the data-collection run. The filters from the samplers are intended to collect airborne 239 Pu for later radionuclide analysis and correlation with the meteorological data for the study of resuspended airborne radioactivity and for the development of a predictive model. This paper describes the system hardware, discusses the system and software concepts, and outlines the operational procedures for the system

  2. Elemental Composition In Airborne Particulate Sample Of Bandung and Lembang Region In 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, Achmad

    2003-01-01

    Concentration of airborne particulate of Bandung higher than that of Lembang. The PM2.5 fraction was in the range of 4,3 μg/m 3 to 21,1 μg/m 3 for Bandung area, and 2,9 μg/m 3 to 19,2 μg/m 3 for Lembang area for 24 hours sampling time. The PM10 fraction of Bandung area was in the range of 12,1 μg/m 3 to 44, 1 μg/m 3 , where a s the PM10 fraction of Lembang area was in the range of 5,2 μg/m 3 to 30,6 μg/m 3 . The data much lower than that of National ambient air quality standard for 24 hours, 65 μg/m 3 and 150 μg/m 3 for PM2.5 fraction and PM10 fraction respectively. No clear correlation either concentration of fine or coarse particulate to rainfall. For teen elements, which were Al, Br, Ca, Ce, CI, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V and Zn, were detected. The elements of Br, Ce, CI, Cr, I, Sb and Zn were enriched in fine and coarse of Bandung and Lembang samples, where as AI, Ca, Mn, Na and V were not enriched. The special element of Fe was enriched in fine particulate of Lembang, where as in particulate of Bandung was not enriched. Analysis of coarse particulate samples indicated the similar results to fine particulate except for Ce. The results of analysis explained that pollutant source of Bandung and Lembang were the same. Some elements such as Br, CI and I possibly come from organic material burning; Br and CI could be from motor vehicle; Cr, and Zn could be from paint factory; Zn and Sb could be from refuse incineration; while Ce could be from electronic factory. The calculation results indicated that enrichment factor of elements in fine particulate higher than that of coarse particulate. Furthermore the enrichment factor of element in airborne particulate of Bandung area was higher than that of airborne particulate of Lembang

  3. Sampling and analytical methodologies for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of the different forms of ED-XFR as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of ED-XRF to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability. Emphasis is also placed on the sources of errors affecting the sampling of airborne particulate matter. The analytical part of the document describes the different forms of ED-XRF and their potential applications. Spectrum evaluation, a key step in X-ray spectrometry, is covered in depth, including discussion on several calibration and peak fitting techniques and computer programs especially designed for this purpose. 148 refs, 25 figs, 13 tabs

  4. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described.

  5. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described

  6. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 1: design, sampling and analysis for an experimental campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro E, P.

    1995-01-01

    This work describes the siting and sampling procedures of collecting airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, determining its chemical composition and daily behaviour. The airborne particulate matter was collected onto polycarbonate membranes, one of fine pore and other of coarse pore, using Pm 10 samplers. The material was analyzed using neutron activation analysis., proton induced X ray emission, X ray fluorescence, voltametry, atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography and isotope dilution. (author). 1 tab

  7. Comparative multielement analyses of airborne particulate samples collected in various areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mizohata, Akira

    1973-01-01

    In order to grasp the characteristic features of the air pollution by particulates in various areas in Japan, multielement analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis were applied to 31 airborne particulate samples collected in 15 different areas, and the analytical results obtained were compared with one another. All the samples were collected by so-called ''10 micron cut'' samplers, the collection efficiency of which is considered to be 50% at 8μ and nearly zero beyond 10μ. Among the areas in question there are clean seaside areas, heavily industrialized areas, small cities along the Inland Sea or the Pacific Ocean around which industrialization is progressing, a small city having only a big iron work, an area famous for its ceramic industry and so on. The atmospheres over them were found to be quite different not only in pollution extent but also in pollution pattern. (auth.)

  8. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  9. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  10. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  11. Airborne particulate discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Kathryn Louise [San Diego, CA; Castro, Alonso [Santa Fe, NM; Gray, Perry Clayton [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  12. Comparison of PIXE and XRF analysis of airborne particulate matter samples collected on Teflon and quartz fibre filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, M.; Yubero, E.; Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Crespo, J.; Galindo, N.; Nicolás, J. F.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.

    2018-02-01

    Within the framework of research projects focusing on the sampling and analysis of airborne particulate matter, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) techniques are routinely used in many laboratories throughout the world to determine the elemental concentration of the particulate matter samples. In this work an inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained from analysing several samples (collected on both Teflon and quartz fibre filters) using both techniques is presented. The samples were analysed by PIXE (in Florence, at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of INFN-LABEC laboratory) and by XRF (in Elche, using the ARL Quant'X EDXRF spectrometer with specific conditions optimized for specific groups of elements). The results from the two sets of measurements are in good agreement for all the analysed samples, thus validating the use of the ARL Quant'X EDXRF spectrometer and the selected measurement protocol for the analysis of aerosol samples. Moreover, thanks to the comparison of PIXE and XRF results on Teflon and quartz fibre filters, possible self-absorption effects due to the penetration of the aerosol particles inside the quartz fibre-filters were quantified.

  13. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    2002-01-01

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  14. Automated method for simultaneous lead and strontium isotopic analysis applied to rainwater samples and airborne particulate filters (PM10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O

    2013-09-03

    A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis.

  15. Monitoring and Method development of Hg in Istanbul Airborne Particulates by Solid Sampling Continuum Source-High Resolution Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectromerty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soydemir E.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a method has been developed and monitoring for the determination of mercury in PM2.5 airborne particulates by solid sampling high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The PM2.5 airborne particulates were collected on quartz filters using high volume samplers (500 L/min in Istanbul (Turkey for 96 hours every month in one year. At first, experimental conditions as well as the validation tests were optimized using collected filter. For this purpose, the effects of atomization temperature, amount of sample intoduced in to the furnace, addition of acids and/or KMnO4 on the sample, covering of graphite tube and platform or using of Ag nanoparticulates, Au nanoparticulates, and Pd solutions on the accuracy and precision were investigated. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the mercury concentrations were determined in the collected filter. The filters with PM2.5 airborne particulates were dried, divided into small fine particles and then Hg concentrations were determined directly. In order to eliminate any error due to the sensitivity difference between aqueous standards and solid samples, the quantification was performed using solid calibrants. The limit of detection, based on three times the standard deviations for ten atomizations of an unused filter, was 30 ng/g. The Hg content was dependent on the sampling site, season etc, ranging from samples, addition of AuNPs, AgNPs and Pd solution for amalgamation effects on the recoveries were investigated. The results were compared using statistical tests.

  16. Use of historical uranium air sampling data to estimate worker exposure potential to airborne radioactive particulate in a uranium processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, M M; Feng, H A; Utterback, D F

    2001-12-01

    Historical industrial hygiene monitoring records from a uranium processing plant were collected and analyzed to characterize exposure potential to airborne radioactive particulate. More than 2,100 samples were collected during the period of 1954-1968. The data was organized by job title, plant number, and year of measurement. Laboratory analysis of air samples indicated a wide range of potential exposures to the alpha-emitting particulate. Logarithmic transformation of the data was necessary to approximate Gaussian distributions. Geometric Mean (GM) values were used as the measure of central tendency within years. GM values ranged from 23-49 disintegrations per minute per cubic meter of air sampled (dpm/m3) with the years 1963 and 1964 being significantly higher than other years (ANOVA: p exposure potential across plants, GM ranged from 20-68 dpm/m3, with plants 5 and 8 being significantly higher than the others (ANOVA: p Exposure potential for specific job titles across the plants varied widely. GM for clerks was the lowest (11 dpm/m3) while furnace operators were the highest (235 dpm/m3). Other job titles with potentially high exposures were chemical operators, forklift operators, machine operators, and furnace operators. This analysis indicates the magnitude and distributions of worker exposure to alpha-emitting airborne particulate. Additional analysis and epidemiologic studies are planned for this facility.

  17. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsley, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  18. Evaluation of airborne particulates and fungi during hospital renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overberger, P A; Wadowsky, R M; Schaper, M M

    1995-07-01

    This study was conducted over 30 weeks on a hospital floor undergoing partial renovation. Some patients housed on the floor were immunosuppressed, including bone marrow transplant recipients. The construction zone was placed under negative pressure and was separated from patient rooms by existing hospital walls and via erection of a temporary barrier. Other control measures minimized patient exposure to airborne materials. Air sampling was done for 3 weeks prior to construction, 24 weeks during construction, and 3 weeks after renovation was completed. Airborne particulate concentrations, total spore counts, particle size, and fungal species were assessed. At the beginning of the renovation there were increases in airborne particulates (from 0.2 to 2.0 mg/m3) and fungal spores (from 3.5 to 350 colony forming units (CFU/m3), but only in the construction zone. Throughout the remainder of the renovation, particulate and fungal spore levels fluctuated inside the construction zone but remained close to baseline values in the patient area. When renovation was completed, particulates and spore counts inside the construction zone decreased to preconstruction levels. The primary fungus isolated from air samples was Penicillium. This study demonstrated that control measures were effective in reducing exposures of hospitalized patients to airborne particulates and spores and in reducing the increased risk of aspergillosis and other fungal infections associated with hospital construction projects. The data from this study may be useful in establishing exposure guidelines for other health care settings.

  19. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration

  20. Determination of trace elements in urban airborne particulates (PM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the air quality in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK was performed by determining the trace element content in airborne particulates (PM10). Samples were collected over a 12 month period (March 2011 to April 2012) using two high volume air sampler provided with a PM10 size selective inlet. The concentrations of ...

  1. Characterisation of particulate matter on airborne pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Helena; Guimarães, Fernanda; Duque, Laura; Noronha, Fernando; Abreu, Ilda

    2015-01-01

    A characterization of the physical–chemical composition of the atmospheric PM adsorbed to airborne pollen was performed. Airborne pollen was sampled using a Hirst-type volumetric spore sampler and observed using a Field Emission Electron Probe Microanalyser for PM analysis. A secondary electron image was taken of each pollen grain and EDS spectra were obtained for individually adsorbed particles. All images were analysed and the size parameters of the particles adsorbed to pollen was determined. The measured particles’ equivalent diameter varied between 0.1 and 25.8 μm, mostly in the fine fraction. The dominant particulates identified were Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Metals & Oxides and Cl-rich. Significant daily differences were observed in the physical–chemical characteristics of particles adsorbed to the airborne pollen wall. These differences were correlated with weather parameters and atmospheric PM concentration. Airborne pollen has the ability to adsorb fine particles that may enhance its allergenicity. - Highlights: • Airborne pollen sorbs other PM found in suspension. • 84% of the particles sorbed belonged to the fine aerosol fraction. • Adsorbed PM presented daily physical–chemical variations. • Particles sorbed dominated by Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Fe-rich and Cl-rich. - Airborne pollen is able to transport finer particulate matter, which presents daily physical–chemical variations.

  2. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  3. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rennan G.O., E-mail: rgoa01@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica Ambiental, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Sao Cristovao, 49.100-000, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vignola, Fabiola; Castilho, Ivan N.B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3{sigma}), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.12 ng m{sup -3} in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m{sup 3} collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g{sup -1}, equivalent to 0.41 ng m{sup -3} in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between < 40 ng g{sup -1} and 381 {+-} 24 ng g{sup -1}. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between < 0.12 ng m{sup -3} and 1.47 {+-} 0.09 ng m{sup -3}. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  4. Airborne soil particulates as vehicles for Salmonella contamination of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Govindaraj Dev; Williams, Robert C; Al Qublan, Hamzeh M; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyer, Renee R; Eifert, Joseph D

    2017-02-21

    The presence of dust is ubiquitous in the produce growing environment and its deposition on edible crops could occur. The potential of wind-distributed soil particulate to serve as a vehicle for S. Newport transfer to tomato blossoms and consequently, to fruits, was explored. Blossoms were challenged with previously autoclaved soil containing S. Newport (9.39log CFU/g) by brushing and airborne transfer. One hundred percent of blossoms brushed with S. Newport-contaminated soil tested positive for presence of the pathogen one week after contact (PCompressed air was used to simulate wind currents and direct soil particulates towards blossoms. Airborne soil particulates resulted in contamination of 29% of the blossoms with S. Newport one week after contact. Biophotonic imaging of blossoms post-contact with bioluminescent S. Newport-contaminated airborne soil particulates revealed transfer of the pathogen on petal, stamen and pedicel structures. Both fruits and calyxes that developed from blossoms contaminated with airborne soil particulates were positive for presence of S. Newport in both fruit (66.6%) and calyx (77.7%). Presence of S. Newport in surface-sterilized fruit and calyx tissue tested indicated internalization of the pathogen. These results show that airborne soil particulates could serve as a vehicle for Salmonella. Hence, Salmonella contaminated dust and soil particulate dispersion could contribute to pathogen contamination of fruit, indicating an omnipresent yet relatively unexplored contamination route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, C [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Nervegna, G; Cecinato, A [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ({Delta}{sup 9}-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm{sup -3} of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  6. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, C.; Nervegna, G.; Cecinato, A.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm -3 of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  7. Source apportionment of airborne particulates through receptor modeling: Indian scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirthankar; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Raju, M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne particulate chemistry mostly governed by associated sources and apportionment of specific sources is extremely essential to delineate explicit control strategies. The present submission initially deals with the publications (1980s-2010s) of Indian origin which report regional heterogeneities of particulate concentrations with reference to associated species. Such meta-analyses clearly indicate the presence of reservoir of both primary and secondary aerosols in different geographical regions. Further, identification of specific signatory molecules for individual source category was also evaluated in terms of their scientific merit and repeatability. Source signatures mostly resemble international profile while, in selected cases lack appropriateness. In India, source apportionment (SA) of airborne particulates was initiated way back in 1985 through factor analysis, however, principal component analysis (PCA) shares a major proportion of applications (34%) followed by enrichment factor (EF, 27%), chemical mass balance (CMB, 15%) and positive matrix factorization (PMF, 9%). Mainstream SA analyses identify earth crust and road dust resuspensions (traced by Al, Ca, Fe, Na and Mg) as a principal source (6-73%) followed by vehicular emissions (traced by Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Ba and Zn; 5-65%), industrial emissions (traced by Co, Cr, Zn, V, Ni, Mn, Cd; 0-60%), fuel combustion (traced by K, NH4+, SO4-, As, Te, S, Mn; 4-42%), marine aerosols (traced by Na, Mg, K; 0-15%) and biomass/refuse burning (traced by Cd, V, K, Cr, As, TC, Na, K, NH4+, NO3-, OC; 1-42%). In most of the cases, temporal variations of individual source contribution for a specific geographic region exhibit radical heterogeneity possibly due to unscientific orientation of individual tracers for specific source and well exaggerated by methodological weakness, inappropriate sample size, implications of secondary aerosols and inadequate emission inventories. Conclusively, a number of challenging

  8. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter in Bandung and Lembang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Achmad Hidayat; Dadang Supriatna

    2004-01-01

    ELEMENTAL QUANTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER IN BANDUNG AND LEMBANG REGION: The contaminated airborne particulates by toxic gases and elements have a potential affect to the human health. Some toxic elements related to air pollution have carcinogenic affect. The quantification of those elements is important to monitor a level of pollutant contained in the airborne particulate. The aim of this work is to analyze the air particulate sample using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other related technique. Two sampling points of Bandung and Lembang that represent and urban and rural area respectively have been chosen to collect the air particulate sample. The samplings were carried out using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler for 24 hours, and two cellulose filters of 8 μm and 0.45 μm pore size were used. Trace elements in the sample collected were determined using NAA based on a comparative method. Elemental distribution on PM 2.5 and PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate was analyzed, the enrichment factor was calculated using Al as reference elements, and the black carbons contents were determined using FEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer analyzed. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Miniaturized inertial impactor for personal airborne particulate monitoring: Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Silvia; Bianchi, Elena; Dubini, Gabriele; Cortelezzi, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations allowed us to conceive and design a miniaturized inertial impactor able to collect fine airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1). We created, by 3D printing, a prototype of the impactor. We first performed a set of experiments by applying a suction pump to the outlets and sampling the airborne particulate of our laboratory. The analysis of the slide showed a collection of a large number of particles, spanning a wide range of sizes, organized in a narrow band located below the exit of the nozzle. In order to show that our miniaturized inertial impactor can be truly used as a personal air-quality monitor, we performed a second set of experiments where the suction needed to produce the airflow through the impactor is generated by a human being inhaling through the outlets of the prototype. To guarantee a number of particles sufficient to perform a quantitative characterization, we collected particles performing ten consecutive deep inhalations. Finally, the potentiality for realistic applications of our miniaturized inertial impactor used in combination with a miniaturized single-particle detector will be discussed. CARIPLO Fundation - project MINUTE (Grant No. 2011-2118).

  10. Inhibition of intercellular communication by airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussen, G.A.H. (Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1991-04-01

    To investigate the inhibition of gap junction mediated intercellular communication (IC) by extracts of airborne particulate matter (APM), V79 cells were incubated with extracts of APM and subsequently microinjected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow, after which the number of fluorescent (= communicating) cells was determined. To compare inhibitory effects on IC with mutagenicity, APM was also tested in the Salmonella microsome assay. Six different extracts were tested, two outdoor extracts representing a heavily polluted and a relatively clean sample, and four indoor extracts, taken either in livingrooms with or without wood combustion in an open fire place, or in a room with or without cigarette smoking. Non-cytotoxic doses of outdoor and indoor APM inhibited IC in V79 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Mutagenicity data and IC data were correlated. These results suggest that APM has tumor promoter activity in addition to mutagenic activity. (orig.).

  11. Sampling airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive contaminants have historically been considered apart from chemical contaminants because it is their radiological properties that determine their biological and environmental impact. Additionally they have been regulated by special government agencies concerned with radiological protection. Radioactive contaminants are also distinguished by the specialized and very sensitive methods available for the detection of radioactivity. Measurements of a few thousand atoms per liter are not uncommon. Radiation detectors in common use are gas filled chambers, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, and the more recently developed thermoluminescent and etched track detectors. Solid-state nuclear track detectors consist of a large group of inorganic and organic dielectrics which register tracks when traversed by heavy charged particles. They do not respond to light, beta particles or gamma ray photons and thus provide a very low background system for the detection of extremely low levels of radioactivity. In addition, no power source or electronic equipment is required. Cellulose nitrate detectors are currently in use for long term integrated sampling of environmental radon. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TID's) are crystalline materials, in which electrons which have been displaced by an interaction with ionizing radiation become trapped at an elevated energy level and emit visible light when released from that energy level. As which etched-track detectors no power or electronic equipment is needed for the TID's at a measurement site, but they respond to alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters are useful for long term environmental monitoring, and have also been newly incorporated into integrating radon detection systems

  12. An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate Sources In Lagos, Nigeria. FS Olise, OK Owoade, HB Olaniyi. Abstract. There have been no clear demarcations between industrial and residential areas of Lagos with focus on industry as the major source. There is need to identify potential source types in ...

  13. Determination of lead associated with airborne particulate matter by flame atomic absorption and wave-length dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The lead content of airborne particulate matter was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) following digestion with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and also by wave-length dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The extraction procedure was checked by analyzing a standard reference material of airborne particulate matter (NIST, SRM -1648). It was concluded that lead can quantitatively (98%) be extracted from airborne particulate matter by the leaching process. A five-stage sequential extraction was performed to assess the potential mobility of lead associated with airborne particulate matter. Comparison of the airborne particulate lead measured by WDXRF to that measured by FAAS showed good agreement. The WDXRF method requires no time-consuming sample preparation or use of environmentally unfriendly solvents. The technique is suggested for direct determination of lead in airborne particulate matter in air pollution studies. (author)

  14. Trace elements in airborne particulates in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vleggaar, C.M.; Van As, D.; Watkins, J.L.; Mingay, D.W.; Wells, R.B.; Briggs, A.B.; Louw, C.W.

    1980-10-01

    Airborne particulate materials were monitored continously with calendar month sampling periods at 5 rural/background, 4 rural/developing/peri-urban, 6 urban and 7 industrial sites in South Africa. Concentrations of Al, Br, Ca, Cs, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, V and Zn were determined with neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) employed on a complementary basis. A review of sources of airborne trace elements is given. The monitoring program, sampling, sample-handling procedures, as well as the analytical methods used, are discussed in detail. The results of related studies, i.e. effects of filter materials; sampling rates and geometry; determinations of collection efficiencies; particle size ranges; effects of internal flux monitors on the precision and accuracy of NAA; trace impurities in blank materials; quality control by routine analysis of reference materials; comparison of results obtained by NAA, AAS, and PIXE analysis; are given, as is a review of air-pollution control and research policy in South Africa and of ambient air quality standards. Results are discussed in terms of general patterns in trace-element concentrations and enrichments, the general pattern in population centres, the variability of monthly concentrations, and in terms of long-term trends at background, rural, developing, peri-urban, urban and industrial sites. Cases of concern in respect of increasing concentrations are pointed out, as are the constantly high Pb levels at urban sites [af

  15. Airborne particulate matter collection and analysis by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Esguerra, Luz V.; Pabroa, Preciosa B.; Almoneda, Rosalina

    2004-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) continues to pursue its air pollution research in support of the implementation of the 1999 Clean Air Act. The primary tool for analysis is X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) since the PPP-I is still on extended shut down. Following the workplan approved during the 1991 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactors, the PNRI collected airborne particulate matter using the Gent sampler. The sampling site selected for the program was Poveda Learning Center, located beside a major highway, the Epifanio delos Santos Avenue (EDSA) where the principal source of pollution is vehicular emissions. Samples collected up to August were analyzed by XRF using three sets of analytical parameters to allow optimized analysis of a wider range of elements including Na and Pb. Although the PNRI has no operating reactor, it has personnel who have trained in NAA but are unable to apply the technique. As mentioned in the 2001 Workshop, the PNRI is considering several options to resume reactor-related activities. Thus, it is necessary to ensure continuing availability of expertise in NAA in the PNRI. It looks forward to collaborating with other Institutes through the FNCA program for the analysis of samples by NAA and using reactor parameters from collaborating Institute, to obtain experience in the use of Ko. This would also allow validation of XRF data obtained for these samples. In return it can analyze samples for collaborating institutions to generate data on Pb and S, which are important for pollutant source apportionment. (author)

  16. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Xalostoc, Mexico: winter to summer comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, J.; Aldape, F.; Diaz, R.V.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Garcia G, R.

    1999-01-01

    A study of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from the industrial city of Xalostoc, Estado de Mexico, was performed using PIXE. The place has a great variety of industries, it is a heavily populated, and it is a part of Mexico City's conurbation, thus contributing significantly to its atmospheric pollution. At present, there is few information available about elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from that region. In this study, two sets of samples of airborne particulate matter were collected daily during periods of four weeks in summer 1996 and winter 1997; two samples a day, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. Results revealed important information about elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5 . Comparison of night and day figures showed the presence of some elements such as Cu, Zn, and Pb, attributed, as it was expected, to uninterrupted industrial processes. Appearance of some other elements was more consistent only in either day-time or night-time due to diurnal or nocturnal industrial activities, or produced by human activities such as fuel combustion of automotive vehicles. Comparison of winter to summer results showed some other important features such as higher concentrations of pollutants in winter, because of the dry and cold weather, while summer samples exhibited lower concentrations mainly due to the presence of rain showers

  17. Dispersion model for airborne radioactive particulates inside a process building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1984-02-01

    An empirical model, predicting the spread of airborne radioactive particles after they are released inside a building, has been developed. The basis for this model is a composite of data for dispersion of airborne activity recorded during 12 case incidents. These incidents occurred at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during approximately 90 plant-years of experience with the chemical and metallurgical processing of purified neptunium and plutonium. The model illustrates that the multiple-air-zone concept, used in the designs of many nuclear facilities, can be an efficient safety feature to limit the spread of airborne activity from a release. This study also provides some insight into an apparently anomalous behavior of airborne particulates, namely, their migration against the prevailing flow of ventilation air. 2 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  18. Dispersion model for airborne particulates inside a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An empirical model has been developed for the spread of airborne radioactive particles after they are released inside a building. The model has been useful in performing safety analyses of actinide materials facilities at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These facilities employ the multiple-air-zone concept; that is, ventilation air flows from rooms or areas of least radioactive material hazard, through zones of increasing hazard, to a treatment system. A composite of the data for dispersion of airborne activity during 12 actual case incidents at SRP forms the basis for this model. These incidents occurred during approximately 90 plant-years of experience at SRP with the chemical and metallurgical processing of purified neptunium and plutonium after their recovery from irradiated uranium. The model gives ratios of the airborne activity concentrations in rooms and corridors near the site of the release. The multiple-air-zone concept has been applied to many designs of nuclear facilities as a safety feature to limit the spread of airborne activity from a release. The model illustrates the limitations of this concept: it predicts an apparently anomalous behavior of airborne particulates; namely, a small migration against the flow of the ventilation air

  19. Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Surya, Nitya; Sussan, Thomas E; Rao, Xiaoquan; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to aggravation of respiratory symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although the health effects of PM on the lower pulmonary airway have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the impact of chronic PM exposure on the upper sinonasal airway. We sought to test the impact of chronic airborne PM exposure on the upper respiratory system in vivo. Mice were subjected, by inhalation, to concentrated fine (2.5 μm) PM 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 16 weeks. Mean airborne fine PM concentration was 60.92 μm/m 3 , a concentration of fine PM lower than that reported in some major global cities. Mice were then killed and analyzed for evidence of inflammation and barrier breakdown compared with control mice. Evidence of the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM on sinonasal health in vivo, including proinflammatory cytokine release, and macrophage and neutrophil inflammatory cell accumulation was observed. A significant increase in epithelial barrier dysfunction was observed, as assessed by serum albumin accumulation in nasal airway lavage fluid, as well as decreased expression of adhesion molecules, including claudin-1 and epithelial cadherin. A significant increase in eosinophilic inflammation, including increased IL-13, eotaxin-1, and eosinophil accumulation, was also observed. Collectively, although largely observational, these studies demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

  20. Ferruginous compounds in the airborne particulate matter of the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Fernanda Vasconcelos Fonseca; Ardisson, José Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo César Horta; Fabris, José Domingos; Fernandez-Outon, Luis Eugenio; Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2017-08-01

    Samples of soil, iron ore, and airborne particulate matter (size airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, are either from natural origin, as, for instance, re-suspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic activities, meaning that it would be originated from the many iron ore minings surrounding the metropolitan area. Numerical simulations were used to model the atmospheric dispersion of the airborne particulate matter emitted by iron mining located at the Iron Quadrangle geodomain, Minas Gerais. Results from these numerical simulations supported identifying the sites with the highest concentrations of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan area. Samples of these suspended materials were collected at the selected sites by using high-volume air samplers. The physicochemical features of the solid materials were assessed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The soil materials were found to be rich in quartz, aluminum, organic matter, and low contents of iron, mainly as low crystalline iron oxides. The samples of the iron ores, on the other hand, contain high concentration of iron, dominantly as relatively pure and crystalline hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). The samples of the airborne particulate matter are rich in iron, mainly as hematite, but contained also quartz, aluminum, and calcium. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to evaluate the hyperfine structure of 57 Fe of the hematite both from the iron ore and the soil samples. The structural characteristics of the hematite of these particulate materials were further explored. The direct influence of the iron ore mining on the composition of the airborne particulate matter was clearly evidenced based on the trace ability of hematite to its source of emission. Even the atmospheric air on regions relatively far away from the mining activities is also significantly influenced.

  1. Characteristics of Airborne Particulates Containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Monazite Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Park, Il; Kim, Min Jun; Go, A Ra; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon Cheol [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize physicochemical properties of airborne particulates at a monazite pulverization industry. The properties included particulate size distribution, concentration, shape, density, and radioactivity concentration. Monazite is one of the minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Therefore, external and internal exposure can be occurred to the workers in monazite industry. The major exposure pathway of the workers is internal exposure due to inhalation of airborne particulates. According to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation dose due to inhaled particulates containing NORM depends on particulate properties. Therefore, ICRP recommended the internal dose assessment using measured physicochemical properties of the airborne particulates. In the absence of specific information, ICRP provided default reference values. In this study, we characterized physicochemical properties of airborne particulates at a monazite pulverization industry. The databases of particulate information can be used for accurate internal dose assessment of worker.

  2. Magnetic Approaches to Measuring and Mitigating Airborne Particulate Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, B.

    2014-12-01

    Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) generates adverse human health impacts at all life stages from the embryonic to the terminal, including damage to respiratory and cardiovascular health, and neurodevelopment and cognitive function. Detailed understanding of the causal links between PM exposure and specific health impacts, and possible means to reduce PM exposure require knowledge of PM concentrations, compositions and sources at the fine-scale; i.e. beyond the current resolution of spatially-sparse conventional PM monitoring, non-unique elemental analyses, or poorly-validated PM modelling. Magnetically-ordered iron oxide minerals appear to be a ubiquitous component of urban PM. These minerals derive partly from the presence of iron impurities in fuels, which form, upon combustion, a non-volatile residue, often dominated by magnetite, within glassy, spherical condensates. Iron-rich, magnetic PM also arises from abrasion from vehicle components, including disk brakes, and road dust. The ubiquity and diversity of these magnetic PM phases, and the speed and sensitivity of magnetic analyses (down to trace concentrations), makes possible rapid, cost-effective magnetic characterization and quantification of PM, a field of study which has developed rapidly across the globe over the last 2 decades. Magnetic studies of actively-sampled PM, on filters, and passively-sampled PM, on tree leaves and other depositional surfaces, can be used to: monitor and map at high spatial resolution ambient PM concentrations; address the controversial issue of the efficacy of PM capture by vegetation; and add a new, discriminatory dimension to PM source apportionment.

  3. [Distribution of airborne fungi, particulate matter and carbon dioxide in Seoul metropolitan subway stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Park, Jae Beom; Kim, Chi Nyon; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2006-07-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the level of airborne fungi and environmental factors in Seoul metropolitan subway stations and to provide fundamental data to protect the health of subway workers and passengers. The field survey was performed from November in 2004 to February in 2005. A total 22 subway stations located at Seoul subway lines 1-4 were randomly selected. The measurement points were subway workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and the passengers' activity areas (station precincts, inside train and platform). Air sampling for collecting airborne fungi was carried out using a one-stage cascade impactor. The PM and CO2 were measured using an electronic direct recorder and detecting tube, respectively. In the activity areas of the subway workers and passengers, the mean concentrations of airborne fungi were relatively higher in the workers' bedroom and station precinct whereas the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, were relatively higher in the platform, inside the train and driver's seat than in the other activity areas. There was no significant difference in the concentration of airborne fungi between the underground and ground activity areas of the subway. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in the platform located at underground was significantly higher than that of the ground (psubway line 1-4 were not serious enough to cause respiratory disease in subway workers and passengers. This indicates that there is little correlation between airborne fungi and particulate matter.

  4. The filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.; Mustonen, R.

    1987-06-01

    Within the radioecological programme of the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy (NKA), the possible consequences of a major reactor accident are one of its main research branches. This study of the filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter has been one part of this branch. The absorbed dose to a person from a passing radioactive cloud will be lower if he has been indoors and not ourdoors during the cloud passage. The aim of this study has been to find filtering factors for typical Finnish and Norwegian houses to use in model work

  5. Characteristic of ambient airborne and respirable particulate around a non formal industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Mariana Marselina; Rita Mukhtar

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of airborne particulate matter and respirable particulate in Parung Panjang district especially on surrounding non formal used batteries industrial area has been carried out to follow up the previous results with respect to high concentrations of lead detected in Serpong area. Sampling of airborne particulate matter in Parung Panjang was conducted using Gent stacked filter unit sampler, while the respirable particulate matter samples collected using personal dust sampler in Parung Panjang as a non formal Industrial area and Sukarasa village as a control, during 2011-2012. The concentration of masses were determined gravimetrically, while for elemental concentrations by X-Ray based methods. The average of mass concentration of air ambient PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Parung Panjang were 27.3 ± 13.7 and 77.5 ± 17.1 μg.m -3 , respectively. While the average concentration of respirable particulate in non formal industrial and control areas were 260 ± 233 and 82 ± 38 μg.m -3 , respectively. The percentage of average Pb concentration in PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 were contribute up to 45 and 10 % of the mass concentration, respectively. The maximum percentage concentration of Pb in respirable particulate in industrial and control area were 12.11 and 0.27 %, respectively. These results showed that the Pb concentrations in respirable particulate in industrial area were significantly tens times higher than in the control area. The high concentration of Pb in Parung Panjang was the main key element came from the used lead battery industry and one of pollutant source that contributed to the Pb pollution in Serpong area. (author)

  6. Collection of airborne particulate matter for a subsequent analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockenkaemper, R.; Bayer, H.; Bohlen, A. von; Schmeling, M.; Klockow, D.

    1995-01-01

    The collection of airborne particulate matter by filtration and impaction was adapted to total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Cellulose nitrate filters were used for collecting in a Berner impactor. Single filter spots were punched out, placed on quartz-glass carriers, dissolved by tetrahydrofuran and re-precipitated prior to element determinations by TXRF. In a Battelle-type impactor, airborne dust was collected on Plexiglass carriers coated with medical Vaseline. The loaded carriers were directly analyzed by TXRF. In both cases, quantification was simply performed by the addition of an internal standard after sampling. Impactors were made of a suitable material in order to investigate high blank values, collection losses and memory effects. It could be shown that stainless steel, even coated with TiN, is less suitable and should be avoided as an impactor material. Although aluminum is partly recommendable, titanium and the polymer Makrolon are quite appropriate. By using an impactor made of these materials, a reliable multielement determination in airborne dust is made possible with low detection limits as low as 1 ng/m 3 and a satisfactory repeatability of a few %. Short sampling times of only 1 h or less can be realized. The total procedure is simple and time-saving, and can be recommended for routine investigations of airborne particulate matter. (author)

  7. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Fernanda V.F.; Ardisson, Jose Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar H.; Brito, Walter de; Macedo, Waldemar Augusto A.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  8. Workbook on reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) of airborne particulate matter (APM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi

    2000-01-01

    This publication presents general aspects of reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to measurement of elemental composition of airborne particulate matter. It presents an introduction to the NAA, its' basic principles and brief history of the method and discusses its' advantages and disadvantages. This publication also presents experimental procedures of NAA including sampling and sample preparation; preparation of calibration standard samples; reactor neutron irradiation; gamma-spectroscopy of the irradiated samples; quantification and presentation of analytical results. The publication pays attention to the quality assurance and quality control procedures including internal quality control, analysis of certified reference materials, and interlaboratory and multi-method comparison studies, control charts

  9. Manganese survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area at Hidalgo State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Flores M, J.

    1999-01-01

    A manganese (Mn) survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area located in Hidalgo State (Mexico) was performed using PIXE. Deposits of Mn ore, first discovered in 1959 and under continuous exploitation since 1962, are nowadays considered as one of the most important of their kind in the American Continent. Afterwards, local inhabitants have been under continuous overexposure to dusts and water highly enriched with Mn. Since no information was available about Mn content in airborne particulate matter in that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5 , airborne particles were collected simultaneously at two sites located on opposite sides of the rim of the mining valley, and along the line of prevailing local winds. The sample collection was performed on eight alternate days, taking two samples per day (day-time and night-time) at each sampling site, using Stacked Filter Units (SFUs) of the Davis design to separate particles into fine (PM 2.5 ) and coarse (PM 15 ) sizes. The samples were PIXE analyzed and the results of this study revealed that Mn content, in both fine and coarse fractions, were in excess of the general urban background level of 40 ng/m 3 (US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990) in more than 50% of the samples, which indicate severe environmental deterioration in the place under study

  10. Application for airborne particulate matter as a demonstration using k0-NAA method in Dalat nuclear research institute of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Truong Y; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2004-01-01

    The airborne particulate samples have been collected using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM 2.5 and PM 2-5-10 in two typical sites of industrial (Ho Chi Minh City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. The concentration of trace elements in the samples has been determined by the k 0 -NAA procedure developed in Dalat NRI. In order to check the developed k 0 -NAA procedure for the airborne particulate matter, two standard reference materials (SRMs) Urban Particulate NIST-1648 and Vehicle Exhaust Particulates NIES-8 were analyzed and the obtained results have been compared and interpreted in term of deviation between experimental results and the certified values. (author)

  11. Structural Variation in the Bacterial Community Associated with Airborne Particulate Matter in Beijing, China, during Hazy and Nonhazy Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2018-05-01

    The structural variation of the bacterial community associated with particulate matter (PM) was assessed in an urban area of Beijing during hazy and nonhazy days. Sampling for different PM fractions (PM 2.5 [airborne bacterial community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq platform with bacterium-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 1,707,072 reads belonging to 6,009 operational taxonomic units were observed. The airborne bacterial community composition was significantly affected by PM fractions ( R = 0.157, P airborne bacterial community composition. Only six genera increased across PM 10 samples ( Dokdonella , Caenimonas , Geminicoccus , and Sphingopyxis ) and PM 2.5 samples ( Cellulomonas and Rhizobacter ), while a large number of taxa significantly increased in total suspended particulate samples, such as Paracoccus , Kocuria , and Sphingomonas Network analysis indicated that Paracoccus , Rubellimicrobium , Kocuria , and Arthrobacter were the key genera in the airborne PM samples. Overall, the findings presented here suggest that diverse airborne bacterial communities are associated with PM and provide further understanding of bacterial community structure in the atmosphere during hazy and nonhazy days. IMPORTANCE The results presented here represent an analysis of the airborne bacterial community associated with particulate matter (PM) and advance our understanding of the structural variation of these communities. We observed a shift in bacterial community composition with PM fractions but no significant difference with haze levels. This may be because the bacterial differences are obscured by high bacterial diversity in the atmosphere. However, we also observed that a few genera (such as Methylobacillus , Tumebacillus , and Desulfurispora ) increased significantly on heavy-haze days. In addition, Paracoccus , Rubellimicrobium , Kocuria , and Arthrobacter were the key genera in the airborne PM samples. Accurate and real

  12. Metagenomic profiling of ARGs in airborne particulate matters during a severe smog event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jialin; Zhao, Fuzheng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Li, Kan; Li, Chaoran; Ye, Lin; Li, Mei

    2018-02-15

    Information is currently limited regarding the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in smog and their correlations with airborne bacteria. This study characterized the diversity and abundance of ARGs in the particulate matters (PMs) of severe smog based on publicly available metagenomic data, and revealed the occurrence of 205 airborne ARG subtypes, including 31 dominant ones encoding resistance to 11 antibiotic types. Among the detectable ARGs, tetracycline, β-lactam and aminoglycoside resistance genes had the highest abundance, and smog and soil had similar composition characteristics of ARGs. During the smog event, the total abundance of airborne ARGs ranged from 4.90 to 38.07ppm in PM 2.5 samples, and from 7.61 to 38.49ppm in PM 10 samples, which were 1.6-7.7 times and 2.1-5.1 times of those in the non-smog day, respectively. The airborne ARGs showed complicated co-occurrence patterns, which were heavily influenced by the interaction of bacterial community, and physicochemical and meteorological factors. Lactobacillus and sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 were determined as keystones in the co-occurrence network of microbial taxa and airborne ARGs. The results may help to understand the distribution patterns of ARGs in smog for the potential health risk evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  14. PIXE and neutron activation analysis: intercomparison in the elemental concentration of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Gras, N.; Chuaqui, L.; Dinator, M.I.; Morales, J.R.; Llona, F.; Romo-Kroeger, C.

    1993-01-01

    Two nuclear analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), were used to determine major and trace elements in airborne particulate matter collected during the first fortnight of June 1991 at the La Reina Nuclear Center. NAA detected the presence of 15 elements in the samples. PIXE, for the same samples, allowed the detection of 12 elements. The elements determined by both techniques were Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. A good correlation between results for these elements for each of the two techniques was demonstrated. (author)

  15. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Benchrif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were obtained for Ca in coarse particles and Fe for fine particles. However, the lowest concentrations were observed for Cd in both particulate sizes. The principal component analysis (PCA based on multivariate study enabled the identification of soil, road dust and traffic emissions as common sources for coarse and fine particles.

  16. Determination of stable isotope ratio of lead in airborne particulate matter by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hitoshi; Ambe, Yoshinari

    1990-01-01

    ICP-MS was applied to the measurement of stable isotope ratios of lead, which are used as an indicator of the source of lead in airborne particulate matter. For the measurement of lead isotopes ratios, the influences of machine conditions, lead concentration and matrix elements to the precision and accuracy of the measurements were studied. At a scanning mode, dwell time of 40∼160 μs gave the best precision to the isotope ratio measurements; about 0.3 % of R.S.D. for 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, 0.6 % for 206 Pb/ 204 Pb. Precision of the measurement was better at a high concentration of lead in sample solution. The observed value of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio was not affected by the lead concentration, but in the cases of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, about 1 % of the value changed in the observed ratios with the lead concentration of 100∼500 μg/l. Six matrix elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe) did not affect the observed isotope ratios up to 200 mg/l. The lead isotope ratios of reference materials {Urban Particulates (NIST) and Vehicle Exhausted Particulates (NIES)} were measured by using two kinds of sample; crude sample and lead-isolated sample from matrix elements by anodic deposition. Both cases gave the same isotope ratio values, therefore, lead isotope ratios in airborne particulate samples can be measured by ICP-MS without any separation of lead from matrix elements. (author)

  17. Multielement proton activation analysis: application to airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, P.; Devillers, M.; Desaedeleer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Proton activation analysis in the range of 25 to 30 MeV proton energies allows the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Sn and Pb in airborne particles collected by 4 to 7 stage impactors. Under normal, not limitative irradiation and counting conditions, the determination is accurate for samples collected from 1 to 10 m 3 of air in rural atmospheres

  18. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulates by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Sam; Jung, Yung Joo; Jung, Eui Sik; Cho, Seung Yun

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in airborne particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA) under the optimum analytical condition. Neutron irradiation for sample was done at the irradiation hole(neutron flux, 1 x 10 13 n/cm 2 s) of TRIGA MARK-III research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. For the verification of the analytical method, NIST SRM-1648 and NIES CRM No.8 were chosen and analyzed. The accuracy and precision of the analysis of 40 and 24 trace elements in the samples were compared with the certified and reported values, respectively. The analytical method was found to be reliable enough when the analytical data of NIES sample were compared with those of different countries. In the analytical result of two or both of standard reference materials, relative standard deviation was within the 15% except a few elements and the relative error was within the 10%. We used this method to analyze 30 trace elements in airborne particulates collected with the high volume air sampler(PM-10) at two different locations and also confirmed the possibility to use this method as a routine monitoring tool to find out environmental pollution sources. 3 figs., 8 tabs., 19 refs. (Author)

  19. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Mexico. A first survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Flores M, J.; Diaz, R.V.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Montoya Z, J.M.; Blanco, E.E.; Fuentes, A.F.; Torres-Martinez, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    A first survey of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was performed using PIXE. This second largest industrial city is located 715 km north of Mexico City, and counts with a population of nearly three million inhabitants in its conurbation. Air pollution in the place comes from a great variety of industries ranging from iron smelters to furniture manufacturing, as well as from fuel combustion in vehicles and industries. This study presents results of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter in two particle size fractions: PM 2.5 and PM 15 . The samples were collected during five weeks on working days, Monday-Friday, from 9 December 1996 to 14 January 1997. Two samples a day were collected, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. These first results show local pollution as typical from a large urban area in conjunction with an active industry. Thirteen elements were consistently detected in most of the samples and some episodes due to both industrial and human activities were identified. A general discussion about the results obtained is presented

  20. Distribution of lead in relation to size of airborne particulate matter in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, N; Jaffar, M; Saqib, M

    2004-02-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) collected from two sampling stations in Islamabad, Pakistan, was analyzed for lead content and size gradation. A high volume air sampler was used to trap particulates on glass fiber filters for 8-12 h on a daily basis. Lead was estimated using a nitric acid digestion based AAS method on 44 samples from station 1 and 61 samples from station 2. Particle size fractions were categorized as 100 microm. The correlation between lead concentration and particle size was investigated. The results from two stations indicated average airborne lead concentrations of 0.505 and 0.185 microg/m3. Enhanced levels of lead were measured at a maximum of 4.075 microg/m3 at station 1 and 4.000 microg/m3 at station 2. PM 100 were found to constitute the local atmosphere in comparable proportions. A comparison of the lead levels is made with the existing permissible levels of this element laid down by different international agencies.

  1. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...

  2. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  3. PIXE Analysis and source identification of airborne particulate matter collected in Downtown Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Pinnera, I; Ramos, M; Guibert, R; Molina, E.; Martinez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Aldape, F.; Flores, M.

    2009-01-01

    A set of samples containing airborne particulate matter (in two particle size fraction PM10 and PM2,5) collected during five months from November 2006 to April 2007 in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique and the concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were determined consistently in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of ng/m3. A Gent air sampler was used for the aerosol collection in PM10 and PM2,5 particles simultaneously and the PIXE elemental analysis were performed using a proton beam of 2.5 MeV from the 2 MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator at the ININ PIXE Laboratory in Mexico. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the promising local pollution sources. The statistical techniques of Multivariate Factor Analysis in combination with the Principal Component Analysis methods were applied to this data and allowed identifying five main pollution sources of airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2,5) collected in this area. The main (local) identified sources were: soil dust, sea spray, industry, fossil fuel combustion from motor vehicles and burnings or incinerations of diverse materials. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  4. Airborne particulate concentrations and fluxes at an active uranium mill tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Direct measurements of airborne particulate concentrations and fluxes of transported mill tailing materials were measured at an active mill tailings site. Experimental measurement equipment consisted of meteorological instrumentation to automatically activate total particulate air samplers as a function of wind speed increments and direction, as well as particle cascade impactors to measure airborne respirable concentrations as a function of particle size. In addition, an inertial impaction device measured nonrespirable fluxes of airborne particles. Caclulated results are presented in terms of the airborne solid concentration in g/m 3 , the horizontal airborne mass flux in g/(m 2 -day) for total collected nonrespirable particles and the radionuclide concentrations in dpm/g as a function of particle diameter for respirable and nonrespirable particles

  5. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  6. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p airborne fungal community composition. The results suggest that diverse airborne fungal communities are associated with particulate matters and may provide reliable data for studying the responses of human body to the increasing level of air pollution in Beijing.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  8. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by means of airborne particulate matter and biomonitors using k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A. de B.C.; Pereira Maia, E.C.; Filho, S.S.; Albinati, C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to assess the elemental concentration level in a galvanizing industry and alert for the need to assess the outcome of a long-term exposure, scalp hair and toenail samples were used as bioindicators and the industry environment was evaluated through airborne particulate matter. The elemental concentration results have pointed out a high exposure to pollutant at workplaces and a high elemental concentration in biomonitors suggesting endogenous contamination. The majority of the elements determined in airborne particulate matter were also determined in hair and toenail samples. The results evidence the efficiency of these matrixes as biomonitors and the importance to carry out the airborne particulate matter sampling in parallel to these biomonitors mainly in occupational epidemiological studies. (author)

  9. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Ilaria; Mavris, Christian; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  10. Assessment of bacterial pathogens in fresh rainwater and airborne particulate matter using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) and in rainwater (RW) were detected using a robust and sensitive Real-Time PCR method. Both RW and PM were collected simultaneously in the tropical atmosphere of Singapore, which were then subjected to analysis for the presence of selected bacterial pathogens and potential pathogen of health concern ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila). These pathogens were found to be prevalent in both PM and RW samples with E. coli being the most prevalent potential pathogen in both types of samples. The temporal distribution of these pathogens in PM and RW was found to be similar to each other. Using the proposed microbiological technique, the atmospheric deposition (dry and wet deposition) of bacterial pathogens to lakes and reservoirs can be studied in view of growing concerns about the outbreak of waterborne diseases.

  11. Nondestructive multielement analyses of airborne particulates by combined uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mizohata, Akira

    1974-01-01

    Combined uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis make it possible to analyze nondestructively a considerably large number of elements in airborne particulates. We have confirmed that up to 45 elements can be analyzed without any chemical procedures for urban airborne particulate samples. As the radiation spectrometry by semiconductor detectors and the automatic data reduction by electronic computation are quite common to the two techniques, combined uses of them produce no special annoyance. Several elements can be analyzed by both of them and therefore the reliability of the analytical results can be comfirmed by comparing the data obtained by them with each other. It is noted that this confirmation can be made for the very same sample. In this article are described our experiences of multielement analyses of airborne particulates and some problems to be solved in further studies. (auth.)

  12. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colls, J.J.; Micallef, A.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  13. Comparative analysis of elemental components in airborne particulate matter by k0-NAA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-Sam; Moon, Jong-Hwa; Cho, Hyun-Je; Kim, Young-Jin

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the analytical data obtained by three k 0 -NAA software programs was carried out using both the airborne particulate matter collected from an urban site and the certified reference materials of the air filter and urban dust to evaluate the performance of the analysis. The individual k 0 -NAA standardization methods of three countries, Korea, China and Vietnam which had been modified from the well established k 0 -program were used for the comparative analysis. The measured concentrations of 30 elements from the two kinds of air samples based on this software were in agreement with each other within about 20% analytical error except for a few elements. By contrast, the results of China and Vietnam were moderately higher than that of Korea due to a systematic error associated with the detection efficiency, gamma peak analysis and geometric effect

  14. Variations of lead isotopes and airborne particulate concentrations from the Kozani basin, West Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampides, G; Manoliadis, O; Triantafyllou, A

    2002-03-01

    The spread and variation in 206Pb/207Pb ratios make Pb isotopes a powerful tool when it comes to detecting trends in airborne particulates originating mainly from power plants. This study was conducted to determine the source of pollution in Kozani area, an affected industrial area. Lead isotopic ratios of air filters under certain meteorological conditions were compared to Pb isotope analyses sampled from lignite mines, but also to Pb isotope analyses of cultivations in soil originating from the reclamation of old abandoned lignite-mines. The particles taken into consideration have an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10). The measurements were carried out in a central part of the town of Kozani, West Macedonia, for one year observation period. The lead isotope values of air filters and of wheat in the Kozani area are between the values of lignite Pb and of Greek gasoline.

  15. Impact of banning of two-stroke engines on airborne particulate matter concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular air pollution is common in growing metropolitan areas throughout the world. Vehicular emissions of fine particles are particularly harmful because they occur near ground level, close to where people live and work. Two-stroke engines represented an important contribution to the motor vehicle emissions where they constitute approximately half of the total vehicle fleet in Dhaka city. Two-stroke engines have lower fuel efficiency than four-stroke engines, and they emit as much of an order of magnitude and more particulate matter (PM) than four-stroke engines of similar size. To eliminate their impact on air quality, the government of Bangladesh promulgated an order banning all two-stroke engines from the roads in Dhaka starting on December 31, 2002. The effect of the banning of two-stroke engines on airborne PM was studied at the Farm Gate air quality-monitoring station in Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh), a hot spot with very high-pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The samples were collected using a "Gent" stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 microm and 2.2-10 microm sizes. Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne PM collected from 2000 to 2004 were studied. It has been found that the fine PM and black carbon concentrations decreased from the previous years because of the banning of two-stroke engine baby taxies.

  16. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  17. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestiani, D.D.; Santoso, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  18. Sampling/classification of gasifier particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzyn, J.

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature and pressure real time extractive sampling probe for particulate monitoring was built at Brookhaven National Laboratory and tested on Morgantown Energy Technology Center's 42 inch fixed bed gasifier. The probe was specifically designed for the conditions of highly loaded particulate and condensable streams, that exist at the outlet of a fixed bed gasifier. Some of the salient features of the probe are: porous tube gas injection, aerodynamic particle classification in the presence of condensable vapors, β gauge particle detection, and micro processor control. Three of the key design problems were the separation of the particles from the vapor without promoting condensation, the prevention of plugging, and real time monitoring. Some plugging did occur over the seven day sampling period, but by over pressurizing and back purging the clog was blown back into the process stream. The tests validate the proof of concept of the sampling probe and indicated that the particulate output from the bed came in the form of bursts (several minutes in duration) rather than in the form of a steady stream

  19. Air sampling system for airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter, C.; Tipton, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system has been designed for installation on the Beechcraft King Air A-100 aircraft as a part of the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). It is intended for both particle and whole gas sampling. The sampling probe is designed for isokinetic sampling and is mounted on a removable modified escape hatch cover, behind the co-pilot's seat, and extends about two feet forward of the hatch cover in the air stream lines. Directly behind the sampling probe inside the modified hatch cover is an expansion chamber, space for a 5-inch diameter filter paper cassette, and an optional four-stage cascade impactor for particle size distribution measurements. A pair of motors and blower pumps provide the necessary 0.5 atmosphere pressure across the type MSA 1106 B glass fiber filter paper to allow a flow rate of 50 cfm. The MSA 1106 B filter paper is designed to trap sub-micrometer particles with a high efficiency; it was chosen to enable a quantitative measurement of airborne radon daughters, one of the principal sources of background signals when radiological surveys are being performed. A venturi section and pressure gauges allow air flow rate measurements so that airborne contaminant concentrations may be quantified. A whole gas sampler capable of sampling a cubic meter of air is mounted inside the aircraft cabin. A nuclear counting system on board the aircraft provides capability for α, β and γ counting of filter paper samples. Design data are presented and types of survey missions which may be served by this system are described

  20. Airborne particulate matter in school classrooms of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M

    2014-01-27

    Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels.

  1. Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rovelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO. In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the

  2. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 6: elemental determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Andonie, O.; Gras, N.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter from some locations in the city of Santiago, Chile. The following elements were determined: Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V y Zn. The accuracy of the experimental procedure was evaluated using a standard reference material. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Characterization of airborne and bulk particulate from iron and steel manufacturing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machemer, Steven D

    2004-01-15

    Characterization of airborne and bulk particulate material from iron and steel manufacturing facilities, commonly referred to as kish, indicated graphite flakes and graphite flakes associated with spherical iron oxide particles were unique particle characteristics useful in identifying particle emissions from iron and steel manufacturing. Characterization of airborne particulate material collected in receptor areas was consistent with multiple atmospheric release events of kish particles from the local iron and steel facilities into neighboring residential areas. Kish particles deposited in nearby residential areas included an abundance of graphite flakes, tens of micrometers to millimeters in size, and spherical iron oxide particles, submicrometer to tens of micrometers in size. Bulk kish from local iron and steel facilities contained an abundance of similar particles. Approximately 60% of blast furnace kish by volume consisted of spherical iron oxide particles in the respirable size range. Basic oxygen furnace kish contained percent levels of strongly alkaline components such as calcium hydroxide. In addition, concentrations of respirable Mn in airborne particulate in residential areas and at local iron and steel facilities were approximately 1.6 and 53 times the inhalation reference concentration of 0.05 microg/m3 for chronic inhalation exposure of Mn, respectively. Thus, airborne release of kish may pose potential respirable particulate, corrosive, or toxic hazards for human health and/or a corrosive hazard for property and the environment.

  4. Trace elements present in airborne particulate matter-Stressors of plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Zemanová, V.; Hnilička, F.; Urbanová, V.; Száková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, May 2012 (2012), s. 101-107 ISSN 0147-6513 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA521/09/1150 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Airborne particulate matter * Amino acids * Gas-exchange parameters Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2012

  5. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 and PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohddin, S A; Aminuddin, N M

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m 3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m 3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m 3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM 2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended

  6. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  7. Size resolved airborne particulate polysaccharides in summer high Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, C.; Gao, Q.; Mashayekhy Rad, F.; Nilsson, U.

    2013-04-01

    Size-resolved aerosol samples for subsequent determination of polysaccharides (monosaccharides in combined form) were collected in air over the central Arctic Ocean during the biologically most active period between the late summer melt season and into the transition to autumn freeze-up. The analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled with highly selective and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry. Polysaccharides were detected in all sizes ranging from 0.035 to 10 μm in diameter with distinct features of heteropolysaccharides, enriched in xylose, glucose + mannose as well as a substantial fraction of deoxysugars. Polysaccharides containing deoxysugars showed a bimodal structure with about 60% of their mass found in the Aitken mode over the pack ice area. Pentose (xylose) and hexose (glucose + mannose) showed a weaker bimodal character and were largely found in the coarse mode in addition to a minor fraction apportioned in the sub-micrometer size range. The concentration of total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS) in the samples collected varied over 3 orders of magnitude (1 to 692 pmol m-3) in the super-micrometer size fraction and to a lesser extent in sub-micrometer particles (4 to 88 pmol m-3). Lowest THNS concentrations were observed in air masses that had spent more than 5 days over the pack ice. Within the pack ice area, about 53% (by mass) of the total mass of polysaccharides were found in sub-micrometer particles. The relative abundance of sub-micrometer polysaccharides was closely related to the length of time that the air mass spent over pack ice, with highest fraction (> 90%) observed for > 7 days of advection. The ambient aerosol particles collected onboard ship showed similar monosaccharide composition, compared to particles generated experimentally in situ at the open lead site. This supports the existence of a primary source of particulate polysaccharides from open leads by bubble bursting at the air-sea interface. We speculate that

  8. Assessment of inhalation dose sensitivity by physicochemical properties of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Young; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Won Chul; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Facilities processing raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may give rise to enhanced radiation dose to workers due to chronic inhalation of airborne particulates. Internal radiation dose due to particulate inhalation varies depending on particulate properties, including size, shape, density, and absorption type. The objective of the present study was to assess inhalation dose sensitivity to physicochemical properties of airborne particulates. Committed effective doses to workers resulting from inhalation of airborne particulates were calculated based on International Commission on Radiological Protection 66 human respiratory tract model. Inhalation dose generally increased with decreasing particulate size. Committed effective doses due to inhalation of 0.01μm sized particulates were higher than doses due to 100μm sized particulates by factors of about 100 and 50 for {sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th, respectively. Inhalation dose increased with decreasing shape factor. Shape factors of 1 and 2 resulted in dose difference by about 18 %. Inhalation dose increased with particulate mass density. Particulate mass densities of 11 g·cm{sup -3} and 0.7 g·cm{sup -3} resulted in dose difference by about 60 %. For {sup 238}U, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of S, M, and F in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type S of {sup 238}U was about 9 times higher than dose for absorption F. For {sup 230}Th, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of F, M, and S in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type F of {sup 230}Th was about 16 times higher than dose for absorption S. Consequently, use of default values for particulate properties without consideration of site specific physiochemical properties may potentially skew radiation dose estimates to unrealistic values up to 1-2 orders of magnitude. For this reason, it is highly recommended to consider site specific working materials and

  9. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites.

  10. Air quality in the Kootenays: fine particulate (PM10) airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels, 1993-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    Air quality monitoring data collected in the Kootenays over a seven year period from 1993 to 1999 are summarized in an effort to inform the public about air quality in the Kootenays and to assist them in understanding air quality monitoring results. Data includes hourly (TEOM) and weekly (NAPS) data for particulate matter (PM 1 0) airborne metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc) and sulphur dioxide. Analysis of monitoring data showed that particulate matter levels remained constant in most communities, with Johnson Lake and Slocan reporting the lowest levels, while Golden had the highest values during this period. Trail-Butler Park showed a clear declining trend in PM 1 0. Airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels have decreased in the Kootenays during the seven year period, with only occasional exceedances of both Level A and B air quality objectives in some communities. The report includes a detailed description of the sampling methodology and the analyzed results for PM 1 0, airborne metals and sulphur dioxide for 10 communities in the region. 6 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs., 1 map

  11. Current technology in sampling for airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    Sampling for airborne radionuclides is an important part of assessing the occupational environment and that of the public or out-plant environment. Both of these are important to the operation of any nuclear facility. Most such facilities do not emit radionuclides continuously to any extent and hence both the occupational and environmental sampling system is designed to detect deviations from normal conditions or untoward events. Work with materials of a low degree of radioactivity or with nonradioactive materials may involve operations which are not enclosed and significant contaminating material may always exist in the air. In this case, the sampling is directed toward measuring this ambient level and assessing its continued impact on the worker and on the environment. Publication No. 12 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection specifies the types of operations where sampling is necessary for worker protection and the American National Standards Institute publication N 13.1-1969 is a guide to the methods used. Increasingly, this field is covered by various regulations which specify when sampling must be done and, in some cases, how it shall be done. These include requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Needless to say, where these have specified methods they must be followed although in most cases exact procedures are not detailed as requirements. Within the plant, needs for sampling are often suggested by surface monitoring results and by bioassay, and outside by analysis of plants, soils, and material from fallout trays. 15 references

  12. Comparison of neutron activation analysis with other instrumental methods for elemental analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, P. de; Lievens, F.; Delespaul, I.; Monsecour, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of instrumental methods, including neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and emission spectrometry, for the analysis of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter is described. The merits and drawbacks of each method for the routine analysis of a large number of samples are discussed. The sample preparation technique, calibration and statistical data relevant to each method are given. Concordant results are obtained by the different methods for Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Less good agreement is obtained for Fe, Mn and V. The results are not in agreement for the elements Cd and Cr. Using data obtained on the dust sample distributed by Euratom-ISPRA within the framework of an interlaboratory comparison, the accuracy of each method for the various elements is estimated. Neutron activation analysis was found to be the most sensitive and accurate of the non-destructive analysis methods. Only atomic absorption spectrometry has a comparable sensitivity, but requires considerable preparation work. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is less sensitive and shows biases for Cr and V. Automatic emission spectrometry with simultaneous measurement of the beam intensities by photomultipliers is the fastest and most economical technique, though at the expense of some precision and sensitivity. (author)

  13. Trace-Determination of Cadmium by Neutron Activation. Application to Air-Borne Particulates, Hair and Foodstuffs. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Vries, H.H. de

    1971-01-01

    This study describes a routine-procedure by neutron activation for the determination of cadmium in industrial air-borne particulate samples, collected on filter paper, hair and foodstuffs. The reaction used is 114 Cd(n, γ) 115 Cd (β)/→ T½ = 53.5 h 115m In (β)/ → T½ = 4.5 h 115 In Cadmium is isolated by liquid-liquid extraction with a chloroform solution of dithizone. The activity of the 115 In-daughter is counted. The method was tested by analysis of the standard kale powder. (author)

  14. The identification of metallic elements in airborne particulate matter derived from fossil fuels at Puertollano, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andres; Querol, Xavier; Font, Oriol [Institute of Earth Sciences ' ' Jaume Almera' ' , CSIC, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Gibbons, Wes [AP 23075, Barcelona 08080 (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    Puertollano is the largest industrial centre in central Spain, and includes fossil fuel burning power plants as well as petrochemical and fertilizer complexes. The coal-fired power plants use locally mined coal from extensive coal deposits which continue to be exploited and used locally. The coal deposits have a distinctive geochemistry, being particularly enriched in Sb and Pb, as well as several other metals/metalloids that include Zn and As. ICP-AES and ICP-MS chemical analysis of particulate matter samples (both PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}) collected at Puertollano over a 57-week period in 2004-2005 reveals enhanced levels of several metallic trace elements, especially in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) aerosol fraction. Factor analysis applied to the data indicates that at least some of these metallic elements are likely to originate from hydrocarbon combustion: Sb and Pb are markers linked to the local coals, whereas V and Ni are, at least in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) fraction, likely associated with other anthropogenic sources. Other factors measured are related to natural sources such as crustal/mineral and sea spray particles. Our study provides an example of how chemical analysis of large numbers of ambient PM samples, combined with statistical factor analysis and coal geochemistry, can reveal airborne emissions from the combustion of specifically identifiable fuels. (author)

  15. Elemental Quantification and Source Identification of Airborne Particulate Matter in Pathumwan District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, Wanna; Bunprapob, Suphamattree

    2003-10-01

    Airborne particulate matter (APM) is apparently the biggest air pollution problem found in capital and other big cities. APM has the adverse impact on human health and also on the environment. PM 10 (particle with aerodynamic diameter le ss than 10 μm), in particularly, can cause the respiratory diseases since it can penetrate the respiratory system. Furthermore, PM 25 (particle with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) is the major cause of visibility impairment. This paper reports the study of urban air pollution at Pathumwan District, a business area in Bangkok City center. Coarse and fine fractions of PM 10 (P M-2 .2 - 10 and PM 2.2 , respectively) were collected by a Gent stacked filter unit air sampler during January-December 2002. The filter samples were measured for mass and black carbon. Elemental concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results indicate the rather high level of PM 10 at the sampling site. The annual average of PM 10 is 56.6 μg/m 3 compared to the ambient air quality standard of 50 μg/m 3 . The obtained data of black carbon and elemental concentrations were used for investigation of pollution sources by applying a receptor model called Positive Matrix Factorization. It could identify that the main sources were most likely city dust, emissions from vehicle combustion, incineration and sea-salt

  16. Airborne lead and particulate levels in Semarang, Indonesia and potential health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, D R; Husni, A; Risk, M J

    1999-03-09

    Spatial and temporal variation in airborne lead and total suspended particulates was examined in the city of Semarang, Indonesia, and surrounding area. Both airborne lead and TSP varied significantly with the type of urban development. Mean urban airborne lead levels were 0.35 microgram/m3 in the highway zone, 0.95 microgram/m3 in the residential zone, and 0.99 microgram/m3 in the commercial zone. Airborne lead levels in the industrial zone were significantly higher than all other areas, with a mean of 8.41 micrograms/m3. Airborne lead concentrations of this magnitude have not been reported in Indonesia previously. Mean TSP levels ranged from 115.5 micrograms/m3 to 165.8 micrograms/m3 in urban areas. Increased levels of TSP were associated with areas adjacent to major transportation routes. On a seasonal basis, TSP levels were significantly lower during the rainy season, while mean airborne lead levels did not show a significant seasonal trend. Observed ambient pollution levels were translated into potential heath impacts based on previously established relationships. Increased levels of TSP pollution near major roads was estimated to result in a 1.6% increase in mortality for all causes of death and a 7.9% increase in mortality due to respiratory disease. Estimated child blood lead levels indicated possible lead toxicity among Semarang children.

  17. Sensitive emission spectrometric method for the analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimae, A.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive emission spectrometric method for the routine analysis of airborne particulate matter collected on the glass fiber filter is reported. The method is a powder--dc arc technique involving no chemical pre-enrichment procedures. The elements--Ag, BA: Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Y, Yb, and Zn--were determined. (U.S.)

  18. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  19. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.; Hillol Guha

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 microm) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 micro

  20. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  1. Miniaturized inertial impactor for personal airborne particulate monitoring: Numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelezzi, Luca; Pasini, Silvia; Bianchi, Elena; Dubini, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    The rising level of fine particle matter's (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) pollution in the world has increased the interest in developing portable personal air-qualitity monitoring systems. To answer this need, we conceived a miniaturized inertial impactor. The development of such an impactor becomes more challenging as the diameter of the particles to be collected becomes smaller, since the velocities required to induce the impact of finer particulate matter become higher. To overcome these challenges, we modeled numerically the fluid dynamics and particles transport within the impactor. Our simulations show that the fluid flow within the impactor becomes unstable as the Reynolds number is increased to capture finer particles. Furthermore, the onset of these instabilities depends not only on the Reynolds number but also on the geometry of the impactor. The unsteady flow within the impactor influences the trajectories of the particles to be collected, especially the smaller particles. The particles trajectories shows that the impaction location varies substantially as the Reynolds number increases and, consequently, the efficiency of the impactor deteriorates. Finally, we optimize the design of our impactor to maximize its collection efficiency. CARIPLO Fundation - project MINUTE (Grant No. 2011-2118).

  2. On the removal of airborne particulate radioactivity under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, V.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1985-03-01

    In the case of an accident, the filter elements in the ventilation systems of a nuclear facility may become a part of the remaining fission product barrier. Within the framework of the Project Nuclear Safety of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, contributions are made to an increase in reliability of the air cleaning systems under accident conditions. These include the development and verification of computer programs for the estimation of those conditions prevailing inside the air cleaning systems in the case of an accident. Experimental investigations into the response of HEPA filters to differential pressures involving both dry and moist air have demonstrated the occurence of structural failures with subsequent loss of efficiency at relatively low values of differential pressures. With regard to further investigations, a new test facility was put into operation for the realization of superimposed challenges. A new method for testing particulate removal efficiency under high temperature or high humidity was developed. Finally, first results of code development work and of the corresponding verification experiments are reported on. (orig.) [de

  3. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.

    1975-04-01

    Several trace elements are being introduced into the atmosphere from various sources. Since many of the trace elements are highly toxic, the concentrations of them should be measured and controlled continuously for public health. Concentrations of trace elements have been determined in air samples collected from seven different districts of Ankara by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.)

  4. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar A.; Limbeck A.

    2013-01-01

    In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM) samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of d...

  5. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of possible health impact of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djojosubroto, Harjoto; Supriatna, Dadang; Kumolowati, Endang; Widjajakusuma, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Various processes in an industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matters. Elements and hazardous chemicals in the fine particulate matters may enter the human body through inhalation and direct contact with the skin. Excessive inhalation and contact with the fine airborne particulate matter may lead to intoxication due to excessive intake of the hazardous chemicals and toxic elements. The elements will be accumulated in human organs, such as liver, kidneys and brain, manifest in clinical syndromes such as hypertension, renal failure and neurological symptoms and signs. The absorbed elements are excreted through the urinary tract as urine. They also can be excreted through hair and nails. Elevated blood and urinary aluminum levels have been observed after occupational exposure to various aluminum compounds. This phenomenon indicates the absorption through inhalation, as there are no data indicating significant dermal absorption for aluminum. Absorption of chromium compounds in the workplace occurs mainly through inhalation. The absorption is dependent on the valence and solubility of the particular chromium species. Some elements such as trivalent chromium ions are readily cleared from the blood, but hexavalent chromium ions are retained much longer in the blood. The aluminum compounds vary greatly in their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Although the trivalent chromium is readily excreted, continuous intake may cause the blood chromium level to be higher than normal. These elements may either have an deleterious effect on, or be considered essential for human health. In this study, the levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in the workplace are assessed by elemental quantification of blood, hair and nail of workers in a metal industry and in airborne particulate samples that are collected at the workplace. The present report represents progress of activities following the first Research Co-ordination Meeting 1997 in Vienna

  6. Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fosetyl-Aluminum in Airborne Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Buiarelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fosetyl-aluminum is a synthetic fungicide administered to plants especially to prevent diseases caused by the members of the Peronosporales and several Phytophthora species. Herein, we present a selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method to analyze residues of fosetyl-A1 in air particulate matter. This study was performed in perspective of an exposure assessment of this substance of health concern in environments where high levels of fosetly-Al, relatively to airborne particulate matter, can be found after spraying it. The cleanup procedure of the analyte, from sampled filters of atmospheric particulate matter, was optimized using a Strata X solid-phase extraction cartridge, after accelerated extraction by using water. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a polymeric column based on hydrophilic interaction in step elution with water/acetonitrile, whereas the mass spectrometric detection was performed in negative electrospray ionization. The proposed method resulted to be a simple, fast, and suitable method for confirmation purposes.

  7. Portable detection of trace metals in airborne particulates and sediments via μPADs and smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuan; Dong, Hui; Zheng, Jianping; Sun, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Particulate matter (PM), a key indicator of air pollution by natural and anthropogenic activities, contributes to a wide spectrum of diseases that lead to a shortening of life expectancy. It has been recognized that trace metals in airborne PM are highly toxic and can be correlated with lesion in respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunological, and hematological systems. Traditional methods for trace metal assay require sophisticated instrumentations and highly trained operators in centralized laboratories. In this work, by integrating the technologies of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, additive manufacturing, smartphone, and colorimetric sensing, we developed the first smartphone based paper microfluidic platform for portable, disposable, and quantitative measurements of cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in ambient air and street sediments. On a single A4-sized paper, 48 devices were fabricated in under 30 s with a total cost of ∼$1.9. On each device, 12 reaction units were patterned and used for colorimetric tests. Particulate samples from urban ambient air and street sediments were collected, processed, and analyzed. Signals of the on-chip complexation product were recorded using a smartphone camera and processed by a self-developed app on an iOS system. For precisely controlling the object distance, chip position, and luminance, a hand-held 3D cellphone housing was designed and printed. The detection limits of Co, Cu, and Fe were determined to be 8.2, 45.8, and 186.0 ng, while the linear dynamic ranges were calculated to be 8.2-81.6, 45.8-4.58 × 10 2 , and 1.86 × 10 2 -1.86 × 10 3  ng, representing a practically relevant device performance with a significant reduction in the detection cost and time consumption. Trace metals in ambient air and sediments of two cities in China have been quantified portably, thus demonstrating the utility of our system in improving strategies for air pollution control in low-resource settings.

  8. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter by instrumental neutron activation analysis and induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, Achmad; Djojosubroto, Harjoto; Rukihati; Sutisna

    1999-01-01

    Airborne particulate were collected using Gent sampler for PM 10 and using high volume sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP). PM 10 sampling was carried out in Bandung during period of January to December 1997. Whereas TSP samples were collected at Serpong (rural area) and Jakarta (urban area) during period of May and July 1995. The concentration of the PM 10 in the air is independent to the level of the rainfall. The levels of the PM 10 and the PM 2.5 are lower than the maximum permissible levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. The element detected using short lived radioactivity measurement in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were Al, Na, V, Mn, Br and Cl. Bromine concentration in both coarse and fine fractions was high, and the enrichment factor for bromine in these fraction was found between 2,000 - 10,000. The elemental concentrations of particulate matter obtained by ICP-MS was found that the Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, In, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, V and Zn in samples from Serpong area, were lower than those in samples taken from Jakarta area. The level of Pb concentrations in TSP samples from Serpong and Jakarta area were lower than Pb concentration proposed Indonesian standard of 2 μg/m 3 . The data obtained by INAA no significant different to those obtained by ICP-MS. Therefore comparative data can be obtained by these techniques. (author)

  9. Characterisation of airborne particulate pollution in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, South Ural Mountains of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B J; Udachin, V; Purvis, O W; Spiro, B; Cressey, G; Jones, G C

    2004-11-01

    Airborne total suspended particulates (TSP), dusts from smelter blast furnace and converter stacks, and filtrates of snow melt waters have been characterised in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, Russia. TSP was collected at sites up- and downwind of the smelter and large waste and tailings dumps (Oct. 2000 and July 2001). Methods for particle size, mineralogical and elemental determinations have been tested and described, and a new PSD-MicroSOURCE XRD technique developed for the mineralogical analysis of microsamples on filter substrates. TSP in downwind samples has a mean equivalent spherical diameter of 0.5 microm (s.d. = 0.2) and was found to be 100% respirable. The main element of human health/environmental concern, above Russian maximum permitted levels (1 microg m(-3), average over any time period), was Pb which was measured at 16-30 microg m(-3) in downwind samples. Individual particulates mainly consisted of complex mixtures of anglesite (PbSO4), Zn2SnO4 and poorly ordered Zn sulphates. From experimental and theoretical considerations, a high proportion of contained Pb, Zn, Cd and As in this material is considered to be in a readily bioavailable form. Chemical and mineralogical differences between the TSP, stack dusts and snow samples are discussed, as well as the implications for human and regional environmental health.

  10. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael; Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla; Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m 3 /ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis

  11. INAA for the characterization of airborne particulate matter from the industrial area of Islamabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols. (author)

  12. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  13. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  14. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of airborne particulate matter in workplace including tissue analysis and possible impacts on human health in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjajakusuma, B.; Djojosubroto, H.; Kumolowati, E.

    1998-01-01

    Various processes in a metal industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matter that hazardous to human health. The present study deals with assessment of levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry. The objective is achieved by determination of elemental levels in blood, nail and hair of workers and airborne particulate matter that are collected from their workplace. The elemental levels in blood, nail and hair of the workers will be compared to those of control. Their health condition are examined by medical examination and biochemical analysis of their blood. The blood was drawn following an overnight fast before breakfast, by means of I.V. catheter into three polyethylene tubes. The blood samples in the first tubes were sent to clinical laboratory for biochemical examination. Those in the second and third tubes, which are considered free from metal contamination by the needle of the catheter, are used for trace element study. Sera in the polyethylene tubes were separated from erythrocyte by centrifugation, then cooled by liquid nitrogen and freeze dried. Approximately 1 g of toe nail and hair samples were taken respectively from every worker. To eliminate grease and surface contamination the hair samples were rinse with acetone. Airborne particulate samples were collected from the workplace using Gent sampler. These samples are ready for elemental analysis. Results of biochemical analysis and medical examinations of the workers are presented in this report. The correlation among various parameters will be determined by statistical analysis. (author)

  15. Preliminary studies of airborne particulate emmisions from the Ampellum S.A. copper smelter, Zlatna, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. Williamson

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have been carried on the characterization of particulate emissions from the Ampellum S.A. copper smelter in the town of Zlatna, Romania. The particulates studied were collected on polycarbonate filters using air pump apparatus and on the surfaces of lichens. Mass of total suspended particulates (TSP and PM10 varied from 19 to 230 μg/m3 and 3 to 146 μg/m3, respectively (PM10/TSP = 0.14 to 1.0, depending on wind direction and proximity to the smelter. Particulates on collection filters from a site directly downwind from the smelter have a mean equivalent spherical diameter (ESD of 0.94 μm (s.d. 1.1 and are dominantly made up of material with the composition of anglesite (PbSO4. The remainder of the material is a heterogeneous mixture of silicates and Fe-, Pb- and Cu-bearing phases. Particulates > 5 μm ESD are rare on the TSP filters, mainly due to the restricted sampling durations possible with the equipment used (<3 hours. Particulates have therefore been studied in the lichen Acarospora smaragdula, which was growing on posts downwind from the smelter and which was found to contain high levels and a broader range of particulates compared with the filters (<5 to 100 μm in diameter. Larger particles include 20-30 μm diameter Fe-rich spherules, which occasionally have Pb- and S-rich encrustations on their surfaces. The nature and possible health effects of the particulates are discussed and recommendations made for future studies.

  16. Redox activity of airborne particulate matter at different sites in the Los Angeles Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Arthur K.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Miguel, Antonio H.; Kumagai, Yoshito; Schmitz, Debra A.; Singh, Manisha; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Froines, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health outcomes including increased mortality, emergency room visits, and time lost from school and work. The mechanisms of PM-related health effects are still incompletely understood, but a hypothesis under investigation is that many of the adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. While the adverse effects from PM have historically been associated with the airborne concentration of PM and more recently fine-particle PM, we considered it relevant to develop an assay to quantitatively measure the ability of PM to catalyze ROS generation as the initial step in the induction of oxidative stress. This ability of PM could then be related to different sources, chemical composition, and physical and spatial/temporal characteristics in the ambient environment. The measurement of ROS-forming ability in relation to sources and other factors will have potential relevance to control of redox-active PM. If oxidative stress represents a relevant mechanism of toxicity from PM, the measurement of redox activity represents a first step in the elucidation of the subsequent downstream processes. We have developed an assay for PM redox activity, utilizing the reduction of oxygen by dithiothreitol which serves as an electron source. We have found that PM will catalyze the reduction of oxygen and have examined the distribution and chemical characteristics of the redox activity of PM fractions collected in different sites in the Los Angeles Basin. Samples of concentrated coarse, fine, and ultrafine PM, obtained with aerosol concentrators, were studied with regard to their chemical properties and redox activity. Redox activity was highest in the ultrafine fraction, in agreement with results indicating ultrafines were the most potent toward inducing that heme oxygenase expression and depleting

  17. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zaiacono, T.

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  18. A review on airborne microorganisms in particulate matters: Composition, characteristics and influence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Li, Xue; Wang, Tengfei; Wang, Bei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-04-01

    Airborne microorganisms (AM), vital components of particulate matters (PM), are widespread in the atmosphere. Since some AM have pathogenicity, they can lead to a wide range of diseases in human and other organisms, meanwhile, some AM act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei which let them can affect the climate. The inherent characteristics of AM play critical roles in many aspects which, in turn, can decide microbial traits. The uncertain factors bring various influences on AM, which make it difficult to elaborate effect trends as whole. Because of the potential roles of AM in environment and potent effects of factors on AM, detailed knowledge of them is of primary significance. This review highlights the issues of composition and characteristics of AM with size-distribution, species diversity, variation and so on, and summarizes the main factors which affect airborne microbial features. This general information is a knowledge base for further thorough researches of AM and relevant aspects. Besides, current knowledge gaps and new perspectives are offered to roundly understand the impacts and application of AM in nature and human health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Samplings of airborne particulates for granulometric determinations following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Calamosca, M.; Zaiacomo, T. de; Gragnani, R.; Michetti, I.; Testa, L.

    1988-01-01

    Particle size distributions and concentrations of the radioactive aerosol that arose from the Chernobyl accident were determined in Bologna and Rome. The activity Median Aerodynamic Diameters (AMAD) of Ru-103, Te-132, Cs-134 and Cs-137, determined by means of impactors, were in the range 0.8 - 1.4 μm with Geometric Standard Deviations (Sg) in the range 1.6 - 3.7. Lower AMAD and higher Sg values were found for I-131 compared to those for the other radioisotopes. The gaseous fraction of I-131 was 60-70% of the total aerosuspended activity of this isotope. A comparison between direct measurement data concerning internal contamination on volunteers and values derived from air contamination data shows that in Bologna, during May 1986, almost all the contamination was due to inhalation. The data are unable to distinguish between different inhalation models

  20. Nicotine Contamination in Particulate Matter Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Garshick

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We have addressed potential contamination of PM2.5 filter samples by nicotine from cigarette smoke. We collected two nicotine samples – one nicotine sampling filter was placed in-line after the collection of PM2.5 and the other stood alone. The overall correlation between the two nicotine filter levels was 0.99. The nicotine collected on the “stand-alone” filter was slightly greater than that on the “in-line” filter (mean difference = 1.10 μg/m3, but the difference was statistically significant only when PM2.5 was low (≤ 50 μg/m3. It is therefore important to account for personal and secondhand smoke exposure while assessing occupational and environmental PM.

  1. INAA at the top of the world: Elemental characterization and analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in the Himalayas at 5,100 m high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaveri, G.; Bergamaschi, L.; Rizzio, E.; Brandone, A.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M.; Zambelli, G.; Baudo, R.; Tartari, G.

    2005-01-01

    In 1990, following an agreement with the Royal Nepal Academy of Science, the Italian National Research Council (CNR) installed a scientific laboratory (Pyramid) at 5,050 m (s.l.) in the Himalayan region. Among the environmental related researches, the task project RATEAP (Remote Areas Trace Elements Atmospheric Pollution), started in 2001, aims at obtaining information about the chemical composition of the high altitude airborne particulate matter. During the period of March-April 2002 series of samplings have been carried out by pump aspiration. Samples of total suspended particles (TSP) as well as of the particles size fraction PM10 and PM 2.5 have been collected and submitted to INAA for the determination of more than 30 elements present, at nanogram levels, in few micrograms of air dust. Data quality assurance has been performed by the analysis of different NIST SRMs and, in particular, the SRM 2783 Air particulate on Filter Media. (author)

  2. Air quality in the Kootenays: fine particulate (PM{sub 1}0) airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels, 1993-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    Air quality monitoring data collected in the Kootenays over a seven year period from 1993 to 1999 are summarized in an effort to inform the public about air quality in the Kootenays and to assist them in understanding air quality monitoring results. Data includes hourly (TEOM) and weekly (NAPS) data for particulate matter (PM{sub 1}0) airborne metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc) and sulphur dioxide. Analysis of monitoring data showed that particulate matter levels remained constant in most communities, with Johnson Lake and Slocan reporting the lowest levels, while Golden had the highest values during this period. Trail-Butler Park showed a clear declining trend in PM{sub 1}0. Airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels have decreased in the Kootenays during the seven year period, with only occasional exceedances of both Level A and B air quality objectives in some communities. The report includes a detailed description of the sampling methodology and the analyzed results for PM{sub 1}0, airborne metals and sulphur dioxide for 10 communities in the region. 6 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs., 1 map.

  3. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    401. This difference may be the result of using filter media at Station 400 with a smaller pore size than the media used at the other two stations. Average annual gamma exposure at Station 401 is slightly greater than at Station 400 and 402. Average annual gamma exposure at all three TTR stations are in the upper range to slightly higher than values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the TTR. At higher wind speeds, the saltation counts are greater at Station 401 than at Station 402 while the suspended particulate concentrations are greater at Station 402 than at Statin 401. Although these observations seem counterintuitive, they are likely the result of differences in the soil material present at the two sites. Station 401 is located on an interfluve elevated above two adjacent drainage channels where the soil surface is likely to be composed of coarser material. Station 402 is located in finer sediments at the playa edge and is also subject to dust from a dirt road only 500 m to the north. During prolonged high wind events, suspended dust concentrations at Station 401 peaked with the initial winds then decreased whereas dust concentrations at Station 402 peaked with each peak in the wind speed. This likely reflects a limited PM10 source that is quickly expended at Station 401 relative to an abundant PM10 source at Station 402. In CY2013, to facilitate comparisons between radiological analyses of collected dust, the filter media at all three stations will be standardized. In addition, a sequence of samples will be collected at Station 400 using both types of filter media to enable development of a mathematical relationship between the results derived from the two filter types. Additionally, having acquired approximately four years of observations at Stations 400 and 401 and a year of observations at Station 402, a period-of-record analysis of the radiological and airborne dust conditions will be undertaken.

  4. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter collected from three different sites within the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using a Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples were extracted by sonication, sequentially, with cyclohexane (CX, and dichloromethane (DCM, for a rough fractionation by polarity. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix fraction, and TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without metabolic activation. Mutagenic response was observed for frameshift strain TA98 in assays with and without metabolization for two sites (sites 2 and 3, which had considerable risk of environmental contamination by nonpolar (CX and/or moderately polar (DCM compounds. However, the values of revertants/m3 (rev/m3 were highest on the site subject to automobile exhaust (site 3 in assays without (9.56 rev/m3 and with metabolization (5.08 rev/m3. Maximum mutagenic activity was detected in the moderately polar fraction, decreasing after metabolization. Nevertheless, the nonpolar fractions (CX gave higher mutagenic activity in the presence of metabolization than in the absence of the S9 mix fraction. The responses observed for TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the activity of nitrocompounds.Foi investigada a atividade mutagênica de material particulado de amostras de ar coletadas em três diferentes locais dentro da área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, através do ensaio Salmonella/microssoma. As amostras foram extraídas, em ultra-som, por fracionamento seqüencial de acordo com a polaridade, utilizando os solventes ciclohexano (CX e diclorometano (DCM. As diferentes frações foram testadas para mutagenicidade com as linhagens de Salmonella typhimurium TA98, em presença e ausência de ativação metabólica, e TA98NR e TA98/1,8-DNP6 em ausência de metabolização. Observou-se resposta mutagênica positiva, do tipo erro

  5. Assessing deposition of airborne particulates and gases in the Selkirk area using lichens growing on tree trunks : non-technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehnes, J.

    2002-01-01

    An independent study was conducted to address the public concern regarding airborne emissions from Manitoba Hydro's coal-fired electricity generating station located in the Selkirk area. This document is a non-technical summary of the report issued by Ecostem Ltd. Since there are no air quality monitoring stations in the study area which covers more than 1,000 square km, Ecostem used lichens as biological indicators of historical deposition of airborne dust and gases. The sources of airborne dust and gases include urban centres, agriculture, pesticides, fertilizers, waste burning, vehicle use and manufacturing. Lichens have been commonly used as indicators since 1866. They provide useful information because they are long-lived, are not mobile, acquire most of their nutrients from the atmosphere, retain the airborne deposition they initially trap, and they can accumulate airborne particles year round. It is possible to obtain a record of the chemicals that have been present in the air by simply analyzing the lichen tissue. This study used the concentrations of various chemical elements in lichen tissue and the distribution and abundance of lichen species to see if airborne particulates were substantially elevated in the Selkirk area and if so, to determine if the coal-fired generating station was the apparent source of the pollution. A total of 62 stations and lichens on more than 400 trees were sampled. Sulphur, a fingerprint for gaseous emissions from the generating station, had tissue concentrations that were 1.32 times higher. Statistical analysis suggests that barium, boron and strontium were the clearest fingerprint elements for generating station emissions. Tissue concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, tin, vanadium and zinc were examined further because they are considered to be toxic. It was noted that a conclusion regarding human health cannot be made

  6. Airborne fine particulate matter induces an upregulation of endothelin receptors on rat bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rong; Xiao, Xue; Cao, Lei; Shen, Zhen-xing; Lei, Ying; Cao, Yong-xiao

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for respiratory diseases. However, little is known about the effects of PM2.5 on bronchi. The present study investigated the effect of airborne PM2.5 on rat bronchi and the underlying mechanisms. Isolated rat bronchial segments were cultured for 24 h. Endothelin (ET) receptor-mediated contractile responses were recorded using a wire myograph. The mRNA and protein expression levels of ET receptors were studied using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that ET A and ET B receptor agonists induced remarkable contractile responses on fresh and cultured bronchial segments. PM2.5 (1.0 or 3.0 μg/ml) significantly enhanced ET A and ET B receptor-mediated contractile responses in bronchi with a markedly increased maximal contraction compared to the DMSO or fresh groups. PM2.5 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of ET A and ET B receptors. U0126 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) significantly suppressed PM2.5-induced increases in ET B receptor-mediated contractile responses, mRNA and protein levels. SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 significantly abrogated the PM2.5-induced enhancement of ET A receptor-mediated contraction and receptor expression. In conclusion, PM2.5 upregulates ET receptors in bronchi. ET B receptor upregulation is associated with MEK1/2 and p38 pathways, and the upregulation of ET A receptor is involved in JNK and p38 pathways. - Highlights: • Airborne PM2.5 induces bronchial hyperreactivity mediated with endothelin ET B and ET A receptors in rats. • PM2.5 increases mRNA and protein expressions of endothelin ET B and ET A receptors in bronchi. • The upregulation of ET B receptor is associated with MEK1/2 and p38 pathways. • The upregulation of ET A receptor is involved in JNK and p38 pathways. • The research provides novel understanding for PM2.5-associated respiratory diseases.

  7. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  8. Particulate organic nitrates: Sampling and night/day variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Platz, J.; Granby, K.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric day and night concentrations of particulate organic nitrates (PON) and several other air pollutants were measured in the summer 1995 over an open-land area in Denmark. The sampling of PON was evaluated comparing 24 h samples with two sets of 12 h samples. These results indicate...... that the observed low contribution of PON to NO, is real and not the result of an extensive loss during the sampling. Empirical relationships between the vapour pressure and chemical formula of organic compounds were established in order to evaluate the gas/particle distribution of organic nitrates. A positive...

  9. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  10. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Shadel, Craig [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Chapman, Jenny [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; McCurdy, Greg [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Etyemezian, Vicken [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Miller, Julianne J. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Mizell, Steve [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  11. The Effects of Bus Ridership on Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Her

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by rapid urbanization and the increased use of private vehicles seriously affects citizens’ health. In order to alleviate air pollution, many cities have replaced diesel buses with compressed natural gas (CNG buses that emit less exhaust gas. Urban planning strategies such as transit-oriented development (TOD posit that reducing private vehicle use and increasing public transportation use would reduce air pollution levels. The present study examined the effects of bus ridership on airborne particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in the capital region of Korea. We interpolated the levels of PM10 from 128 air pollution monitoring stations, utilizing the Kriging method. Spatial regression models were used to estimate the impact of bus ridership on PM10 levels, controlling for physical environment attributes and socio-economic factors. The analysis identified that PM10 concentration levels tend to be lower in areas with greater bus ridership. This result implies that urban and transportation policies designed to promote public transportation may be effective strategies for reducing air pollution.

  12. Spatiotemporal distribution of airborne particulate metals and metalloids in a populated arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Gouri; Sorooshian, Armin; Toffol, Emily; Arellano, Avelino F.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-08-01

    A statistical analysis of data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network of aerosol samplers has been used to study the spatial and temporal concentration trends in airborne particulate metals and metalloids for southern Arizona. The study region is a rapidly growing area in southwestern North America characterized by high fine soil concentrations (among the highest in the United States), anthropogenic emissions from an area within the fastest growing region in the United States, and a high density of active and abandoned mining sites. Crustal tracers in the region are most abundant in the summer (April-June) followed by fall (October-November) as a result of dry meteorological conditions which favor dust emissions from natural and anthropogenic activity. A distinct day-of-week cycle is evident for crustal tracer mass concentrations, with the greatest amplitude evident in urban areas. There have been significant reductions since 1988 in the concentrations of toxic species that are typically associated with smelting and mining. Periods with high fine soil concentrations coincide with higher concentrations of metals and metalloids in the atmosphere, with the enhancement being higher at urban sites.

  13. INAA of airborne particulate matter collected in Bangkok 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.; Tedthong, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the summary report of the monitoring study on ambient air quality in Bangkok metropolis and its boundary covering the period from 2002 to 2004. The work performed included sampling of fine and coarse fractions of particulate matter at the sites representing urban and suburban areas; measurement of particle mass concentration and elemental concentration; and data interpretation. Instrumental neutron activation by use of research reactor facilities at Office of Atoms for Peace was carried out for multielemental analysis of all filter samples collected. Twenty elements were determined. The database of the three consecutive years are summarized and reviewed in this paper. (author)

  14. INAA of Airborne Particulate Matter Collected in Bangkok and Pathumthani 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the summary report of the monitoring study on ambient air quality in Bangkok metropolis and its boundary covering the period from 2002 to 2004. The work performed included sampling of fine and coarse fractions of particulate matter at the sites representing urban and suburban areas; measurement of particle mass concentration and elemental concentration; and data interpretation. Instrumental neutron activation by use of research reactor facilities at Office of Atoms for Peace was carried out for multielemental analysis of all filter samples collected. Twenty elements were determined. The database of the three consecutive years are summarized and reviewed in this paper

  15. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil -ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: heloisa@ulbra.br

    2008-01-15

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m{sup 3}/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis.

  16. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durukan I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of air particulate matter (APM levels in the city were examined. In some stations, APM sampled in according to their size distribution such as PM10 and PM2.5. Elemental characterization of size distributed PM were achieved and evaluated. It was detected that the elements mainly originated from soil in Beytepe station, from soil and solid fuel usage in Kayas station and from traffic and a variety of human activities in Sıhhiye station in air samplings. While the elements of natural origin observed in PM10 fraction, the elements from traffic and human activities were in PM2.5. Eventually, enrichment calculations were performed in order to identify the pollution sources.

  17. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by Means of airborne particulate matter and bio monitors using Nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B. C.; Maia, Elene C. P.; Albinati, Claudia; Filho, Serafim S.

    2001-01-01

    To make an occupational diagnosis is complex because of the difficulty to identify and characterise the expositions. Physicians do not usually have access to the quantity of raw material managed by the worker, dates, period of exposure to the substance. Besides this the onset of occupational diseases is similar to other chronic diseases. Then, this project aimed at assessing metal levels in a galvanising industry by means of biomonitors, scalp hair and toenails donated by workers, and particulate matter collected on air filter. The analysis of the samples was carried out by k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis, k0-INAA. The project was conducted together with the physicians of the Secretariat Municipal de Saude (Municipal Department of Health) and it was inserted in a Worker's Health Awareness Program. Belo Horizonte and surrounding areas are an important industrial centre, concentrating many industries in several areas. Only in Belo Horizonte there are more than 20 galvanising industries ranging from home factories to well equipped ones. This industry was chosen as Object of this project because it is responsible for the majority of patients who look for medical assistance because of metal contamination. Stationary air sampling was carried out in order to evaluate the level of elemental concentration in the indoor environment of the plant. Comparative Group sampling was carried out the same way as the Work Group for scalp hair and toenails. The irradiations were performed in the reactor TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 in the CDTN. Elemental concentration results determined in the samples from non-exposed people were compared to values in the literature and there were no significant differences between the values. The airborne particulate matter results showed the high level of pollutants which the workers are exposed to inside the galvanising factory. The results obtained confirmed the medical suspicions of workers' contamination and the medical recommendations aimed

  18. Study on the Adsorption Capacities for Airborne Particulates of Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions in Beijing (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kang Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscape plants are an important component of the urban ecosystem, playing a significant role in the adsorption of airborne particulates and air purification. In this study, six common landscape plants in Beijing were chosen as research subjects, and the adsorption capacities for each different plant leaf and the effects of the leaf structures for the adsorption capacities for particulates were determined. Preliminary results show that needle-leaved tree species adsorbed more airborne particulates than broad-leaved tree species for the same leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis exhibits the highest adsorption capacity, at 3.89 ± 0.026 μg·cm−2, almost two times as much as that of Populus tomentosa (2.00 ± 0.118 μg·cm−2. The adsorption capacities for PM10 of the same tree species leaves, in different polluted regions had significant differences, and the adsorption capacities for PM10 of the tree species leaf beside the Fifth Ring Road were higher than those of the tree species leaves in the Botanical Garden, although the adsorption capacities for PM2.5 of the same tree species in different polluted regions had no significant differences. By determining the soluble ion concentrations of the airborne particulates in two regions, it is suggested that the soluble ion concentrations of PM10 in the atmosphere in the Botanical Garden and beside the Fifth Ring Road have significant differences, while those of PM2.5 in the atmosphere had no significant differences. In different polluted regions there are significant adaptive changes to the leaf structures, and when compared with slightly polluted region, in the seriously polluted region the epidermis cells of the plant leaves shrinked, the surface textures of the leaves became rougher, and the stomas’ frequency and the pubescence length increased. Even though the plant leaves exposed to the seriously polluted region changed significantly, these plants can still grow normally and healthily.

  19. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000-2006 and 2047-2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV), the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV) and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events. The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; -3%) and organic carbon (OC; -3%) due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (-3%) and food cooking (-4%). In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3). In general, climate change caused increased stagnation during future extreme pollution events, leading to higher exposure to diesel engines

  20. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate

  1. Maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter causes postnatal immunological dysfunction in mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Xinru; Liu, Chaobin; Chen, Xiaoqiu; Song, Yanfeng; Wang, Qin; Wang, Ping; Hu, Dian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to air pollution affects the ontogeny and development of the fetal immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) on immune function in postnatal offspring. Pregnant female ICR mice were intralaryngopharyngeally administered with 30 μl of phosphate buffered solution (the control group) or resuspended PM of Standard Reference Material 1649a at 0.09 (low), 0.28 (medium), 1.85 (high) or 6.92 (overdose) μg/μl once every three days from day 0 to 18 of pregnancy (n = 8–10). Offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 30. Interleukin-4 and interferon-γ levels in plasma and splenocytes, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and expressions of GATA-3 and T-bet mRNA in the spleen were tested. The spleen and thymus were histopathologically examined. The offspring of the medium, high and overdose PM-exposed dams showed significantly suppressed splenocyte proliferation. Decreased interferon-γ and increased interleukin-4 levels in the blood and splenocytes, and lowered T-bet and elevated GATA-3 mRNA expressions were found in the spleen in the medium, high and overdose groups when compared with the control or low dose group (P < 0.05). Histopathology revealed prominent tissue damage in the spleen and thymus in the overdose group. These results suggest that exposure of pregnant mice to PM modulates the fetal immune system, resulting in postnatal immune dysfunction by exacerbation of Thl/Th2 deviation. This deviation is associated with altered T-bet and GATA-3 gene expressions

  2. Trace element composition of airborne particulate matter in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliquzzaman, M.; Biswas, S. K.; Tarafdar, S.A.; Isalam, A.; Khan, A.H.

    1995-11-01

    Size fractionated aerosol samples were collected at an urban site (Dhaka) in Bangladesh for a period of 17 months and at a rural site for six months. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2 μm and 2-10 μm sizes. Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy has been used to determine the concentrations of 18 elements in the range of ng/m 3 . The elements range from Si to Sr and include Pb. The results of analysis of 292 air particulate samples of course and fine types from the urban site are presented. The results are discussed in the context of air pollution specially that of Pb. 6 refs., 7 tables., 2 figs

  3. Manganese and lead in children's blood and airborne particulate matter in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Jia, Chunrong; Naidoo, Rajen N; Robins, Thomas; Naik, Inakshi

    2011-02-15

    Despite the toxicity and widespread use of manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) as additives to motor fuels and for other purposes, information regarding human exposure in Africa is very limited. This study investigates the environmental exposures of Mn and Pb in Durban, South Africa, a region that has utilized both metals in gasoline. Airborne metals were sampled as PM(2.5) and PM(10) at three sites, and blood samples were obtained from a population-based sample of 408 school children attending seven schools. In PM(2.5), Mn and Pb concentrations averaged 17±27 ng m(-3) and 77±91 ng m(-3), respectively; Mn concentrations in PM(10) were higher (49±44 ng m(-3)). In blood, Mn concentrations averaged 10.1±3.4 μg L(-1) and 8% of children exceeded 15 μg L(-1), the normal range. Mn concentrations fit a lognormal distribution. Heavier and Indian children had elevated levels. Pb in blood averaged 5.3±2.1 μg dL(-1), and 3.4% of children exceeded 10 μg dL(-1), the guideline level. Pb levels were best fit by a mixed (extreme value) distribution, and boys and children living in industrialized areas of Durban had elevated levels. Although airborne Mn and Pb concentrations were correlated, blood levels were not. A trend analysis shows dramatic decreases of Pb levels in air and children's blood in South Africa, although a sizable fraction of children still exceeds guideline levels. The study's findings suggest that while vehicle exhaust may contribute to exposures of both metals, other sources currently dominate Pb exposures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro investigations of platinum, palladium, and rhodium mobility in urban airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) using simulated lung fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    Environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) have been increasing since the introduction of automotive catalytic converters to control harmful emissions. Assessments of the human health risks of exposures to these elements, especially through the inhalation of PGE-associated airborne particulate matter (PM), have been hampered by a lack of data on their bioaccessibility. The purpose of this study is to apply in vitro methods using simulated human lung fluids [artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution] to assess the mobility of the PGE, platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) in airborne PM of human health concern. Airborne PM samples (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. For comparison, the same extraction experiments were conducted using the standard reference material, Used Auto Catalyst (monolith) (NIST 2557). Pt and Pd concentrations were measured using isotope dilution ICP-Q-MS, while Rh was measured directly with ICP-Q-MS (in collision mode with He), following established matrix separation and enrichment procedures, for both solid (filtered residues) and extracted sample phases. The mobilized fractions measured for PGE in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were highly variable, which can be attributed to the heterogenic nature of airborne PM and its composition. Overall, the mobility of PGE in airborne PM samples was notable, with a mean of 51% Rh, 22% Pt, and 29% Pd present in PM(1) being mobilized by ALF after 24 h. For PM(1) exposed to Gamble's solution, a mean of 44% Rh, 18% Pt, and 17% Pd was measured in solution after 24 h. The mobility of PGE associated with airborne PM was also determined to be much higher compared to that measured for the auto catalyst standard reference material. The results suggest that PGE emitted from automotive catalytic converters are likely to undergo chemical transformations during and/or after being emitted in the environment. This study highlights the need

  5. Concentrations of trace elements and compounds in the airborne suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, Ohio, from August 1971 to August 1972 and their dependence on wind direction: Complete data listing and concentration roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Concentrations of 75 chemical constituents in the airborne particulate matter were measured in Cleveland, Ohio during 1971 and 1972. Daily values, maxima, geometric means and their standard deviations covering a 1-year period (45 to 50 sampling days) at each of 16 sites are presented on microfiche for 60 elements, and for a lesser number of days for 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH), the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds (AH) as a group and carbon. In addition, concentration roses showing directional properties are presented for 39 elements, 10 PAH and the AH as a group. The elements (except carbon) are shown both in terms of concentration and percentage of the suspended particulate matter.

  6. Chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter in ambient air of Nagoya, Japan, as studied by the multielement determination with ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Taku; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Aoki, Masanori; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Fujimori, Eiji; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    The multielement determination of PM 10 (airborne particulate matter smaller than 10 μm) samples, which was collected by a high volume air sampler at the urban site of Nagoya City, was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The present analytical method was validated by analyzing urban particulate matter standard reference material of NIST SRM 1648. The analytical data for ca. 30 elements in PM 10 samples collected during a period from 8 September to 9 October, 2003, were obtained in the concentration range from sub-μg g -1 to several-10 mg g -1 , but the data for 18 elements among ca. 30 elements were available for the characterization of PM 10 samples in ambient air, because of problems caused by the filter blanks. Then, the trends concerning the distributions of diverse elements in PM 10 samples were analyzed based on the enrichment factors and size distribution factors. The lithophile and siderophile elements were distributed more than 50% in coarse particle fraction (>2.1 μm), which was derived mainly from natural sources, such as soils and crustal minerals. On the other hand, chalcophile elements were distributed more than 50% in fine particle fraction ( 10 samples as well as their mining influence factors (MIFs) suggested their wide use in industrial productions. (author)

  7. Source identification and long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) in an urban region of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Jong-Hwa Moon; Young-Jin Kim; Jong-Myoung Lim; Jin-Hong Lee

    2006-01-01

    For the identification of air pollution sources, about 500 airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) samples were collected by using a Gent air sampler and a polycarbonate filter in an urban region in the middle of Korea from 2000 to 2003. The concentrations of 25 elements in the samples were measured by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Receptor modeling was performed on the air monitoring data by using the positive matrix factorization (PMF2) method. According to this analysis, the existence of 6 to 10 PMF factors, such as metal-alloy, oil combustion, diesel exhaust, coal combustion, gasoline exhaust, incinerator, Cu-smelter, biomass burning, sea-salt, and soil dust were identified. (author)

  8. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Jish Prakash, P.; Lersch, Traci; Anisimov, Anatolii; Shevchenko, Illia

    2017-09-01

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m-2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of particle size fractions in the dust deposits.X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the mineralogical and chemical results alone. These aerosol data are the first of their kind from the Red Sea region. They will help assess their potential

  9. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2017-09-27

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m−2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of  < 10 and  < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse) and PM2. 5 (fine) particle size fractions in the dust deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the

  10. Standard Practice for Sampling for Particulate Contamination by Tape Lift

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for sampling surfaces to determine the presence of particulate contamination, 5 m and larger. The practice consists of the application of a pressure-sensitive tape to the surface followed by the removal of particulate contamination with the removal of the tape. The tape with the adhering particles is then mounted on counting slides. Counting and measuring of particles is done by standard techniques. 1.2 This practice describes the materials and equipment required to perform sampling of surfaces for particle counting and sizing. 1.3 The criteria for acceptance or rejection of a part for conformance to surface cleanliness level requirements shall be determined by the user and are not included in this practice. 1.4 This practice is for use on surfaces that are not damaged by the application of adhesive tape. The use of this practice on any surface of any material not previously tested or for which the susceptibility to damage is unknown is not recommended. In general, metal...

  11. Airborne particulate matter and mitochondrial damage: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Lifang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress generation is a primary mechanism mediating the effects of Particulate Matter (PM on human health. Although mitochondria are both the major intracellular source and target of oxidative stress, the effect of PM on mitochondria has never been evaluated in exposed individuals. Methods In 63 male healthy steel workers from Brescia, Italy, studied between April and May 2006, we evaluated whether exposure to PM was associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number (MtDNAcn, an established marker of mitochondria damage and malfunctioning. Relative MtDNAcn (RMtDNAcn was determined by real-time PCR in blood DNA obtained on the 1st (time 1 and 4th day (time 2 of the same work week. Individual exposures to PM10, PM1, coarse particles (PM10-PM1 and airborne metal components of PM10 (chromium, lead, arsenic, nickel, manganese were estimated based on measurements in the 11 work areas and time spent by the study subjects in each area. Results RMtDNAcn was higher on the 4th day (mean = 1.31; 95%CI = 1.22 to 1.40 than on the 1st day of the work week (mean = 1.09; 95%CI = 1.00 to 1.17. PM exposure was positively associated with RMtDNAcn on either the 4th (PM10: β = 0.06, 95%CI = -0.06 to 0.17; PM1: β = 0.08, 95%CI = -0.08 to 0.23; coarse: β = 0.06, 95%CI = -0.06 to 0.17 or the 1st day (PM10: β = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.09 to 0.26; PM1: β = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.11 to 0.35; coarse: β = 0.17, 95%CI = 0.09 to 0.26. Metal concentrations were not associated with RMtDNAcn. Conclusions PM exposure is associated with damaged mitochondria, as reflected in increased MtDNAcn. Damaged mitochondria may intensify oxidative-stress production and effects.

  12. Particulate face masks for protection against airborne pathogens - one size does not fit all: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Susan; Thomas, Jane H; Stephens, Dianne P; Davis, Joshua S

    2010-03-01

    To determine the proportion of hospital staff who pass fit tests with each of three commonly used particulate face masks, and factors influencing preference and fit test results. Observational study. 50 healthy hospital staff volunteers in an 18-bed general intensive care unit in an Australian teaching hospital. Participants were administered a questionnaire about mask use and their preferred mask and underwent qualitative fit-testing with each of three different particulate masks: Kimberly-Clark Tecnol FluidShield N95 particulate filter respirator (KC), 3M Flat Fold 9320 particulate respirator and 3M 8822 particulate respirator with exhalation valve. Participants who failed fittesting were trained in correct mask donning, and fittesting was repeated. Proportion of participants who passed the fit test for each mask and the effect of training. The proportion of participants who passed a fit test was low for all three masks tested (KC, 16%; flat fold, 28%; and valved, 34%). Rates improved after training: the first mask tested fitted in 18% of participants pre-training and 40% post-training (P = 0.02). None of the masks fitted for 28% of participants. There were no significant predictors of fit-test results. A large proportion of individuals failed a fit test with any given mask, and we were not able to identify any factors that predicted mask fit in individuals. Training on mask use improved the rates of adequate fit. Hospitals should carry a range of P2 masks, and should conduct systematic P2 mask training and fit-testing programs for all staff potentially exposed to airborne pathogens.

  13. Guide to sampling airborne radioactive materials in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The ANSI N13.1-1969 Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities is currently being revised. The revision is being drafted by a working group under the auspices of the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. The main differences between the original standard and the proposed revision are a narrowed scope, a greater emphasis on the design process, and the verification of meeting performance criteria. Compliance with the revised standard will present new challenges, especially in the area of performance validation. The progress made in the revision and key portions of the standard are discussed. The DOE has recently petitioned EPA for alternate approaches to complying with air-sampling regulations. Dealing with compliance issues until the revised standard is adopted will be a challenge for both designers and regulators. The objective of this paper is to briefly describe the content of the proposed revision in order to point out significant differences from the old standard and to describe the new challenges that the proposed revision will present

  14. Guide to sampling airborne radioactive materials in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The ANSI N13.1-1969 Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities is currently being revised. The revision is being drafted by a working group under the auspices of the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. The main differences between the original standard and the proposed revision are a narrowed scope, a greater emphasis on the design process, and the verification of meeting performance criteria. Compliance with the revised standard will present new challenges, especially in the area of performance validation. The progress made in the revision and key portions of the standard are discussed. The DOE has recently petitioned EPA for alternate approaches to complying with air-sampling regulations. Dealing with compliance issues until the revised standard is adopted will be a challenge for both designers and regulators. The objective of this paper is to briefly describe the content of the proposed revision in order to point out significant differences from the old standard and to describe the new challenges that the proposed revision will present.

  15. Sampling of airborne radioactivity in a hot fuel examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Madison, J.P.; Holson, C.E.; Black, R.L.; Dilorenzo, F.L.; Anderson, J.B.; Hylsky, E.; Lau, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    To ensure the maintenance of a safe working environment, and provide data of interest to operations personnel, a fixed air sampling system (FASS) has been installed at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility/North at Argonne National Laboratory's Idaho site. A design requirement is that the system be operated with a minimum number of person-hours. Sixty-six sampling stations are located throughout the facility to gather data from areas where personnel are normally present without respiratory protection. The effectiveness of in-cell contamination-control programs and materials-handling procedures can be evaluated. Long-term trends are valuable guides to improving radiological controls while airborne activities are still well below operational guidelines. Since the beginning of operation in August 1976, the concentrations have averaged between 1x10 -15 and 5x10 -15 μCi/cm 3 for α emitters and from 4x10 -14 to 4x10 -13 μCi/cm 3 for β-γ emitters. Such values are well below the radiation concentration guides. (author)

  16. Bioaccessibility of lead in airborne particulates from car battery repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartey, Emmanuel; Berlinger, Balazs; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ellingsen, Dag G; Odland, Jon Ø; Nartey, Vincent K; Yeboah, Francis A; Weinbruch, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    The bioaccessibility of Pb in air particulate matter from two car battery repair workshops in Kumasi (Ghana) was measured (64 full shift personal aerosol samples). An artificial lung lining fluid simulant (Hatch solution) was applied for leaching the bioaccessible fraction in half of the samples, the other half was leached with synthetic gastric juice. At both locations, the Pb solubility (median) in gastric juice (89% and 92%) is substantially higher than in Hatch solution (4.9% and 5.6%). The high solubility of Pb in gastric juice may be related to the presence of Pb oxides. The low bioaccessibility of Pb in Hatch solution is in good agreement with previous work on mine tailings, urban aerosol, car exhaust, welding fumes and indoor dust. The high bioaccessibility of Pb in the gastrointestinal tract underpins the importance of improving the personal hygienic behavior at the workplace. It is recommended that air monitoring of Pb should include the extrathoracic aerosol fraction using inhalable aerosol samplers, as particles of this size fraction are most likely transferred to the gastrointestinal tract in addition to the non-lung-soluble particles transported from the lung by mucociliary and phagocytosis clearance.

  17. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using organic compounds as tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.; Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Mazurek, Monica A.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    A chemical mass balance receptor model based on organic compounds has been developed that relates source contributions to airborne fine particle mass concentrations. Source contributions to the concentrations of specific organic compounds are revealed as well. The model is applied to four air quality monitoring sites in southern California using atmospheric organic compound concentration data and source test data collected specifically for the purpose of testing this model. The contributions of up to nine primary particle source types can be separately identified in ambient samples based on this method, and approximately 85% of the organic fine aerosol is assigned to primary sources on an annual average basis. The model provides information on source contributions to fine mass concentrations, fine organic aerosol concentrations and individual organic compound concentrations. The largest primary source contributors to fine particle mass concentrations in Los Angeles are found to include diesel engine exhaust, paved road dust, gasoline-powered vehicle exhaust, plus emissions from food cooking and wood smoke, with smaller contribution from tire dust, plant fragments, natural gas combustion aerosol, and cigarette smoke. Once these primary aerosol source contributions are added to the secondary sulfates, nitrates and organics present, virtually all of the annual average fine particle mass at Los Angeles area monitoring sites can be assigned to its source.

  18. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 5: non-destructive determination by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete, V.H.; Hurtado, O.; Toro, P.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure for non-destructive analysis of airborne particular matter using X ray fluorescence is presented. The elements Fe, Pb and Zn were determined and their concentration compared with the results reported by other techniques. The homogeneity of the distribution of Fe in the samples was investigated. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs

  19. Interaction of PM2.5 airborne particulates with ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles and their effect on bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Asli; Saygin, Hasan; Ustabasi, Gul Sirin

    2017-12-21

    A significant knowledge gap in nanotechnology is the absence of standardized protocols for examining and comparison the effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on different environment media. Despite the large number of studies on ecotoxicity of nanoparticles, most of them disregard the particles physicochemical transformation under real exposure conditions and interaction with different environmental components like air, soil, water, etc. While one of the main exposure ways is inhalation and/or atmosphere for human and environment, there is no investigation between airborne particulates and nanoparticles. In this study, some metal oxide nanoparticle (ZnO and TiO 2 ) transformation and behavior in PM2.5 air particulate media were examined and evaluated by the influence on nanoparticle physicochemical properties (size, surface charge, surface functionalization) and on bacterium (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus/Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria) by testing in various concentrations of PM2.5 airborne particulate media to contribute to their environmental hazard and risk assessment in atmosphere. PM2.5 airborne particulate media affected their toxicity and physicochemical properties when compared the results obtained in controlled conditions. ZnO and TiO 2 surfaces were functionalized mainly with sulfoxide groups in PM2.5 air particulates. In addition, tested particles were not observed to be toxic in controlled conditions. However, these were observed inhibition in PM2.5 airborne particulates media by the exposure concentration. These observations and dependence of the bacteria viability ratio explain the importance of particulate matter-nanoparticle interaction.

  20. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prati, P. [Department of Physics, University of Genoa and INFN Division of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Vecchi, R. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Division of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  1. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. The total number of colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p airborne fungi ranged 2×102-1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF) method, and 3×102-6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS) method. Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Airborne particulate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambra-Lopez, Maria; Aarnink, Andre J.A.; Zhao Yang; Calvet, Salvador; Torres, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb and contain gases, odorous compounds, and micro-organisms, which can enhance its biological effect. Levels of PM in livestock houses are high, influenced by kind of housing and feeding, animal type, and environmental factors. Improved knowledge on particle morphology, primarily size, composition, levels, and the factors influencing these can be useful to identify and quantify sources of PM more accurately, to evaluate their effects, and to propose adequate abatement strategies in livestock houses. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of PM in and from livestock production systems. Future research to characterize and control PM in livestock houses is discussed. - Control of particulate matter emissions, a major challenge to modern livestock production.

  3. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-20

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  4. Environment assessing for airborne radioactive particulate release-introduction of methods in IAEA safety report series No.19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Dan; Yang, Liu; Shen, Fu; Yang, Yi; Ma, Yinghao; Ma, Tao; Zhang, Zhilong; Fu, Cuiming

    2016-01-01

    Airborne radioactive particulate in many important nuclear facilities (particularly nuclear power plants) will have a strong impact on the relative public dose if they are released into the corresponding environment traversing the stack or vents. The radiation protection researchers have regarded the relative environment assessing and estimation of public doses. And the model of assessing impact of discharges radioactive substance to the environment have been recommended by many international organizations (e.g. IAEA) with the nuclear energy safety and radiation protection. This paper introduced the generic models that were suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for use in assessing the impact of discharges of radioactive substances to the environment (e.g. IAEA Safety Report Series No.19). The writers of this paper, based on the recommend methods, assessed the discharge limits in some airborne radioactive substances discharging standards. The reasons that IAEA method are introduced are mainly the following considerations: IAEA is one of international organizations with some authorities in the nuclear energy safety and radiation protection; and, more important, the recommend modes are operational methods rather than the methods having little operations such as that have used by some researchers. It is wish that the introduced methods in this paper can be referenced in draft or revise of the standards related to discharges of radioactive substances to the environment

  5. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1 measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E and mechanical (Building L ventilation; (2 compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3 evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m3 than in Building L (37 µg/m3; I/O was higher in Building E (1.3–2.0 than in Building L (0.5–0.8 for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation are important factors affecting residents’ exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  6. Environment assessing for airborne radioactive particulate release-introduction of methods in IAEA safety report series No.19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Dan; Yang, Liu; Shen, Fu; Yang, Yi; Ma, Yinghao; Ma, Tao; Zhang, Zhilong; Fu, Cuiming [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-12-15

    Airborne radioactive particulate in many important nuclear facilities (particularly nuclear power plants) will have a strong impact on the relative public dose if they are released into the corresponding environment traversing the stack or vents. The radiation protection researchers have regarded the relative environment assessing and estimation of public doses. And the model of assessing impact of discharges radioactive substance to the environment have been recommended by many international organizations (e.g. IAEA) with the nuclear energy safety and radiation protection. This paper introduced the generic models that were suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for use in assessing the impact of discharges of radioactive substances to the environment (e.g. IAEA Safety Report Series No.19). The writers of this paper, based on the recommend methods, assessed the discharge limits in some airborne radioactive substances discharging standards. The reasons that IAEA method are introduced are mainly the following considerations: IAEA is one of international organizations with some authorities in the nuclear energy safety and radiation protection; and, more important, the recommend modes are operational methods rather than the methods having little operations such as that have used by some researchers. It is wish that the introduced methods in this paper can be referenced in draft or revise of the standards related to discharges of radioactive substances to the environment.

  7. A study of uniformity of elements deposition on glass fiber filters after collection of airborne particulate matter (PM-10), using a high-volume sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Julieta; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2005-12-15

    A study was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of the distribution of metals and metalloids deposited on glass fiber filters collected using a high-volume sampler equipped with a PM-10 sampling head. The airborne particulate matter (APM)-loaded glass fiber filters (with an active surface of about 500cm(2)) were weighed and then each filter was cut in five small discs of 6.5cm of diameter. Each disk was mineralized by acid-assisted microwave (MW) digestion using a mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids. Analysis was performed by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and the elements considered were: Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti and V. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the standard reference material NIST 1648, urban particulate matter. As a way of comparing the possible variability in trace elements distribution in a particular filter, the mean concentration for each element over the five positions (discs) was calculated and each element concentration was normalized to this mean value. Scatter plots of the normalized concentrations were examined for all elements and all sub-samples. We considered that an element was homogeneously distributed if its normalized concentrations in the 45 sub-samples were within +/-15% of the mean value ranging between 0.85 and 1.15. The study demonstrated that the 12 elements tested showed different distribution pattern. Aluminium, Cu and V showed the most homogeneous pattern while Cd and Ni exhibited the largest departures from the mean value in 13 out of the 45 discs analyzed. No preferential deposition was noticed in any sub-sample.

  8. Seasonal Variability of Airborne Particulate Matter and Bacterial Concentrations in Colorado Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Clements

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol measurements were collected at fifteen homes over the course of one year in Colorado (USA to understand the temporal variability of indoor air particulate matter and bacterial concentrations and their relationship with home characteristics, inhabitant activities, and outdoor air particulate matter (PM. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations averaged (±st. dev. 8.1 ± 8.1 μg/m3 and 6.8 ± 4.5 μg/m3, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 was statistically significantly higher during summer compared to spring and winter; outdoor PM2.5 was significantly higher for summer compared to spring and fall. The PM2.5 I/O ratio was 1.6 ± 2.4 averaged across all homes and seasons and was not statistically significantly different across the seasons. Average indoor PM10 was 15.4 ± 18.3 μg/m3 and was significantly higher during summer compared to all other seasons. Total suspended particulate bacterial biomass, as determined by qPCR, revealed very little seasonal differences across and within the homes. The qPCR I/O ratio was statistically different across seasons, with the highest I/O ratio in the spring and lowest in the summer. Using one-minute indoor PM10 data and activity logs, it was observed that elevated particulate concentrations commonly occurred when inhabitants were cooking and during periods with elevated outdoor concentrations.

  9. From concentration to dose: factors influencing airborne particulate matter deposition in humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-sorkina R de; Cassee FR; LBV; LBO

    2003-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) consisting of solid particles and droplets is present in the ambient air. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 micro m can be inhaled by humans. Knowledge of the tissue-specific internal dose of PM is a critical link between individual external exposure and

  10. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černá, K.; Wittlingerová, Z.; Zimová, M.; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2016), s. 493-502 ISSN 1232-1087 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : airborne fungi * filter based bioaerosol sampling * waste sorting facility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2016

  11. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for ...

  12. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days ...

  13. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  14. An assessment of common atmospheric particulate matter sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method detection limit was also low (0.2 to 1 μg/L) for most metals, and 50% and less standard deviation to mean ratios were obtained for Ni and Pb. Key words: Toxic metals, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry, particulate matter, ...

  15. Control strategies for the reduction of airborne particulate nitrate in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J.; Ying, Qi; Kaduwela, Ajith

    The effect of NO x, volatile organic compound (VOC), and NH 3 emissions control programs on the formation of particulate ammonium nitrate in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) was examined under the typical winter conditions that existed on 4-6 January, 1996. The UCD/CIT photochemical transport model was used for this study so that the source origin of primary particulate matter and secondary particulate matter could be identified. When averaged across the entire SJV, the model results predict that 13-18% of the reactive nitrogen (NO y=NO x+reaction products of NO x) emitted from local sources within the SJV was converted to nitrate at the ground level. Each gram of NO x emitted locally within the SJV (expressed as NO 2) produced 0.23-0.31 g of particulate ammonium nitrate (NH 4NO 3), which is much smaller than the maximum theoretical yield of 1.7 g of NH 4NO 3 per gram of NO 2. The fraction of reactive nitrogen converted to nitrate varied strongly as a function of location. Urban regions with large amounts of fresh NO emissions converted little reactive nitrogen to nitrate, while remote areas had up to 70% conversion (equivalent to approximately 1.2 g of NH 4NO 3 per gram of NO 2). The use of a single spatially averaged ratio of NH 4NO 3/NO x as a predictor of how changes to NO x emissions would affect particulate nitrate concentrations would not be accurate at all locations in the SJV under the conditions studied. The largest local sources of particulate nitrate in the SJV were predicted to be diesel engines and catalyst equipped gasoline engines under the conditions experienced on 6 January, 1996. Together, these sources accounted for less than half of the ground-level nitrate aerosol in the SJV. The remaining fraction of the aerosol nitrate originated from reactive nitrogen originally released upwind of the SJV. The majority of this upwind reactive nitrogen was already transformed to nitrate by the time it entered the SJV. The effect of local emissions controls on

  16. Source apportionment of fine (PM1.8) and ultrafine (PM0.1) airborne particulate matter during a severe winter pollution episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A; Fine, Phillip M; Hays, Michael D; Schauer, James J; Hannigan, Michael P

    2009-01-15

    Size-resolved samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected during a severe winter pollution episode at three sites in the San Joaquin Valley of California were extracted with organic solvents and analyzed for detailed organic compounds using GC-MS. Six particle size fractions were characterized with diameter (Dp) < 1.8 microm; the smallest size fraction was 0.056 < Dp < 0.1 microm which accounts for the majority of the mass in the ultrafine (PM0.1) size range. Source profiles for ultrafine particles developed during previous studies were applied to the measurements at each sampling site to calculate source contributions to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. Ultrafine EC concentrations ranged from 0.03 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.18 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products accounted for the majority of the ultrafine EC concentrations, with relatively minor contributions from biomass combustion and meat cooking. Ultrafine OC concentrations ranged from 0.2 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.8 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Wood combustion was found to be the largest source of ultrafine OC. Meat cooking was also identified as a significant potential source of PM0.1 mass but further study is required to verify the contributions from this source. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products made minor contributions to PM0.1 OC mass. Total ultrafine particulate matter concentrations were dominated by contributions from wood combustion and meat cooking during the current study. Future inhalation exposure studies may wish to target these sources as potential causes of adverse health effects.

  17. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. The primary aim of these CRPs has been to help enhance the research and development capabilities in the Member States, particularly among developing countries; to identify the sources of various environmental contaminants and evaluate their fate; and to provide for the basis of improved health among human populations by the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques. The CRP on Assessment of Levels and Health-Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mining, Metal Refining and Metal Working Industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques focused on improving the competence for research on workplace monitoring in a variety of industrial environments. The personal monitoring of the APM (airborne particulate matter) of the exposed workforce was carried out for the first time by many participants. Nuclear and related analytical techniques, including the application of proton micro-beam, were used to generate the trace element concentration profiles in various biomarkers tissues of the exposed workers. The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) aspects related to the CRP were addressed through intercomparison analyses of APM on filter paper samples and freeze dried human urine samples to generate validated data. These data have helped to generate correlations between the occupational exposure measured and the magnitude of the biological response. Such new information is essential to evolve procedures to considerably reduce/eliminate the pollutants in the workplace environment and to make informed decisions on the evolution of standards in working environments aimed at preserving the health of workers. The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements

  18. Composition of airborne particulate matter in the industrial area versus mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research of air pollution in two different locations on the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. These are the sites Ostrava-Radvanice, which is located in the area affected by the industry and Ostravice in the mountains (without significant effect of the industry. The dust particles collected at these locations were subjected to a wide range of analyses. The mass concentration, the mass-size distribution, mineralogical composition, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentrations of selected metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Co, and Cr were observed at the particulate matter.

  19. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of dissolved analytes even in the presence of leaching agents. Derived results indicated that the investigated leaching agents extract different amounts of trace metals. In general, leaching agents with organic nature yielded comparatively greater extractable and thus bio-accessible trace metal fractions to that of simple solvents like H2O or aqueous NaCl solution. With water, only 26.3±4.0% of Cd was found to be bio-accessible whereas 88.4±24.8 of Cd was obtained as bio-accessible fraction with the use of synthetic gastric juice. The concentrations of bio-accessible metal fractions varied from 0.4 ng m−3 (Cd to 714 ng m−3 (Zn and 0.3 ng m−3 (Cd to 190 ng m−3 (Zn for PM10 samples collected from Karachi (Pakistan and Graz (Austria respectively.

  20. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. A variety of industrial environments such as: galvanisation, iron and steel production, steel construction, coal fired thermal power plants, mining and mineral beneficiation of monazite, zinc smelters, and phosphate fertilizer production plants were included in this CRP. Toxic elements specific for particular industries as potential pollutants were monitored within individual projects. The CRP focussed on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for studies of exposure to inorganic constituents and radionuclides from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs), in the workplaces and their impacts on the health of the workers. The objectives were to: develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of bio-markers (e.g. hair, blood, nails, teeth, urine, breath) of exposed and non-exposed individuals; develop reliable analytical procedures for the analysis of such samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; carry out workplace and personal monitoring surveys, and assess workers' exposure to toxic elements on the basis of measurements results. This document provides an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements are summarized and those aspects that require a further deeper look are also pointed out. The individual country reports include details on the progress made by the respective participants during the CRP period.

  1. On exposure to air-borne particulate activity in a radiological laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Bara, Vivek; Jat, Deepika; Srinivasan, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate different exposure scenarios in a laboratory having once through ventilation. It has been considered a laboratory of volume V (m 3 ) which has once through ventilation rate of λ(hr -1 ). It is assumed that a certain amount, q Bq, of long lived activity has got released into the laboratory and the air-bone activity instantaneously got distributed throughout the volume of the laboratory. In the study a simple mathematical expression is applied for the source term for generic cases of containment breach leading to air-borne activity. It is analysed, considering different time duration of release as less than total time of exposure, for duration of 7 hour exposure

  2. Characterization of vehicular brake service personnel exposure to airborne asbestos and particulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, F W; Tolar, G; Meraz, L B

    2001-12-01

    Evaluation of fibers and total particulate generated during the servicing of drum brakes on motor vehicles as well as during the resurfacing (arcing) of brake shoes was conducted. Conditions for the studies were based on review of contemporary (approximately 1950-1980) working practices in the industry. This work was conducted in two parts. Phase 1 estimated the release of asbestos fibers and total particulate during brake inspection and replacement of light-duty vehicle rear drum brakes at an auto/truck repair facility. Two distinct work practices were evaluated: One rear wheel from each vehicle was serviced using compressed air to remove dust while the second rear wheel was serviced without compressed air. Area and personal monitoring of fiber levels demonstrated counts (without compressed air) that ranged from 0.05 to 0.2 f/cc. Fiber counts when using compressed air averaged from 0.05 to 0.9 f/cc. Results from real-time aerosol monitoring indicated elevated dust levels for about 15 minutes after blow out. With shop doors open, dust levels increased to 5.0 mg/m3 at blow out and returned to 0.08 mg/m3 within two minutes. When the shop doors were closed, the dust levels reached 13.5 mg/m3 at blow out and decreased to 1.68 mg/m3 within one minute and to background within 14 minutes. The Phase 2 series evaluated the release of fibers and other particulate from are grinding. For operations conducted under conditions simulating a workplace, a mean of 0.19 f/cc +/- 0.16 was determined. Dust levels averaged 0.25 mg/m3 +/- 0.05. Brake service monitoring in these tests demonstrates that asbestos fiber concentrations, considered on a time weighted average basis, should not exceed currently acceptable workplace standards whether or not the worker uses compressed air, nor during the arc grinding process when arcing is conducted in accord with the design of the equipment.

  3. Quantitative real-time monitoring of multi-elements in airborne particulates by direct introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Sato, Hikaru; Hiyoshi, Katsuhiro; Furuta, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    A new calibration system for real-time determination of trace elements in airborne particulates was developed. Airborne particulates were directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and the concentrations of 15 trace elements were determined by means of an external calibration method. External standard solutions were nebulized by an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) coupled with a desolvation system, and the resulting aerosol was introduced into the plasma. The efficiency of sample introduction via the USN was calculated by two methods: (1) the introduction of a Cr standard solution via the USN was compared with introduction of a Cr(CO) 6 standard gas via a standard gas generator and (2) the aerosol generated by the USN was trapped on filters and then analyzed. The Cr introduction efficiencies obtained by the two methods were the same, and the introduction efficiencies of the other elements were equal to the introduction efficiency of Cr. Our results indicated that our calibration method for introduction efficiency worked well for the 15 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb). The real-time data and the filter-collection data agreed well for elements with low-melting oxides (V, Co, As, Mo, Sb, Tl, and Pb). In contrast, the real-time data were smaller than the filter-collection data for elements with high-melting oxides (Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Ba). This result implies that the oxides of these 8 elements were not completely fused, vaporized, atomized, and ionized in the initial radiation zone of the inductively coupled plasma. However, quantitative real-time monitoring can be realized after correction for the element recoveries which can be calculated from the ratio of real-time data/filter-collection data. - Highlights: ► APs were directly introduced into ICP-MS and real-time analysis was performed. ► The real-time data were calibrated by a multi-element standard solution from USN. ► During real

  4. Screening of various diesel particulate matter samples from various commodity mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents qualitative analysis results of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from various mining commodities in South Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of elements in DPM samples. For this screening...

  5. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM 10 and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM 10 collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM 10 exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  6. Space and time resolved monitoring of airborne particulate matter in proximity of a traffic roundabout in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, Kai E.; Lundkvist, Johanna; Netrval, Julia; Eriksson, Mats; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) are on the rise. Currently monitoring of PM is done on the basis of interpolating a mass of PM by volume (μg/m 3 ) but has the drawback of not taking the chemical nature of PM into account. Here we propose a method of collecting PM at its emission source and employing automated analysis with scanning electron microscopy associated with EDS-analysis together with light scattering to discern the chemical composition, size distribution, and time and space resolved structure of PM emissions in a heavily trafficated roundabout in Sweden. Multivariate methods (PCA, ANOVA) indicate that the technogenic marker Fe follows roadside dust in spreading from the road, and depending on time and location of collection, a statistically significant difference can be seen, adding a useful tool to the repertoiré of detailed PM monitoring and risk assessment of local emission sources. Highlights: •PM monitoring analysis method of the chemical constituents of individual particles. •Automated analysis provides a large output of data concerning chemical nature of PM. •Multivariate statistical methods used to visualize the analysis. •Chemical nature of PM leads to a complete risk assessment of PM exposure. -- Automated SEM–EDS analysis of captured roadside PM at a traffic roundabout in Sweden displaying the time- and space-resolved chemical differences of the captured particles

  7. Improved sampling for airborne surveys to estimate wildlife population parameters in the African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.; Stein, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimates, obtained from airborne surveys of wildlife populations, often have large bias and large standard errors. Sampling error is one of the major causes of this imprecision and the occurrence of many animals in herds violates the common assumptions in traditional sampling designs like

  8. Confinement of airborne particulate radioactivity in the case of an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, V.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    In the case of an accident, the filter elements on the inlets and exhausts of the air-cleaning systems of a nuclear facility may become a part of the remaining fission product barrier. Among others, the Project Nuclear Safety is pursuing the information necessary to insure safe operation of air-cleaning systems under accident conditions. Experimental investigations into the response of HEPA filters to differential presssures involving both dry and moist air have demonstrated the occurrence of structural failure with subsequent loss of efficiency at low values of differential pressures. Contributions are being made to the development and verification of computer codes used to calculate those fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic conditions expected to prevail in an air-cleaning system as a result of potential accident situations. With regard to further investigations, a new test facility was put into operation for the realization of superimposed challenges and a new method for testing particulate removal efficiency under high temperature or high humidity was developed. (orig./HP)

  9. A critical review of nuclear activation techniques for the determination of trace elements in atmospheric aerosols, particulates and sludge samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams, R.

    1992-01-01

    Activation analysis is one of the major techniques for the determination of many minor and trace elements in a large variety of solid environmental and pollution samples, such as atmospheric aerosols, particulate emissions, fly ash, coal, incineration ash and sewage sludge, etc. Neutron activation analysis of total, inhalable or respirable airborne particulate matter collected on a filter or in a cascade impactor on some substrate, is very popular. By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) up to 45 elements can be determined. The irradiation and counting procedures can be adapted to optimize the sensitivity for particular elements. The precision is largely governed by counting statistics and a high accuracy can be obtained after calibration with multi-elemental standards. Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) is applied only when extremely low limits of determination are required. Instrumental Photon Activation Analysis (IPAA) is complementary to INAA, since some elements of environmental interest can be determined which do not produce appropriate radionuclides by neutron irradiation. Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) is used in particular circumstances such as for certification purposes or coupled to radiochemical separations for extremely low concentrations. (author)

  10. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  11. Environmental Inequality in Exposures to Airborne Particulate Matter Components in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence indicates that toxicity of fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) differs by chemical component. Exposure to components may differ by population. Objectives: We investigated whether exposures to PM2.5 components differ by race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: Long-term exposures (2000 through 2006) were estimated for 215 U.S. census tracts for PM2.5 and for 14 PM2.5 components. Population-weighted exposures were combined to generate overall estimated exposures by race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, employment, age, and earnings. We compared population characteristics for tracts with and without PM2.5 component monitors. Results: Larger disparities in estimated exposures were observed for components than for PM2.5 total mass. For race/ethnicity, whites generally had the lowest exposures. Non-Hispanic blacks had higher exposures than did whites for 13 of the 14 components. Hispanics generally had the highest exposures (e.g., 152% higher than whites for chlorine, 94% higher for aluminum). Young persons (0–19 years of age) had levels as high as or higher than other ages for all exposures except sulfate. Persons with lower SES had higher estimated exposures, with some exceptions. For example, a 10% increase in the proportion unemployed was associated with a 20.0% increase in vanadium and an 18.3% increase in elemental carbon. Census tracts with monitors had more non-Hispanic blacks, lower education and earnings, and higher unemployment and poverty than did tracts without monitors. Conclusions: Exposures to PM2.5 components differed by race/ethnicity, age, and SES. If some components are more toxic than others, certain populations are likely to suffer higher health burdens. Demographics differed between populations covered and not covered by monitors. PMID:22889745

  12. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  13. Analysis of traffic and meteorology on airborne particulate matter in Münster, northwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Johanna K; Klemm, Otto

    2009-07-01

    The importance of street traffic and meteorological conditions on the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 microm (PM10) was studied in the city of Münster in northwest Germany. The database consisted of meteorological data, data of PM10 mass concentrations and fine particle number (6-225 nm diameter) concentrations, and traffic intensity data as counted with tally hand counters at a four- to six-lane road. On working days, a significant correlation could be found between the diurnal mean PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number. The lower number of heavy-duty vehicles compared with passenger cars contributed more to the particle number concentration on working days than on weekend days. On weekends, when the vehicle number was very low, the correlation between PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number changed completely. Other sources of PM and the meteorology dominated the PM concentration. Independent of the weekday, by decreasing the traffic by approximately 99% during late-night hours, the PM10 concentration was reduced by 12% of the daily mean value. A correlation between PM10 and the particle number concentration was found for each weekday. In this study, meteorological parameters, including the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer, were also accounted for. The authors deployed artificial neural networks to achieve more information on the influence of various meteorological parameters, traffic, and the day of the week. A multilayer perceptron network showed the best results for predicting the PM10 concentration, with the correlation coefficient being 0.72. The influence of relative humidity, temperature, and wind was strong, whereas the influence of atmospheric stability and the traffic parameters was weak. Although traffic contributes a constant amount of particles in a daily and weekly cycle, it is the meteorology that drives most of the variability.

  14. Elemental analysis of air particulate samples in Jakarta area by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumiarti; Yusuf, M.; Mellawati, June; Menry, Yulizon; Surtipanti S

    1998-01-01

    Determination of elements in air particulate samples collected from Jakarta, especially from industrial area Pulo Gadung, also from residence, office, and recreation sites had been carried out. The samples collected periodically from August through December 1996. The elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were done using QXAS AXIL (Quantitative X-ray Analysis System of x-ray Spectra by Iterative Least squares fitting) and QAES (Quantitative Analyses of Environmental Samples) package program. Results of the analyses showed that the content of heavy metal elements in air particulate samples from all areas studied were still below the maximum permissible concentration. (authors)

  15. Oxidative stress-induced telomeric erosion as a mechanism underlying airborne particulate matter-related cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particulate matter (PM pollution is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, the majority due to cardiovascular disease (CVD. While many potential pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed, there is not yet a consensus as to which are most important in causing pollution-related morbidity/mortality. Nor is there consensus regarding which specific types of PM are most likely to affect public health in this regard. One toxicological mechanism linking exposure to airborne PM with CVD outcomes is oxidative stress, a contributor to the development of CVD risk factors including atherosclerosis. Recent work suggests that accelerated shortening of telomeres and, thus, early senescence of cells may be an important pathway by which oxidative stress may accelerate biological aging and the resultant development of age-related morbidity. This pathway may explain a significant proportion of PM-related adverse health outcomes, since shortened telomeres accelerate the progression of many diseases. There is limited but consistent evidence that vehicular emissions produce oxidative stress in humans. Given that oxidative stress is associated with accelerated erosion of telomeres, and that shortened telomeres are linked with acceleration of biological ageing and greater incidence of various age-related pathology, including CVD, it is hypothesized that associations noted between certain pollution types and sources and oxidative stress may reflect a mechanism by which these pollutants result in CVD-related morbidity and mortality, namely accelerated aging via enhanced erosion of telomeres. This paper reviews the literature providing links among oxidative stress, accelerated erosion of telomeres, CVD, and specific sources and types of air pollutants. If certain PM species/sources might be responsible for adverse health outcomes via the proposed mechanism, perhaps the pathway to reducing mortality/morbidity from PM would become clearer

  16. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Prakash, P. Jish; Lersch, Traci; Anisimov, Anatolii; Shevchenko, Illia

    2017-01-01

    ) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period

  17. Airborne particulates. European directives and standardization; Matieres particulaires dans l`air ambiant directives europeennes et normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdret, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 59 - Douai (France)

    1996-12-31

    The development of future European directives concerning atmospheric dusts and particulates, organization of the in-charge committee, measurement requirements and limit value determination processes are presented. Various measuring methods and instruments used for particulate and aerosol measurements are reviewed

  18. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate with present emissions and 2047–2053 (future climate with present emissions. Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4–39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate

  19. Sampling for diesel particulate matter in mines : Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program (DEEP), technology transfer initiative, October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Gangal, M.; Goyer, N.; McGinn, S.; Penney, J.; Vergunst, J.

    2001-10-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from exhaust gases from diesel powered mining equipment were presented along with guidelines and regulation for exposure monitoring in the workplace. The report addresses issues related to personal and direct exhaust sampling in mines and presents evidence about potential carcinogenicity of the solid fraction of diesel exhaust. The incomplete combustion of diesel fuel results in the formation of solid and liquid particles in the exhaust. DPM is defined as being the portion of diesel exhaust which is made up of solid carbon particles and the attached chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganics such as sulphate compounds. DPM is a submicron aerosol and as such, it is a respirable dust which penetrates deep into the lungs. In addition, DPMs are not easily removed from the air stream because of their small size. Control of DPM is crucial because once they are airborne, they are likely to remain that way and will affect the workplace where they are produced as well as workplaces downwind. In January 2001, the Mine Safety and Health Administration issued a ruling for U.S. metal and non-metal mines requiring that mines meet a limit of exposure of 0.40 mg/m 3 . Mines are expected to reduce exposure to meet a 0.16 mg/m 3 limit of exposure by January 2006. European mines and tunnel construction projects must also meet DPM exposure limits. DPM sampling in Canada has been regulated for nearly one decade. Sampling protocols in Canada and the United States were described with reference to equipment and procedures testing DPM filtration efficiency of after-treatment modules and to evaluate the impact of diesel equipment maintenance on gaseous particulate emissions. 23 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  20. The effect of RTP (Radon Thoron Progeny) and dust loading on the design of an alarm system for airborne plutonium particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, H.L.; Sun, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    If the alpha method is adopted, the main problem for determining airborne plutonium particulates is the overlapping of the alpha spectrum between Pu and RTF (radon thoron progeny). The order of magnitude estimation establishes that RTP is more than 20 times higher than Pu. Therefore a method of discriminating RTP is required. The primary methods of discrimination are the aerosol size and the alpha spectrum methods. If the alpha spectrum method is adopted, the formation of the low energy tail of RTP should be investigated. Preliminary study indicates that the low energy tail is related to the air gap and dust loading. (author)

  1. Quantitative determination of alpha-quartz in airborne dust samples by x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayon, A.; Roca, M.

    1982-01-01

    The quantitative determination by X-ray diffractometry of alpha-quartz In airborne respirable dust samples on silver membrane filters is considered. A cobalt anode X-ray tube Is employed. NiO is used as Internal standard In order to compensate for both the variations of specimen absorption and the effect due to the nonuniformity of the incident X-ray beam and to the incomplete homogeneity on the filters of samples and standards. (Author) 17 refs

  2. Biomonitoring of airborne particulate matter emitted from a cement plant and comparison with dispersion modelling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gabriela A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Mateos, Ana C.; Pignata, María L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a cement plant that incinerates industrial waste on the air quality of a region in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, was assessed by means of biomonitoring studies (effects of immission) and atmospheric dispersion (effects of emission) of PM10 with the application of the ISC3 model (Industrial Source Complex) developed by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For the biomonitoring studies, samples from the epiphyte plant Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz & Pav. f. capillaris were transplanted to the vicinities of the cement plant in order to determine the physiological damage and heavy metal accumulation (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). For the application of the ISC3 model, point and area sources from the cement plant were considered to obtain average PM10 concentration results from the biomonitoring exposure period. This model permitted it to be determined that the emissions from the cement plant (point and area sources) were confined to the vicinities, without significant dispersion in the study area. This was also observed in the biomonitoring study, which identified Ca, Cd and Pb, pH and electric conductivity (EC) as biomarkers of this cement plant. Vehicular traffic emissions and soil re-suspension could be observed in the biomonitors, giving a more complete scenario. In this study, biomonitoring studies along with the application of atmospheric dispersion models, allowed the atmospheric pollution to be assessed in more detail.

  3. Solubility of airborne uranium samples from uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchik, T.; Oved, S.; Sarah, R.; Gonen, R.; Paz-Tal, O.; Pelled, O.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: During the production and machining processes of uranium metal, aerosols might be released to the air. Inhalation of these aerosols is the main route of internal exposure of workers. To assess the radiation dose from the intake of these uranium compounds it is necessary to know their absorption type, based on their dissolution rate in extracellular aqueous environment of lung fluid. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has assigned UF4 and U03 to absorption type M (blood absorption which contains a 10 % fraction with an absorption rate of 10 minutes and 90 % fraction with an absorption rate of 140 fays) and UO2 and U3O8 to absorption type S (blood absorption rate with a half-time of 7000 days) in the ICRP-66 model.The solubility classification of uranium compounds defined by the ICRP can serve as a general guidance. At specific workplaces, differences can be encountered, because of differences in compounds production process and the presence of additional compounds, with different solubility characteristics. According to ICRP recommendations, material-specific rates of absorption should be preferred to default parameters whenever specific experimental data exists. Solubility profiles of uranium aerosols were determined by performing in vitro chemical solubility tests on air samples taken from uranium production and machining facilities. The dissolution rate was determined over 100 days in a simultant solution of the extracellular airway lining fluid. The filter sample was immersed in a test vial holding 60 ml of simultant fluid, which was maintained at a 37 o C inside a thermostatic bath and at a physiological pH of 7.2-7.6. The test vials with the solution were shaken to simulate the conditions inside the extracellular aqueous environment of the lung as much as possible. The tests indicated that the uranium aerosols samples taken from the metal production and machining facilities at the Nuclear Research Center Negev (NRCN

  4. [Study on transition metals in airborne particulate matter in Shanghai city's subway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Liang-Man; Lei, Qian-Tao; Tan, Ming-Guang; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Liu, Wei; Li, Yan

    2014-06-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 aerosol particle samples were collected at a subway station in Shanghai and their morphology, chemical composition and transition metal species were studied. The mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 inside the subway station were significantly higher than those measured in aboveground ambient air. The PM levels inside subway were much higher than the state control limit. The aerosol composition in the metro station was quite different from that of the aboveground urban particles. Concentrations of Fe, Mn and Cr were higher than the averages of aboveground urban air particles by factors of 8, 2, and 2, respectively, showing a substantial enrichment in subway. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the subway particles had flat surfaces in combination with parallel scratches and sharp edges and looked like metal sheets or flakes. Furthermore, analysis of the atomic composition of typical subway particles by energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectroscopy showed that oxygen and iron dominated the mass of the particles. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results showed that a fraction (> 26%) of the total iron in the PM10 was in the form of pure Fe, while in the street particles Fe(III) was shown to be a significant fraction of the total iron. The work demonstrated that the underground subway stations in Shanghai were an important microenvironment for exposure to transition metal aerosol for the people taking subway train for commuting every day and those who work in the subway stations, and the metal particle exposure for people in the subway station should not be ignored.

  5. [Characterizing Beijing's Airborne Bacterial Communities in PM2.5 and PM1 Samples During Haze Pollution Episodes Using 16S rRNA Gene Analysis Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bu-ying; Lang, Ji-dong; Zhang, Li-na; Fang, Jian-huo; Cao, Chen; Hao, Ji-ming; Zhu, Ting; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jing-kun

    2015-08-01

    During 8th-14th Jan., 2013, severe particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes happened in Beijing. These air pollution events lead to high risks for public health. In addition to various PM chemical compositions, biological components in the air may also impose threaten. Little is known about airborne microbial community in such severe air pollution conditions. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected during that 7-day pollution period. The 16S rRNA gene V3 amplification and the MiSeq sequencing were performed for analyzing these samples. It is found that there is no significant difference at phylum level for PM2.5 bacterial communities during that 7-day pollution period both at phylum and at genus level. At genus level, Arthrobacter and Frankia are the major airborne microbes presented in Beijing winter.samples. At genus level, there are 39 common genera (combined by first 50 genera bacterial of the two analysis) between the 16S rRNA gene analysis and those are found by Metagenomic analysis on the same PM samples. Frankia and Paracoccus are relatively more abundant in 16S rRNA gene data, while Kocuria and Geodermatophilus are relatively more abundant in Meta-data. PM10 bacterial communities are similar to those of PM2.5 with some noticeable differences, i.e., at phylum level, more Firmicutes and less Actinobacteria present in PM10 samples than in PM2.5 samples, while at genus level, more Clostridium presents in PM10 samples. The findings in Beijing were compared with three 16S rRNA gene studies in other countries. Although the sampling locations and times are different from each other, compositions of bacterial community are similar for those sampled at the ground atmosphere. Airborne microbial communities near the ground surface are different from those sampled in the upper troposphere.

  6. Physical characteristics and solubility of long-lived airborne particulates in uranium producing and manufacturing facilities Phase IV - Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.; Stuart, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The rates of dissolution in simulated lung fluid of uranium, thorium-230, radium-226 and lead-210 from six aerosol samples associated with mining operations at Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan were determined. Parallel studies were carried out for uranium aerosol samples collected directly on open-face filters at the Port Hope refinery and from four aerosol samples generated in the laboratory from yellowcake dusts obtained from the Blind River mill in Ontario. Bulk dusts were collected from surfaces in workplace locations. These dusts were resuspended in the laboratory and collected on glass fibre substrates using cascade impactor sampling methods. Two particle size fractions, less than 7 microns and 7-10 microns were collected. In all, 18 samples were subjected to parallel extractions by simulated lung fluid under continuous flow, at 37 deg C at pH 7.4, over a period of 66 days. For each extraction, 10 lung fluid fractions were collected at predetermined intervals and analyzed for uranium to estimate uranium dissolution rates as a function of time. For the Cluff Lake ore dust samples, analyses and dissolution rates estimates for thorium-230, radium-226 and lead-210 were also performed. The samples taken from Cluff Lake were found to be relatively insoluble. Uranium dissolution rates of about 20% were measured over 66 days. No measurable Th-228 dissolution was found during the experiments. Ra-226 and Pb-210 were most soluble as a fine particulate (less than 7 μm), with complete dissolution for some samples. Aerosol samples from Blind River and Port Hope were more readily soluble (complete dissolution over 66 days). The Blind River aerosols dissolved more slowly than the Port Hope aerosols. In both cases, the majority of the dissolution occurred within the first week. There was no effect of particle size on dissolution rate. (author). 12 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  7. The application of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for multielemental analysis of air particulate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rashid Mohamad Yusoff

    1986-01-01

    The performance of XRF spectrometer as a tool for multielemental analysis of air pollution samples was discussed. The non-destructive couples with multielemental nature of the technique satisfactory sensitivity for most elements were the most important characteristics for its popularity as a method of analysis. Thus, the technique promises a significant reduction in cost and time of analysis. As a result, more extensive and revealing air particulates survey should be possible, with consequent improvements in the discovery and positive identification of particulate pollution sources. (author)

  8. The determination of airborne concentrations of radon and thoron progeny by repetitive alpha counting of filter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Clayton S. Jr.; Skrable, Kenneth W.; Chabot, George E.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical equations have been used to determine the airborne concentrations of the particulate daughters of radon and thoron from five net alpha counts obtained at preset time intervals post sampling. The same expressions were used to propagate the associated standard deviations. These propagated errors were minimized by the selection of optimum sampling and counting intervals. An extensive error analysis examined sources of interference and their influence on the calculated concentrations. This system offers sufficient precision for research applications, yet is simple and inexpensive enough for application in field studies. The radon and thoron daughters measured with this technique are 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 212 Pb, and 212 Bi. Because of the decay kinetics involved, the calculated concentrations of 218 Po and 212 Bi involve the greatest uncertainty. The proper choice of sampling and counting intervals optimizes the system for any one of the above radionuclides or for all five collectively. A sampling time of 15 minutes is best for the simultaneous estimation of all five concentrations. Millipore filter samples were obtained from a large, unventilated sub-basement of the University of Lowell research reactor facility and were counted later in direct contact with the window of a gas flow proportional detector having alpha particle counting efficiencies near 0.4 ca -1 and an alpha background of about 1 c min -1 . A typical 15 minute sample obtained at a flow rate of 2 x 10 4 cm 3 min -1 yielded estimates of the airborne concentrations and relative standard deviations: 218 Po, 4.75 x 10 -9 μCi cm -3 ± 18.9%; 214 Pb, 5.15 x 10 -9 μCi cm -3 ± 2.5%; 214 Bi, 4.86 x 10 -9 μCi cm -3 ± 2.4%; 212 Pb, 1.41 x 10 -10 μCi cm -3 ± 2.0%; and 212 Bi, 2.15 x 10 -10 μCi cm -3 ± 27.0%. (author)

  9. Exposure of children to airborne particulate matter of different size fractions during indoor physical education at school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branis, Martin; Hytychova, Adela [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Safranek, Jiri [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of outdoor sports, Jose Martiho 31, 162 52 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-06-15

    Although moderate regular aerobic exercise is recommended for good health, adverse health consequences may be incurred by people who exercise in areas with high ambient pollution, such as in the centres of large cities with dense traffic. The exposure of children during exercise is of special concern because of their higher sensitivity to air pollutants. The size-segregated mass concentration of particulate matter was measured in a naturally ventilated elementary school gym during eight campaigns, seven to ten days long, from November 2005 through August 2006 in a central part of Prague (Czech Republic). The air was sampled using a five-stage cascade impactor. The indoor concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} recorded in the gym exceeded the WHO recommended 24-hour limit of 25 {mu}g m{sup -3} in 50% of the days measured. The average 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} (24.03 {mu}g m{sup -3}) in the studied school room did not differ much from those obtained from the nearest fixed site monitor (25.47 {mu}g m{sup -3}) and the indoor and ambient concentrations were closely correlated (correlation coefficient 0.91), suggesting a high outdoor-to-indoor penetration rate. The coarse indoor fraction concentration (PM{sub 2.5-10}) was associated with the number of exercising pupils (correlation coefficient 0.77), indicating that human activity is its main source. Considering the high pulmonary ventilation rate of exercising children and high outdoor particulate matter concentrations, the levels of both coarse and fine aerosols may represent a potential health risk for sensitive individuals during their physical education performed in naturally ventilated gyms in urban areas with high traffic intensity. (author)

  10. Ground-level airborne particulate matter near important Portuguese Cultural Heritage sites in high polluted (Lisbon) and low polluted (Evora) urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, N.; Wagner, F.; Candeias, A.; Kandler, K.; Tobias, L.; Mirao, J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of a wider project on aerosol composition in the Southwestern part of the Iberian peninsula, an intensive field monitoring/sampling/analytical campaign has been conducted in August and December 2011 to assess indoor and outdoor atmospheric aerosol optical and microphysical parameters (Nephelometry), number/mass/size distribution (TEOM, MAAP, OPS) and single particle minero-chemical composition on filter collected samples (VP-SEM+EDS, XRD) at several sheltered and unsheltered locations close to important Cultural Heritage monuments in Evora and Lisbon, Portugal. Sites investigated included the Igreja do S. Francisco in Evora, the Cristo Rei sanctuary, Jeronimos Monastery, and Lisbon Castle in Lisbon. At Cristo Rei measurements at sea level, around 100m and around 180m were carried out in order to determine the vertical profile of the particle size distribution. Measurements were taken at different times of day reflecting changes in atmospheric mixing and air pollution levels. Measurements were also performed near an air quality monitoring station at Avenida de Libertade (the busiest traffic artery in Lisbon city center) during traffic peak hour. One of the aims of the campaign was to determine differences in airborne particulate matter compositions and concentrations between an urban coastal high pollution (Lisbon) and a low pollution (Evora) environments and how these could affect the nature of decay patterns and processes in the building materials of the monuments under investigation. Preliminary results indicate significant differences in particle properties between the 2 cities as well as between indoor and outdoor locations. One interesting result was the detection of considerable amounts of particle of oceanic origin (such as sodium chloride) in the Evora site even at 130 km away from the coast. Despite its relatively unpolluted location, single particle analysis by SEM+EDS at the Evora site reveals the presence of significant numbers of particle of

  11. Fractionation of airborne particulate-bound elements in haze-fog episode and associated health risks in a megacity of southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huiming; Wang, Qin'geng; Shao, Min; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Yixuan; Qian, Xin; Wu, Hongfei; Yang, Meng; Li, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Haze caused by high particulate matter loadings is an important environmental issue. PM_2_._5 was collected in Nanjing, China, during a severe haze–fog event and clear periods. The particulate-bound elements were chemically fractionated using sequential extractions. The average PM_2_._5 concentration was 3.4 times higher during haze–fog (96–518 μg/m"3) than non-haze fog periods (49–142 μg/m"3). Nearly all elements showed significantly higher concentrations during haze–fog than non-haze fog periods. Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Mo and Cu were considered to have higher bioavailability and enrichment degree in the atmosphere. Highly bioavailable fractions of elements were associated with high temperatures. The integrated carcinogenic risk for two possible scenarios to individuals exposed to metals was higher than the accepted criterion of 10"−"6, whereas noncarcinogenic risk was lower than the safe level of 1. Residents of a city burdened with haze will incur health risks caused by exposure to airborne metals. - Highlights: • PM_2_._5 concentration was 3.4 times higher during haze-fog than non-haze fog days. • Nearly all metals had higher contents during haze-fog than non-haze fog days. • Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Mo and Cu had high bioavailability and enrichment level in PM_2_._5. • Highly bioavailable fractions of elements were associated with high temperatures. • Health risk was assessed combined with metal forms in haze-fog and non-haze fog days. - Fractionation of airborne particulate-bound metals and its contribution to health risks during haze-fog and non-haze fog periods were studied from a typical megacity of Southeast China.

  12. A survey of natural terrestrial and airborne radionuclides in moss samples from the peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanavatee, Komrit; Krmar, Miodrag; Bhongsuwan, Tripob

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural terrestrial radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) and airborne radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Pb ex and 7 Be) in natural terrestrial mosses. The collected moss samples (46) representing 17 species were collected from 17 sampling localities in the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries of Thailand, situated in the mountainous areas between the northern and the southern ends of peninsular Thailand (∼7-12 °N, 99-102 °E). Activity concentrations of radionuclides in the samples were measured using a low background gamma spectrometer. The results revealed non-uniform spatial distributions of all the radionuclides in the study area. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis revealed two distinct origins for the studied radionuclides, and furthermore, the Pearson correlations were strong within 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K as well as within 210 Pb and 210 Pb ex , but there was no significant correlation between these two groups. Also 7 Be was uncorrelated to the others, as expected due to different origins of the airborne and terrestrial radionuclides. The radionuclide activities of moss samples varied by moss species, topography, geology, and meteorology of each sampling area. The observed abnormally high concentrations of some radionuclides probably indicate that the concentrations of airborne and terrestrial radionuclides in moss samples were directly related to local geological features of the sampling site, or that high levels of 7 Be were most probably linked with topography and regional NE monsoonal winds from mainland China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  14. A review of methods for sampling large airborne particles and associated radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.; Nicholson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive particles, tens of μm or more in diameter, are unlikely to be emitted directly from nuclear facilities with exhaust gas cleansing systems, but may arise in the case of an accident or where resuspension from contaminated surfaces is significant. Such particles may dominate deposition and, according to some workers, may contribute to inhalation doses. Quantitative sampling of large airborne particles is difficult because of their inertia and large sedimentation velocities. The literature describes conditions for unbiased sampling and the magnitude of sampling errors for idealised sampling inlets in steady winds. However, few air samplers for outdoor use have been assessed for adequacy of sampling. Many size selective sampling methods are found in the literature but few are suitable at the low concentrations that are often encountered in the environment. A number of approaches for unbiased sampling of large particles have been found in the literature. Some are identified as meriting further study, for application in the measurement of airborne radioactivity. (author)

  15. The “geotoxicology” of airborne particulate matter: implications for public health, public policy, and environmental security (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been documented and hypothesized as the cause of a wide variety of adverse health effects. Most attention has focused on potential health effects of occupational and environmental exposures to many types of anthropogenic PM, such as mineral dusts or combustion byproducts of fossil fuels. However, geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources but modified by human activities) are also increasingly of concern as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Geotoxicology can be defined as the study of the toxicological characteristics and potential health effects of geogenic and geoanthropogenic earth materials. Acute exposures to high PM concentrations are associated with exacerbated asthma, other pulmonary inflammatory responses, cardiovascular problems, and other issues. Some diseases can result from inhalation of dust-borne pathogens. PM can contain bioaccessible (readily dissolved in the body’s fluids) contaminants that, if absorbed in sufficient doses, can trigger toxicity. Acutely bioreactive PM, such as alkaline wildfire ash or acidic volcanic fog, can trigger acute irritation or damage of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Biodurable PM such as asbestos fibers and crystalline silica are poorly cleared by lung macrophages, do not readily dissolve in the fluids lining the lungs, and can therefore persist in the lungs for decades. In sufficient dose, pneumoconioses can result from exposure to biodurable minerals, and chronic fluid-mineral reactions in the body (such as redox cycling and formation of free radicals) are thought to help promote cancers such as lung cancer and (in the case of asbestos) mesothelioma. Many key research questions remain, such as the exact mechanisms by which many types of PM cause disease, or the levels of exposure above which various types of PM begin to pose a

  16. Very low emissions of airborne particulate pollutants measured from two municipal solid waste incineration plants in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, Ari; Patrick, Michael; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    A field campaign has been performed in two municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland, at Hinwil (ZH) and Giubiasco (TI). The aim was to measure airborne pollutants at different locations of the abatement systems (including those released from the stacks into the atmosphere) and at a near-field (∼1 km) downwind site, in order to assess the efficiency of the abatement systems and the environmental impact of these plants. During this study, we measured the particle number concentration with a condensation particle counter (CPC), and the size distribution with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). We also sampled particles on filters for subsequent analyses of the morphology, size and elemental composition with a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (SEM/EDX), and of water soluble ions by ion chromatography (IC). Finally, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled on adsorbing cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), and a portable gas analyzer was used to monitor NO, SO2, CO, CO2, and O2. The particle concentration decreased significantly at two locations of the plants: at the electrostatic precipitator and the bag-house filter. The particle concentrations measured at the stacks were very low (incinerators. At Giubiasco, no significant differences were observed for the morphology and chemical composition of the particles collected in the ambient background and at the downwind site, suggesting that the incineration plant released very limited amounts of particles to the surrounding areas.

  17. Airborne particulate metals in the New York City subway: a pilot study to assess the potential for health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, David S; Ross, James M; Family, Farnosh; Barbour, Jonathan; James Simpson, H; Coulibaly, Drissa; Hernandez, Jennifer; Chen, Yingdi; Slavkovich, Vesna; Li, Yongliang; Graziano, Joseph; Santella, Regina M; Brandt-Rauf, Paul; Chillrud, Steven N

    2010-01-01

    A prior study in New York City observed that airborne concentrations of three metals found in steel - iron, manganese, and chromium - are more than 100 times higher in the subway system than in aboveground air. To investigate the potential for health effects of exposure at these levels, we conducted a pilot study of subway workers comparing personal exposures to steel dust with biomarkers of metal exposure, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in blood and urine samples. Workers wore a personal air sampler operating at 4L/m for one to three work shifts with blood and urine samples collected at the end of the final shift. We found that PM(2.5) exposures varied among subway workers on the basis of job title and job activity. The subway workers' mean time-weighted PM(2.5) exposure was 52 microg/m3, with a median of 27 microg/m3, and a range of 6-469 microg/m3. The observed concentrations of PM(2.5), iron, manganese, and chromium fell well below occupational standards. Biomarker concentrations among the 39 subway workers were compared with a group of 11 bus drivers, and a group of 25 suburban office workers. Concentrations of DNA-protein crosslinks and chromium in plasma were significantly higher in subway workers than in bus drivers, but no significant difference was observed for these biomarkers between subway workers and office workers. Urinary isoprostane concentrations were significantly correlated with the number of years working in the subway system, and were detected at higher, though not significantly higher, concentrations in subway workers than in bus drivers or office workers. At the group level, there was no consistent pattern of biomarker concentrations among subway workers significantly exceeding those of the bus drivers and office workers. At the individual level, steel dust exposure was not correlated with any of the biomarkers measured.

  18. A persisting secondhand smoke hazard in urban public places: results from fine particulate (PM2.5) air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard; Parry, Rhys

    2011-03-04

    To assess the need for additional smokefree settings, by measuring secondhand smoke (SHS) in a range of public places in an urban setting. Measurements were made in Wellington City during the 6-year period after the implementation of legislation that made indoor areas of restaurants and bars/pubs smokefree in December 2004, and up to 20 years after the 1990 legislation making most indoor workplaces smokefree. Fine particulate levels (PM2.5) were measured with a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. We collated data from our previously published work involving random sampling, purposeful sampling and convenience sampling of a wide range of settings (in 2006) and from additional sampling of selected indoor and outdoor areas (in 2007-2008 and 2010). The "outdoor" smoking areas of hospitality venues had the highest particulate levels, with a mean value of 72 mcg/m3 (range of maximum values 51-284 mcg/m3) (n=20 sampling periods). These levels are likely to create health hazards for some workers and patrons (i.e., when considered in relation to the WHO air quality guidelines). National survey data also indicate that these venues are the ones where SHS exposure is most frequently reported by non-smokers. Areas inside bars that were adjacent to "outdoor" smoking areas also had high levels, with a mean of 54 mcg/m3 (range of maximum values: 18-239 mcg/m3, for n=13 measurements). In all other settings mean levels were lower (means: 2-22 mcg/m3). These other settings included inside traditional style pubs/sports bars (n=10), bars (n=18), restaurants (n=9), cafes (n=5), inside public buildings (n=15), inside transportation settings (n=15), and various outdoor street/park settings (n=22). During the data collection in all settings made smokefree by law, there was only one occasion of a person observed smoking. The results suggest that compliance in pubs/bars and restaurants has remained extremely high in this city in the nearly six years since implementation of the

  19. A review of airborne particle sampling with special reference to long-lived radioactive dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1990-03-01

    This report reviews some basic aspects related to the sampling of airborne particles with special reference to Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD). The report covers a number of areas of practical interest such as the production of aerosols, the dynamics of suspended particles, the physical and chemical characteristics and properties of dust clouds, and the inhalation and measurement of dust. It is followed with a brief review of dust sampling instrumentation, and with a short account of the work done on LLRD in Canada with a few references to work done outside this country. (34 figs., 7 tabs., 117 refs.)

  20. Airborne radon-222 measurement by active sampling with charcoal adsorption and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Wen, Xiao-qiong; Fukami, Kenji; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hamanaka, Shun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    A simple method for measuring radon concentration in air is presented. Airborne radon is adsorbed in a charcoal bed by an active air sampling. In time, the adsorbed radon comes to attain radioactive equilibrium with its short-lived progeny 214 Pb. Utilizing this fact, radon concentration is derived from γ-ray measurement of 214 Pb. This method is estimated to be capable of detecting radon concentration in air down to 0.79 Bq·m -3 . The adsorption coefficient obtained with the method is compared with what is obtainable with passive sampling. Applications of this method to indoor and outdoor radon measurements are described. (author)

  1. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among children in Jinan, China: A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Xianfeng; Pang, Na; Wang, Lanzhong; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tianran; Li, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and ≤10 µm (PM 10 ) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explores confoundings factors of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality. The single-pollutant model demonstrated that increased risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was significantly associated with elevated PM 2.5 concentrations the day before hospital admission and elevated PM 10 concentrations 2 days before hospital admission. An increment of 10 μg/m 3 in PM 2.5 and PM 10 was correlated with a 6% (95% CI 1.02--1.10) and 4% (95% CI 1.00-1.08) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In two pollutant models, PM 2.5 and PM 10 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide but not carbon monoxide. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM 2.5 /PM 10 ) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM 2.5 /PM 10 ) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China, and suggested the relevance of pollutant exposure levels and their effects. As a specific group, children are sensitive to airborne particulate matter. This study estimated the short-term effects attribute to other air pollutants to provide references for relevant studies.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in airborne particulates collected during a research expedition from the Bohai Sea to the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Ming; Ding, Xiang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Xiang, Cai-Hong; Sun, Li-Guang; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2005-10-15

    In July to September 2003, particulates in the oceanic atmosphere from the Bohai Sea to the high Arctic (37 degrees N to 80 degrees N) were collected aboard a research expedition icebreaker, Xuelong (Snow Dragon), under the 2003 Chinese Arctic Research Expedition Program (CHINARE 2003). These samples were analyzed to elucidate the atmospheric distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the North Pacific Ocean and adjacent Arctic region. The levels of 11 PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -66, -100, -99, -85, -154, -153, -138, -183, and -209; the sum was defined as sigma11PBDE) in the oceanic atmosphere of Far East Asia (34-48 degrees N/122-148 degrees E) ranged from 2.25 to 198.9 pg/m3 with a mean of 58.3 pg/m3. BDE-47, -99, -100, and -209 were the dominant congeners in all the samples, suggesting that the widely used commercial penta- and deca-BDE products were the original sources. The PBDE levels exhibited a decreasing trend from the mid- to high-latitudinal regions of the North Pacific Ocean, probably resulting from dilution, deposition, and decomposition of PBDEs during long-range transport of air masses. On the other hand, no apparent geographical pattern of PBDE distribution was observed within the Arctic, attributable to unstable air circulation and strong air mixing. Correlations among the PBDE congeners suggested that air masses collected from the North Pacific Ocean were relatively fresh, whereas those from the Arctic were aged as a result of photodecompoisiton. The higher average level (17.3 pg/m3) of PBDE congeners in the Arctic than those in the adjacent North Pacific Ocean (12.8 pg/m3) or other remote areas reported in the literature was attributed to the impact of the North American continent and temperature effects, which was consistent with the hypotheses of global fractionation.

  3. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity of particulate radioactive air samples. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor(reg s ign) 3000) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used in the study, (1) to compare the radioactivity concentration by direct gas-flow proportional counting of the filter to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection and (2) to evaluate sample filters by high resolution visual/infrared microscopy to determine the depth of material loading on or in the filter fiber material. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion in the first method and about 30 samples were selected for high resolution visual/infrared microscopy. Mass loading effects were also considered. From the sample filter analysis, large error is associated with the average self absorption factor, however, when the data is compared directly one-to-one, statistically, there appears to be good correlation between the two analytical methods. The mass loading of filters evaluated was <0.2 mg cm-2 and was also compared against other published results. The microscopy analysis shows the sample material remains on the top of the filter paper and does not imbed into the filter media. Results of the microscopy evaluation lead to the conclusion that there is not a mechanism for significant self absorption. The overall conclusion is that self-absorption is not a significant factor in the analysis of filters used at PNNL for radioactive air stack sampling of radionuclide particulates and that an applied correction factor is conservative in determining overall sample activity. A new self absorption factor of 1.0 is recommended

  4. Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Tan, Mingguang; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guilin; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

    The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM 10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust, vehicle exhaust particles derived from leaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline, and polluted soils were analyzed for their Pb content and isotope ratio and compared to those observed in PM 10 samples. Airborne Pb concentration ranged from 167 to 854 ng/m 3 in the seven monitored sites with an average of 515 ng/m 3 in Shanghai, indicating that a high concentration of Pb remains in the air after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Lead isotopic compositions in airborne particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8608±0.0018; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.105±0.005) are clearly distinct from the vehicle exhaust particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8854±0.0075; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.145±0.006), suggesting that the automotive lead is not currently the major component of Pb in the air. By using a binary mixing equation, a source apportionment based on 207Pb/ 206Pb ratios, indicates that the contribution from automotive emission to the airborne Pb is around 20%. The Pb isotope ratios obtained in the source-related samples confirmed that the major emission sources are metallurgic dust, coal combustion, and cement.

  5. [Simultaneous determination of multiple elements in airborne particulate samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, T; Hitosugi, M; Kadowaki, T; Kudo, M

    1983-07-01

    An energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX) has been applied to determine multielements in the workplace air. The standards for X-ray fluorescence analysis were prepared by the chelate precipitation method on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane filter. And, the specimens were prepared to deposit various metal compounds of different chemical forms by the suspension method on PVC membrane filter, and they were determined with EDX and atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). The results obtained were as follows. Though there is a difference by each element, an amount less than 3 microgram/cm2 per unit area makes it possible to undergo multielement analysis, that is, is has no influence on fine particle effect (particle size; under 5 microns). Then, effects of the X-ray intensity by different chemical forms are negligible. At the presence the neighboring element and other elements this technique showed greater precision by carrying out on corrective treatment, etc. The coefficient of variation of this technique was in the range of 2.5-6.5% at DDTC-Cu of 0.5-5.0 micrograms/cm2, with the limit of detection for As : 0.002 microgram/cm2, Zn : 0.003 microgram/cm2, Pb : 0.003 microgram/cm2, Cu : 0.004 microgram/cm2, Ni : 0.003 microgram/cm2, Fe : 0.005 microgram/cm2, Mn : 0.008 microgram/cm2, Cr : 0.013 microgram/cm2, respectively. Aerosols collected at the workplace were analyzed with EDX and AAS, and the obtained results showed good agreement with such regression line as y = 1.04 chi + 0.04, the coefficient of correlation being r = 0.995. From these results, this technique was found to be a very excellent method for monitoring of multielements in the workplace air.

  6. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. © The Author 2015

  7. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interactive effects of specific fine particulate matter compositions and airborne pollen on frequency of clinic visits for pollinosis in Fukuoka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosri, Arthit; Ueda, Kayo; Tasmin, Saira; Kishikawa, Reiko; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hara, Keiichiro; Uehara, Yamato; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Konishi, Shoko; Honda, Akiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have revealed the interactive effects of airborne pollen and particulate matter on the daily consultations for pollinosis, but it is uncertain which compositions are responsible. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effects of specific PM 2.5 compositions and airborne pollen on the daily number of clinic visits for pollinosis in Fukuoka. We obtained daily data on pollen concentrations, PM 2.5 compositions, PM 2.5 mass, gaseous pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, and O 3 ), and weather variables monitored in Fukuoka between February and April, 2002-2012. In total, 73,995 clinic visits for pollinosis were made at 10 clinics in Fukuoka Prefecture during the study period. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to examine the interactive effects. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and its compositions were stratified into low (85th percentile) levels, and the association between airborne pollen and daily clinic visits for pollinosis was analyzed within each level. We found a significant interaction between specific PM 2.5 compositions and airborne pollen. Specifically, the odds ratio of daily clinic visits for pollinosis per interquartile increase in pollen concentration (39.8 grains/cm 2 ) at the average cumulative lag of 0 and 2 days during high levels of non-sea-salt Ca 2+ was 1.446 (95% CI: 1.323-1.581), compared to 1.075 (95% CI: 1.067-1.083) when only moderate levels were observed. This result remained significant when other air pollutants were incorporated into the model and was fairly persistent even when different percentile cut-off points were used. A similar interaction was found when we stratified the data according to non-sea-salt SO 4 2- levels. This finding differed from estimates made according to PM 2.5 and NO 3 - levels, which predicted that the effects of pollen were strongest in the lower levels. Associations between airborne pollen and daily clinic visits for pollinosis could be enhanced by high levels of specific PM 2

  9. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  10. Punicalagin and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Rescue Cell Viability and Attenuate Inflammatory Responses of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Exposed to Airborne Particulate Matter PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2018-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter with a diameter of < 10 µm (PM10) causes oxidative damage, inflammation, and premature skin aging. In this study, we evaluated whether polyphenolic antioxidants attenuate the inflammatory responses of PM10-exposed keratinocytes. Primary human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed in vitro to PM10 in the absence or presence of punicalagin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which are the major polyphenolic antioxidants found in pomegranate and green tea, respectively. Assays were performed to determine cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of NADPH oxidases (NOX), proinflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. PM10 decreased cell viability and increased ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. It also increased the expression levels of NOX-1, NOX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1. Punicalagin was not cytotoxic up to 300 μM, and (-)-EGCG was cytotoxic above 30 μM, respectively. Further, punicalagin (3-30 μM) and EGCG (3-10 μM) rescued the viability of PM10-exposed cells. They also attenuated ROS production and the expression of NOX-1, NOX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1 stimulated by PM10. This study demonstrates that polyphenolic antioxidants, such as punicalagin and (-)-EGCG, rescue keratinocyte viability and attenuate the inflammatory responses of these cells due to airborne particles. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Fractionation of airborne particulate-bound elements in haze-fog episode and associated health risks in a megacity of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiming; Wang, Qin'geng; Shao, Min; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Yixuan; Qian, Xin; Wu, Hongfei; Yang, Meng; Li, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Haze caused by high particulate matter loadings is an important environmental issue. PM2.5 was collected in Nanjing, China, during a severe haze-fog event and clear periods. The particulate-bound elements were chemically fractionated using sequential extractions. The average PM2.5 concentration was 3.4 times higher during haze-fog (96-518 μg/m(3)) than non-haze fog periods (49-142 μg/m(3)). Nearly all elements showed significantly higher concentrations during haze-fog than non-haze fog periods. Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Mo and Cu were considered to have higher bioavailability and enrichment degree in the atmosphere. Highly bioavailable fractions of elements were associated with high temperatures. The integrated carcinogenic risk for two possible scenarios to individuals exposed to metals was higher than the accepted criterion of 10(-6), whereas noncarcinogenic risk was lower than the safe level of 1. Residents of a city burdened with haze will incur health risks caused by exposure to airborne metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Presence of Coxiella burnetii in Airborne Dust Samples from Goat and Sheep Farms in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by inhalation of the bacterium Coxiellaburnetii. Ruminant livestock are common reservoirs for C. burnetii, and bacteria present inaerosols derived from the waste of infected animals can infect humans. C. burnetii is thought toinfect humans primarily via airborne transmission.Methods: 64 environmental swab samples were collected from 24 sheep and goat farms inSoutheast Kerman province (Iran.Results: In this study touchdown nested trans- PCR were used for detection of C. burnetii inenvironmental samples. We detected C. burnetii DNA in inhalable dust samples collected at 5farms.Conclusion: This first report in Iran highlighted presence of C. burnetii in dust originated fromgoat and sheep farms and that role in human infections with disseminating by wind.

  13. Efficiency of Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP Bioaerosol Sampler for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag eSharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The threat of bioterrorism and pandemics has highlighted the urgency for rapid and reliable bioaerosol detection in different environments. Safeguarding against such threats requires continuous sampling of the ambient air for pathogen detection. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP 2800 bioaerosol sampler to collect representative samples of air and identify specific viruses suspended as bioaerosols. To test this concept, we aerosolized an innocuous replication-defective bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAdV3 in a controlled laboratory environment. The ASAP efficiently trapped the surrogate virus at 5×10E3 plaque-forming units (p.f.u. [2×10E5 genome copy equivalent] concentrations or more resulting in the successful detection of the virus using quantitative PCR. These results support the further development of ASAP for bioaerosol pathogen detection.

  14. Microfabricated Air-Microfluidic Sensor for Personal Monitoring of Airborne Particulate Matter: Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the design and fabrication of a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) air-microfluidic particulate matter (PM) sensor, and show experimental results obtained from exposing the sensor to concentrations of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust, two commonly occurring P...

  15. An economic passive sampling method to detect particulate pollutants using magnetic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Hu, Shouyun; Ma, Mingming

    2015-10-01

    Identifying particulate matter (PM) emitted from industrial processes into the atmosphere is an important issue in environmental research. This paper presents a passive sampling method using simple artificial samplers that maintains the advantage of bio-monitoring, but overcomes some of its disadvantages. The samplers were tested in a heavily polluted area (Linfen, China) and compared to results from leaf samples. Spatial variations of magnetic susceptibility from artificial passive samplers and leaf samples show very similar patterns. Scanning electron microscopy suggests that the collected PM are mostly in the range of 2-25 μm; frequent occurrence of spherical shape indicates industrial combustion dominates PM emission. Magnetic properties around power plants show different features than other plants. This sampling method provides a suitable and economic tool for semi-quantifying temporal and spatial distribution of air quality; they can be installed in a regular grid and calibrate the weight of PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract. Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract

  18. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor(reg s ign) 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify

  19. Particulate matter emissions, and metals and toxic elements in airborne particulates emitted from biomass combustion: The importance of biomass type and combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosima, Angela T; Tsakanika, Lamprini-Areti V; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria Th

    2017-05-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of biomass combustion with respect to burning conditions and fuel types on particulate matter emissions (PM 10 ) and their metals as well as toxic elements content. For this purpose, different lab scale burning conditions were tested (20 and 13% O 2 in the exhaust gas which simulate an incomplete and complete combustion respectively). Furthermore, two pellet stoves (8.5 and 10 kW) and one open fireplace were also tested. In all cases, 8 fuel types of biomass produced in Greece were used. Average PM 10 emissions ranged at laboratory-scale combustions from about 65 to 170 mg/m 3 with flow oxygen at 13% in the exhaust gas and from 85 to 220 mg/m 3 at 20% O 2 . At pellet stoves the emissions were found lower (35 -85 mg/m 3 ) than the open fireplace (105-195 mg/m 3 ). The maximum permitted particle emission limit is 150 mg/m 3 . Metals on the PM 10 filters were determined by several spectrometric techniques after appropriate digestion or acid leaching of the filters, and the results obtained by these two methods were compared. The concentration of PM 10 as well as the total concentration of the metals on the filters after the digestion procedure appeared higher at laboratory-scale combustions with flow oxygen at 20% in the exhaust gas and even higher at fireplace in comparison to laboratory-scale combustions with 13% O 2 and pellet stoves. Modern combustion appliances and appropriate types of biomass emit lower PM 10 emissions and lower concentration of metals than the traditional devices where incomplete combustion conditions are observed. Finally, a comparison with other studies was conducted resulting in similar results.

  20. Characterization of airborne uranium from test firing of XM774 ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.

    1979-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland, to characterize the airborne depleted uranium (DU) resulting from the test firings of 105-mm, APFSDS-T XM774 ammunition. The goal was to obtain data pertinent to evaluations of human inhalation exposure to the airborne DU. Data was desired concerning the following: (1) size distribution of airborne DU; (2) quantity of airborne DU; (3) dispersion of airborne DU from the target vicinity; (4) amount of DU deposited on the ground; (5) solubility of airborne DU compounds in lung fluid; and (6) oxide forms of airborne and fallout DU. The experiments involved extensive air sampling for total airborne DU particulates and respirable DU particles both above the targets and at distances downwind. Fallout and fragments were collected around the target area. High-speed movies of the smoke generated from the impact of the penetrators were taken to estimate the cloud volumes. Results of the experiments are presented

  1. [Sample preparation methods for chromatographic analysis of organic components in atmospheric particulate matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Wu, Dapeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2014-09-01

    The determination of organic composition in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is of great importance in understanding how PM affects human health, environment, climate, and ecosystem. Organic components are also the scientific basis for emission source tracking, PM regulation and risk management. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the organic fraction of PM has become one of the priority research issues in the field of environmental analysis. Due to the extreme complexity of PM samples, chromatographic methods have been the chief selection. The common procedure for the analysis of organic components in PM includes several steps: sample collection on the fiber filters, sample preparation (transform the sample into a form suitable for chromatographic analysis), analysis by chromatographic methods. Among these steps, the sample preparation methods will largely determine the throughput and the data quality. Solvent extraction methods followed by sample pretreatment (e. g. pre-separation, derivatization, pre-concentration) have long been used for PM sample analysis, and thermal desorption methods have also mainly focused on the non-polar organic component analysis in PM. In this paper, the sample preparation methods prior to chromatographic analysis of organic components in PM are reviewed comprehensively, and the corresponding merits and limitations of each method are also briefly discussed.

  2. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celo V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs, in particular platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rh, from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM is important for the estimation of potential risks to human health and to the ecosystem. The aim of this study is to present the first results from an analysis on the concentration and distribution of Pt, Pd and Rh in PM collected on Teflon filters at two selected urban sites (Toronto, Ontario; Edmonton, Alberta collected within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network. In this work, a quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, combined with microwave assisted acid digestion using aqua regia was used. A cation exchange separation was used to alleviate the matrix-induced spectral and nonspectral interferences prior to ICP-MS analysis. To obtain sufficient material needed for PGEs analysis, fine PM (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm; PM2.5 and coarse PM (with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 mm; PM10-2.5 samples were combined into composite samples on a seasonal basis. The obtained results will be discussed and compared with literature data.

  3. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM... Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M. DeWitt, C. Klingshirn, M.D. Cheng, R. Miake-Lye, J. Peck...the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine engine exhaust to allow the accurate measurement of total (volatile and non

  4. Heavy metal analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and other samples from some workplaces in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.; Mangala, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution studies in Nairobi are indicating a rising trend in the particulate matter loading. The trend is mainly attributed to increased volume of motor vehicles, the physical change of the environment, agricultural and industrial activities. In this study, total suspended particulate matter sampling at the Nairobi industrial area and inside one workplace are reported. Included also are the results of analysis of water samples and effluents collected from a sugar factory, a tannery, and mercury (Hg) analysis in some beauty creams sold in Nairobi. The samples were analysed for heavy metal content using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) while the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were determined by gravimetric technique. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXF), atomic absorption spectrophotometry and PIXE analytical techniques plus the use of Standard and Certified Reference Materials (SRM's and CRM's) were used for quality control, analysis and evaluation of the accrued data. Air sampling in the industrial area was done twice (Wednesday and Saturday) every week for a period of two months (November and December, 1996) and twice monthly for a period of six months (January-June 1997). Each sample covering approximately 24 hours, was collected using the 'Gent' Stacked Filter Unit (SFU), for day and night times. The SPM were found to vary from 16 to 83 mgm -3 during the sampling period. The analysis of dust collected inside a workplace showed that there was poor filtration of the air pumped into the building and that there was a need for improvement of the air conditioning unit plus reduction of emissions from a neighbouring tyre factory. Beauty creams analysed showed that there is some mercury present in significant amounts (0.14 - 3.0%). The results of these mercury levels are presented for various brands of cosmetics sold in some market outlets in Nairobi. The health implications on the presence of mercury in some of these beauty

  5. Sensor-triggered sampling to determine instantaneous airborne vapor exposure concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip A; Simmons, Michael K; Toone, Phillip

    2018-06-01

    It is difficult to measure transient airborne exposure peaks by means of integrated sampling for organic chemical vapors, even with very short-duration sampling. Selection of an appropriate time to measure an exposure peak through integrated sampling is problematic, and short-duration time-weighted average (TWA) values obtained with integrated sampling are not likely to accurately determine actual peak concentrations attained when concentrations fluctuate rapidly. Laboratory analysis for integrated exposure samples is preferred from a certainty standpoint over results derived in the field from a sensor, as a sensor user typically must overcome specificity issues and a number of potential interfering factors to obtain similarly reliable data. However, sensors are currently needed to measure intra-exposure period concentration variations (i.e., exposure peaks). In this article, the digitized signal from a photoionization detector (PID) sensor triggered collection of whole-air samples when toluene or trichloroethylene vapors attained pre-determined levels in a laboratory atmosphere generation system. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of whole-air samples (with both 37 and 80% relative humidity) collected using the triggering mechanism with rapidly increasing vapor concentrations showed good agreement with the triggering set point values. Whole-air samples (80% relative humidity) in canisters demonstrated acceptable 17-day storage recoveries, and acceptable precision and bias were obtained. The ability to determine exceedance of a ceiling or peak exposure standard by laboratory analysis of an instantaneously collected sample, and to simultaneously provide a calibration point to verify the correct operation of a sensor was demonstrated. This latter detail may increase the confidence in reliability of sensor data obtained across an entire exposure period.

  6. Collection of size fractionated particulate matter sample for neutron activation analysis in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko; Nakamatsu, Hiroaki; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    According to the decision of the 2001 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactor (Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Section), size fractionated particulate matter collection for NAA was started from 2002 at two sites in Japan. The two monitoring sites, ''Tokyo'' and ''Sakata'', were classified into ''urban'' and ''rural''. In each site, two size fractions, namely PM 2-10 '' and PM 2 '' particles (aerodynamic particle size between 2 to 10 micrometer and less than 2 micrometer, respectively) were collected every month on polycarbonate membrane filters. Average concentrations of PM 10 (sum of PM 2-10 and PM 2 samples) during the common sampling period of August to November 2002 in each site were 0.031mg/m 3 in Tokyo, and 0.022mg/m 3 in Sakata. (author)

  7. Reduction of fine airborne particulates (PM3) in a small city centre office, by altering electrostatic forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G; Harwood, D J; Eick, S A; Dobbs, F; Rosén, K G

    2001-03-26

    A two stage intervention study was carried out to establish the degree to which a newly developed, electrostatic air cleaning (EAC) system can improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by reducing the number of airborne fine particles. The IAQ and how employees in a city centre office (49 m2) perceived it, was monitored from May until November 1998. The number of fine particles, PM3 (0.3-3.0 microm); number of coarse particles, PM7 (3.0-7.0 microm); number of small positive and negative air ions; relative humidity and temperature were recorded in and out of doors. To assess the employees' perception of any changes in their work environment, a questionnaire was completed. Number of particles, relative humidity and temperature were also recorded in a nearby office, equipped with an identical air processor, where no interventions were made. The results from the first intervention (Stage 1), comparing number of airborne particles outdoors to indoors, gave a 19% reduction for PM3 and a 67% reduction for PM7 (P PM7 from outdoors and the removal of PM7 created indoors was achieved by optimizing the existing air moving equipment. The results from the second intervention (Stage 2--with EAC units installed) comparing indoor to outdoor values, gave a further reduction in PM3 of 21% (P PM7 (P > 0.05). Therefore, at the end of Stage 2, the total reductions in particles from outdoors to indoors were 40% for PM3 and 70% for PM7 (P PM7. The questionnaire indicated an improvement in the IAQ, as perceived by the employees. The results suggest that the EAC system is effective in reducing PM3 and thereby improving IAQ in an urban office.

  8. Electron spin resonance of particulate soot samples from automobiles to help environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Matsuda, T.; Ikeya, M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of electron spin resonance (ESR) was studied for diesel soot samples and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from automobile engines. Soot samples or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) were recovered at various points: in the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine, at the dust sampler of a highway tunnel (standard DEP), on the soundproofing wall alongside a heavy traffic road, and on the filters of a dust sampler for SPM. The diesel soot samples apparently showed two ESR spectra: one was a broad spectrum at g=2.1 with a line width of ca. 80-120mT and the other was a sharp signal of a carbon radical at g=2.003 with a line width of 0.4mT. Annealing experiments with a DEP sample at 250 deg. C revealed drastic enhancement of the sharp ESR signal, which suggested a thermal process of carbonization of remnant organics. An oximetric study by ESR showed an enhancement of the broad signal in the diesel soot sample as well as in the sharp ESR signal. Therefore, the main part of the broad ESR signal would be attributed to carbon radicals, which form a different configuration, probably closely interacting aggregates. Enhancement of the sharp ESR signal was not observed in the standard DEP sample under vacuum condition, which suggested less adsorption sites on the surface of DEP samples

  9. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh) in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5) Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Celo V.; Zhao J. J.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska E.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs), in particular platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh), from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM) is important for...

  10. Exposure to particulate matters (PM2.5) and airborne nicotine in computer game rooms after implementation of smoke-free legislation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Sohn, Jongryeul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2010-12-01

    In South Korea, computer game rooms are subject to regulations mandating a designated nonsmoking area pursuant to Article 7 of the Enforcement Rules of the National Health Promotion Act; nonsmoking areas must be enclosed on all sides by solid and impermeable partitions. Using PM(2.5) monitors (SidePak AM510) and airborne nicotine monitors, we measured concentrations in smoking and nonsmoking areas to examine whether separation of the nonsmoking areas as currently practiced is a viable way to protect the nonsmoking area from secondhand smoke exposure. Convenient samplings were conducted at 28 computer game rooms randomly selected from 14 districts in Seoul, South Korea between August and September 2009. The medians (interquartile range) of PM(2.5) concentrations in smoking and nonsmoking areas were 69.3 μg/m(3) (34.5-116.5 μg/m(3)) and 34 μg/m(3) (15.0-57.0 μg/m(3)), while those of airborne nicotine were 0.41 μg/m(3) (0.25-0.69 μg/m(3)) and 0.12 μg/m(3) (0.06-0.16 μg/m(3)), respectively. Concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM(2.5) in nonsmoking areas were substantially positively associated with those in smoking areas. The Spearman correlation coefficients for them were 0.68 (p = .02) and 0.1 (p = 0.7), respectively. According to our modeling result, unit increase of airborne nicotine concentration in a smoking area contributed to 7 (95% CI = 2.5-19.8) times increase of the concentration in the adjacent nonsmoking area after controlling for the degree of partition left closed and the indoor space volume. Our study thus provides evidence for the introduction of more rigorous policy initiatives aimed at encouraging a complete smoking ban in such venues.

  11. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of organic compounds in source samples and in atmospheric fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christopher G; Schauer, James J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-10-15

    Source sample extracts of vegetative detritus, motor vehicle exhaust, tire dust paved road dust, and cigarette smoke have been silylated and analyzed by GC-MS to identify polar organic compounds that may serve as tracers for those specific emission sources of atmospheric fine particulate matter. Candidate molecular tracers were also identified in atmospheric fine particle samples collected in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A series of normal primary alkanols, dominated by even carbon-numbered homologues from C26 to C32, the secondary alcohol 10-nonacosanol, and some phytosterols are prominent polar compounds in the vegetative detritus source sample. No new polar organic compounds are found in the motor vehicle exhaust samples. Several hydrogenated resin acids are present in the tire dust sample, which might serve as useful tracers for those sources in areas that are heavily impacted by motor vehicle traffic. Finally, the alcohol and sterol emission profiles developed for all the source samples examined in this project are scaled according to the ambient fine particle mass concentrations attributed to those sources by a chemical mass balance receptor model that was previously applied to the San Joaquin Valley to compute the predicted atmospheric concentrations of individual alcohols and sterols. The resulting underprediction of alkanol concentrations at the urban sites suggests that alkanols may be more sensitive tracers for natural background from vegetative emissions (i.e., waxes) than the high molecular weight alkanes, which have been the best previously available tracers for that source.

  12. Determination of lead isotopic composition of airborne particulate matter by ICPMS: implications for lead atmospheric emissions in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celo, V.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Quadrupole ICPMS was used for determination of trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) collected at selected sites within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance network, from February 2005 to February 2007. High enrichment factors indicated that lead is mostly of anthropogenic origin and consequently, the lead isotopic composition is directly related to that of pollution sources. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios were measured and the results were compared to the isotopic signatures of lead from different sources. Various approaches were used to assess the impact of relevant sources and the meteorological conditions in the occurrence and distribution of lead in Canadian atmospheric aerosols. (author)

  13. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Ye Jida; Chen Qianyuan; Wu Xiaofei; Song Weili; Wang Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross 13 activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02-0.38 mBq/m 3 and 0.10-1.81 mBq/m 3 , respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m 3 and 0.45mBq/m 3 , respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m 3 and 0.52 mBq/m 3 , of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP. (authors)

  14. The distribution characteristics of trace elements in airborne particulates from an urban industrial complex area of Korea using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Myoung; Lee, Jin Hong; Chung, Yong Sam

    2005-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of about 24 elements associated with airborne particulates (PM10) that were collected in the most polluted urban region of Daejeon city, Korea from 2000 to 2002. Using the measurement data for various elements, both the extent of elemental pollution in the study area and the seasonality in their distribution characteristics were examined. Examinations of their distribution patterns indicated that most elements with crustal origin tend to exhibit seasonal peaks during spring, while most elements with anthropogenic origin tend to exhibit seasonal peaks during fall or winter. In order to explain the factors regulating their mobilization properties, the data were processed by a factor analysis. Results of the factor analysis suggested competing roles of both industrial and natural source processes, despite that the study site is located at a downwind position of the industrial complex. Based on the overall results of this study, it is concluded that the site may be strongly impacted by man-made sources but the general patterns of elemental distributions in the study area inspected over a seasonal scale are quite consistent with those typically observed from natural environment

  15. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-04-15

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM 10 ) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM 10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM 10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm 2 of PM 10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM 10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM 10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM 10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Overall objectives: To demonstrate the applicability of nuclear and related techniques in studies that may impact on human health, giving emphasis to the solution of problems that have been identified to be of high priority in national and international programmes for sustainable development. Specific objectives: To develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) of exposed and non-exposed persons; To development suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; To carry out workplace and personal monitoring of APM and characterise the health effects of such exposure in terms of the observed elemental concentration; To carry out tissue analyses of the workers so exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. Achievements: a) Specific industries not previously monitored in individual countries have been targeted in respect of pollution assessment. Some examples are: Stainless steel processing and construction; Galvanising industry; Zinc smelting operations; Mineral fertiliser industry. b) Validation of analytical techniques through quality control exercises: NAT-3 Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of trace and minor elements in urban dust artificially loaded on air filters; NAT-4 Proficiency test on selected trace elements in lyophilised urine and air filters. c) Capacity building through the establishment of new multidisciplinary teams, personnel training and laboratory expertise. d) The sampling procedures have been harmonised through: The application of the ''Gent'' sampler for APM collection, IAEA procedures and IUPAC guidelines for sampling and sample handling of hair, blood and urine. e) All participants performed surveys on targeted industries and selected pollutants. f) The scientific output of the CRP is materialised in various national and international

  17. Physical‐chemical and microbiological characterization, and mutagenic activity of airborne PM sampled in a biomass‐fueled electrical production facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Corey A.; Lemieux, Christine L.; Long, Alexandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass combustion is used in heating and electric power generation in many areas of the world. Airborne particulate matter (PM) is released when biomass is brought to a facility, stored, and combusted. Occupational exposure to airborne PM within biomass‐fueled facilities may lead to health probl...... includes PM from biomass combustion as well as internal combustion vehicles, may contribute to an elevated risk of adverse health effects. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2010 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.......Biomass combustion is used in heating and electric power generation in many areas of the world. Airborne particulate matter (PM) is released when biomass is brought to a facility, stored, and combusted. Occupational exposure to airborne PM within biomass‐fueled facilities may lead to health...... collected in March was more toxic than PM collected in August. Overall, airborne PM collected from the facility, especially that from the boiler room, were more toxic than PM generated from straw and wood chips. The results suggest that exposure to combustion PM in a biomass‐fueled facility, which likely...

  18. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays; Campionamenti di particolato atmosferico in area urbana per valutazioni di potenziale mutageno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zaiacomo, T. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory.

  19. Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Goeteborg, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Annemarie [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: wagnera@chalmers.se; Boman, Johan [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Gatari, Michael J. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Goeteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers.

  20. Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Goeteborg, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan; Gatari, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Goeteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 μm aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers

  1. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-01-01

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  2. Cocaine and other illicit drugs in airborne particulates in urban environments: A reflection of social conduct and population size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, M.; Postigo, C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez de Alda, M.J.; Barcelo, D.; Artinano, B.; Lopez-Mahia, P.; Garcia Gacio, D.; Cots, N.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of cocaine and other psychoactive substances in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were determined in urban environments representing distinct social behaviours with regard to drug abuse: night-life, university and residential areas. Three cities (with population >1 million and 3 for cocaine, 23-34 pg/m 3 for cannabinoids, and 5-90 pg/m 3 for heroin. The highest levels were recorded on weekends, with factors with respect to weekdays of 1-3 for cocaine, 1-2 for cannabinoids and 1.1-1.7 for heroin. Higher levels were detected in the night-life areas, pointing towards consumption and trafficking as major emission sources, and possibly ruling out drug manufacture. The similarities in temporal trends at all sites suggested a city-scale transport of psychoactive substances. Correlations were detected between cocaine and amphetamine consumption (r 2 = 0.98), and between heroin and cannabinoids (r 2 >0.82). - Highlights: → Cocaine, heroin, cannabis and related illicit drugs are found in detectable amounts in urban air. → Illicit drug consumption and small-scale trafficking are the major emission sources. → Illicit drugs remain in atmospheric particles and are transported across cities during at least 5 days. → Levels of illicit drugs increase from residential to night-life areas, and maximise on weekends. → Correlations between illicit drugs were detected, suggesting differences in consumer groups. - The presence of illicit drugs in atmospheric particles can be used to track illicit drug abuse.

  3. Airborne Nanoparticle Detection By Sampling On Filters And Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewalle, Pascale; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste [CEA Saclay, DEN, Department of Physical Chemistry, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roynette, Audrey; Gensdarmes, Francois [IRSN, DSU, Aerosol Physics and Metrology Laboratory, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Golanski, Luana; Motellier, Sylvie, E-mail: jean-baptiste.sirven@cea.fr [CEA Grenoble, DRT, LITEN, Laboratory of Nanomaterial Chemistry and Security, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-07-06

    Nowadays, due to their unique physical and chemical properties, engineered nanoparticles are increasingly used in a variety of industrial sectors. However, questions are raised about the safety of workers who produce and handle these particles. Therefore it is necessary to assess the potential exposure by inhalation of these workers. There is thereby a need to develop a suitable instrumentation which can detect selectively the presence of engineered nanoparticles in the ambient atmosphere. In this paper Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to meet this target. LIBS can be implemented on site since it is a fast and direct technique which requires no sample preparation. The approach consisted in sampling Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on a filter, respectively a mixed cellulose ester membrane and a polycarbonate membrane, and to measure the surface concentration of Fe and Ti by LIBS. Then taking into account the sampling parameters (flow, duration, filter surface) we could calculate a detection limit in volume concentration in the atmosphere. With a sampling at 10 L/min on a 10 cm{sup 2} filter during 1 min, we obtained detection limits of 56 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for Fe and 22 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for Ti. These figures, obtained in real time, are significantly below existing workplace exposure recommendations of the EU-OSHA and of the NIOSH. These results are very encouraging and will be completed in a future work on airborne carbon nanotube detection.

  4. Cocaine and other illicit drugs in airborne particulates in urban environments: A reflection of social conduct and population size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, M [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Postigo, C [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Querol, X [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Alastuey, A [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez de Alda, M.J., E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, D [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); King Saud University, Box 2454, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Artinano, B [Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Mahia, P [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus A Zapateira, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Garcia Gacio, D., E-mail: dgarcia@udc.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus A Zapateira, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cots, N [Department of the Environment, Catalonia Regional Government, Av. Diagonal 525, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Levels of cocaine and other psychoactive substances in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were determined in urban environments representing distinct social behaviours with regard to drug abuse: night-life, university and residential areas. Three cities (with population >1 million and <0.3 million inhabitants) were selected. Mean daily levels of drugs in PM were 11-336 pg/m{sup 3} for cocaine, 23-34 pg/m{sup 3} for cannabinoids, and 5-90 pg/m{sup 3} for heroin. The highest levels were recorded on weekends, with factors with respect to weekdays of 1-3 for cocaine, 1-2 for cannabinoids and 1.1-1.7 for heroin. Higher levels were detected in the night-life areas, pointing towards consumption and trafficking as major emission sources, and possibly ruling out drug manufacture. The similarities in temporal trends at all sites suggested a city-scale transport of psychoactive substances. Correlations were detected between cocaine and amphetamine consumption (r{sup 2} = 0.98), and between heroin and cannabinoids (r{sup 2}>0.82). - Highlights: > Cocaine, heroin, cannabis and related illicit drugs are found in detectable amounts in urban air. > Illicit drug consumption and small-scale trafficking are the major emission sources. > Illicit drugs remain in atmospheric particles and are transported across cities during at least 5 days. > Levels of illicit drugs increase from residential to night-life areas, and maximise on weekends. > Correlations between illicit drugs were detected, suggesting differences in consumer groups. - The presence of illicit drugs in atmospheric particles can be used to track illicit drug abuse.

  5. Sampling technologies and air pollution control devices for gaseous and particulate arsenic: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, Lieve

    2005-01-01

    Direct measurement of arsenic release requires a good sampling and analysis procedure in order to capture and detect the total amount of metals emitted. The literature is extensively reviewed in order to evaluate the efficiency of full field-scale and laboratory scale techniques for capturing particulate and gaseous emissions of arsenic from the thermo-chemical treatment of different sources of arsenic. Furthermore, trace arsenic concentrations in ambient air, national standard sampling methods and arsenic analysis methods are considered. Besides sampling techniques, the use of sorbents is also reviewed with respect to both approaches (1) to prevent the metals from exiting with the flue gas and (2) to react or combine with the metals in order to be collected in air pollution control systems. The most important conclusion is that submicron arsenic fumes are difficult to control in conventional air pollution control devices. Complete capture of the arsenic species requires a combination of particle control and vapour control devices. - Submicron arsenic fumes are difficult to control in conventional air pollution control devices

  6. Simultaneous sampling of indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Janik, Miroslaw; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-02-18

    Several studies have estimated inhalation doses for the public because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Most of them were based on measurement of radioactivity in outdoor air and included the assumption that people stayed outdoors all day. Although this assumption gives a conservative estimate, it is not realistic. The "air decontamination factor" (ratio of indoor to outdoor air radionuclide concentrations) was estimated from simultaneous sampling of radioactivity in both inside and outside air of one building. The building was a workplace and located at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Aerosol-associated radioactive materials in air were collected onto filters, and the filters were analyzed by γ spectrometry at NIRS. The filter sampling was started on March 15, 2011 and was continued for more than 1 year. Several radionuclides, such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were found by measuring the filters with a germanium detector. The air decontamination factor was around 0.64 for particulate (131)I and 0.58 for (137)Cs. These values could give implications for the ratio of indoor to outdoor radionuclide concentrations after the FDNPP accident for a similar type of building.

  7. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  8. Application of activated carbon fiber to a filter used for airborne radioiodine sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Murata, Mikio; Yoshikazu, Yoshida

    1988-01-01

    An airborne radioiodine sampling filter is required to have low pressure drop, mechanical strength enough to a practical use and high collection efficiency under high relative humidity(RH). To develop a filter to meet the requirements, the influences of impregnation amount of triethylenediamin(TEDA) on the collection efficiencies for methyl iodide and the reaction rates were investigated for several kinds of activated carbon fiber varied in specific surface area, pore diameter, etc. Silver silica gel(Sut Chemi, AC6120), silver zeolite(CTI Nuc., AgX Type III), silver alumina(Hitachi Co.) and granular activated charcoal were also examined for comparison. A new type filter made of activated carbon fiber (ACF filter) was developed based on the above experimental results. The ACF filter was examined for the pressure drop by the filter and collection efficiency for methyl iodide being compared with other types of filters such as an activated charcoal cartridge (ACC) and an activated charcoal filter paper (ACP)

  9. Physical characteristics and solubility of long-lived airborne particulates in uranium producing and manufacturing facilities. Phase III - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.

    1995-08-01

    The rates of dissolution in simulated lung fluid of uranium and radium-226 from aerosols associated with various operations at a mill in the Elliot Lake area of Ontario have been studied. Dust samples were collected from seven workplace locations. Each dust sample was re-suspended in the laboratory and sampled by a cascade impactor. The four particle size ranges were: 10-7 micron, 7-3 micron, 3-1 micron and less than 1 micron. In all, 28 aerosol samples were collected on cascade impactor substrates. For each dust sample, the two largest particle size fractions were combined into a single sample for extraction by simulated lung fluid. Similarly, the two smaller particle size fractions were combined. In all, 14 combined aerosol samples and a blank filter were subjected to parallel extractions by simulated lung fluid under continuous flow, at 37 deg C at pH 7.4, over a period of 63.5 days. For each aerosol sample, eight lung fluid fractions were collected at pre-determined intervals and analyzed to allow estimates of the rates of dissolution of uranium and radium-226 as a function of time. The total uranium dissolution for the dust samples taken from the yellowcake operations ranged from 22.7% to 55.3%. The other samples indicated a total uranium dissolution ranging from 6.7% to 41.4%. The dissolution rates for radium-226 in the ore-related aerosols ranged from 2.6% to 4.7%. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Urban airborne matter in central and southern Chile: Effects of meteorological conditions on fine and coarse particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Marco A.; Baettig, Ricardo; Cornejo, Jorge; Zamudio, Francisco; Guajardo, Jorge; Fica, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the major global environmental problems affecting human health and life quality. Many cities of Chile are heavily polluted with PM2.5 and PM10, mainly in the cold season, and there is little understanding of how the variation in particle matter differs between cities and how this is affected by the meteorological conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of meteorological variables on respirable particulate matter (PM) of the main cities in the central-south valley of Chile during the cold season (May to August) between 2014 and 2016. We used hourly PM2.5 and PMcoarse (PM10- PM2.5) information along with wind speed, temperature and relative humidity, and other variables derived from meteorological parameters. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were fitted for each of the eight cities selected, covering a latitudinal range of 929 km, from Santiago to Osorno. Great variation in PM was found between cities during the cold months, and that variation exhibited a marked latitudinal pattern. Overall, the more northerly cities tended to be less polluted in PM2.5 and more polluted in PMcoarse than the more southerly cities, and vice versa. The results show that other derived variables from meteorology were better related with PM than the use of traditional daily means. The main variables selected with regard to PM2.5 content were mean wind speed and minimum temperature (negative relationship). Otherwise, the main variables selected with regard to PMcoarse content were mean wind speed (negative), and the daily range in temperature (positive). Variables derived from relative humidity contributed differently to the models, having a higher effect on PMcoarse than PM2.5, and exhibiting both negative and positive effects. For the different cities the deviance explained by the GAMs ranged from 37.6 to 79.1% for PM2.5 and from 18.5 to 63.7% for PMcoarse. The percentage of deviance explained by the models for PM2.5 exhibited a

  11. Physical characteristics and solubility of long-lived airborne particulates in uranium producing and manufacturing facilities. Phase III - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.; Stuart, D.C.; Stothers, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The rates of dissolution in simulated lung fluid of uranium from aerosols associated with various stages of the yellowcake manufacturing process have been studied. Dusts were collected from eight workplace locations. Each dust sample was resuspended in the laboratory and collected on glass fibre substrates using cascade impactor sampling methods. The two particle size fractions collected were less than 7 microns and 10-7 microns. Each sample was prepared in duplicate. In all, 32 aerosol samples were prepared for solubility extraction studies. The aerosol-bearing filters were subjected to parallel extractions by simulated lung fluid under continuous flow, at 37 deg C at pH 7.4, over a period of 68.5 days. Ten lung fluid fractions were collected at predetermined time intervals and analyzed to allow estimates of uranium dissolution rates as a function of time. After completion of the 68.5 day simulated lung fluid extraction, the residual samples were subjected to a more aggressive nitric acid extraction for 48 hours. The fraction of uranium dissolved over the first 12 hours varied from 27% to 98% for seven of the eight yellowcake samples. For these yellowcake samples, the fractions of uranium dissolved over the first 36 hours and over the full 68.5 days ranged from 49% to 99% and 80% to 100% respectively. The eighth sample was a calcined yellowcake. The rate of dissolution for the calcined yellowcake was less than 4.5% over the first 12 hours and less than 10% over 68.5 days. No influence of particle size on the rate of dissolution was found. Most of the uranium was dissolved by the simulated lung fluid for seven of the eight yellowcake samples. As a result, the nitric acid extraction of the residual samples had little effect on these seven samples. The nitric acid extraction of the calcined sample, which was found to be relatively insoluble in simulated lung fluid, dissolved a further 21% to 36.1% of the uranium. (author). 9 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  13. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  14. Magnesium, Iron and Aluminum in LLNL Air Particulate and Rain Samples with Reference to Magnesium in Industrial Storm Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fish, Craig [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Storm water runoff from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) main site and Site 300 periodically exceeds the Discharge Permit Numeric Action Level (NAL) for Magnesium (Mg) under the Industrial General Permit (IGP) Order No. 2014-0057-DWQ. Of particular interest is the source of magnesium in storm water runoff from the site. This special study compares new metals data from air particulate and precipitation samples from the LLNL main site and Site 300 to previous metals data for storm water from the main site and Site 300 and alluvial sediment from the main site to investigate the potential source of elevated Mg in storm water runoff. Data for three metals (Mg, Iron {Fe}, and Aluminum {Al}) were available from all media; data for additional metals, such as Europium (Eu), were available from rain, air particulates, and alluvial sediment. To attribute source, this study compared metals concentration data (for Mg, Al, and Fe) in storm water and rain; metal-metal correlations (Mg with Fe, Mg with Al, Al with Fe, Mg with Eu, Eu with Fe, and Eu with Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates, and sediments; and metal-metal ratios ((Mg/Fe, Mg/Al, Al/Fe, Mg/Eu, Eu/Fe, and Eu/Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates and sediments. The results presented in this study are consistent with a simple conceptual model where the source of Mg in storm water runoff is air particulate matter that has dry-deposited on impervious surfaces and subsequently entrained in runoff during precipitation events. Such a conceptual model is consistent with 1) higher concentrations of metals in storm water runoff than in precipitation, 2) the strong correlation of Mg with Aluminum (Al) and Iron (Fe) in both storm water and air particulates, and 3) the similarity in metal mass ratios between storm water and air particulates in contrast to the dissimilarity of metal mass ratios between storm water and precipitation or alluvial sediment. The strong correlation of Mg with Fe and Al

  15. Air sampling by pumping through a filter: effects of air flow rate, concentration, and decay of airborne substances

    OpenAIRE

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2016-01-01

    This paper tackles the issue of interpreting the number of airborne particles adsorbed on a filter through which a certain volume of sampled air has been pumped. This number is equal to the product of the pumped volume and particle concentration in air, but only if the concentration is constant over time and if there is no substance decomposition on the filter during sampling. If this is not the case, one must take into account the inconstancy of the concentration and the decay law for a give...

  16. Speciation of water soluble iron in size segregated airborne particulate matter using LED based liquid waveguide with a novel dispersive absorption spectroscopic measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.L.; Jiang, S.Y.N.; Ning, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present the development and evaluation of a dispersive absorption spectroscopic technique for trace level soluble ferrous detection. The technique makes use of the broadband absorption spectra of the ferrous-ferrozine complex with a novel spectral fitting algorithm to determine soluble ferrous concentrations in samples and achieves much improved measurement precision compared to conventional methods. The developed method was evaluated by both model simulations and experimental investigations. The results demonstrated the robustness of the method against the spectral fluctuation, wavelength drift and electronic noise, while achieving excellent linearity (R 2  > 0.999) and low detection limit (0.06 μg L −1 ) for soluble ferrous detection. The developed method was also used for the speciation of soluble iron in size segregated atmospheric aerosols. The measurement was carried out during Spring and Summer in typical urban environment in Hong Kong. The measured total iron concentrations are in good agreement compared to conventional Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) measurements. Investigation on ambient particulate matter samples shows the size dependent characteristic of iron speciation in the atmosphere with a more active role of fine particles in transforming between ferrous and ferric. The method demonstrated in this study provides a cost and time effective approach for the speciation of iron in ambient aerosols. - Highlights: • Dispersive absorption spectroscopic technique for trace level ferrous detection. • The spectral fitting retrieval improved the measurement precision and stability. • Extremely low detection limit was achieved for aqueous ferrous measurement. • Iron in size segregated particulate matters shows seasonal characteristic. • More active role of iron was found in fine particles compared to coarse particles.

  17. Speciation of water soluble iron in size segregated airborne particulate matter using LED based liquid waveguide with a novel dispersive absorption spectroscopic measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.L. [Meteorological Institute, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich (Germany); School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Jiang, S.Y.N. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ning, Z., E-mail: zhining@cityu.edu.hk [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Guy Carpenter Climate Change Centre, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2016-03-31

    In this study, we present the development and evaluation of a dispersive absorption spectroscopic technique for trace level soluble ferrous detection. The technique makes use of the broadband absorption spectra of the ferrous-ferrozine complex with a novel spectral fitting algorithm to determine soluble ferrous concentrations in samples and achieves much improved measurement precision compared to conventional methods. The developed method was evaluated by both model simulations and experimental investigations. The results demonstrated the robustness of the method against the spectral fluctuation, wavelength drift and electronic noise, while achieving excellent linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.999) and low detection limit (0.06 μg L{sup −1}) for soluble ferrous detection. The developed method was also used for the speciation of soluble iron in size segregated atmospheric aerosols. The measurement was carried out during Spring and Summer in typical urban environment in Hong Kong. The measured total iron concentrations are in good agreement compared to conventional Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) measurements. Investigation on ambient particulate matter samples shows the size dependent characteristic of iron speciation in the atmosphere with a more active role of fine particles in transforming between ferrous and ferric. The method demonstrated in this study provides a cost and time effective approach for the speciation of iron in ambient aerosols. - Highlights: • Dispersive absorption spectroscopic technique for trace level ferrous detection. • The spectral fitting retrieval improved the measurement precision and stability. • Extremely low detection limit was achieved for aqueous ferrous measurement. • Iron in size segregated particulate matters shows seasonal characteristic. • More active role of iron was found in fine particles compared to coarse particles.

  18. Evaluation of strategies for monitoring and sampling airborne radionuclides in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.; Guilmette, R.A.; Scott, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Protection of workers from intakes of airborne radioactive materials is receiving increased attention as part of the overall emphasis on minimisation of occupational radiation exposures. Because current guidance of the International Commission on Radiological Protection on protection from airborne radionuclides is based on annual limits on intake, ALI, and average annual air concentrations derived from these ALIs, increased effort is being devoted to monitoring exposure levels, directly or indirectly, in the workplace. Possible approaches include the use of fixed air samplers, continuous air monitors, and personal air samplers worn by individual workers. Periodic bioassay of these workers of whole-body counting, chest counting, or excreta analyses can provide useful information on the adequacy with which the above approaches are monitoring the workplace. Because each approach requires a major commitment of institutional resources, it is important that the overall monitoring plan reflect the relative value of these different approaches for the facility and processes being monitored. (Author)

  19. PM10 sampler deposited air particulates: Ascertaining uniformity of sample on filter through rotated exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owoade, Oyediran K.; Olise, Felix S.; Obioh, Imoh B.; Olaniyi, Hezekiah B.; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Ferrero, Luca; Perrone, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    For reproducibility of analytical results of samples deposited on filters using PM 10 sampler, homogeneity of the sample on the filter is very important especially when the size of the X-ray beam for the analysis is less than the size of filter. It is against this background that the air particulate samples collected on using PM 10 samplers are analysed to determine the elemental concentrations. Each sample was divided into four quadrants and each was analysed under same conditions to determine if the particles were deposited uniformly over the filter. Each analysis was done using EDXRF technique. The spectrometer consists of four secondary targets, which are automatically switched to in sequence in analysing each sample. The concentration of various elements detected was determined using TURBOQUANT (a brand name for a SPECTRO method which is used for screening analysis). Sixteen elements were detected in every sample. Results show that there was less than 10% deviation in the concentrations in different quadrants. There were a few elements like Ba, Cs, etc., which have deviation greater than 20%. The concentrations of these latter elements were close to detection limits of the spectrometer. We conclude that the analytical result of particulate samples deposited on filters by the PM 10 sampler can be reliable in terms of the homogeneity of the deposition. For such analytes with low concentrations, it would be important that the sampling time be increased to allow for higher mass deposition on the filter

  20. PM{sub 10} sampler deposited air particulates: Ascertaining uniformity of sample on filter through rotated exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owoade, Oyediran K. [Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL), Physics Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)]. E-mail: oowoade2001@yahoo.com; Olise, Felix S. [Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL), Physics Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Obioh, Imoh B. [Centre for Energy Research, Development (Cerd), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Olaniyi, Hezekiah B. [Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL), Physics Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Bolzacchini, Ezio [Universita Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze-Ambientali, Pizza della Scienza, Milan (Italy); Ferrero, Luca [Universita Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze-Ambientali, Pizza della Scienza, Milan (Italy); Perrone, Grazia [Universita Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze-Ambientali, Pizza della Scienza, Milan (Italy)

    2006-08-01

    For reproducibility of analytical results of samples deposited on filters using PM{sub 10} sampler, homogeneity of the sample on the filter is very important especially when the size of the X-ray beam for the analysis is less than the size of filter. It is against this background that the air particulate samples collected on using PM{sub 10} samplers are analysed to determine the elemental concentrations. Each sample was divided into four quadrants and each was analysed under same conditions to determine if the particles were deposited uniformly over the filter. Each analysis was done using EDXRF technique. The spectrometer consists of four secondary targets, which are automatically switched to in sequence in analysing each sample. The concentration of various elements detected was determined using TURBOQUANT (a brand name for a SPECTRO method which is used for screening analysis). Sixteen elements were detected in every sample. Results show that there was less than 10% deviation in the concentrations in different quadrants. There were a few elements like Ba, Cs, etc., which have deviation greater than 20%. The concentrations of these latter elements were close to detection limits of the spectrometer. We conclude that the analytical result of particulate samples deposited on filters by the PM{sub 10} sampler can be reliable in terms of the homogeneity of the deposition. For such analytes with low concentrations, it would be important that the sampling time be increased to allow for higher mass deposition on the filter.

  1. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurell, E.; Alsberg, T.; Assefaz-Redda, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  2. Airborne detection and quantification of swine influenza a virus in air samples collected inside, outside and downwind from swine barns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Corzo

    Full Text Available Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m³ of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m³ of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m³. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions.

  3. Satellite Image Classification of Building Damages Using Airborne and Satellite Image Samples in a Deep Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, D.; Nex, F.; Kerle, N.; Vosselman, G.

    2018-05-01

    The localization and detailed assessment of damaged buildings after a disastrous event is of utmost importance to guide response operations, recovery tasks or for insurance purposes. Several remote sensing platforms and sensors are currently used for the manual detection of building damages. However, there is an overall interest in the use of automated methods to perform this task, regardless of the used platform. Owing to its synoptic coverage and predictable availability, satellite imagery is currently used as input for the identification of building damages by the International Charter, as well as the Copernicus Emergency Management Service for the production of damage grading and reference maps. Recently proposed methods to perform image classification of building damages rely on convolutional neural networks (CNN). These are usually trained with only satellite image samples in a binary classification problem, however the number of samples derived from these images is often limited, affecting the quality of the classification results. The use of up/down-sampling image samples during the training of a CNN, has demonstrated to improve several image recognition tasks in remote sensing. However, it is currently unclear if this multi resolution information can also be captured from images with different spatial resolutions like satellite and airborne imagery (from both manned and unmanned platforms). In this paper, a CNN framework using residual connections and dilated convolutions is used considering both manned and unmanned aerial image samples to perform the satellite image classification of building damages. Three network configurations, trained with multi-resolution image samples are compared against two benchmark networks where only satellite image samples are used. Combining feature maps generated from airborne and satellite image samples, and refining these using only the satellite image samples, improved nearly 4 % the overall satellite image

  4. Quantifying Airborne Allergen Levels Before and After Rain Events Using TRMM/GPM and Ground-Sampled Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Randy M.

    2006-01-01

    Allergies affect millions of Americans, increasing health risks and also increasing absenteeism and reducing productivity in the workplace. Outdoor allergens, such as airborne pollens and mold spores, commonly trigger respiratory distress symptoms, but rainfall reduces the quantity of allergens in the air (EPA, 2003). The current NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission provides accurate information related to rain events. These capabilities will be further enhanced with the future Global Precipitation Measurement mission. This report examines the effectiveness of combining these NASA resources with established ground-based allergen/spore sampling systems to better understand the benefits that rain provides in removing allergens and spores from the air.

  5. Air quality at outdoor community events: findings from fine particulate (PM2.5) sampling at festivals in Edmonton, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Damian; Parsons, Marc; Zinyemba, Chaka

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a broad range of health risks. This study assessed the impacts of cooking smoke and environmental tobacco smoke on air quality at outdoor community events in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Data were collected at three festivals in July-August 2011 using a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. The pooled mean PM2.5 level was 12.41 μg/m(3). Peak readings varied from 52 to 1877 μg/m(3). Mean PM2.5 near food stalls was 35.42 μg/m(3), which exceeds the WHO limit for 24 h exposure. Mean PM2.5 levels with smokers present were 16.39 μg/m(3) (all points) and 9.64 μg/m(3) (excluding points near food stalls). Although some smokers withdrew from common spaces, on average 20 smokers/hour were observed within 3 m. Extending smoking bans would improve air quality and address related concerns. However, food preparation is a more pressing area for policy action to reduce PM2.5 exposure at these community events.

  6. Elemental analysis of airborne fine particles collected at the roadside of an arterial road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected at the intersection of Industrial Road in Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa, Japan using a 12-stage low-pressure impactor. High concentrations of airborne particulate matter have been observed in this area. The collected samples were analyzed for 34 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and data on the elemental concentrations were obtained. High concentrations of fine particles of As, Br, Sb, V, and Zn were observed. It was further observed that these fine particles were originated predominantly from the wear of tires and brakes, and not from automobile exhaust emissions. (author)

  7. Airborne particulate metals in the New York City subway: A pilot study to assess the potential for health impacts✩,✩✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, David S.; Ross, James M.; Family, Farnosh; Barbour, Jonathan; Simpson, H. James; Coulibaly, Drissa; Hernandez, Jennifer; Chen, Yingdi; Slavkovich, Vesna; Li, Yongliang; Graziano, Joseph; Santella, Regina M.; Brandt-Rauf, Paul; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    A prior study in New York City observed that airborne concentrations of three metals found in steel – iron, manganese, and chromium – are more than 100 times higher in the subway system than in aboveground air. To investigate the potential for health effects of exposure at these levels, we conducted a pilot study of subway workers comparing personal exposures to steel dust with biomarkers of metal exposure, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in blood and urine samples. Workers wore a personal air sampler operating at 4 L/m for one to three work shifts with blood and urine samples collected at the end of the final shift. We found that PM2.5 exposures varied among subway workers on the basis of job title and job activity. The subway workers’ mean time-weighted PM2.5 exposure was 52 µg/m3, with a median of 27 µg/m3, and a range of 6–469 µg/m3. The observed concentrations of PM2.5, iron, manganese, and chromium fell well below occupational standards. Biomarker concentrations among the 39 subway workers were compared with a group of 11 bus drivers, and a group of 25 suburban office workers. Concentrations of DNA–protein crosslinks and chromium in plasma were significantly higher in subway workers than in bus drivers, but no significant difference was observed for these biomarkers between subway workers and office workers. Urinary isoprostane concentrations were significantly correlated with the number of years working in the subway system, and were detected at higher, though not significantly higher, concentrations in subway workers than in bus drivers or office workers. At the group level, there was no consistent pattern of biomarker concentrations among subway workers significantly exceeding those of the bus drivers and office workers. At the individual level, steel dust exposure was not correlated with any of the biomarkers measured. PMID:19926083

  8. Quantification of PAHs and oxy-PAHs on airborne particulate matter in Chiang Mai, Thailand, using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgraeve, Christophe; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; De Wispelaere, Patrick; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 oxygenated PAHs (of which 4 diketones, 3 ketones, 4 aldehydes and one anhydride) on atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The magnetic sector mass spectrometer was run in multiple ion detection mode (MID) with a mass resolution above 10 000 (10% valley definition) and allows for a selective accurate mass detection of the characteristic ions of the target analytes. Instrumental detection limits between 0.04 pg and 1.34 pg were obtained for the PAHs, whereas for the oxy-PAHs they ranged between 0.08 pg and 2.13 pg. Pressurized liquid extraction using dichloromethane was evaluated and excellent recoveries ranging between 87% and 98% for the PAHs and between 74% and 110% for 10 oxy-PAHs were obtained, when the optimum extraction temperature of 150 °C was applied. The developed method was finally used to determine PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentration levels from particulate matter samples collected in the wet season at 4 different locations in Chiang Mai, Thailand (n = 72). This study brings forward the first concentration levels of oxy-PAHs in Thailand. The median of the sum of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentrations was 3.4 ng/m3 and 1.1 ng/m3 respectively, which shows the importance of the group of the oxy-PAHs as PM10 constituents. High molecular weight PAHs contributed the most to the ∑PAHs. For example, benzo[ghi]perylene was responsible for 30-44% of the ∑PAHs. The highest contribution to ∑oxy-PAHs came from 1,8-napthalic anhydride (26-78%), followed by anthracene-9,10-dione (4-27%) and 7H-benzo[de]anthracene-7-one (6-26%). Indications of the degradation of PAHs and/or formation of oxy-PAHs were observed.

  9. Air modelling as an alternative to sampling for low-level radioactive airborne releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, M.Y.; Hueske, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts to assess the effect of airborne releases at one DOE laboratory using air modelling based on historical data. Among the facilities affected by these developments is Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. RCRA, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) in 1984, requires all facilities which involve the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste obtain a RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit. LANL complied with CEARP by initiating a process of identifying potential release sites associated with LANL operations prior to filing a RCRA/HSWA permit application. In the process of preparing the RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a total of 603 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) were identified as part of the requirements of the HSWA Module VIH permit requirements. The HSWA Module VIII permit requires LANL to determine whether there have been any releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from SWMUs at the facility dating from the 1940's by performing a RCRA Facility Investigation to address known or suspected releases from specified SWMUs to affected media (i.e. soil, groundwater, surface water, and air). Among the most troublesome of the potential releases sites are those associated with airborne radioactive releases. In order to assess health risks associated with radioactive contaminants in a manner consistent with exposure standards currently in place, the DOE and LANL have established Screening Action Levels (SALs) for radioactive soil contamination. The SALs for each radionuclide in soil are derived from calculations based on a residential scenario in which individuals are exposed to contaminated soil via inhalation and ingestion as well as external exposure to gamma emitters in the soil. The applicable SALs are shown

  10. Evaluation of sampling inhalable PM10 particulate matter (≤ 10 μm) using co-located high volume samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajoy, R R S; Dias, J W C; Rego, E C P; Netto, A D Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the determination of the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), collected simultaneously by six PM10 high volume samplers from two different manufacturers installed in the same location. Fifteen samples of 24 h were obtained with each equipment at a selected urban area of Rio de Janeiro city. The concentration of PM10 ranged between 10.73 and 54.04 μg m −3 . The samplers were considered comparable to each other, as the adopted methodology presented good repeatability

  11. Determination of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Particulate Matter Samples with Low Mass Loading: An Approach to Test Method Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana García-Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized analytical procedure to determine selected polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs in low mass loadings (<10 mg of particulate matter (PM is evaluated. The proposed method is based on a simple sonication/agitation method using small amounts of solvent for extraction. The use of a reduced sample size of particulate matter is often limiting for allowing the quantification of analytes. This also leads to the need for changing analytical procedures and evaluating its performance. The trueness and precision of the proposed method were tested using ambient air samples. Analytical results from the proposed method were compared with those of pressurized liquid and microwave extractions. Selected PACs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD. Taking results from pressurized liquid extractions as reference values, recovery rates of sonication/agitation method were over 80% for the most abundant PAHs. Recovery rates of selected NPAHs were lower. Enhanced rates were obtained when methanol was used as a modifier. Intermediate precision was estimated by data comparison from two mathematical approaches: normalized difference data and pooled relative deviations. Intermediate precision was in the range of 10–20%. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated in PM aerosol samples collected with very low mass loadings (<0.2 mg during characterization studies from turbofan engine exhausts.

  12. New Technologies Being Developed for the Thermophoretic Sampling of Smoke Particulates in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheredy, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The Characterization of Smoke Particulate for Spacecraft Fire Detection, or Smoke, microgravity experiment is planned to be performed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox Facility on the International Space Station (ISS). This investigation, which is being developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center, ZIN Technologies, and the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST), is based on the results and experience gained from the successful Comparative Soot Diagnostics experiment, which was flown as part of the USMP-3 (United States Microgravity Payload 3) mission on space shuttle flight STS-75. The Smoke experiment is designed to determine the particle size distributions of the smokes generated from a variety of overheated spacecraft materials and from microgravity fires. The objective is to provide the data that spacecraft designers need to properly design and implement fire detection in spacecraft. This investigation will also evaluate the performance of the smoke detectors currently in use aboard the space shuttle and ISS for the test materials in a microgravity environment.

  13. Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: a case study of Irish Sea beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W

    2012-10-15

    In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq (137)Cs within large areas (10-20 km(2)h(-1)), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1-2 km(2) h(-1) can detect buried (137)Cs sources of 0.5MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq (137)Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at <15m ground clearance and <2 ms(-1) ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategies for minimizing sample size for use in airborne LiDAR-based forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Virpi; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.; Kauranne, Tuomo

    2013-01-01

    Recently airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) has emerged as a highly accurate remote sensing modality to be used in operational scale forest inventories. Inventories conducted with the help of LiDAR are most often model-based, i.e. they use variables derived from LiDAR point clouds as the predictive variables that are to be calibrated using field plots. The measurement of the necessary field plots is a time-consuming and statistically sensitive process. Because of this, current practice often presumes hundreds of plots to be collected. But since these plots are only used to calibrate regression models, it should be possible to minimize the number of plots needed by carefully selecting the plots to be measured. In the current study, we compare several systematic and random methods for calibration plot selection, with the specific aim that they be used in LiDAR based regression models for forest parameters, especially above-ground biomass. The primary criteria compared are based on both spatial representativity as well as on their coverage of the variability of the forest features measured. In the former case, it is important also to take into account spatial auto-correlation between the plots. The results indicate that choosing the plots in a way that ensures ample coverage of both spatial and feature space variability improves the performance of the corresponding models, and that adequate coverage of the variability in the feature space is the most important condition that should be met by the set of plots collected.

  15. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  16. Comparison of particulate matter exposure estimates in young children from personal sampling equipment and a robotic sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-05-01

    Accurate characterization of particulate matter (PM) exposure in young children is difficult, because personal samplers are often too heavy, bulky or impractical to be used. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler was developed to help address this problem. In this study, we measured inhalable PM exposures in 2-year-olds via a lightweight personal sampler worn in a small backpack and evaluated the use of a robotic sampler with an identical sampling train for estimating PM exposure in this age group. PM mass concentrations measured by the personal sampler ranged from 100 to almost 1,200 μg/m 3 , with a median value of 331 μg/m 3 . PM concentrations measured by PIPER were considerably lower, ranging from 14 to 513 μg/m 3 with a median value of 56 μg/m 3 . Floor cleaning habits and activity patterns of the 2-year-olds varied widely by home; vigorous play and recent floor cleaning were most associated with higher personal exposure. Our findings highlight the need for additional characterization of children's activity patterns and their effect on personal exposures.

  17. Ventilation system design for control of radioactive airborne particulates during the decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) of the plant one ore silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.E. III [Parsons Environmental Services, Inc., Fairfield, OH (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Fernald facility is a 1,050-acre site located in southwest Ohio. In July 1989, production was discontinued. The Fernald site has completed its site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). In the RI/FS, a variety of response actions where identified for various Operable Unit (OU) area at the FEMP. Of the many response actions in progress at the FEMP, removal action No.17 (in OU-3), known as the Decontamination & Dismantlement (D&D) of the Plant One Ore Silos, exemplifies a state of the art nuclear air cleaning system. Constructed in 1953, Plant 1 was the Sampling Plant for the FEMP site and the receiving point for incoming ores and residues to be processed for the production of uranium metal. The contents were removed except for small amounts of residue. The objective of the removal action is to mitigate the potential for release of contaminants or potential hazards presented by the Plant One Ore Silos until total remediation of the OU-3 area is performed. All D&D work activity is controlled to prevent the release of contamination. The work areas are isolated with physical barriers and a ventilated containment system. The containment for the silo structures consists of scaffolding and polyethylene fabric sheeting (area containment). The containment material is flame-retardant and corrosion resistant in compliance with DOE Order 6430.1A. Ventilation air is filtered through portable air cleaning devices equipped with pre-filters and High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and monitored before discharge to the atmosphere. This paper will illustrate the design of the ventilation in compliance with ASME codes AG-1, N509, N510, and DOE order 6430.1A. The materials of construction and design of the ductwork, stack, portable nuclear air cleaning units, and the type of air sampler used will be addressed. Also, this paper will describe the phase approach to dismantlement and ventilation that resulted in reduced costs and waste minimization.

  18. Airborne metals in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J.J.; Shacklette, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred twenty-three samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected throughout the southern United States to assess the potential use of the plant as a natural long-term integrator of local atmospheric metal burdens. R-mode components analysis of the ash chemistry strongly suggests that at least five nearly uncorrelated factors are contributing to the observed chemical variation. Four of these factors are thought to reflect chemical properties of the atmosphere or airborne particulates; the fifth appears to be related in some way to metabolic activity in the living plant. The atmospheric factors are interpreted to be a) the ratio of terrestrial dust to ocean-derived salt in the local atmosphere, b) the regional variation in trace-element content of the terrestrial dust, c) the local concentration of automotive or technology-related lead-rich emissions, and d) higher concentrations of airborne vanadium east of the Mississippi River. If the intensity of the lead-rich factor in each sample is used as an index of general atmospheric pollution, sets of most polluted and least polluted samples may be defined. The estimates of abundance (arithmetic mean) are given for ash (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cr) based on the 20 most polluted (MP) and 17 least polluted (LP) samples.

  19. A novel sampling method to detect airborne influenza and other respiratory viruses in mechanically ventilated patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Tang, Benjamin; Shojaei, Maryam; Barnes, Lachlan S; Nalos, Marek; Oliver, Brian G; McLean, Anthony S

    2018-04-17

    Respiratory viruses circulate constantly in the ambient air. The risk of opportunistic infection from these viruses can be increased in mechanically ventilated patients. The present study evaluates the feasibility of detecting airborne respiratory viruses in mechanically ventilated patients using a novel sample collection method involving ventilator filters. We collected inspiratory and expiratory filters from the ventilator circuits of mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit over a 14-month period. To evaluate whether we could detect respiratory viruses collected in these filters, we performed a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on the extracted filter membrane with primers specific for rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus A and B, parainfluenza virus (type 1, 2 and 3) and human metapneumovirus. For each patient, we also performed a full virology screen (virus particles, antibody titres and virus-induced biomarkers) on respiratory samples (nasopharyngeal swab, tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar fluid) and blood samples. Respiratory viruses were detected in the ventilator filters of nearly half the patients in the study cohort (n = 33/70). The most common virus detected was influenza A virus (n = 29). There were more viruses detected in the inspiratory filters (n = 18) than in the expiratory filters (n = 15). A third of the patients with a positive virus detection in the ventilator filters had a hospital laboratory confirmed viral infection. In the remaining cases, the detected viruses were different from viruses already identified in the same patient, suggesting that these additional viruses come from the ambient air or from cross-contamination (staff or visitors). In patients in whom new viruses were detected in the ventilator filters, there was no evidence of clinical signs of an active viral infection. Additionally, the levels of virus-induced biomarker in these patients were not

  20. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1 the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2 the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3 the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4 the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration.

  1. 40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transport sample to analyzers. (I) Temperature sensor. A temperature sensor (T1) to measure the NO2 to NO... feet (1.22 m) from the exhaust duct. (iii) The sample transport system from the engine exhaust duct to.... (A) For diesel fueled and biodiesel fueled locomotives and engines, the wall temperature of the HC...

  2. Evaluation of inlet sampling integrity on NSF/NCAR airborne platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, T. L.; Stith, J. L.; Stephens, B. B.; Romashkin, P.

    2017-12-01

    An inlet test project was conducted during IDEAS-IV-GV (2013), to evaluate the sampling integrity of two inlet designs. Use of a single CO2 sensor provided a high precision detector and a large difference in the mean cabin and external concentrations (500-700 ppmv in the cabin). The original HIAPER Modular InLet (HIMIL) is comprised of a tapered flow straightening flow through `cigar' mounted to a strut. The cigar center sampling line sits 12" from the fuselage skin. An o-ring seals the feedthrough plate coupling sampling lines from the strut into the cigar. However, there is no seal to prevent air inside the strut from seeping out around the cigar body. A pressure-equalizing drain hole in the strut access panel; it was positioned at an approximate distance of 4" from the fuselage to ensure that air from any source that drained out of the strut was confined to a low release point. A second aft-facing inlet design was also evaluated. The sampling center line was moved farther from the fuselage at a height of 16". A similar approach was also applied to sampling locations on the C-130 in 2015. The results of these tests and recommendations for best practices will be presented.

  3. Screening of various diesel particulate matter samples from various commodity mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available exercise, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry was used to identify trace elements and other metal elements in the DPM samples. Most of the trace elements did not give a sufficient instrument response to warrant further evaluation. However...

  4. Lead contents in blood samples of a children population of Mexico City related to levels of airborne lead determined by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe-Hernandez, R.; Perez-Zapata, A.J.; Flores M., J.; Aldape, F.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.

    1996-01-01

    Airborne lead has been considered for many years one of the main pollutants adversely affecting the health of human beings. Moreover, this problem becomes remarkably important in large urban areas such as Mexico City. In order to assess the influence of atmospheric airborne lead in a children population, a biological blood sampling was carried out from September 1992 to June 1993 taking 698 samples in children with ages ranging from a few weeks to thirteen years old. Lead contents in whole blood were determined using anode stripping voltammetry as analytical technique. At the same time, aerosol lead contents were determined by PIXE from samples taken twice a week (two samples per day) in a neighbour area. In 58% of the samples, lead contents in blood was found over the maximum permissible level established by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) of the U.S.A. The biological sampling was correlated to levels of airborne lead as well as children age and date of sampling. General results of these comparisons are presented. (author)

  5. The use of cryogenic air sampling in the spectroscopy of airborne gamma-ray emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1982-01-01

    Wet air can be sampled over a period of four to twelve hours and, with a transfer into a special Marinelli-dewar, can be counted in a spectrometer for several hours. The present minimum detectable amount is about 4 Bq/m 3 for 222 Rn and 220 Rn with liquid air in the counting dewar equivalent to one cubic meter of ambient air. The amount of ambient air sampled can be determined from ambient pressure, temperature, and absolute humidity determinations. Standard meteorological tables are used to determine the weight of ambient air in grams/litre. This quantity divided into the net weight of liquid yields the total litres of ambient air sampled. Tests run so far with 85 Kr indicate that the noble fission gases behave in a manner similar to radon, allowing measurements of stack gases, reactor plumes, etc. The minimum detectable quantity of 85 Kr appears to be about 300 Bq/m 3 , depending upon the 222 Rn and 220 Rn content of the air

  6. Conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system for fluorescence measurements of individual airborne biological particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Paul; Pinnick, R. G.; Hill, Steven C.; Chen, Gang; Chang, Richard K.; Mayo, Michael W.; Fernandez, Gilbert L.

    1996-03-01

    We report the design and operation of a prototype conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system that can record the fluorescence spectra of individual, micrometer-sized aerosols as they traverse an intense 488-nm intracavity laser beam. The instrument's image-intensified CCD detector is gated by elastic scattering or by undispersed fluorescence from particles that enter the spectrograph's field of view. It records spectra only from particles with preselected scattering-fluorescence levels (a fiber-optic-photomultiplier subsystem provides the gating signal). This conditional-sampling procedure reduces data-handling rates and increases the signal-to-noise ratio by restricting the system's exposures to brief periods when aerosols traverse the beam. We demonstrate these advantages by reliably capturing spectra from individual fluorescent microspheres dispersed in an airstream. The conditional-sampling procedure also permits some discrimination among different types of particles, so that spectra may be recorded from the few interesting particles present in a cloud of background aerosol. We demonstrate such discrimination by measuring spectra from selected fluorescent microspheres in a mixture of two types of microspheres, and from bacterial spores in a mixture of spores and nonfluorescent kaolin particles.

  7. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  8. Final Report: Laser-Based Optical Trap for Remote Sampling of Interplanetary and Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Applicability to Early Stage Innovation NIAC Cutting edge and innovative technologies are needed to achieve the demanding requirements for NASA origin missions that require sample collection as laid out in the NRC Decadal Survey. This proposal focused on fully understanding the state of remote laser optical trapping techniques for capturing particles and returning them to a target site. In future missions, a laser-based optical trapping system could be deployed on a lander that would then target particles in the lower atmosphere and deliver them to the main instrument for analysis, providing remote access to otherwise inaccessible samples. Alternatively, for a planetary mission the laser could combine ablation and trapping capabilities on targets typically too far away or too hard for traditional drilling sampling systems. For an interstellar mission, a remote laser system could gather particles continuously at a safe distance; this would avoid the necessity of having a spacecraft fly through a target cloud such as a comet tail. If properly designed and implemented, a laser-based optical trapping system could fundamentally change the way scientists designand implement NASA missions that require mass spectroscopy and particle collection.

  9. Characteristics of airborne bacteria in Mumbai urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangamma, S

    2014-08-01

    Components of biological origin constitute small but a significant proportion of the ambient airborne particulate matter (PM). However, their diversity and role in proinflammatory responses of PM are not well understood. The present study characterizes airborne bacterial species diversity in Mumbai City and elucidates the role of bacterial endotoxin in PM induced proinflammatory response in ex vivo. Airborne bacteria and endotoxin samples were collected during April-May 2010 in Mumbai using six stage microbial impactor and biosampler. The culturable bacterial species concentration was measured and factors influencing the composition were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). The biosampler samples were used to stimulate immune cells in whole blood assay. A total of 28 species belonging to 17 genera were identified. Gram positive and spore forming groups of bacteria dominated the airborne culturable bacterial concentration. The study indicated the dominance of spore forming and human or animal flora derived pathogenic/opportunistic bacteria in the ambient air environment. Pathogenic and opportunistic species of bacteria were also present in the samples. TNF-α induction by PM was reduced (35%) by polymyxin B pretreatment and this result was corroborated with the results of blocking endotoxin receptor cluster differentiation (CD14). The study highlights the importance of airborne biological particles and suggests need of further studies on biological characterization of ambient PM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality-assurance procedures: Method 5G determination of particulate emissions from wood heaters from a dilution tunnel sampling location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T.E.; Hartman, M.W.; Olin, R.C.; Rives, G.D.

    1989-06-01

    Quality-assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood-heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 5G. These procedures may be used in research and development, and as an aid in auditing and certification testing. A detailed, step-by-step quality assurance guide is provided to aid in the procurement and assembly of testing apparatus, to clearly describe the procedures, and to facilitate data collection and reporting. Suggested data sheets are supplied that can be used as an aid for both recordkeeping and certification applications. Throughout the document, activity matrices are provided to serve as a summary reference. Checklists are also supplied that can be used by testing personnel. Finally, for the purposes of ensuring data quality, procedures are outlined for apparatus operation, maintenance, and traceability. These procedures combined with the detailed description of the sampling and analysis protocol will help ensure the accuracy and reliability of Method 5G emission-testing results.

  11. Geostatistical estimation of forest biomass in interior Alaska combining Landsat-derived tree cover, sampled airborne lidar and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Pattison, Robert; Cook, Bruce D.; Morton, Douglas C.; Alonzo, Michael; Nelson, Ross; Gregoire, Timothy; Ene, Liviu; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this research was to develop and examine the performance of a geostatistical coregionalization modeling approach for combining field inventory measurements, strip samples of airborne lidar and Landsat-based remote sensing data products to predict aboveground biomass (AGB) in interior Alaska's Tanana Valley. The proposed modeling strategy facilitates pixel-level mapping of AGB density predictions across the entire spatial domain. Additionally, the coregionalization framework allows for statistically sound estimation of total AGB for arbitrary areal units within the study area---a key advance to support diverse management objectives in interior Alaska. This research focuses on appropriate characterization of prediction uncertainty in the form of posterior predictive coverage intervals and standard deviations. Using the framework detailed here, it is possible to quantify estimation uncertainty for any spatial extent, ranging from pixel-level predictions of AGB density to estimates of AGB stocks for the full domain. The lidar-informed coregionalization models consistently outperformed their counterpart lidar-free models in terms of point-level predictive performance and total AGB precision. Additionally, the inclusion of Landsat-derived forest cover as a covariate further improved estimation precision in regions with lower lidar sampling intensity. Our findings also demonstrate that model-based approaches that do not explicitly account for residual spatial dependence can grossly underestimate uncertainty, resulting in falsely precise estimates of AGB. On the other hand, in a geostatistical setting, residual spatial structure can be modeled within a Bayesian hierarchical framework to obtain statistically defensible assessments of uncertainty for AGB estimates.

  12. Expectations for Particulate Contamination Relevant to in Situ Atmospheric Sampling for Compositional Analysis at Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    NASA and ESA are considering options for in situ science with atmospheric entry probes to the ice giants Uranus and Neptune. Nominal probe entry mass is in the 300-kg range, although a miniaturized secondary probe option is being studied in the 30-kg range. In all cases, compositional sampling would commence near the 100-mbar level at Uranus, after ejection of the heat shield and deployment of the descent parachute. In this presentation, I review existing literature on the composition, mass loading, and vertical distribution of condensed material that the probe may encounter. Sample inlets for measurement of the gas composition should be heated to avoid potential buildup of condensate, which would block the flow of atmospheric gas into composition sensors. Heating rate and temperature values -- sufficient to keep sample inlets clean under various assumptions -- will be presented. Three main types of condensed material will be considered: Stratospheric hydrocarbon ices: Solar UV photolyzes CH4, leading to the production of volatile hydrocarbons with higher C/H ratios. These species diffuse from their production regions into colder levels where the ices of C2H2, C2H6, and C4H2 condense. Some studies have also considered condensation of C3H8, C4H10, C6H6, and C6H2. Gunk: The hydrocarbon ices are thought to become polymerized due to irradiation from solar UV. The exact composition of the resulting gunk is not known. Solid-state photochemical processing may produce the traces of reddish (blue-absorbing) haze material, present in the troposphere at temperatures warm enough to sublimate the simple hydrocarbon ices. Tropospheric ices: In the region accessible to probes under study (P < 10 bar), much thicker condensation clouds may form from volatile gases CH4, NH3, and H2S. If large amounts of NH3 are sequestered in the deeper H2O liquid cloud, then the S/N ratio could exceed 1 in the probe-accessible region of the atmosphere, leading to NH4SH and H2S ices below the CH4

  13. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  14. Racial isolation and exposure to airborne particulate matter and ozone in understudied US populations: Environmental justice applications of downscaled numerical model output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Bell, Michelle L; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers are increasingly focused on combined exposures to social and environmental stressors, especially given how often these stressors tend to co-locate. Such exposures are equally relevant in urban and rural areas and may accrue disproportionately to particular communities or specific subpopulations. To estimate relationships between racial isolation (RI), a measure of the extent to which minority racial/ethnic group members are exposed to only one another, and long-term particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of poverty. RI is associated with higher 5year estimated PM2.5 concentrations in urban, suburban, and rural census tracts, adding to evidence that segregation is broadly associated with disparate air pollution exposures. Disproportionate burdens to adverse exposures such as air pollution may be a pathway to racial/ethnic disparities in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying the environmental impact of particulate deposition from dry unpaved roadways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne dust is the air pollutant most frequently observed to exceed National Ambient Air Quality Standards in rural areas. This pollutant (also referred to as suspended particulates) may originate from point sources (e.g., large areas of bare soil or pollen-producing vegetation.) Most sources of atmospheric particulates, whether natural or anthropogenic, are difficult to quantify by means of a source strength (i.e., mass of particulates emitted per unit time). A numerical model was developed for calculating the source strength and quantifying the atmospheric transport and eposition of dust generated on unpaved roadways. This model satisfies the second-order differential equation for the diffusion process and also the equation of mass conservation. Input to the model includes meterological variables, surface roughness characteristics, and the size distribution and suspended particulate concentration of dust as sampled downwind of an unpaved roadway. By using predetermined tolerance levels of airborne concentrations or tolerance levels of deposition, maximum allowable vehicular traffic volume can be established. The model also may be used to estimate reduction in photosynthesis resulting from fugitive dust from point or line sources. The contribug ion to sedimentation in aquatic bodies, resulting from airborne particulates also may be assessed with this model.

  16. Occurrence of benzothiazole, benzotriazole and benzenesulfonamide derivates in outdoor air particulate matter samples and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceira, Alba; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2018-02-01

    Benzothiazole (BTHs), benzotriazole (BTRs) and benzenesulfonamide (BSAs) derivates are high production volume chemicals and they are used in several industrial and household applications, therefore it is expected their occurrence in various environments, especially water and air. In this study we developed a method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) to simultaneously determine four BTR, five BTH and six BSA derivates in the particulate matter (PM 10 ) of outdoor air samples collected in quartz fibre filters (QFFs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these compounds have been determined in open ambient environments. Under optimised conditions, method recoveries at the lower and upper concentration levels (0.8 and 4.2 ng m -3 ) ranged from 70 to 120%, except for 1-H-benzothiazole and 2-chlorobenzothiazole, which were about 50%. The repeatability of the method was usually below 20% (n = 3, %RSD) for both concentration levels. This method enables the contaminants to be detected at pg m -3 concentration levels. Several samples from two different sites influenced by local industries showed that BTRs, followed by BTHs, were the most detected compounds, whereas BSAs were hardly found. The most frequently determined compounds were 1-H-benzothiazole, 2-chlorobenzothiazole, 1-H-benzotriazole, 2-hydroxibenzothiazole, 5,6-dimethyl-1-H-benzotriazole and the isomers 4- and 5-methyl-1-H-benzotriazole. With the concentrations found, the human exposure assessment and health risk characterization via ambient inhalation were also evaluated taking into account different subpopulation groups classified by age for the two sampling points. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow rate and source reservoir identification from airborne chemical sampling of the uncontrolled Elgin platform gas release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James D.; Mobbs, Stephen D.; Wellpott, Axel; Allen, Grant; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Burton, Ralph R.; Camilli, Richard; Coe, Hugh; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Gallagher, Martin; Hopkins, James R.; Lanoiselle, Mathias; Lewis, Alastair C.; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Purvis, Ruth M.; O'Shea, Sebastian; Pyle, John A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.

    2018-03-01

    An uncontrolled gas leak from 25 March to 16 May 2012 led to evacuation of the Total Elgin wellhead and neighbouring drilling and production platforms in the UK North Sea. Initially the atmospheric flow rate of leaking gas and condensate was very poorly known, hampering environmental assessment and well control efforts. Six flights by the UK FAAM chemically instrumented BAe-146 research aircraft were used to quantify the flow rate. The flow rate was calculated by assuming the plume may be modelled by a Gaussian distribution with two different solution methods: Gaussian fitting in the vertical and fitting with a fully mixed layer. When both solution methods were used they compared within 6 % of each other, which was within combined errors. Data from the first flight on 30 March 2012 showed the flow rate to be 1.3 ± 0.2 kg CH4 s-1, decreasing to less than half that by the second flight on 17 April 2012. δ13CCH4 in the gas was found to be -43 ‰, implying that the gas source was unlikely to be from the main high pressure, high temperature Elgin gas field at 5.5 km depth, but more probably from the overlying Hod Formation at 4.2 km depth. This was deemed to be smaller and more manageable than the high pressure Elgin field and hence the response strategy was considerably simpler. The first flight was conducted within 5 days of the blowout and allowed a flow rate estimate within 48 h of sampling, with δ13CCH4 characterization soon thereafter, demonstrating the potential for a rapid-response capability that is widely applicable to future atmospheric emissions of environmental concern. Knowledge of the Elgin flow rate helped inform subsequent decision making. This study shows that leak assessment using appropriately designed airborne plume sampling strategies is well suited for circumstances where direct access is difficult or potentially dangerous. Measurements such as this also permit unbiased regulatory assessment of potential impact, independent of the emitting

  18. Optimization of airborne endotoxin exposure assessment: Effects of filter type, transport conditions, extraction solutions, and storage of samples and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Thorne, P.S.; Wouters, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Endotoxin exposure occurs in homes and occupational environments and is known to cause adverse health effects. In order to compare results from different studies and establish standards, airborne endotoxin exposures should be assessed using standardized methods. Although the European Committee for

  19. New approach to measure soil particulate organic matter in intact samples using X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alexandra; Negassa, Wakene; Guber, Andrey; Schmidt, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Particulate soil organic matter (POM) is biologically and chemically active fraction of soil organic matter. It is a source of many agricultural and ecological benefits, among which are POM's contribution to C sequestration. Most of conventional research methods for studying organic matter dynamics involve measurements conducted on pre-processed i.e., ground and sieved soil samples. Unfortunately, grinding and sieving completely destroys soil structure, the component crucial for soil functioning and C protection. Importance of a better understanding of the role of soil structure and of the physical protection that it provides to soil C cannot be overstated; and analysis of quantities, characteristics, and decomposition rates of POM in soil samples with intact structure is among the key elements of gaining such understanding. However, a marked difficulty hindering the progress in such analyses is a lack of tools for identification and quantitative analysis of POM in intact soil samples. Recent advancement in applications of X-ray computed micro-tomography (μ-CT) to soil science has given an opportunity to conduct such analyses. The objective of the current study is to develop a procedure for identification and quantitative characterization of POM within intact soil samples using X-ray μ-CT images and to test performance of the proposed procedure on a set of multiple intact soil macro-aggregates. We used 16 4-6 mm soil aggregates collected at 0-15 cm depth from a Typic Hapludalf soil at multiple field sites with diverse agricultural management history. The aggregates have been scanned at SIMBIOS Centre, Dundee, Scotland at 10 micron resolution. POM was determined from the aggregate images using the developed procedure. The procedure was based on combining image pre-processing steps with discriminant analysis classification. The first component of the procedure consisted of image pre-processing steps based on the range of gray values (GV) along with shape and size

  20. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  1. Airborne radionuclide waste-management reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.; Christian, J.D.; Thomas, T.R.

    1983-07-01

    This report provides the detailed data required to develop a strategy for airborne radioactive waste management by the Department of Energy (DOE). The airborne radioactive materials of primary concern are tritium (H-3), carbon-14 (C-14), krypton-85 (Kr-85), iodine-129 (I-129), and radioactive particulate matter. The introductory section of the report describes the nature and broad objectives of airborne waste management. The relationship of airborne waste management to other waste management programs is described. The scope of the strategy is defined by considering all potential sources of airborne radionuclides and technologies available for their management. Responsibilities of the regulatory agencies are discussed. Section 2 of this document deals primarily with projected inventories, potential releases, and dose commitments of the principal airborne wastes from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. In Section 3, dose commitments, technologies, costs, regulations, and waste management criteria are analyzed. Section 4 defines goals and objectives for airborne waste management

  2. Krypton-85 and other airborne radioactivity measurements throughout Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Murray, M.; Wong, J.; Sequeira, S.; Long, S.C.; Rafferty, B.

    2004-01-01

    In compliance with articles 35 and 36 of the EURATOM Treaty, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) undertakes a comprehensive programme of radioactivity monitoring in the Irish terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The RPII monitors airborne radioactivity concentrations at ten stations throughout Ireland, of which, nine are equipped with low volume particulate samplers and one, in Dublin, with a high volume particulate sampler. The low volume particulate samples are assessed for total beta activity and high volume samples for gamma emitting radionuclides such as caesium-137 and beryllium-7. In addition, air sampled at the RPII laboratory in Dublin, is monitored for krypton-85, a radioactive noble gas, released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Since the inception of the krypton measurements in 1993 a trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations has been observed. The results of the krypton-85 monitoring, as well as the airborne radioactivity concentration measurements, will be presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Sampling of suspended particulate matter using particle traps in the Rhône River: Relevance and representativeness for the monitoring of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, M; Angot, H; Le Bescond, C; Launay, M; Dabrin, A; Miège, C; Le Coz, J; Coquery, M

    2018-05-10

    Monitoring hydrophobic contaminants in surface freshwaters requires measuring contaminant concentrations in the particulate fraction (sediment or suspended particulate matter, SPM) of the water column. Particle traps (PTs) have been recently developed to sample SPM as cost-efficient, easy to operate and time-integrative tools. But the representativeness of SPM collected with PTs is not fully understood, notably in terms of grain size distribution and particulate organic carbon (POC) content, which could both skew particulate contaminant concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the representativeness of SPM characteristics (i.e. grain size distribution and POC content) and associated contaminants (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs; mercury, Hg) in samples collected in a large river using PTs for differing hydrological conditions. Samples collected using PTs (n = 74) were compared with samples collected during the same time period by continuous flow centrifugation (CFC). The grain size distribution of PT samples shifted with increasing water discharge: the proportion of very fine silts (2-6 μm) decreased while that of coarse silts (27-74 μm) increased. Regardless of water discharge, POC contents were different likely due to integration by PT of high POC-content phytoplankton blooms or low POC-content flood events. Differences in PCBs and Hg concentrations were usually within the range of analytical uncertainties and could not be related to grain size or POC content shifts. Occasional Hg-enriched inputs may have led to higher Hg concentrations in a few PT samples (n = 4) which highlights the time-integrative capacity of the PTs. The differences of annual Hg and PCB fluxes calculated either from PT samples or CFC samples were generally below 20%. Despite some inherent limitations (e.g. grain size distribution bias), our findings suggest that PT sampling is a valuable technique to assess reliable spatial and temporal trends of particulate

  4. Airborne submicron particulate (PM1) pollution in Shanghai, China: chemical variability, formation/dissociation of associated semi-volatile components and the impacts on visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Chen, Jianmin; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming

    2014-03-01

    Hourly mass concentrations of water-soluble ions in PM1 and gasses (NH3, HNO3, HCl) were on-line measured with a Monitor for AeRosols and Gases Analyzer (MARGA) in Shanghai from Oct. 1 to Nov. 16, 2012. During the field campaign, 7 haze episodes (total 157 h) were identified. 845 h were identified as non-haze periods, excluding fog events and wet precipitation. The average mass concentration of PM1 and total water-soluble ions (TWSI) in PM1 in haze episodes were 78.9 ± 29.9 μg/m(3) and 47.2 ± 17.2 μg/m(3), 3.11 times (from 1.49 to 4.06 times) and 3.28 times (1.96 to 4.34 times) as those in non-haze periods, respectively. TWSI accounted for 60.4 ± 18.8% of PM1 mass loading in the whole campaign. With the ascending PM1 mass concentration from 2.5 to 125.0 μg/m(3) from non-haze periods to haze episodes, average contribution of TWSI to PM1 mass loading decreased from 86.1% to 54.2%, while different species altered. Contribution of NO3(-) increased from 14.0% to 26.8%, while SO4(2-) decreased from 39.5% to 15.0% and NH4(+) remained around 13.7%. Relationship of visibility with PM1 and TWSI was addressed in specific RH ranges. It was found that hourly TWSI mass concentration showed better correlation with visibility. Formation/dissociation of semi-volatiles (NH4NO3 and NH4Cl) was also investigated and demonstrated. NH4NO3 and NH4Cl tended to partition into gas phase in non-haze periods. Particularly, strong dissociation from 11:00 LT to 17:00 LT was observed. In haze episodes, HNO3 and HCl tended to react with NH3 to form particulate matters. Interestingly, we found that formation/dissociation of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl exerted great impacts on visibility. Excluding the strong dissociation hours (11:00 LT to 17:00 LT) in correlation analysis of PM1 and visibility, correlation coefficients (R(2)) increased from 0.5762 to 0.7738 at RHPM1 under high RH condition and contributed to visibility degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Size distribution of airbone particulates in monazite dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, K.M.A.D. da; Carvalho, S.M.M.; Leite, C.V.B.; Baptista, G.B.; Paschoa, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A six-stage cascade impactor was used to collect airborne dust particulates in the grinding area of a Monazite sepation plant. The samples were analysis using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to determine the elemental concentrations, with special attention to thorium and uranium concentrations. The particle size distribution of the samples containing thorium and uranium were determined. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) obtained was 1.15 μm for both elements. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was estimated based on the MMAD. The results are compared with ICRP recommendations for derived air concentrations (DAC) for thorium and uranium in restricted areas [pt

  6. Optical Backscattering Measured by Airborne Lidar and Underwater Glider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Churnside

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The optical backscattering from particles in the ocean is an important quantity that has been measured by remote sensing techniques and in situ instruments. In this paper, we compare estimates of this quantity from airborne lidar with those from an in situ instrument on an underwater glider. Both of these technologies allow much denser sampling of backscatter profiles than traditional ship surveys. We found a moderate correlation (R = 0.28, p < 10−5, with differences that are partially explained by spatial and temporal sampling mismatches, variability in particle composition, and lidar retrieval errors. The data suggest that there are two different regimes with different scattering properties. For backscattering coefficients below about 0.001 m−1, the lidar values were generally greater than the glider values. For larger values, the lidar was generally lower than the glider. Overall, the results are promising and suggest that airborne lidar and gliders provide comparable and complementary information on optical particulate backscattering.

  7. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  8. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakama, M., E-mail: minorusakama@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Nagano, Y. [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Kitade, T. [Department of Laboratory, M and S Instruments Inc., Osaka 532-0005 (Japan); Shikino, O. [Department of Inorganic Analysis, PerkinElmer Japan Co. Ltd., Yokohama 240-0005 (Japan); Nakayama, S. [Department of Nuclear Science, Institute of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  9. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive fission product 131 I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m -3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134 Cs and 137 Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m -3 ) variation of stable cesium ( 133 Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument

  10. Practical experience in and improvements to aerosol sampling for trace analysis of airborne radionuclides in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.; Jagielak, J.; Kolb, W.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wershofen, H.; Zarucki, R.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1989 the Polish government and the German government signed a bilateral agreement for scientific and technological co-operation. In the framework of this co-operation the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP), Warsaw, and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, conducted a co-operation project in the field of monitoring the airborne radioactivity in ground level air. This progress report deals with the history of the project covering the period from July 1990 to December 1992, the scientific activities and their results. A proposal for future co-operation, which is planned for the near future, is made. (orig.)

  11. Effect of sample digestion, air filter contamination, and post-adsorption on the analysis of trace elements in air particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiao Jin [Department of Environment and Climate Change, Environmental Forensic and Analytical Science Section, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Wan, Pingyu [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Foley, Roy [Department of Environment and Climate Change, Environmental Forensic and Analytical Science Section, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-11-15

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma MS are the major analytical tools for trace elements in environmental matrices, however, the underestimate of certain trace elements in analysis of air particulate matter by these two techniques has long been observed. This has been attributed to incomplete sample digestion. Here, we demonstrate that the combined effects of sample digestion, air filter impurities, and post-adsorption of the analytes contribute to the interference of the analysis. Particular attention should be paid to post-adsorption of analytes onto air filters after acid digestion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Effect of sample digestion, air filter contamination, and post-adsorption on the analysis of trace elements in air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao Jin; Wan, Pingyu; Foley, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma MS are the major analytical tools for trace elements in environmental matrices, however, the underestimate of certain trace elements in analysis of air particulate matter by these two techniques has long been observed. This has been attributed to incomplete sample digestion. Here, we demonstrate that the combined effects of sample digestion, air filter impurities, and post-adsorption of the analytes contribute to the interference of the analysis. Particular attention should be paid to post-adsorption of analytes onto air filters after acid digestion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Determination of elemental concentrations in airborne particulate matter in the City of Santiago de Chile, through neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons and Compton suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas S, Ximena

    1995-01-01

    In order to optimize the Neutron-Activation Analysis (NAA) technique currently carried out in our country, the present work was carried out in the United States where irradiations with epithermal neutrons and a Compton suppression system were used, which allowed the characterization of aerosols of the city of Santiago de Chile. With this purpose, 54 filters of polycarbonate membranes were analysed with aerosols collected in an area of the capital during Spring 1993 and Winter of 1994. As a result, an improvement in the detection limits was observed, specially in elements such as Ni and Zn, which are not easily detectable through NAA. The application of both systems also permits the usage of this technique in geological and biological samples, where the presence of Na, Al and Cl obstruct the determination of some elements. The determined elements in both fractions were Mn, V, Cu, As, Sb, Co, Br, Cl, Ni, Zn, Ca, Al, Na and Fe. (author). 8 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Initial Results from an Energy-Aware Airborne Dynamic, Data-Driven Application System Performing Sampling in Coherent Boundary-Layer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, E.; Argrow, B. M.; Houston, A. L.; Weiss, C.

    2014-12-01

    The energy-aware airborne dynamic, data-driven application system (EA-DDDAS) performs persistent sampling in complex atmospheric conditions by exploiting wind energy using the dynamic data-driven application system paradigm. The main challenge for future airborne sampling missions is operation with tight integration of physical and computational resources over wireless communication networks, in complex atmospheric conditions. The physical resources considered here include sensor platforms, particularly mobile Doppler radar and unmanned aircraft, the complex conditions in which they operate, and the region of interest. Autonomous operation requires distributed computational effort connected by layered wireless communication. Onboard decision-making and coordination algorithms can be enhanced by atmospheric models that assimilate input from physics-based models and wind fields derived from multiple sources. These models are generally too complex to be run onboard the aircraft, so they need to be executed in ground vehicles in the field, and connected over broadband or other wireless links back to the field. Finally, the wind field environment drives strong interaction between the computational and physical systems, both as a challenge to autonomous path planning algorithms and as a novel energy source that can be exploited to improve system range and endurance. Implementation details of a complete EA-DDDAS will be provided, along with preliminary flight test results targeting coherent boundary-layer structures.

  15. Lessons learned from a review of post-accident sampling systems, high range effluent monitors and high concentration particulate iodine samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.; Knox, W.H.; White, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Post-accident sampling systems (PASS), high range gaseous effluent monitors and sampling systems for particulates and iodine in high concentrations have been reviewed at twenty-one licensee sites in Region I of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission which includes fifteen BWR's and fourteen PWR's. Although most of the installed PASS met the criteria, the highest operational readiness was found in on-line systems that were also used for routine sampling and analysis. The detectors used in the gaseous effluent monitors included external ion chambers, GM tubes, organic scintillators and Cd-Te solid state crystals. Although all were found acceptable, each had its own inherent limitations in the conversion of detector output to the time varying concentration of a post-accident mixture of noble gases. None of the installed particulate and iodine samplers fully met all of the criteria. Their principal limitations included a lack of documentation showing that they could obtain a representative sample and that many of them would collect of an excessive amount of activity at the design criteria. 10 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Evolution of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory to the Astromaterial Sample Curation Facility: Technical Tensions Between Containment and Cleanliness, Between Particulate and Organic Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Calaway, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) was planned and constructed in the 1960s to support the Apollo program in the context of landing on the Moon and safely returning humans. The enduring science return from that effort is a result of careful curation of planetary materials. Technical decisions for the first facility included sample handling environment (vacuum vs inert gas), and instruments for making basic sample assessment, but the most difficult decision, and most visible, was stringent biosafety vs ultra-clean sample handling. Biosafety required handling of samples in negative pressure gloveboxes and rooms for containment and use of sterilizing protocols and animal/plant models for hazard assessment. Ultra-clean sample handling worked best in positive pressure nitrogen environment gloveboxes in positive pressure rooms, using cleanable tools of tightly controlled composition. The requirements for these two objectives were so different, that the solution was to design and build a new facility for specific purpose of preserving the scientific integrity of the samples. The resulting Lunar Curatorial Facility was designed and constructed, from 1972-1979, with advice and oversight by a very active committee comprised of lunar sample scientists. The high precision analyses required for planetary science are enabled by stringent contamination control of trace elements in the materials and protocols of construction (e.g., trace element screening for paint and flooring materials) and the equipment used in sample handling and storage. As other astromaterials, especially small particles and atoms, were added to the collections curated, the technical tension between particulate cleanliness and organic cleanliness was addressed in more detail. Techniques for minimizing particulate contamination in sample handling environments use high efficiency air filtering techniques typically requiring organic sealants which offgas. Protocols for reducing adventitious carbon on sample

  17. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, P. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Spiers, G.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring

    2007-07-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, P.; Spiers, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Collaboration During the NASA ABoVE Airborne SAR Campaign: Sampling Strategies Used by NGEE Arctic and Other Partners in Alaska and Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Charsley-Groffman, L.; Baltzer, J. L.; Berg, A. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Jafarov, E. E.; Marsh, P.; Miller, C. E.; Schaefer, K. M.; Siqueira, P.; Wilson, C. J.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    There is considerable interest in using L- and P-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to monitor variations in aboveground woody biomass, soil moisture, and permafrost conditions in high-latitude ecosystems. Such information is useful for quantifying spatial heterogeneity in surface and subsurface properties, and for model development and evaluation. To conduct these studies, it is desirable that field studies share a common sampling strategy so that the data from multiple sites can be combined and used to analyze variations in conditions across different landscape geomorphologies and vegetation types. In 2015, NASA launched the decade-long Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) to study the sensitivity and resilience of these ecosystems to disturbance and environmental change. NASA is able to leverage its remote sensing strengths to collect airborne and satellite observations to capture important ecosystem properties and dynamics across large spatial scales. A critical component of this effort includes collection of ground-based data that can be used to analyze, calibrate and validate remote sensing products. ABoVE researchers at a large number of sites located in important Arctic and boreal ecosystems in Alaska and western Canada are following common design protocols and strategies for measuring soil moisture, thaw depth, biomass, and wetland inundation. Here we elaborate on those sampling strategies as used in the 2017 summer SAR campaign and address the sampling design and measurement protocols for supporting the ABoVE aerial activities. Plot size, transect length, and distribution of replicates across the landscape systematically allowed investigators to optimally sample a site for soil moisture, thaw depth, and organic layer thickness. Specific examples and data sets are described for the Department of Energy's Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project field sites near Nome and Barrow, Alaska. Future airborne and satellite

  20. Concentration, spatial and size distribution of airborne aerobic mesophilic bacteria in broiler farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adell, E.; Moset, V.; Yang Zhao, Yang; Cerisuelo, A.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2011-01-01

    In livestock houses, particulate matter (PM) and airborne microorganism are two of the most relevant air pollutants. Particulate matter may carry microorganisms, the inhalation of which can cause detrimental health effects. The aim of this study was to study the spatial distribution of airborne

  1. Accumulation and quantitative estimates of airborne lead for a wild plant (Aster subulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Jun; Xie, Mingjie; Wang, Tijian; Lian, Hongzhen

    2011-03-01

    Foliar uptake of airborne lead is one of the pathways for Pb accumulation in plant organs. However, the approximate contributions of airborne Pb to plant organs are still unclear. In the present study, aerosols (nine-stage size-segregated aerosols and total suspended particulates), a wild plant species (Aster subulatus) and the corresponding soils were collected and Pb contents and isotopic ratios in these samples were analyzed. Average concentration of Pb was 96.5 ± 63.5 ng m(-3) in total suspended particulates (TSP) and 20.4 ± 5.5 ng m(-3) in the fine fractions of size-segregated aerosols (SSA) (2.1 μm) (6.38 ± 3.71 ng m(-3)). Enrichment factors show that aerosols and soils suffered from anthropogenic inputs and the fine fractions of the size-segregated aerosols enriched more Pb than the coarse fractions. The order of Pb contents in A. subulatus was roots>leaves>stems. The linear relationship of Pb isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) among soil, plant and aerosol samples were found. Based on the simple binary Pb isotopic model using the mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in TSP and in SSA, the approximate contributions of airborne Pb into plant leaves were 72.2% and 65.1%, respectively, suggesting that airborne Pb is the most important source for the Pb accumulation in leaves. So the combination of Pb isotope tracing and the simple binary Pb isotope model can assess the contribution of airborne Pb into plant leaves and may be of interest for risk assessment of the exposure to airborne Pb contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Examinations of the origins of polyatomic ions and advances in the sampling of particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Travis [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation provides a general introduction to Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA) sampling, with an examination of analytical challenges in the employment of this technique. It discusses the origin of metal oxide ions (MO+) in LA-ICP-MS, as well as the effect of introducing helium and nitrogen to the aerosol gas flow on the formation of these polyatomic interferences. It extends the study of polyatomic ions in LA-ICP-MS to metal argide (MAr+) species, an additional source of possible significant interferences in the spectrum. It describes the application of fs-LA-ICP-MS to the determination of uranium isotope ratios in particulate samples.

  3. Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuala Lumpur 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Ab. Khalik Bin Haji Wood

    2006-01-01

    Urban air particulate samples of Kuala Lumpur ambient air have been collected characterize according to fine and coarse airborne particulates. The air filters containing particulate matter were collected using GENT stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling location site (Lat: 03deg 10'30''; Long: 101deg 43'24.2'') is approximately 1 km from the Kuala Lumpur city center. All the sampling conducted from January 2002 until October 2004 was included in the analysis and results were reported. The mass loading for finest air particulate matter (PM 2.5) in Kuala Lumpur are 199±55 μg (2002), 171±53 μg (2003), and 171±61 μg (2004), respectively. The mass loading for coarse air particulate matter (PM 10) in Kuala Lumpur were 125±29 μg (2002), 134±48 μg (2003), and 137 ± 57 μg (2004), respectively. The elemental concentration of the air filters were determined using INAA technique utilizing both short and long irradiation facilities at MINT's TRIGA MKII reactor. Upon irradiation the air filters were counted at suitable counting time using HPGe gamma-ray detectors. The elements reported for this monitoring are Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Certified reference materials were also included in the sample analysis function as quality control materials. (author)

  4. Linear models for airborne-laser-scanning-based operational forest inventory with small field sample size and highly correlated LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Modern operational forest inventory often uses remotely sensed data that cover the whole inventory area to produce spatially explicit estimates of forest properties through statistical models. The data obtained by airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) correlate well with many forest inventory variables, such as the tree height, the timber volume, and the biomass. To construct an accurate model over thousands of hectares, LiDAR data must be supplemented with several hundred field sample measurements of forest inventory variables. This can be costly and time consuming. Different LiDAR-data-based and spatial-data-based sampling designs can reduce the number of field sample plots needed. However, problems arising from the features of the LiDAR data, such as a large number of predictors compared with the sample size (overfitting) or a strong correlation among predictors (multicollinearity), may decrease the accuracy and precision of the estimates and predictions. To overcome these problems, a Bayesian linear model with the singular value decomposition of predictors, combined with regularization, is proposed. The model performance in predicting different forest inventory variables is verified in ten inventory areas from two continents, where the number of field sample plots is reduced using different sampling designs. The results show that, with an appropriate field plot selection strategy and the proposed linear model, the total relative error of the predicted forest inventory variables is only 5%–15% larger using 50 field sample plots than the error of a linear model estimated with several hundred field sample plots when we sum up the error due to both the model noise variance and the model’s lack of fit.

  5. Relation between sources of particulate air pollution and biological effect parameters in samples from four European cities: An exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steerenberg, P.A.; van Amelsvoort, L.; Lovik, M.; Hetland, R.B.; Alberg, T.; Halatek, T.; Bloemen, H.J.T.; Rydzynski, K.; Swaen, G.; Schwarze, P.; Dybing, E.; Cassee, F.R. [National Institute of Public Health & Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Centre for Environmental Health Research

    2006-05-15

    Given that there are widely different prevalence rates of respiratory allergies and asthma between the countries of Europe and that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is substantial in urban environments throughout Europe, an EU project entitled 'Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation Due to Ambient Particles' (RAIAP) was set up. The project focused on the role of physical and chemical composition of PM on release of cytokines of cells in vitro, on respiratory inflammation in vivo, and on adjuvant potency in allergy animal models. Coarse (2.5 - 10 {mu}m) and fine (0.15 - 2.5 {mu}m) particles were collected during the spring, summer and winter in Rome ( I), Oslo (N), Lodz (PL), and Amsterdam (NL). Markers within the same model were often well correlated. Markers of inflammation in the in vitro and in vivo models also showed a high degree of correlation. In contrast, correlation between parameters in the different allergy models and between allergy and inflammation markers was generally poor. This suggests that various bioassays are needed to assess the potential hazard of PM. The present study also showed that by clustering chemical constituents of PM based on the overall response pattern in the bioassays, five distinct groups could be identified. The clusters of traffic, industrial combustion and/or incinerators, and combustion of black and brown coal/wood smoke were associated primarily with adjuvant activity for respiratory allergy, whereas clusters of crustal of material and sea spray are predominantly associated with measures for inflammation and acute toxicity. The present study has shown that biological effect of PM can be linked to one or more PM emission sources and that this linkage requires a wide range of bioassays.

  6. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  7. Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishnan, S. [Health Physics Unit, Indian Rare Earths Limited, Udyogamandal, 683 501 Kerala (India); Krishnamony, S. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1998-09-01

    High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1 m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000 nGy h{sup -1}. Soil samples showed {sup 232}Th specific activity varying from 0{center_dot}1 to 1{center_dot}5 Bq g{sup -1} with surface alpha activity in the range of1{center_dot}0-12{center_dot}5 Bq cm{sup -2}. Suspended particulates in the samples ranged from 60-140 {mu}g m{sup -3} with {sup 232}Th showing a wider variation of <0{center_dot}03-0{center_dot}3 mBq m{sup -3}. There was poor correlation between suspended particulates and long-lived alpha airborne activity (r=-0{center_dot}3). The resuspension factors for {sup 232}Th were in the range of 1{center_dot}5x10{sup -8}-7{center_dot}9x10{sup -7} cm{sup -1}. Higher resuspension was correlated with dry sand dunes. The upper limits for Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to inhalation of airborne {sup 232}Th at the respective high natural radiation areas were estimated to range from 50{+-}30 to 300{+-}130 {mu}Sv (5-30 mrem) per year per adult member of public assuming an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1 {mu}m for the airborne particulates. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Examination of quantitative accuracy of PIXE analysis for atmospheric aerosol particle samples. PIXE analysis of NIST air particulate on filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Katsumi; Sera, Koichiro

    2005-01-01

    In order to confirm accuracy of the direct analysis of filter samples containing atmospheric aerosol particles collected on a polycarbonate membrane filter by PIXE, we carried out PIXE analysis on a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) air particulate on filter media (SRM 2783). For 16 elements with NIST certified values determined by PIXE analysis - Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb - quantitative values were 80-110% relative to NIST certified values except for Na, Al, Si and Ni. Quantitative values of Na, Al and Si were 140-170% relative to NIST certified values, which were all high, and Ni was 64%. One possible reason why the quantitative values of Na, Al and Si were higher than the NIST certified values could be the difference in the X-ray spectrum analysis method used. (author)

  9. Liquid-phase sample preparation method for real-time monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers by dual-mode high-throughput microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung-Ock; Kim, Jung Kyung; Han, Hwataik; Lee, Jeonghoon

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos that had been used widely as a construction material is a first-level carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organization. It can be accumulated in body by inhalation causing virulent respiratory diseases including lung cancer. In our previous study, we developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) system that can minimize human intervention accompanied by the conventional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) through automated counting of fibrous materials and thus significantly reduce analysis time and labor. Also, we attempted selective detection of chrysotile using DksA protein extracted from Escherichia coli through a recombinant protein production technique, and developed a dual-mode HTM (DM-HTM) by upgrading the HTM device. We demonstrated that fluorescently-labeled chrysotile asbestos fibers can be identified and enumerated automatically among other types of asbestos fibers or non-asbestos particles in a high-throughput manner through a newly modified HTM system for both reflection and fluorescence imaging. However there is a limitation to apply DM-HTM to airborne sample with current air collecting method due to the difficulty of applying the protein to dried asbestos sample. Here, we developed a technique for preparing liquid-phase asbestos sample using an impinger normally used to collect odor molecules in the air. It would be possible to improve the feasibility of the dual-mode HTM by integrating a sample preparation unit for making collected asbestos sample dispersed in a solution. The new technique developed for highly sensitive and automated asbestos detection can be a potential alternative to the conventional manual counting method, and it may be applied on site as a fast and reliable environmental monitoring tool.

  10. Characterization of particulate amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundel, L.A.; Chang, S.G.; Clemenson, M.S.; Markowitz, S.S.; Novakov, T.

    1979-01-01

    The reduced nitrogen compounds associated with ambient particulate matter are chemically characterized by means of ESCA and proton activation analysis. Ambient particulate samples collected on silver filters in Berkeley, California were washed with water and organic solvents, and ESCA and proton activation analysis were performed in order to determine the composition of various nitrogen compounds and the total nitrogen content. It is found that 85% of the amines originally present in ambient particulate matter can be removed by water extraction, whereas the ammonium and nitrate are completely removed. An observed increase in ammonium ion in the extract, compared with its concentration in the original sample, coupled with the commensurate decrease in amine concentration, is attributed to the hydrolysis of amide groups, which may cause analytical methods based on extraction to yield erroneous results

  11. Quantitative determination of alpha-quartz in airborne dust samples by x-ray diffraction; Determinacion cuantitativa de cuarzo-alfa en polvo atmosferico mediante difraccion de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayon, A; Roca, M

    1982-07-01

    The quantitative determination by X-ray diffractometry of alpha-quartz In airborne respirable dust samples on silver membrane filters is considered. A cobalt anode X-ray tube Is employed. NiO is used as Internal standard In order to compensate for both the variations of specimen absorption and the effect due to the nonuniformity of the incident X-ray beam and to the incomplete homogeneity on the filters of samples and standards. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accuracy and precision of ±2 °F (1.1 °C). (3) The pressure gauges shall have an accuracy and precision of... ±5 percent. (The volumetric sample flow rate shall be varied inversely with the square root of the...

  13. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  14. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    emissions demonstration . 46 6 Figure 24. T63 engine with extension pipe to direct exhaust outside of the test cell for exhaust sampling with tip...to assess their effectiveness in conditioning turbine engine exhaust for total PM emissions measurements. Both were designed to promote the... effectively control and mitigate PM emissions. Aircraft PM is formed in the engine combustor due to incomplete combustion of fuel, and in the

  15. Vehicle-mounted net sampling of airborne micro-Heteroptera in western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KrÜger, Andreas

    2018-02-11

    A vehicle-mounted "car-net" is a rarely used technique of insect sampling. In Liberia, it was used over several consecutive months, and the first results of taxonomic analyses of Heteroptera from the by-catch are presented, namely on the mirid subfamily Isometopinae ("jumping tree bugs"). So far, no isometopine species have been known from Liberia.        New records of Isometopinae in Liberia are provided including: Isometopus slateri (Akingbohungbe), Myiomma cobbeni Akingbohungbe, M. rubra Smith, and M. rubrovenata Smith. Additional new species are described, including: Isometopus bongensis sp. nov., Paloniella garmsi sp. nov., P. erinacea sp. nov., Ptisca liberiense sp. nov., Myiomma albostiolata sp. nov., M .brunnea sp. nov., M. fuscipes sp. nov., M. goellneri sp. nov. and M. variabilis sp. nov. A new genus with one included species is similarly described as follows: Bongiella nodistylis gen. nov. et sp. nov.

  16. Modelling forest canopy height by integrating airborne LiDAR samples with satellite Radar and multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mariano; Saatchi, Sassan; Ustin, Susan; Balzter, Heiko

    2018-04-01

    Spatially-explicit information on forest structure is paramount to estimating aboveground carbon stocks for designing sustainable forest management strategies and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. LiDAR measurements provide samples of forest structure that must be integrated with satellite imagery to predict and to map landscape scale variations of forest structure. Here we evaluate the capability of existing satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with multispectral data to estimate forest canopy height over five study sites across two biomes in North America, namely temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and temperate coniferous forests. Pixel size affected the modelling results, with an improvement in model performance as pixel resolution coarsened from 25 m to 100 m. Likewise, the sample size was an important factor in the uncertainty of height prediction using the Support Vector Machine modelling approach. Larger sample size yielded better results but the improvement stabilised when the sample size reached approximately 10% of the study area. We also evaluated the impact of surface moisture (soil and vegetation moisture) on the modelling approach. Whereas the impact of surface moisture had a moderate effect on the proportion of the variance explained by the model (up to 14%), its impact was more evident in the bias of the models with bias reaching values up to 4 m. Averaging the incidence angle corrected radar backscatter coefficient (γ°) reduced the impact of surface moisture on the models and improved their performance at all study sites, with R2 ranging between 0.61 and 0.82, RMSE between 2.02 and 5.64 and bias between 0.02 and -0.06, respectively, at 100 m spatial resolution. An evaluation of the relative importance of the variables in the model performance showed that for the study sites located within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome ALOS-PALSAR HV polarised backscatter was the most important

  17. Mercury, trace elements and organic constituents in atmospheric fine particulate matter, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA: A combined approach to sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Engle, M.A.; Orem, W.H.; Bunnell, J.E.; Lerch, H.E.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Olson, M.L.; McCord, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with U.S. air quality regulatory standards for atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is based on meeting average 24 hour (35 ?? m-3) and yearly (15 ??g m-3) mass-per-unit-volume limits, regardless of PM2.5 composition. Whereas this presents a workable regulatory framework, information on particle composition is needed to assess the fate and transport of PM2.5 and determine potential environmental/human health impacts. To address these important non-regulatory issues an integrated approach is generally used that includes (1) field sampling of atmospheric particulate matter on filter media, using a size-limiting cyclone, or with no particle-size limitation; and (2) chemical extraction of exposed filters and analysis of separate particulate-bound fractions for total mercury, trace elements and organic constituents, utilising different USGS laboratories optimised for quantitative analysis of these substances. This combination of sampling and analysis allowed for a more detailed interpretation of PM2.5 sources and potential effects, compared to measurements of PM2.5 abundance alone. Results obtained using this combined approach are presented for a 2006 air sampling campaign in Shenandoah National Park (Virginia, USA) to assess sources of atmospheric contaminants and their potential impact on air quality in the Park. PM2.5 was collected at two sampling sites (Big Meadows and Pinnacles) separated by 13.6 km. At both sites, element concentrations in PM2.5 were low, consistent with remote or rural locations. However, element/Zr crustal abundance enrichment factors greater than 10, indicating anthropogenic input, were found for Hg, Se, S, Sb, Cd, Pb, Mo, Zn and Cu, listed in decreasing order of enrichment. Principal component analysis showed that four element associations accounted for 84% of the PM 2.5 trace element variation; these associations are interpreted to represent: (1) crustal sources (Al, REE); (2) coal combustion (Se, Sb), (3) metal production

  18. Investigation of the UK37' vs. SST relationship for Atlantic Ocean suspended particulate alkenones: An alternative regression model and discussion of possible sampling bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jessica; Kienast, Markus; Dowd, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Alkenone unsaturation, expressed as the UK37' index, is closely related to growth temperature of prymnesiophytes, thus providing a reliable proxy to infer past sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here we address two lingering uncertainties related to this SST proxy. First, calibration models developed for core-top sediments and those developed for surface suspended particulates organic material (SPOM) show systematic offsets, raising concerns regarding the transfer of the primary signal into the sedimentary record. Second, questions remain regarding changes in slope of the UK37' vs. growth temperature relationship at the temperature extremes. Based on (re)analysis of 31 new and 394 previously published SPOM UK37' data from the Atlantic Ocean, a new regression model to relate UK37' to SST is introduced; the Richards curve (Richards, 1959). This non-linear regression model provides a robust calibration of the UK37' vs. SST relationship for Atlantic SPOM samples and uniquely accounts for both the fact that the UK37' index is a proportion, and so must lie between 0 and 1, as well as for the observed reduction in slope at the warm and cold ends of the temperature range. As with prior fits of SPOM UK37' vs. SST, the Richards model is offset from traditional regression models of sedimentary UK37' vs. SST. We posit that (some of) this offset can be attributed to the seasonally and depth biased sampling of SPOM material.

  19. Urban airborne lead: X-ray absorption spectroscopy establishes soil as dominant source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Pingitore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the dramatic decrease in airborne lead over the past three decades, there are calls for regulatory limits on this potent pediatric neurotoxin lower even than the new (2008 US Environmental Protection Agency standard. To achieve further decreases in airborne lead, what sources would need to be decreased and what costs would ensue? Our aim was to identify and, if possible, quantify the major species (compounds of lead in recent ambient airborne particulate matter collected in El Paso, TX, USA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used synchrotron-based XAFS (x-ray absorption fine structure to identify and quantify the major Pb species. XAFS provides molecular-level structural information about a specific element in a bulk sample. Pb-humate is the dominant form of lead in contemporary El Paso air. Pb-humate is a stable, sorbed complex produced exclusively in the humus fraction of Pb-contaminated soils; it also is the major lead species in El Paso soils. Thus such soil must be the dominant source, and its resuspension into the air, the transfer process, providing lead particles to the local air. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current industrial and commercial activity apparently is not a major source of airborne lead in El Paso, and presumably other locales that have eliminated such traditional sources as leaded gasoline. Instead, local contaminated soil, legacy of earlier anthropogenic Pb releases, serves as a long-term reservoir that gradually leaks particulate lead to the atmosphere. Given the difficulty and expense of large-scale soil remediation or removal, fugitive soil likely constrains a lower limit for airborne lead levels in many urban settings.

  20. Urban airborne lead: X-ray absorption spectroscopy establishes soil as dominant source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, Nicholas E; Clague, Juan W; Amaya, Maria A; Maciejewska, Beata; Reynoso, Jesús J

    2009-01-01

    Despite the dramatic decrease in airborne lead over the past three decades, there are calls for regulatory limits on this potent pediatric neurotoxin lower even than the new (2008) US Environmental Protection Agency standard. To achieve further decreases in airborne lead, what sources would need to be decreased and what costs would ensue? Our aim was to identify and, if possible, quantify the major species (compounds) of lead in recent ambient airborne particulate matter collected in El Paso, TX, USA. We used synchrotron-based XAFS (x-ray absorption fine structure) to identify and quantify the major Pb species. XAFS provides molecular-level structural information about a specific element in a bulk sample. Pb-humate is the dominant form of lead in contemporary El Paso air. Pb-humate is a stable, sorbed complex produced exclusively in the humus fraction of Pb-contaminated soils; it also is the major lead species in El Paso soils. Thus such soil must be the dominant source, and its resuspension into the air, the transfer process, providing lead particles to the local air. Current industrial and commercial activity apparently is not a major source of airborne lead in El Paso, and presumably other locales that have eliminated such traditional sources as leaded gasoline. Instead, local contaminated soil, legacy of earlier anthropogenic Pb releases, serves as a long-term reservoir that gradually leaks particulate lead to the atmosphere. Given the difficulty and expense of large-scale soil remediation or removal, fugitive soil likely constrains a lower limit for airborne lead levels in many urban settings.

  1. Monitoring of airborne PM2.5 in the 3d and 4th industrial complex area of Daejeon city in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam; Lim, Jong Myoung; Lee, Jin Hong

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is to enhance the use of a nuclear analytical technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) in the field of air pollution studies through a routine and long-term monitoring. For the collection of fine airborne particulate matter (<2.5 μm EAD), the Gent stacked filter unit (a low volume sampler) and polycarbonate membrane filters were employed. Samples were collected with selected sampling dates at the 3rd and 4th industrial complex of Daejeon city in Korea. Mass concentration of the air particulates was measured and the elemental content in the samples collected were analyzed by using INAA. Variations of the concentrations of the particulate matter and the enrichment factors for the elements analyzed were determined. From the monitoring data, a factor analysis was performed to identify and to classify the emission sources. (author)

  2. Raman spectroscopic identification of size-selected airborne particles for quantitative exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, Brian; Gorbunov, Boris; Price, Mark C; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the quantification of chemically distinguished airborne particulate matter, required for health risk assessment. Rather than simply detecting chemical compounds in a sample, we demonstrate an approach for the quantification of exposure to airborne particles and nanomaterials. In line with increasing concerns over the proliferation of engineered particles we consider detection of synthetically produced ZnO crystals. A multi-stage approach is presented whereby the particles are first aerodynamically size segregated from a lab-generated single component aerosol in an impaction sampler. These size fractionated samples are subsequently analysed by Raman spectroscopy. Imaging analysis is applied to Raman spatial maps to provide chemically specific quantification of airborne exposure against background which is critical for health risk evaluation of exposure to airborne particles. Here we present a first proof-of-concept study of the methodology utilising particles in the 2–4 μm aerodynamic diameter range to allow for validation of the approach by comparison to optical microscopy. The results show that the combination of these techniques provides independent size and chemical discrimination of particles. Thereby a method is provided to allow quantitative and chemically distinguished measurements of aerosol concentrations separated into exposure relevant size fractions. (paper)

  3. Airborne Video Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blask, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...

  4. Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morewitz, H.A.; Johnson, R.P.; Nelson, C.T.; Vaughan, E.U.; Guderjahn, C.A.; Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m 3 closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approximately 1,000 g/m 3 ), high turbulence, and high temperature (approximately 2000 0 C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that tittle, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building. (author)

  5. An intercomparison between gross α counting and gross β counting for grab-sampling determination of airborne radon progeny and thoron progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The instantaneous values of the airborne activity concentrations of radon progeny and thoron progeny have been determined 34 times in a closed and windowless room in a cellar using two independent grab-sampling methods in order to compare the performance of the methods. The activity concentration of radon ( 222 Rn) was also measured and it varied between 200 and 650 Bq m -3 . Two samples of radon and thoron progeny were collected simultaneously from roughly the same air volume by filtering. For the first method, the isotopes were collected on membrane filter and gross α counting was applied over several successive time intervals. This method was a slightly improved version of the methods that are applied generally for this reason for decades. For the second method, the isotopes were collected on glass-fibre filter and gross β counts were registered over several time intervals. This other method was developed a few years ago and the above series of measurements was the first opportunity to make an intercomparison between it and another similar method based on α counting. Individual radon progeny and thoron progeny activity concentrations (for the isotopes 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 212 Pb) were evaluated by both methods. The detailed investigation of the results showed that the systematic deviation of the methods is small but significant and isotope-dependent. The weighted averages of the β/α activity concentration ratios for 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, EEDC 222 (Equilibrium-Equivalent Decay-product Concentration of radon progeny) and 212 Pb were 0.99±0.03, 0.90±0.02, 1.03±0.02, 0.96±0.02 and 0.80±0.03, respectively. The source of the systematic deviation is probably the inaccurate knowledge of the counting efficiencies mainly in the case of the α-counting method. A significant random-type difference between the results obtained with the two methods has also been revealed. For example, the β/α ratio for EEDC 222 varied between 0.81±0.01 and 1.22±0

  6. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yihua, Xia [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  7. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yihua

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  8. Recent developments in airborne gamma ray surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Standardized procedures have been developed for converting airborne gamma ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. These procedures make use of an airborne calibration range whose ground concentrations should be measured with a calibrated portable spectrometer rather than by taking geochemical samples. Airborne sensitivities and height attenuation coefficients are normally determined from flights over the calibration range but may not be applicable in mountainous areas. Mathematical techniques have been now developed to reduce statistical noise in the airborne measurements by utilizing up to 256 channels of spectral information. (author)

  9. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

  10. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  11. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  12. Particulate air pollution, with emphasis on traffic generated aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    constitute each about 5 wt-% of the collected suspended particulate matter in inner city air. The particle size distribution shows that 92 % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 µm. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about 1 µm for the bitumen particles...... % of this concentration derives from adsorbed particles on both leaf sides. The remainder is either respired through stomata or incorporated in the epicuticular wax layer. The fact that a substantial amount of the airborne tire and bitumen particles occur in the submicron range permits long range transportation...

  13. Environmental studies in two communes of Santiago de Chile by the analysis of magnetic properties of particulate matter deposited on leaves of roadside trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Aguilar, Bertha; Fuentealba, Raúl; Préndez, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Emissions from motor vehicles are considered to be one of the main sources of airborne particulate matter in Santiago. International researchers have shown that particulate matter contains metal oxides and magnetic particles, both of which are emitted mainly from vehicles exhaust pipes. On the other hand, trees are effective in reducing such contamination, so that they act as passive collectors of particulate matter. This work presents the results obtained from the first magnetic study of the particulate matter collected in two areas of the city of Santiago de Chile. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) were determined in leaves from abundant urban trees and from urban dust samples. Results indicate that most of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite (Fe3O4) as the main carrier. Values of magnetic susceptibility (SI ×10-6 m3/kg) in the range 0.04-0.24 for leaves and in the range 10-45 for urban dust were determinated. In one of the city areas studied, significant correlation between the particulate matter deposited on leaves of Platanus orientalis and measured traffic flows was obtained. In addition, it was possible to estimate that the species Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo have a better ability to capture particulate matter than the species Robinia pseudoacacia.

  14. Associations between immune function in yearling beef cattle and airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PM1.0 near oil and natural gas field facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Daniel G; Waldner, Cheryl L; Wickstrom, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Researchers determined the potential associations between exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (ie, particulate matter that is PM1.0) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and immune system function in beef cattle by using blood samples collected from yearling cattle in 22 herds in the spring of 2002. The herds were located at variable distances from industry field facilities in the major oil- and gas-producing areas of western Canada. The researchers evaluated immune system competence by measuring populations of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte subtypes (CD4, CD8, gammadelta, and WC1) in peripheral circulation (n = 469), and systemic antibody production in response to vaccine administration (n = 446). They used particulate air monitors to estimate the exposure of the cattle to airborne contaminants by determining mean monthly concentrations of PM1.0 and 24 different PAHs from January to June. The mean concentration of PAHs measured in the ambient air of herds monitored in this study was low, with naphthalene being present in the highest concentration (geometric mean = 5.6 ng/m3; geometric standard deviation = 38), followed by 1-methylnaphthalene (geometric mean = 2.2 ng/m3; geometric standard deviation = 12). The geometric mean monthly exposure to PM1.0 was 7.1 microg/m3 (geometric standard deviation = 1.5) for the same period. The researchers detected no significant plausible associations between exposure to any measured airborne contaminants and immune system function.

  15. Urban Airborne Lead: X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Establishes Soil as Dominant Source

    OpenAIRE

    Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Clague, Juan W.; Amaya, Maria A.; Maciejewska, Beata; Reynoso, Jes?s J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the dramatic decrease in airborne lead over the past three decades, there are calls for regulatory limits on this potent pediatric neurotoxin lower even than the new (2008) US Environmental Protection Agency standard. To achieve further decreases in airborne lead, what sources would need to be decreased and what costs would ensue? Our aim was to identify and, if possible, quantify the major species (compounds) of lead in recent ambient airborne particulate matter collected...

  16. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating... minimize the accumulation of dusty materials that have the potential to become airborne, and the prompt... materials likely to become airborne. (viii) The prompt removal from paved streets of earth or other material...

  17. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  18. Air sampling program at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive air sampling program has been developed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant for monitoring the concentrations of radioactive aerosols present in the atmosphere on plantsite as well as in the environs. The program is designed to minimize exposures of employees and the environment to airborne radioactive particulates. Five different air sampling systems, utilizing either filtration or impaction, are employed for measuring airborne alpha and beta-gamma activity produced from 235 U and 234 Th, respectively. Two of the systems have particle selection capabilities: a personal sampler with a 10-mm nylon cyclone eliminates most particles larger than about 10 microns in diameter; and an Annular Kinetic Impactor collects particulates greater than 0.4 microns in diameter which have a density greater than 12-15 gm/cm 3 . A Hi-Volume Air Sampler and an Eberline Model AIM-3 Scintillation Air Monitor are used in collecting short-term samples for assessing compliance with ''ceiling'' standards or peak concentration limits. A film-sort aperture IBM card system is utilized for continuous 8-hour samples. This sampling program has proven to be both practical and effective for assuring accurate monitoring of the airborne activity associated with plant operations

  19. Apparatus and methods for monitoring the concentrations of hazardous airborne substances, especially lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2004-07-13

    Air is sampled at a rate in excess of 100 L/min, preferably at 200-300 L/min, so as to collect therefrom a substantial fraction, i.e., at least 20%, preferably 60-100%, of airborne particulates. A substance of interest (analyte), such as lead, is rapidly solubilized from the the collected particulates into a sample of liquid extractant, and the concentration of the analyte in the extractant sample is determined. The high-rate air sampling and particulate collection may be effected with a high-throughput filter cartridge or with a recently developed portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler. Rapid solubilization of lead is achieved by a liquid extractant comprising 0.1-1 M of acetic acid or acetate, preferably at a pH of 5 or less and preferably with inclusion of 1-10% of hydrogen peroxide. Rapid determination of the lead content in the liquid extractant may be effected with a colorimetric or an electroanalytical analyzer.

  20. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ''cold,'' or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications

  1. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  2. Determination of chemical composition of individual airborne particles by SEM/EDX and micro-Raman spectrometry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, E A; Buczynska, A; Novakovic, V; Van Grieken, R; Kuduk, R

    2009-01-01

    The strategies for sampling and analysis by SEM/EDX and micro-Raman spectrometry for individual airborne particles analysis as applied at the University of Antwerp (Belgium) by the MITAC group have been reviewed. Microbeam techniques provide detailed information concerning the origin, formation, transport, reactivity, transformation reactions and environmental impact of particulate matter. Moreover, some particles of certain chemical properties have been recognized as a threat for human health and cultural heritage objects. However, the small sizes of particles result in specific problems with respect to single particle analysis. Development of equipment and software for improvement of analysis and quantification are reported.

  3. Environmental Public Health Surveillance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice; Crosson, William

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELiX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM2.5 concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. While use of the Air Quality System (AQS) PM2.5 data alone could meet HELIX-Atlanta specifications, there are only five AQS sites in the Atlanta area, thus the spatial coverage is not ideal. We are using NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for estimating daily ground level PM2.5 at 10 km resolution over the metropolitan Atlanta area supplementing the AQS ground observations and filling their spatial and temporal gaps.

  4. Heavy metals in industrially emitted particulate matter in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Lasun T; Owoade, Oyediran K; Hopke, Philip K; Olise, Felix S

    2017-07-01

    Iron and steel smelting facilities generate large quantities of airborne particulate matter (PM) through their various activities and production processes. The resulting PM that contains a variety of heavy metals has potentially detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. This study was conducted to assess the potential health effects of the pollution from the heavy metals in the airborne PM sampled in the vicinity of secondary smelting operations in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the elemental concentration of Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, As, Fe, Cu, and Ni in the size-segregated PM samples. Pollution Indices (PI) consisting of Contamination Factor (CF), Degree of Contamination (DC) and Pollution Index Load (PLI) and Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) were employed to assess the pollution risk associated with the heavy metals in the PM. CF, DC and PLI values were 332 and >1, respectively for the three sites, indicating deterioration of the ambient air quality in the vicinity of the smelter. The heavy metals in the airborne PM pose a severe health risk to people living in vicinity of the facility and to its workers. The diminished air quality with the associated health risks directly depends on the industrial emissions from steel production and control measures are recommended to mitigate the likely risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 deg. C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  6. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-08-15

    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 degrees C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  7. Aerotrace. Measurement of particulates from an engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, C D [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The effect of gas turbine operating conditions, inlet temperature, pressure and overall air fuel ratio, on particulate number density has been measured. Particulate number density was found to be proportional to combustor inlet pressure and decrease with increasing combustor inlet temperature. The relationship with air fuel ratio is more complex. The mechanism of particulate loss down sample lines has been elucidated and equations are presented to predict particulate losses for stainless steel and PTFE sample lines. (author) 3 refs.

  8. Aerotrace. Measurement of particulates from an engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, C.D. [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of gas turbine operating conditions, inlet temperature, pressure and overall air fuel ratio, on particulate number density has been measured. Particulate number density was found to be proportional to combustor inlet pressure and decrease with increasing combustor inlet temperature. The relationship with air fuel ratio is more complex. The mechanism of particulate loss down sample lines has been elucidated and equations are presented to predict particulate losses for stainless steel and PTFE sample lines. (author) 3 refs.

  9. Airborne geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Bastos, L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne geoid mapping techniques may provide the opportunity to improve the geoid over vast areas of the Earth, such as polar areas, tropical jungles and mountainous areas, and provide an accurate "seam-less" geoid model across most coastal regions. Determination of the geoid by airborne methods...... relies on the development of airborne gravimetry, which in turn is dependent on developments in kinematic GPS. Routine accuracy of airborne gravimetry are now at the 2 mGal level, which may translate into 5-10 cm geoid accuracy on regional scales. The error behaviour of airborne gravimetry is well......-suited for geoid determination, with high-frequency survey and downward continuation noise being offset by the low-pass gravity to geoid filtering operation. In the paper the basic principles of airborne geoid determination are outlined, and examples of results of recent airborne gravity and geoid surveys...

  10. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  11. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  12. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  13. Variation of airborne quartz in air of Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Leaders' Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Honghua; Gao, Guanjun; Zhou, Qian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Wenjuan; Sun, Huizhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Quartz particles are a toxic component of airborne particulate matter (PM). Quartz concentrations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction in eighty-seven airborne PM samples collected from three locations in Beijing before, during, and after the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Meeting in 2014. The results showed that the mean concentrations of quartz in PM samples from the two urban sites were considerably higher than those from the rural site. The quartz concentrations in samples collected after the APEC meeting, when the pollution restriction lever was lifted, were higher than those in the samples collected before or during the APEC meeting. The quartz concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 13.2 μg/m(3), which were among the highest values amid those reported from other countries. The highest quartz concentration exceeded the Californian Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment reference exposure level and was close to the occupational threshold limit values for occupational settings. Moreover, a correlation analysis showed that quartz concentrations were positively correlated with concentrations of pollution parameters PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOx, but were negatively correlated with O3 concentration. The results suggest that the airborne quartz particles may potentially pose health risks to the general population of Beijing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Direct sampling of sub-µm atmospheric particulate organic matter in sub-ng m-3 mass concentrations by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armin, W.; Mueller, M.; Klinger, A.; Striednig, M.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative characterization of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter is still challenging. Herein we present the novel modular "Chemical Analysis of Aerosol Online" (CHARON) particle inlet system coupled to a new-generation proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 6000 X2, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) that quantitatively detects organic analytes in real-time and sub-pptV levels by chemical ionization with hydronium reagent ions. CHARON consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes (efficiency > 99.999%), an aerodynamic lens for particle collimation combined with an inertial sampler for the particle-enriched flow and a thermodesorption unit for particle volatilization prior to chemical analysis. With typical particle enrichment factors of around 30 for particle diameters (DP) between 120 nm and 1000 nm (somewhat reduced enrichment for 60 nm 6000) and excellent mass accuracies (< 10 ppm) chemical compositions can be assigned and included in further analyses. In addition to a detailed characterization of the CHARON PTR-TOF 6000 X2 we will present first results on the chemical composition of sub-µm particulate organic matter in the urban atmosphere in Innsbruck (Austria).

  15. Towards airborne nanoparticle mass spectrometry with nanomechanical string resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Kurek, Maksymilian; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    airborne nanoparticle sensors. Recently, nanomechanical mass spectrometry was established. One of the biggest challenges of nanomechanical sensors is the low efficiency of diffusion-based sampling. We developed an inertial-based sampling method that enables the efficient sampling of airborne nanoparticles...... mode. Mass spectrometry of airborne nanoparticles requires the simultaneous operation in the first and second mode, which can be implemented in the transduction scheme of the resonator. The presented results lay the cornerstone for the realization of a portable airborne nanoparticle mass spectrometer....

  16. Neutron activation analysis for environmental sample in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Nouchpramool, Sunun; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Sumitra, Tatchai

    2003-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis has been applied for the trace elements analysis in environmental samples. Thirty three samples of airborne particulate were collected every week at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) during the period of June 1998 to March 1999. The Ti, I, Mg, Na, V, K, Cl, Al, Mn, Ca, As, Sm, Sb, Br, La, Ce, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis utilizing 2 MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The certified reference materials 1632a and 1633a from National Bureau of Standard were select as standard. (author)

  17. Satellite Maps and Relevant Compositional Properties of PM2.5 in Difficult Winter Situations and Comparisons to DISCOVER-AQ Airborne Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean-climate regions like California's San Joaquin Valley are subject to severe wintertime particulate pollution affecting public health. We present maps of episodes and particulate diagnostics to aid diagnosis and amelioration. For abatement at sources, we require an understanding of sources and transport. Remote sensing should be of aid, but radiance-to-particle relationships are far different from methods which have been of use in the Eastern USA, Northern and Central Europe. Here are the problems: (a) Thin if very polluted mixed layers (MLs) yield optical depths, AOD, near the detection level, (b) bright and quite variegated surfaces (c) Unusual particle composition (e.g., predominance of NH4NO3 and fireplace buning aerosol), which complicate the relationship of AOD to PM2.5. Specialized analysis of MODIS-Aqua data to obtain AOD using the multi-angle (MAIAC) technique employed by Lyapustin and Wang. Meteorological analyses like NOAA's Rapid Analysis Product (RAP, or newer products like HRRR), which are formulated to remain close to observations (e.g. of water), provide useful ML information corroborated by DISCOVER-AQ in-situ and lidar observations. The many PM2.5 measurements allow a calibration of these products and thus maps of aerosol on many successive aerosol buildups. These calibrations also allow insight into compositional information relevant to MODIS retrievals, the product of aerosol density and specific scattering. We have found that the rich in-situ, lidar, and sun-photometer data sets of NASA'S DISCOVER-AQ data set (2013) of great aid. We will highlight the most interesting of many intercomparisons possible with this rich data set. We conclude with a description of new work to extend these insights to similar regions, e.g. the Imperial Valley of California, the Po Valley and maritime Southern Europe, and the litoral regions of Israel.

  18. The correlation and quantification of airborne spectroradiometer data to turbidity measurements at Lake Powell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A water sampling program was accomplished at Lake Powell, Utah, during June 1975 for correlation to multispectral data obtained with a 500-channel airborne spectroradiometer. Field measurements were taken of percentage of light transmittance, surface temperature, pH and Secchi disk depth. Percentage of light transmittance was also measured in the laboratory for the water samples. Analyses of electron micrographs and suspended sediment concentration data for four water samples located at Hite Bridge, Mile 168, Mile 150 and Bullfrog Bay indicated differences in the composition and concentration of the particulate matter. Airborne spectroradiometer multispectral data were analyzed for the four sampling locations. The results showed that: (1) as the percentage of light transmittance of the water samples decreased, the reflected radiance increased; and (2) as the suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) increased, the reflected radiance increased in the 1-80 mg/l range. In conclusion, valuable qualitative information was obtained on surface turbidity for the Lake Powell water spectra. Also, the reflected radiance measured at a wavelength of 0.58 micron was directly correlated to the suspended sediment concentration.

  19. Comparative performance of two air samplers for monitoring airborne fungal propagules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.F. Távora

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have attempted to evaluate the importance of airborne fungi in the development of invasive fungal infection, especially for immunocompromised hosts. Several kinds of instruments are available to quantitate fungal propagule levels in air. We compared the performance of the most frequently used air sampler, the Andersen sampler with six stages, with a portable one, the Reuter centrifugal sampler (RCS. A total of 84 samples were analyzed, 42 with each sampler. Twenty-eight different fungal genera were identified in samples analyzed with the Andersen instrument. In samples obtained with the RCS only seven different fungal genera were identified. The three most frequently isolated genera in samples analyzed with both devices were Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladophialophora. In areas supplied with a high efficiency particulate air filter, fungal spore levels were usually lower when compared to areas without these filters. There was a significant correlation between total fungal propagule measurements taken with both devices on each sampling occasion (Pearson coefficient = 0.50. However, the Andersen device recovered a broader spectrum of fungi. We conclude that the RCS can be used for quantitative estimates of airborne microbiological concentrations. For qualitative studies, however, this device cannot be recommended.

  20. Expert workshop traffic-caused airborne particles in urban areas; Experten-Workshop 'Verkehrsbedingte Feinstaeube in der Stadt'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzendorf, Martin; Birmili, Wolfram; Franke, Patrick

    2006-07-15

    The proceedings of the expert workshop on traffic-caused airborne particulates in urban regions include the following contributions: epidemiology of ultra-fine particulates, ultra-fine particulates and their impacts in human health, environmental particulates in the urban atmosphere: properties and future requirement of measuring methods; ultra-fine particulates from traffic emissions - problems of measuring site selection for the evaluation of human exposure, modeling of PMx emissions in the context of environmental compatibility assessments and mitigation planning, traffic-caused particulates - need for action and remedial actions from the sight of the Federal environment Agency, traffic-related measures for the reduction of urban particulate exposure and their impact on the planning of air pollution prevention, strategic environmental assessment as an instrument for the airborne particulate consideration within the traffic and regional planning.

  1. Monitoring of urban particulate using an electret-based passive sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, A.; Hemingway, M.A.; Brown, R.C.

    1999-11-01

    Site sampling trials have been carried out in the urban environment in order to assess the usefulness of a passive sampling device, originally developed for personal monitoring of airborne dust levels in industry. The sampling element is a small disc of elect material (polymer carrying a permanent electric charge) within a metal frame weighing approximately 15 g. The sampler is designed to capture particles by electrostatic attraction, in which case the capture rate depends on their electrical mobility but is independent of the rate at which air flows past the device. Passive samplers, along with miniaturized cascade impactors, have been exposed to urban particulate for periods of up to 28 days in locations with significant different levels of airborne pollution. The cascade impactor data enabled good estimates to be made of PM{sub 10} and PMN{sub 2.5} levels, and data from the passive sampler correlated with the total dust sampled by the impactor and with both the size fractions, that with the PM{sub 10} being better. Too few data have yet been obtained for its accuracy to be established, but it is unlikely that it will approach that of pumped samplers. It has been shown to be potentially useful for multiple, simultaneous site sampling and for monitoring personal environmental exposure situations in which dispensing with a power source is particularly useful. Being small, the sampler is easy to hide or camouflage, and because it is cheap, its loss or damage is not a serious matter.

  2. High-resolution sampling and analysis of ambient particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of southern China: source apportionment and health risk implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengzhen; Davy, Perry K.; Huang, Minjuan; Duan, Jingbo; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Chang, Ming; Liu, Yiming; Chen, Weihua; Xie, Shanju; Ancelet, Travis; Trompetter, William J.

    2018-02-01

    Hazardous air pollutants, such as trace elements in particulate matter (PM), are known or highly suspected to cause detrimental effects on human health. To understand the sources and associated risks of PM to human health, hourly time-integrated major trace elements in size-segregated coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected at the industrial city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Receptor modeling of the data set by positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify six sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the site. Dominant sources included industrial coal combustion, secondary inorganic aerosol, motor vehicles and construction dust along with two intermittent sources (biomass combustion and marine aerosol). The biomass combustion source was found to be a significant contributor to peak PM2.5 episodes along with motor vehicles and industrial coal combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was applied to estimate the source locations using the PMF-resolved source contribution coupled with the surface wind direction data. Health exposure risk of hazardous trace elements (Pb, As, Si, Cr, Mn and Ni) and source-specific values were estimated. The total hazard quotient (HQ) of PM2.5 was 2.09, higher than the acceptable limit (HQ = 1). The total carcinogenic risk (CR) was 3.37 × 10-3 for PM2.5, which was 3 times higher than the least stringent limit (1.0 × 10-4). Among the selected trace elements, As and Pb posed the highest non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to human health, respectively. In addition, our results show that the industrial coal combustion source is the dominant non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk contributor, highlighting the need for stringent control of this source. This study provides new insight for policy makers to prioritize sources in air quality management and health risk reduction.

  3. Airborne Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Jakobsen, Henrik Byrial; Paulsen, E.

    1999-01-01

    The air around intact feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler and a dynamic headspace technique. No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted f...... for airborne Compositae dermatitis. Potential allergens were found among the emitted monoterpenes and their importance in airborne Compositae dermatitis is discussed....

  4. The development and evaluation of airborne in situ N2O and CH4 sampling using a Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer (QCLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Allen, Grant; Percival, Carl; Gallagher, Martin; Bauguitte, Stephane; O'Shea, Sebastian; Muller, Jennifer; Zahniser, Mark; Pyle, John; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric N2O and CH4 mole fractions were made on board the FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) large Atmospheric Research Aircraft. We evaluate the performance of the mid-IR continuous wave Aerodyne Research Inc. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer (QCLAS) employed over 17 flights conducted during summer 2014. Two different methods of correcting for the influence of water vapour on the spectroscopic retrievals are compared and evaluated. Test flight data demonstrating the sensitivity of the instrument to changes in cabin pressure is presented, and a new in-flight calibration procedure to account for this issue is described and assessed. Total 1σ uncertainties of 1.81 ppb for CH4 and 0.35 ppb for N2O are derived. We report a mean difference in 1 Hz CH4 mole fraction of 2.05 ppb (1σ = 5.85 ppb) between in-flight measurements made using the QCLAS and simultaneous measurements using a previously characterised Los Gatos Research Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA).

  5. Utilization of long duration high-volume sampling coupled to SPME-GC-MS/MS for the assessment of airborne pesticides variability in an urban area (Strasbourg, France) during agricultural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Céline; Brucher, Michel; Schummer, Claude; Coscollà, Clara; Wolff, Hélène; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice

    2016-10-02

    Atmospheric samples have been collected between 14 March and 12 September 2012 on a 2-week basis (15 days of sampling and exchange of traps each 7 days) in Strasbourg (east of France) for the analysis of 43 pesticides. Samples (particle and gas phases) were separately extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) and pre-concentrated by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) before analysis by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Four SPME consecutive injections at distinct temperatures were made in order to increase the sensitivity of detection for the all monitored pesticides. Currently used detected pesticides can be grouped in four classes; those used in maize crops (acetochlor, benoxacor, dicamba, s-metolachlor, pendimethalin, and bromoxynil), in cereal crops (benoxacor, chlorothalonil, fenpropimorph, and propiconazole), in vineyards (tebuconazole), and as herbicides for orchards, meadows of green spaces (2,4-MCPA, trichlopyr). This is in accordance with the diversity of crops found in the Alsace region and trends observed are in accordance with the period of application of these pesticides. Variations observed permit also to demonstrate that the long time sampling duration used in this study is efficient to visualize temporal variations of airborne pesticides concentrations. Then, long time high-volume sampling could be a simple method permitting atmospheric survey of atmospheric contamination without any long analysis time and consequently low cost.

  6. OPTIMIZING THE PAKS METHOD FOR MEASURING AIRBORNE ACROLEIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne acrolein is produced from the combustion of fuel and tobacco and is of concern due to its potential for respiratory tract irritation and other adverse health effects. DNPH active-sampling is a method widely used for sampling airborne aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls); ...

  7. Particle dry-deposition experiment using ambient airborne soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne solid concentrations were measured simultaneously at sampling towers upwind and 305-m downwind of a site. When the wind speed and wind direction were identical at each site, isokinetic air samplers on the sampling towers were automatically activated. The fraction of the airborne solid plume remaining after the 305-m fetch ranged from 0.53 to 1.07

  8. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.

  9. Radiation dose estimates due to air particulate emissions from selected phosphate industry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.E.; Horton, T.R.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Boysen, G.A.

    1978-06-01

    The EPA Office of Radiation Programs has conducted a series of studies to determine the radiological impact of the phosphate mining and milling industry. This report describes the efforts to estimate the radiation doses due to airborne emissions of particulates from selected phosphate milling operations in Florida. Two wet process phosphoric acid plants and one ore drying facility were selected for this study. The 1976 Annual Operations/Emissions Report, submitted by each facility to the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, and a field survey trip by EPA personnel to each facility were used to develop data for dose calculations. The field survey trip included sampling for stack emissions and ambient air samples collected in the general vicinity of each plant. Population and individual radiation dose estimates are made based on these sources of data

  10. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Solís, Dora A

    2012-04-15

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d=5.46 ± 0.32 μm and σ(ln d)=0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d=3.6 ± 0.38 μm and σ(ln d)=0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-resolution sampling and analysis of air particulate matter in the Pear River Delta region of Southern China: source apportionment and health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Day, P. K.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous air pollutants, such as trace elements in particulate matters (PM), are known or highly suspected to cause detrimental effects on human health. To understand the sources and associated risks of PM to human health, hourly time-integrated major trace elements in size-segregated coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected and examined in an industrial city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Receptor modeling of the dataset by positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify six sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the site. Dominant sources included industrial coal combustion, secondary inorganic aerosol, motor vehicles and construction dust along with two intermittent sources, biomass combustion and marine aerosol. The biomass combustion source was found to be a significant contributor to peak PM2.5 episodes along with motor vehicles and industrial coal combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF) was applied to estimate the local source effects from wind direction using the PMF-resolved source contribution coupled with the surface wind direction data. Health exposure risk for hazardous trace elements (Pb, As, Cr, Ni, Zn, V, Cu, Mn, Fe) and source-specific values were estimated. The total hazard quotient (total HQ =HI) of PM2.5 was 2.09, which is two times higher than the acceptable limit (HQ = 1). The total carcinogenic risk was 3.37*10-3 for PM2.5, which was three orders higher than the acceptable limit (i.e. 1.0*10-6). Among the selected trace elements, As and Pb posed the highest non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for human health, respectively. In additional, our results showed that industrial coal combustion source was the dominant non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks contributor, highlighting the need for stringent control of this source. This study can provide new insight for policy makers to prioritize sources in air quality management and health risk reduction.

  12. High-resolution sampling and analysis of ambient particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of southern China: source apportionment and health risk implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous air pollutants, such as trace elements in particulate matter (PM, are known or highly suspected to cause detrimental effects on human health. To understand the sources and associated risks of PM to human health, hourly time-integrated major trace elements in size-segregated coarse (PM2.5–10 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter were collected at the industrial city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Receptor modeling of the data set by positive matrix factorization (PMF was used to identify six sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the site. Dominant sources included industrial coal combustion, secondary inorganic aerosol, motor vehicles and construction dust along with two intermittent sources (biomass combustion and marine aerosol. The biomass combustion source was found to be a significant contributor to peak PM2.5 episodes along with motor vehicles and industrial coal combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF analysis was applied to estimate the source locations using the PMF-resolved source contribution coupled with the surface wind direction data. Health exposure risk of hazardous trace elements (Pb, As, Si, Cr, Mn and Ni and source-specific values were estimated. The total hazard quotient (HQ of PM2.5 was 2.09, higher than the acceptable limit (HQ = 1. The total carcinogenic risk (CR was 3.37 × 10−3 for PM2.5, which was 3 times higher than the least stringent limit (1.0 × 10−4. Among the selected trace elements, As and Pb posed the highest non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to human health, respectively. In addition, our results show that the industrial coal combustion source is the dominant non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk contributor, highlighting the need for stringent control of this source. This study provides new insight for policy makers to prioritize sources in air quality management and health risk reduction.

  13. Heavy coal combustion as the dominant source of particulate pollution in Taiyuan, China, corroborated by high concentrations of arsenic and selenium in PM10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, RuiKai; Seip, Hans Martin; Wibetoe, Grethe; Nori, Showan; McLeod, Cameron William

    2006-01-01

    Coal burning generates toxic elements, some of which are characteristic of coal combustion such as arsenic and selenium, besides conventional coal combustion products. Airborne particulate samples with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10 ) were collected in Taiyuan, China, and multi-element analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations of arsenic and selenium from ambient air in Taiyuan (average 43 and 58 ng m -3 , respectively) were relatively high compared to what is reported elsewhere. Arsenic and selenium were found to be highly correlated (r=0.997), indicating an overwhelmingly dominant source. Correlation between these two chalcophile elements and the lithophile element Al is high (r is 0.75 and 0.72 for As and Se, respectively). This prompted the hypothesis that the particles were from coal combustion. The enrichment of the trace elements could be explained by the volatilization-condensation mechanism during coal combustion process. Even higher correlations of arsenic and selenium with PM 10 (r=0.90 and 0.88) give further support that airborne particulate pollution in Taiyuan is mainly a direct result of heavy coal consumption. This conclusion agrees with the results from our previous study of individual airborne particles in Taiyuan. (author)

  14. Airborne Tactical Crossload Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Regiment AGL above ground level AO area of operation APA American psychological association ASOP airborne standard operating procedure A/C aircraft...awarded a research contract to develop a tactical crossload tool. [C]omputer assisted Airborne Planning Application ( APA ) that provides a

  15. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  16. Temporal and spatial variations in particulate matter, particulate organic carbon and attenuation coefficient in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.

    Nine stations over a stretch of 21 km of Periyar river estuary were sampled during January to December 1981. Particulate matter varied from 3-253 mg.1 super(1) at the surface and 24.8-257mg.1 super(1) at the bottom. Particulate organic carbon ranged...

  17. Determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in various environmental samples by spark source mass spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimae, Akiyoshi

    1978-01-01

    A chemical concentration-mass spectrographic procedure was described for the determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in various environmental samples: airborne particulate matter, dustfall, soil and so forth. A 0.5 to 1 gram of sample material was decomposed by fusion with sodium carbonate. The silica dehydrated in the usual way was filtered off and the filtrate from the silica was then treated with ammonium hydroxide to precipitate the rare earth elements. After ignition of the precipitate, two ml of internal standard solution containing 20 μg/ml of silver were added and the mixture was then evaporated to dryness. The residue was mixed with an equal amount of graphite powder and then pressed into electrodes. Relative sensitivity coefficients (Ag=1.0) were determined by using Spex Mix and U. S. Geological Survey rock standard G-2. U. S. Geological Survey rock standard GSP-1 and N.B.S. coal fly ash SRM 1633 were analysed to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. Comparison of the mass spectral values with literature ones indicated a good agreement. The coefficient of variation obtained by replicate analysis of SRM 1633 was better than 25%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of rare earth elements in airborne particulate matter and dustfall collected on polystyrene filter and in dustjars, respectively. Results for the rare earth elements in the blank of glass fiber filter which was widely used for the collection of airborne particulate matter were also presented. (auth.)

  18. Kuwaiti oil fires—Particulate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir; Amin, Mohamed B.

    The total suspended particulate (TSP) matters using a high-volume sampler and inhalable particulate matters using PM-10 samplers were collected at various locations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia during and after the Kuwaiti oil fires. The collected samples were analysed for toxic metals and oil hydrocarbon concentrations including some carcinogenic organic compounds in addition to gravimetric analysis. The concentration values of particulate matters were determined on a daily basis at Dhahran. Abqaiq, Rahima, Tanajib and Jubail locations. The analyses of the filters show a high concentration of the inhalable particulate at various locations, especially when north or northwest winds were blowing. It was found that the inhalable particulate concentration exceeded the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA) permissible limit of 340 μg m- 3 at most of these locations during May-October 1991. A trend between the total suspended particulate and inhalable particulate measured concurrently at the same locations was observed and a regression equation was developed to correlate PM-10 data with the total suspended particulate data.

  19. Exposure to Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exacerbates Allergic Asthma Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. PMID:22178736

  20. The effect of composition, size, and solubility on acute pulmonary injury in rats following exposure to Mexico city ambient particulate matter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Thomas, Ronald F; Schladweiler, Mette C; McGee, John; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM)-associated metals can contribute to adverse cardiopulmonary effects following exposure to air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate how variation in the composition and size of ambient PM collected from two distinct regions in Mexico City relates to toxicity differences. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (14 wk) were intratracheally instilled with chemically characterized PM10 and PM2.5 from the north and PM10 from the south of Mexico City (3 mg/kg). Both water-soluble and acid-leachable fractions contained several metals, with levels generally higher in PM10 South. The insoluble and total, but not soluble, fractions of all PM induced pulmonary damage that was indicated by significant increases in neutrophilic inflammation, and several lung injury biomarkers including total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity 24 and 72 h postexposure. PM10 North and PM2.5 North also significantly decreased levels of the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Elevation in lung mRNA biomarkers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α and macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase [HO]-1, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor [LOX]-1, and inducibile nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), and thrombosis (tissue factor [TF] and plasminogen activator inhibitor [PAI]-1), as well as reduced levels of fibrinolytic protein tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), further indicated pulmonary injury following PM exposure. These responses were more pronounced with PM10 South (PM10 South > PM10 North > PM2.5 North), which contained higher levels of redox-active transition metals that may have contributed to specific differences in selected lung gene markers. These findings provide evidence that surface chemistry of the PM core and not the water-soluble fraction played an important role in regulating in vivo pulmonary toxicity responses to Mexico City PM.

  1. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, David E.; Hass, William J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses.

  2. Some aspects of organic and inorganic particulate transport at Rocky Flats. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, H.

    Findings from the summer 1975 sampling program and the conclusions from the 1975-1976 winter sampling program are summarized. Large radionuclide particles were not found attached to pollen. Sampling the airborne pollen throughout the Rocky Flats area demonstrated that the Rocky Flats air samplers were deficient in their abilities to properly collect large lightweight pollen grains. This may not have serious consequences for the undetected transport of radionuclides by pollen, however, it has implications of sampling inefficiency in some particulate size ranges, and implies that if radionuclides are carried at times by larger particles, then the standard Rocky Flats air samplers are not sampling these materials efficiently. Some initial findings suggested that soil samples from downwind areas associated with winter snow accumulation had abnormally high fissile particle accumulations, and this suggested the need to sample these sites in winter. Areas of preferred particle accumulation such as snow banks had higher concentrations of radionuclide particles than surrounding areas which are more windswept. Any soil sampling program at Rocky Flats which seeks to monitor background radionuclide levels and movement of fissile particles across the site should take account of these topographically and wind-controlled accumulation areas, and not rely solely on a grid pattern of sampling. The snow samples contained radionuclide material in substantial quantities. In terms of fissile particulates smaller than 0.5 microns the snow banks three miles east of the plant site contained as much or more radionuclides than sites close to the Hot Spot contaminated area. The snow samples immediately east of the Hot Spot contained many more large particles (>0.5 m), as did soil samples from the upwind site next to the plant fence. The Hot Spot is clearly implicated again as the source of these materials

  3. Interaction between ozone and airborne particulate matter in office air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that humans are affected by air pollution caused by ozone and house dust, that the effect of simultaneous exposure to ozone and dust in the air is larger than the effect of these two pollutants individually, and that the effects can be measured as release of...

  4. Intercomparison of IAEA airborne particulate matter reference material. Appendix 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, Sheldon; Wu, De; Vermette, Stephen; Cizek, William

    1995-01-01

    Fifty air filters with fine and coarse fractions were prepared from NIST 2710 contaminated soil. Eighteen pairs were made and sent to seventeen laboratories of the CRP program on Applied Research on Air Pollution Using Nuclear-Related Analytical Techniques for elemental determination. The results of this intercomparison are discussed in this paper. (author)

  5. Resuspension of soil as a source of airborne lead near industrial facilities and highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Thomas M; Heeraman, Deo A; Sirin, Gorkem; Ashbaugh, Lowell L

    2002-06-01

    Geologic materials are an important source of airborne particulate matter less than 10 microm aerodynamic diameter (PM10), but the contribution of contaminated soil to concentrations of Pb and other trace elements in air has not been documented. To examine the potential significance of this mechanism, surface soil samples with a range of bulk soil Pb concentrations were obtained near five industrial facilities and along roadsides and were resuspended in a specially designed laboratory chamber. The concentration of Pb and other trace elements was measured in the bulk soil, in soil size fractions, and in PM10 generated during resuspension of soils and fractions. Average yields of PM10 from dry soils ranged from 0.169 to 0.869 mg of PM10/g of soil. Yields declined approximately linearly with increasing geometric mean particle size of the bulk soil. The resulting PM10 had average Pb concentrations as high as 2283 mg/kg for samples from a secondary Pb smelter. Pb was enriched in PM10 by 5.36-88.7 times as compared with uncontaminated California soils. Total production of PM10 bound Pb from the soil samples varied between 0.012 and 1.2 mg of Pb/kg of bulk soil. During a relatively large erosion event, a contaminated site might contribute approximately 300 ng/m3 of PM10-bound Pb to air. Contribution of soil from contaminated sites to airborne element balances thus deserves consideration when constructing receptor models for source apportionment or attempting to control airborne Pb emissions.

  6. Air ICP uses for instantaneous monitoring of airborne pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouzeau, F.; Birolleau, J.C.; Fieni, J.M.; Bergey, C.

    1987-01-01

    Recently the development of a pure AIR-ICP which breathes in and excites the analysed air without sample dilution, allowed the application of this technique to the real time analysis of airborne metallic pollutants. First results obtained on airborne Beryllium in a laboratory and a test-site apparatus are presented in this paper

  7. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria: Part 3. Measurements of radionuclides in airborne and deposited material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.; Eakins, J.D.; Fisher, E.M.R.

    1980-09-01

    Six stations sampling airborne particulate and deposited material were established in the Cumbrian coastal region. The measurements were undertaken to study current atmospheric levels and to discriminate between material from nuclear weapon tests, routine atmospheric discharges from the nuclear reprocessing works at Windscale and other sources, e.g. the sea. The results show that samples of both airborne and deposited material contain radionuclide concentrations in excess of those expected from nuclear weapon fallout. For Pu and 241 Am isotopes, the excess material comes mainly from a seaward direction. The transfer mechanism is probably resuspension, but the actinide levels are much greater than would be expected from the simple transfer of bulk seawater. For 137 Cs, the material in excess of amounts expected from nuclear weapon fallout can be attributed largely to Windscale discharges to air and seaspray containing the bulk seawater concentration of 137 Cs. Other fission products present in amounts exceeding nuclear weapon fallout were 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs and 144 Ce. Tritium was also observed in amounts slightly in excess of nuclear weapon fallout. The highest observed annual average concentration in air for Pu isotopes was 0.2% of the derived air concentration, modified for members of the public, of 2.3 mBq/m 3 . (author)

  8. The role of neutron activation analysis for trace elements characterization, analysis and certification in atmospheric particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzio, Enrico; Gallorini, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) owns these requirements and is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultratrace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrate by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, the application of this nuclear technique, in solving a series of different analytical problems related to trace elements in air pollution processes is reported. Examples and results are given on the following topics: characterization of urban and rural airborne particulate samples; particles size distribution in the different inhalable and respirable fractions (PM10 and PM 2.5); certification of related Standard Reference Materials for data quality assurance. (author)

  9. Airborne Magnetic Trackline Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receive airborne magnetic survey data from US and non-US...

  10. Airborne Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — AFRL's Airborne Evaluation Facility (AEF) utilizes Air Force Aero Club resources to conduct test and evaluation of a variety of equipment and concepts. Twin engine...

  11. Airborne Test Bed Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory operates the main hangar on the Hanscom Air Force Base flight line. This very large building (~93,000sqft) accommodates the Laboratory's airborne test...

  12. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  13. Comprehensive simultaneous shipboard and airborne characterization of exhaust from a modern container ship at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shane M; Agrawal, Harshit; Sorooshian, Armin; Padró, Luz T; Gates, Harmony; Hersey, Scott; Welch, W A; Lung, H; Miller, J W; Cocker, David R; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, Haflidi H; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2009-07-01

    We report the first joint shipboard and airborne study focused on the chemical composition and water-uptake behavior of particulate ship emissions. The study focuses on emissions from the main propulsion engine of a Post-Panamax class container ship cruising off the central coast of California and burning heavy fuel oil. Shipboard sampling included micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDI) with subsequent off-line analysis, whereas airborne measurements involved a number of real-time analyzers to characterize the plume aerosol, aged from a few seconds to over an hour. The mass ratio of particulate organic carbon to sulfate at the base of the ship stack was 0.23 +/- 0.03, and increased to 0.30 +/- 0.01 in the airborne exhaust plume, with the additional organic mass in the airborne plume being concentrated largely in particles below 100 nm in diameter. The organic to sulfate mass ratio in the exhaust aerosol remained constant during the first hour of plume dilution into the marine boundary layer. The mass spectrum of the organic fraction of the exhaust aerosol strongly resembles that of emissions from other diesel sources and appears to be predominantly hydrocarbon-like organic (HOA) material. Background aerosol which, based on air mass back trajectories, probably consisted of aged ship emissions and marine aerosol, contained a lower organic mass fraction than the fresh plume and had a much more oxidized organic component. A volume-weighted mixing rule is able to accurately predict hygroscopic growth factors in the background aerosol but measured and calculated growth factors do not agree for aerosols in the ship exhaust plume. Calculated CCN concentrations, at supersaturations ranging from 0.1 to 0.33%, agree well with measurements in the ship-exhaust plume. Using size-resolved chemical composition instead of bulk submicrometer composition has little effect on the predicted CCN concentrations because the cutoff diameter for CCN activation is larger than the

  14. A metagenomic framework for the study of airborne microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Andrews-Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Tenney, Aaron; McQuaid, Jeff; Williamson, Shannon; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Brami, Daniel; Zeigler-Allen, Lisa; Hoffman, Jeff; Goll, Johannes B; Fadrosh, Douglas; Glass, John; Adams, Mark D; Friedman, Robert; Venter, J Craig

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the microbial content of the air has important scientific, health, and economic implications. While studies have primarily characterized the taxonomic content of air samples by sequencing the 16S or 18S ribosomal RNA gene, direct analysis of the genomic content of airborne microorganisms has not been possible due to the extremely low density of biological material in airborne environments. We developed sampling and amplification methods to enable adequate DNA recovery to allow metagenomic profiling of air samples collected from indoor and outdoor environments. Air samples were collected from a large urban building, a medical center, a house, and a pier. Analyses of metagenomic data generated from these samples reveal airborne communities with a high degree of diversity and different genera abundance profiles. The identities of many of the taxonomic groups and protein families also allows for the identification of the likely sources of the sampled airborne bacteria.

  15. Characterization of winter airborne particles at Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Tafeng, E-mail: hutafeng@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an, 710075 (China); Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Shuncheng [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Cao, Junji [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an, 710075 (China); Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G. [SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an, 710075 (China); Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert of Research Institute, Reno (United States); Ho, Kinfai; Ho, Wingkei [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Rong, Bo [Emperor Qin' s Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses Museum, Xi' an (China); An, Zhisheng [SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an, 710075 (China)

    2009-10-01

    Daytime and nighttime total suspended particulate matters (TSP) were collected inside and outside Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum, the most popular on-site museum in China, in winter 2008. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of visitors to indoor airborne particles in two display halls with different architectural and ventilating conditions, including Exhibition Hall and Pit No.1. Morphological and elemental analyses of 7-day individual particle samples were performed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Particle mass concentrations in Exhibition Hall and Pit No.1 were in a range of 54.7-291.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and 95.3-285.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} with maximum diameters of 17.5 {mu}m and 26.0 {mu}m, respectively. In most sampling days, daytime/nighttime particle mass ratios in Exhibition Hall (1.30-3.12) were higher than those in Pit No.1 (0.96-2.59), indicating more contribution of the tourist flow in Exhibition Hall than in Pit No. 1. The maximum of particle size distributions were in a range of 0.5-1.0 {mu}m, with the highest abundance (43.4%) occurred in Exhibition Hall at night. The majority of airborne particles at the Museum was composed of soil dust, S-containing particles, and low-Z particles like soot aggregate and biogenic particles. Both size distributions and particle types were found to be associated with visitor numbers in Exhibition Hall and with natural ventilation in Pit No.1. No significant influence of visitors on indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) was found in either display halls. Those baseline data on the nature of the airborne particles inside the Museum can be incorporated into the maintenance criteria, display management, and ventilation strategy by conservators of the museum.

  16. Characterization of winter airborne particles at Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tafeng; Lee, Shuncheng; Cao, Junji; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Ho, Kinfai; Ho, Wingkei; Rong, Bo; An, Zhisheng

    2009-01-01

    Daytime and nighttime total suspended particulate matters (TSP) were collected inside and outside Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum, the most popular on-site museum in China, in winter 2008. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of visitors to indoor airborne particles in two display halls with different architectural and ventilating conditions, including Exhibition Hall and Pit No.1. Morphological and elemental analyses of 7-day individual particle samples were performed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Particle mass concentrations in Exhibition Hall and Pit No.1 were in a range of 54.7-291.7 μg m -3 and 95.3-285.4 μg m -3 with maximum diameters of 17.5 μm and 26.0 μm, respectively. In most sampling days, daytime/nighttime particle mass ratios in Exhibition Hall (1.30-3.12) were higher than those in Pit No.1 (0.96-2.59), indicating more contribution of the tourist flow in Exhibition Hall than in Pit No. 1. The maximum of particle size distributions were in a range of 0.5-1.0 μm, with the highest abundance (43.4%) occurred in Exhibition Hall at night. The majority of airborne particles at the Museum was composed of soil dust, S-containing particles, and low-Z particles like soot aggregate and biogenic particles. Both size distributions and particle types were found to be associated with visitor numbers in Exhibition Hall and with natural ventilation in Pit No.1. No significant influence of visitors on indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) was found in either display halls. Those baseline data on the nature of the airborne particles inside the Museum can be incorporated into the maintenance criteria, display management, and ventilation strategy by conservators of the museum.

  17. Airborne anthropogenic radioactivity measurements from an international radionuclide monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, J.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Anthropogenic radioactivity is being measured in near-real time by an international monitoring system designed to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Airborne radioactivity measurements are conducted in-situ by stations that are linked to a central data processing and analysis facility. Aerosols are separated by high-volume air sampling with high-efficiency particulate filters. Radio-xenon is separated from other gases through cryogenic methods. Gamma-spectrometry is performed by high purity germanium detectors and the raw spectral data is immediately transmitted to the central facility via Internet, satellite, or modem. These highly sensitive sensors, combined with the automated data processing at the central facility, result in a system capable of measuring environmental radioactivity on the microbecquerel scale where the data is available to scientists within minutes of the field measurement. During the past year, anthropogenic radioactivity has been measured at approximately half of the stations in the current network. Sources of these measured radionuclides include nuclear power plant emissions, Chernobyl resuspension, and isotope production facilities. The ability to thoroughly characterize site-specific radionuclides, which contribute to the radioactivity of the ambient environment, will be necessary to reduce the number of false positive events. This is especially true of anthropogenic radionuclides that could lead to ambiguous analysis. (author)

  18. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined from the following equation: er31au93.070 (1) Pmass = Mass of particulate emitted per test phase... (cubic meters) per revolution. This volume is dependent on the pressure differential across the positive... be applied before Vsf is determined. (4) Pf = Mass of particulate on the sample filter (or sample and...

  19. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aine Marie Gormley-Gallagher

    Full Text Available Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05 for Mn (r2 = 0.0063, Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021, Ni (r2 = 0.0023, Cd (r2 = 0.00001, Co (r2 = 0.096, Hg (r2 = 0.116 or Pb (r2 = 0.164. The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  20. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favez, O.

    2008-02-01

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  1. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  2. Radiological results for samples collected on paired glass- and cellulose-fiber filters at the Sandia complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizell, Steve A.; Shadel, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particulates are collected at U.S. Department of Energy sites that exhibit radiological contamination on the soil surface to help assess the potential for wind to transport radionuclides from the contamination sites. Collecting these samples was originally accomplished by drawing air through a cellulose-fiber filter. These filters were replaced with glass-fiber filters in March 2011. Airborne particulates were collected side by side on the two filter materials between May 2013 and May 2014. Comparisons of the sample mass and the radioactivity determinations for the side-by-side samples were undertaken to determine if the change in the filter medium produced significant results. The differences in the results obtained using the two filter types were assessed visually by evaluating the time series and correlation plots and statistically by conducting a nonparametric matched-pair sign test. Generally, the glass-fiber filters collect larger samples of particulates and produce higher radioactivity values for the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy analyses. However, the correlation between the radioanalytical results for the glass-fiber filters and the cellulose-fiber filters was not strong enough to generate a linear regression function to estimate the glass-fiber filter sample results from the cellulose-fiber filter sample results.

  3. Forage: a sensitive indicator of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.M.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of using Ge(Li) γ-ray spectroscopy to measure radioactivity concentration of forage in the vicinity of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Houston County, AL., over a 31/2 yr period. The report period includes 2 yr of pre-operational and 11/2 yr of operational sampling. Although the objective of forage sampling was the measurement of manmade airborne fallout radioactivity, several natural radioisotopes were also found to be present. A summary of natural radioactivity data for all samples measured during the period from August 1975 to December 1978 is given. Approximately 10 days after each of four Chinese atmospheric nuclear tests conducted during the sampling period fresh fission product fallout was measured on the forage. The information from these nuclear tests shows forage sampling to be a convenient and sensitive monitoring tool for airborne fallout radioactivity. (author)

  4. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  5. Toxic effects of indoor and outdoor airborne particles relevant to carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heussen, G.A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The mutagenicity of indoor and outdoor airborne particulate matter (APM) has been demonstrated by previous in vitro studies (Alink et al., 1983; Van Houdt et al., 1984, 1986, 1987). The aim of the present thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the mode of action of AIM in the

  6. Assessment of Airborne Particles. Fundamentals, Applications, and Implications to Inhalation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Thomas T., Ed.; And Others

    Concern over chemical and radioactive particulate matter in industry and over rapidly increasing air pollution has stimulated research both on the properties of airborne particles and methods for assessing them and on their biological effects following inhalation. The Third Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity was,…

  7. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Torres, Victor; Miranda, Javier; Martinez, Leticia; Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia; Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter; Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel; Rosas, Irma; Nemery, Benoit; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 μm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 μg/cm 2 ) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL) or silica (10-160 μg/cm 2 ). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM 10 presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM 2.5 . In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  8. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto, E-mail: ealfaro.incan@gmail.com [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Torres, Victor [Departamento Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Miranda, Javier [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisca, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Martinez, Leticia [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, I.P.N. (Mexico); Rosas, Irma [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Nemery, Benoit [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 {mu}g/mL) or silica (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM{sub 10} presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM{sub 2.5}. In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  9. A microfluidic paper-based analytical device for rapid quantification of particulate chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattanarat, Poomrat; Dungchai, Wijitar; Cate, David M.; Siangproh, Weena; Volckens, John; Chailapakul, Orawon; Henry, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Cr detection using a paper-based analytical device. •Analysis of total Cr levels in particulate matter was achieved. •Method for on-paper oxidation of Cr to Cr(VI) using Ce(IV) was established. -- Abstract: Occupational exposure to Cr is concerning because of its myriad of health effects. Assessing chromium exposure is also cost and resource intensive because the analysis typically uses sophisticated instrumental techniques like inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Here, we report a novel, simple, inexpensive microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for measuring total Cr in airborne particulate matter. In the μPAD, tetravalent cerium (Ce(IV)) was used in a pretreatment zone to oxidize all soluble Cr to Cr(VI). After elution to the detection zone, Cr(VI) reacts with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (1,5-DPC) forming 1,5-diphenylcarbazone (DPCO) and Cr(III). The resulting Cr(III) forms a distinct purple colored complex with the DPCO. As proof-of-principle, particulate matter (PM) collected on a sample filter was analyzed with the μPAD to quantify the mass of total Cr. A log-linear working range (0.23–3.75 μg; r 2 = 0.998) between Cr and color intensity was obtained with a detection limit of 0.12 μg. For validation, a certified reference containing multiple competing metals was analyzed. Quantitative agreement was obtained between known Cr levels in the sample and the Cr measured using the μPAD

  10. Optical extinction dependence on wavelength and size distribution of airborne dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Garrett E.; Hook, D. A.; Long, Brandon J. N.; Philbrick, C. R.; Hallen, Hans D.

    2013-05-01

    The optical scattering from laser beams propagating through atmospheric aerosols has been shown to be very useful in describing air pollution aerosol properties. This research explores and extends that capability to particulate matter. The optical properties of Arizona Road Dust (ARD) samples are measured in a chamber that simulates the particle dispersal of dust aerosols in the atmospheric environment. Visible, near infrared, and long wave infrared lasers are used. Optical scattering measurements show the expected dependence of laser wavelength and particle size on the extinction of laser beams. The extinction at long wavelengths demonstrates reduced scattering, but chemical absorption of dust species must be considered. The extinction and depolarization of laser wavelengths interacting with several size cuts of ARD are examined. The measurements include studies of different size distributions, and their evolution over time is recorded by an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. We analyze the size-dependent extinction and depolarization of ARD. We present a method of predicting extinction for an arbitrary ARD size distribution. These studies provide new insights for understanding the optical propagation of laser beams through airborne particulate matter.

  11. Characteristics of airborne plutonium resuspended from near-background aged surface-sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1982-11-01

    Plutonium content in samples of airborne solids collected at five Hanford sites was determined in several experiments directed toward investigating resuspension processes for aged surface sources. Though airborne plutonium concentrations are extremely low, radiochemical technique sensitivities allow plutonium characterization to be considered as a function of host-particle diameter in samples of airborne solids. Plutonium concentrations and activity densities are a function of aerodynamic particle diameter, sampling height, wind speed, wind direction and plutonium isotopic ratios

  12. Contrasts in oxidative potential and other particulate matter characteristics collected near major streets and background locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Janssen, N.A.H.; Fischer, P.H.; Kos, G.P.A.; Weijers, E.P.; Cassee, F.R.; van der Zee, S.C.; Hartog, J. de; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measuring the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter (PM) may provide a more health-based exposure measure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of PM into a single predictor of biological activity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the contrast in oxidative

  13. Contrasts in oxidative potential and other particulate matter characteristics collected near major streets and background locations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Janssen, N.A.; Fischer, P.H.; Kos, G.P.; Weijers, E.P.; Cassee, F.R.; Zee, S.C. van der; Hartog, J.J. de; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measuring the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter (PM) may provide a more health-based exposure measure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of PM into a single predictor of biological activity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the contrast in oxidative

  14. Backfitting of existing nuclear power plants with particulate, iodine and noble gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.R.; Geiger, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    A stand-alone microcomputer complete with hardware and software to measure airborne particulate iodine and noble gases is described. This system meets the need at power plants and effluent monitoring. The equipment will accommodate up to 192 channels of input

  15. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  16. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives

  17. Airborne microbial composition in a high-throughput poultry slaughtering facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruiping; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Meng, Hua; Xiao, Peng; Chang, Lingling

    2013-03-01

    A high-throughput chicken slaughtering facility in Beijing was systematically investigated for numbers of airborne microorganisms. Samples were assessed for counts of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. During a 4-month period (September to December 2011), samples were collected for 10 min three times daily (preproduction, production, and postproduction). Samples were collected for three consecutive days of each month with an FA-1 sampler from six sampling sites: receiving-hanging, soaking-scalding and defeathering, evisceration, precooling, subdividing, and packing. Humidity, temperature, wind velocity, and airborne particulates also were recorded at each sampling site and time. The highest counts of microorganisms were recorded in the initial stages of processing, i.e., the receiving-hanging and defeathering areas, with a definite decline toward the evisceration, prechilling, subdividing, and packing areas; the prechilling area had the lowest microbial counts of 2.4 × 10(3) CFU/m(3). Mean total coliforms counts ranged from 8.4 × 10(3) to 140 CFU/m(3). Maximum E. coli counts were 6.1 × 10(3) CFU/m(3) in the soaking-scalding and defeathering area. B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus represented only a small proportion of the microbial population (1,900 to 20 CFU/m(3)). L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were rarely detected in evisceration, precooling, subdividing, and packing areas. Our study identified the levels of bioaerosols that may affect chicken product quality. This finding could be useful for improved control of microbial contamination to ensure product quality.

  18. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  19. Formation of Particulate Matter from the Oxidation of Evaporated Wastewater from Hydraulic Fracturing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Bean, J. K.; Bilotto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing for production of petroleum and natural gas has increased dramatically in the last decade, but the environmental impacts of this technology remain unclear. Experiments were conducted to quantify airborne emissions from twelve samples of hydraulic fracturing flowback wastewater collected in the Permian Basin, as well as the photochemical processing of these emissions leading to the formation of particulate matter. The concentration of total volatile carbon (TVC, hydrocarbons evaporating at room temperature) averaged 29 milligrams of carbon per liter (mgC/L) and the TVC evaporation rate averaged 1357 mgC/L-m2-min. After photochemical oxidation under high NOx conditions the amount of organic particulate matter formed per milliliter of wastewater evaporated averaged 24 micrograms (µg); the amount of ammonium nitrate formed averaged 262 µg. In the state of Texas, the potential formation of PM from evaporated flowback wastewater is similar to the estimated PM emissions from diesel engines used in oil rigs, emphasizing the need to quantify wastewater evaporation and atmospheric processing of these emissions.

  20. South African Airborne Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa carried out numerous airborne operations during the latter part .... It was a lesson the French had learned and were learning in Indo-China and ..... South African government, concerned that the conflict would spill across their northern border, ...... the Super Frelon and it was an outstanding helicopter at sea level.

  1. Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

    2009-04-16

    This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

  2. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods