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Sample records for airborne particulate matter

  1. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  2. Data quality in airborne particulate matter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Nicole Marie

    Environmental measurements are complicated by uncontrollable natural variations in the environment, which cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. These variations affect the measurement uncertainty and detection capabilities -- two measures of data quality. Variations in a measurement series that arise from uncertainty in the measurements should not be interpreted as variations in the environment. Accurate estimates of measurement uncertainty are thus important inputs to data analyses. Collocated (duplicate) measurements are the most direct approach to characterizing uncertainty and detection capabilities because the observed differences reflect the actual measurement performance under the natural environmental variability. This dissertation uses collocated measurements of airborne particulate matter chemical speciation collected by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) to explore data quality issues. In addition to the complications introduced by uncontrollable environmental factors, the concepts of measurement precision and detection capabilities are often complicated by incomplete and inconsistent definitions. In this dissertation, collocated IMPROVE data are used to illustrate different formulations for precision and their ability to fit the observed differences. Collocated IMPROVE data are also used to show that measurement precision is typically better at concentrations well above the detection limit, when the analysis is performed on the whole filter instead of just a fraction of the filter, and for species predominantly in the smaller size fractions. For most species, the collocated differences are worse than the differences predicted by the current uncertainty model, suggesting that some sources of uncertainty are not accounted for or have been underestimated in the model. In addition, collocated measurement differences are shown to be correlated among several species. In both IMPROVE and

  3. Fine airborne particulate matter: secondary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical speciation of over 750 samples of PM2,5 collected in urban area of Milan, provides preliminary information about the role of the sources. In particular the research points out the large importance of the secondary source, i. e. the secondary production in atmosphere from gaseous precursors, that accounts for the 60- 70% of the total particulate. These findings affect the intervention policy, that must be oriented also to control the gaseous precursors of the fine particulate

  4. Quality assessment on airborne particulate matter of k0-INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of airborne particulate matter (APM) by k0-NAA was assessed using: BCR reference material (RM) simulated air-filters, synthetic air-filters prepared by spiking blank filters with standard solutions, and real APM filters. k0-INAA is a suitable technique for the analysis of APM, delivering accurate and precise results. However, the quality assessment of APM analysis appears to be a difficult task. (author)

  5. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  6. Inhibition of intercellular communication by airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussen, G.A.H. (Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1991-04-01

    To investigate the inhibition of gap junction mediated intercellular communication (IC) by extracts of airborne particulate matter (APM), V79 cells were incubated with extracts of APM and subsequently microinjected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow, after which the number of fluorescent (= communicating) cells was determined. To compare inhibitory effects on IC with mutagenicity, APM was also tested in the Salmonella microsome assay. Six different extracts were tested, two outdoor extracts representing a heavily polluted and a relatively clean sample, and four indoor extracts, taken either in livingrooms with or without wood combustion in an open fire place, or in a room with or without cigarette smoking. Non-cytotoxic doses of outdoor and indoor APM inhibited IC in V79 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Mutagenicity data and IC data were correlated. These results suggest that APM has tumor promoter activity in addition to mutagenic activity. (orig.).

  7. Transport of airborne particulate matters originating from Mentougou, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a coupled regional air quality modeling system is applied to investigate the time spatial variations in airborne particulate matters (PM10), originating from Mentougou to Beijing municipal area in the period of April 1-7, 2004, and the influences of complex terrain and meteorological conditions upon boundary layer structure and PMio concentration distributions. An intercomparison of the performance with CALPUFF against the observed data is presented and an examination of scatter plots is provided. The statistics show that the correlation coefficient and STD between the modeled and observed data are 0.86 and 0.03, respectively. Analysis of model results illustrates that the pollutants emitted from Mentougou can be transported to Beijing municipal area along certain transport pathways, and PMio concentration distributions show heterogeneity characteristics. Contributions of the Mentougou sources to the PMio concentrations in Beijing municipal area are up to 0.1-15 μg/m3.

  8. Characterization of functional groups of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter of organic combustibles burning consists of various hydrocarbons and radicals, which may cause harmful impact to human health. In this study solid particulate matter were collected on the filters from burning of various combustibles in a burning chamber and from atmosphere of city of Riga by dichotomous impactor. FTIR spectra were obtained before and after samples' treatment. Absorptions associated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohol functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra. Free radicals of particulate matter were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)

  9. Trueness, Precision, and Detectability for Sampling and Analysis of Organic Species in Airborne Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recovery. precision, limits of detection and quantitation, blank levels, calibration linearity, and agreement with certified reference materials were determined for two classes of organic components of airborne particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes usin...

  10. Skin Damage Mechanisms Related to Airborne Particulate Matter Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Natalia D; Muresan, Ximena M; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Cervellati, Franco; Sticozzi, Claudia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Miracco, Clelia; Marchini, Timoteo; Evelson, Pablo; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between increased airborne particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. The mechanisms of PM-health effects are believed to involve oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate the ability of PM promoting skin tissue damage, one of the main organs exposed to outdoor pollutants, we analyzed the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues were exposed to 25 or 100 µg/ml CAPs for 24 or 48 h. Data showed that RHE seems to be more susceptible to CAPs-induced toxicity after 48 h exposure than after 24 h. We found a local reactive O(2) species (ROS) production increase generated from metals present on the particle, which contributes to lipids oxidation. Furthermore, as a consequence of altered redox status, NFkB nucleus translocation was increase upon CAPs exposure, as well as cyclooxygenase 2 and cytochrome P450 levels, which may be involved in the inflammatory response initiated by PM. CAPs also triggered an apoptotic process in skin. Surprisingly, by transition electron microscopy analysis we showed that CAPs were able to penetrate skin tissues. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cutaneous pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by CAPs exposure, where oxidative stress and inflammation may play predominant roles. PMID:26507108

  11. Airborne particulate matter collection and analysis by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) continues to pursue its air pollution research in support of the implementation of the 1999 Clean Air Act. The primary tool for analysis is X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) since the PPP-I is still on extended shut down. Following the workplan approved during the 1991 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactors, the PNRI collected airborne particulate matter using the Gent sampler. The sampling site selected for the program was Poveda Learning Center, located beside a major highway, the Epifanio delos Santos Avenue (EDSA) where the principal source of pollution is vehicular emissions. Samples collected up to August were analyzed by XRF using three sets of analytical parameters to allow optimized analysis of a wider range of elements including Na and Pb. Although the PNRI has no operating reactor, it has personnel who have trained in NAA but are unable to apply the technique. As mentioned in the 2001 Workshop, the PNRI is considering several options to resume reactor-related activities. Thus, it is necessary to ensure continuing availability of expertise in NAA in the PNRI. It looks forward to collaborating with other Institutes through the FNCA program for the analysis of samples by NAA and using reactor parameters from collaborating Institute, to obtain experience in the use of Ko. This would also allow validation of XRF data obtained for these samples. In return it can analyze samples for collaborating institutions to generate data on Pb and S, which are important for pollutant source apportionment. (author)

  12. Ecological effect of airborne particulate matter on plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter is a mixture of diverse elements. Deposition of particulate matter to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of these particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. Effects of particulate matter on vegetation may be associated with the reduction in light required for photosynthesis and an increase in leaf temperature due to changed surface optical properties. Changes in energy exchange are more important than the diffusion of gases into and out of leaves which is influenced by dust load, color and particle size. Alkaline dust materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more probable route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. Interception of dusts by vegetation makes an important contribution to the improvement of air quality in the vicinity of vegetation. Although the effect of particulate matter on ecosystem is linked to climate change, there is little threat due to un-speciated particulate matter on a regional scale.

  13. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  14. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Canepari, S.; C. Farao; E. Marconi; C. Giovannelli; C. Perrino

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C).

    The analytical performance...

  15. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Canepari, S.; C. Farao; E. Marconi; C. Giovannelli; C. Perrino

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verif...

  16. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Canepari, S.; C. Farao; E. Marconi; C. Giovannelli; C. Perrino

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C).

    The analytical performance of the method was verified ...

  17. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  19. Trace elements present in airborne particulate matter-Stressors of plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Zemanová, V.; Hnilička, F.; Urbanová, V.; Száková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, May 2012 (2012), s. 101-107. ISSN 0147-6513 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/09/1150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Airborne particulate matter * Amino acids * Gas- exchange parameters Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2012

  20. Interaction between ozone and airborne particulate matter in office air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Sigsgaard, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that humans are affected by air pollution caused by ozone and house dust, that the effect of simultaneous exposure to ozone and dust in the air is larger than the effect of these two pollutants individually, and that the effects can be measured as release of...... cytokines and changes of the respiratory function. Experimental exposures of eight atopic but otherwise healthy subjects were performed in a climate chamber under controlled conditions. The three controlled exposures were about 75 microg/m3 total suspended particulate matter, 0.3 p.p.m. ozone, and the...... combination of these. The exposure duration was 3 h. The outcome measures were interleukins and cells in nasal lavages (NAL), respiratory function, bronchial metacholine responsiveness, rhinometry symptoms and general well-being in a questionnaire and time course of general irritation on a visual analogue...

  1. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter in Bandung and Lembang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELEMENTAL QUANTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER IN BANDUNG AND LEMBANG REGION: The contaminated airborne particulates by toxic gases and elements have a potential affect to the human health. Some toxic elements related to air pollution have carcinogenic affect. The quantification of those elements is important to monitor a level of pollutant contained in the airborne particulate. The aim of this work is to analyze the air particulate sample using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other related technique. Two sampling points of Bandung and Lembang that represent and urban and rural area respectively have been chosen to collect the air particulate sample. The samplings were carried out using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler for 24 hours, and two cellulose filters of 8 μm and 0.45 μm pore size were used. Trace elements in the sample collected were determined using NAA based on a comparative method. Elemental distribution on PM2.5 and PM10 fraction of airborne particulate was analyzed, the enrichment factor was calculated using Al as reference elements, and the black carbons contents were determined using FEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer analyzed. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammed S.; West, Charles E.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Rowland, Steven J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-02-01

    Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) have been collected in Birmingham, UK and extracted with dichloromethane prior to analysis by two-dimensional GC separation and TOFMS analysis. Identification of compounds using the NIST spectral library has revealed a remarkable diversity of compounds, some of which have not been previously reported in airborne analyses. Groups of compounds identified in this study include a large number of oxygenated VOC including linear and branched compounds, substituted aromatic compounds and alicyclic compounds, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic and alicyclic compounds, organic nitrogen compounds, branched chain VOC and substituted aromatic VOC, phthalates, organo-phosphates and organo-sulphate compounds. Many of the compounds identified are mass production chemicals, which due to their semi-volatility enter the atmosphere and subsequently partition onto pre-existing aerosol. Their contribution to the toxicity of airborne particulate matter is currently unknown but might be significant. The diverse industrial uses and potential sources of the identified compounds are reported.

  3. Biomonitoring of Toxic Compounds of Airborne Particulate Matter in Urban and Industriel Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...... on man and environment. Two widely applied biomonitoring procedures, namely the standardised ryegrass exposure for monitoring of trace metals, and the standardised exposure of curly kale for monitoring of PAH compounds, is presented taking examples from a Europe-wide biomonitoring study conducted in...... these methods in environmental monitoring programmes are made...

  4. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  5. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer

  6. Characterization of airborne particulate matter collected at Jakarta roadside of an arterial road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 44 pairs of airborne particulate matter samples were collected in the intersection of Simprug, Pondok Indah, South Jakarta. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2008-July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler in two size fractions of <2.5 μm (fine) and 2.5-10 μm (coarse). Mass concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations were investigated as a pre-study in step to the evaluation of air quality in these roadside areas. Black carbon was determined by reflectance and elemental analysis was performed using proton induced X-ray emission, PIXE. The data set of fine particulate matters obtained from the characterization was then analyzed using receptor modeling EPA PMF3 for source apportionment. Source apportionment identified 5 factors, i.e. soil (9.2 %), construction mixed with road dust (20.9 %), motor vehicles (31.5 %), biomass burning mixed with seasalt (30.9 %), and industry (7.5 %). Motor vehicles is the dominant sources that contributes to the fine particulate matter in Jakarta. (author)

  7. Particulate airborne impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative effects of air pollutants are of principal concern in research on environmental protection in Sweden. Post-industrial society has imposed many limits on emitted air pollutants, yet the number of reports on the negative effects from them is increasing, largely due to human activity in the form of industrial emissions and increased traffic flows. Rising concerns over the health effects from airborne particulate matter (PM) stem from in vitro, in vivo, and cohort studies revealing...

  8. Real-world exposure of airborne particulate matter triggers oxidative stress in an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Guohui; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between air pollution and the increase of cardio-pulmonary mortality and morbidity. In particular, inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure is closely associated with the pathogenesis of air pollution-induced systemic diseases. In this study, we exposed C57BIV6 mice to environmentally relevant PM in fine and ultra fine ranges (diameter < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) using a “real-world” airborne PM exposure system. We investigated the pathophysiolog...

  9. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    D.D. Lestiani; M. Santoso

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem....

  10. Collaborative monitoring study of airborne particulate matters among seven Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven Asian countries have been collaborating in collecting airborne particulate matter (APM) in their individual countries and analyzing them by neutron activation analysis as a common analytical tool. APM samples were collected into two fractions of fine and coarse grains (PM2 and PM2- 10, respectively). Analytical data were compared from several viewpoints such as particulate sizes, locality of sampling sites (either urban or rural) and geographical location of participating countries. Chemical composition and their monthly variations as well as mass concentrations appear to be highly characteristic for individual sampling sites, suggesting that NAA data are suitable for evaluating the air quality in each site. (author)

  11. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described

  12. Sampling and analytical methodologies for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of the different forms of ED-XFR as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of ED-XRF to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability. Emphasis is also placed on the sources of errors affecting the sampling of airborne particulate matter. The analytical part of the document describes the different forms of ED-XRF and their potential applications. Spectrum evaluation, a key step in X-ray spectrometry, is covered in depth, including discussion on several calibration and peak fitting techniques and computer programs especially designed for this purpose. 148 refs, 25 figs, 13 tabs

  13. Collection of airborne particulate matter for a subsequent analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockenkaemper, R.; Bayer, H.; Bohlen, A. von; Schmeling, M.; Klockow, D. [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie, Dortmund (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    The collection of airborne particulate matter by filtration and impaction was adapted to total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Cellulose nitrate filters were used for collecting in a Berner impactor. Single filter spots were punched out, placed on quartz-glass carriers, dissolved by tetrahydrofuran and re-precipitated prior to element determinations by TXRF. In a Battelle-type impactor, airborne dust was collected on Plexiglass carriers coated with medical Vaseline. The loaded carriers were directly analyzed by TXRF. In both cases, quantification was simply performed by the addition of an internal standard after sampling. Impactors were made of a suitable material in order to investigate high blank values, collection losses and memory effects. It could be shown that stainless steel, even coated with TiN, is less suitable and should be avoided as an impactor material. Although aluminum is partly recommendable, titanium and the polymer Makrolon are quite appropriate. By using an impactor made of these materials, a reliable multielement determination in airborne dust is made possible with low detection limits as low as 1 ng/m{sup 3} and a satisfactory repeatability of a few %. Short sampling times of only 1 h or less can be realized. The total procedure is simple and time-saving, and can be recommended for routine investigations of airborne particulate matter. (author).

  14. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 microm) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 micro

  15. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  16. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Fernanda V.F.; Ardisson, Jose Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar H.; Brito, Walter de; Macedo, Waldemar Augusto A.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F., E-mail: ferufv@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  17. Workbook on reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) of airborne particulate matter (APM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents general aspects of reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to measurement of elemental composition of airborne particulate matter. It presents an introduction to the NAA, its' basic principles and brief history of the method and discusses its' advantages and disadvantages. This publication also presents experimental procedures of NAA including sampling and sample preparation; preparation of calibration standard samples; reactor neutron irradiation; gamma-spectroscopy of the irradiated samples; quantification and presentation of analytical results. The publication pays attention to the quality assurance and quality control procedures including internal quality control, analysis of certified reference materials, and interlaboratory and multi-method comparison studies, control charts

  18. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  19. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  20. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Mexico. A first survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first survey of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was performed using PIXE. This second largest industrial city is located 715 km north of Mexico City, and counts with a population of nearly three million inhabitants in its conurbation. Air pollution in the place comes from a great variety of industries ranging from iron smelters to furniture manufacturing, as well as from fuel combustion in vehicles and industries. This study presents results of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter in two particle size fractions: PM2.5 and PM15. The samples were collected during five weeks on working days, Monday-Friday, from 9 December 1996 to 14 January 1997. Two samples a day were collected, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. These first results show local pollution as typical from a large urban area in conjunction with an active industry. Thirteen elements were consistently detected in most of the samples and some episodes due to both industrial and human activities were identified. A general discussion about the results obtained is presented

  1. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L. as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Negri

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs. The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  2. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  3. Morphology, chemical composition, and bacterial concentration of airborne particulate matter in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock houses are major sources of airborne particulate matter (PM, which can originate from manure, feed, feathers, skin and bedding and may contain and transport microorganisms. Improved knowledge of particle size, morphology, chemical and microbiological composition of PM in livestock houses can help identify major sources of PM and contribute to the development of appropriate source-specific reduction techniques. In rabbit production systems, however, there is limited information on specific particle characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise airborne PM in rabbit farms in terms of morphology, chemical compositions and bacterial concentration in different size fractions. Size-fractioned PM was sampled in the air of 2 rabbit farms, 1 for fattening rabbits and 1 for reproductive does, using a virtual cascade impactor, which simultaneously collected total suspended PM (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions. Airborne PM samples were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Representative samples from potential sources of PM were also collected and examined. Additionally, a methodology to extract bacteria from the collected samples of airborne PM was developed to determine the bacterial concentration per PM size fraction. Results showed that airborne PM in rabbit farms is highly complex in particle morphology, especially in size. Broken skin flakes, disintegrated particles from feed or faecal material from mechanical fracture are the main sources of airborne PM in rabbit farms. Major elements found in rabbit airborne PM were S, Ca, Mg, Na and Cl. Bacterial concentrations ranged from 1.7×104 to 1.6×106 colony forming units (CFU/m3 (TSP; from 3.6×103 to 3.0×104 CFU/m3 (PM10; and from 3.1×103 to 1.6×104 CFU/m3 (PM2.5. Our results will improve the knowledge on essential particle characteristics necessary to understand PM’s origin in rabbit farms and

  4. Trace element determination in the airborne particulate matter of Bangkok and Samutprakan by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During October 1995 - January 1996, 66 samples of airborne particulate matter were collected from Bangkok and Samutprakan provinces. Samples of the particle sizes of 2.5 - 10 microns (33 samples) and less than 2.5 microns (33 samples) were determined for elemental concentration of 34 elements. A comparative study of the data from both sampling size was initiated to investigate the trends, source and origin of the aerosols by comparing the concentration, enrichment factor (E F) and coarse/ fine ratio. The results show Al, Fe, Sc are from crustal elements, Ca, K, Mn, V has moderate high E F and As, Br, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sb, Se and Zn has rather high E F. Comparison between the two sites yields higher levels of As and Sb at Samutprakan appearly due to smelting or other industries nearby. Higher level of Br might be due to the heavier of transportation of trucks in and out of the city

  5. Assessment of Elemental Content in Airborne Particulate Matter in Bratislava Atmosphere using INAA and AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.

    2007-11-01

    The wide range concentration of elements including heavy metals, halogens and rare earths in airborne particulate matter were investigated. Sixteen samples were collected on filters in Meteorological station, Comenius University Bratislava (Slovak Republic) in different seasons. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the concentrations of 29 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined. The concentrations of other 6 elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The obtained results allow us to better understand the dynamic processes in the atmosphere and to quantify the air pollution and its trends.

  6. Assessment of bacterial pathogens in fresh rainwater and airborne particulate matter using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) and in rainwater (RW) were detected using a robust and sensitive Real-Time PCR method. Both RW and PM were collected simultaneously in the tropical atmosphere of Singapore, which were then subjected to analysis for the presence of selected bacterial pathogens and potential pathogen of health concern ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila). These pathogens were found to be prevalent in both PM and RW samples with E. coli being the most prevalent potential pathogen in both types of samples. The temporal distribution of these pathogens in PM and RW was found to be similar to each other. Using the proposed microbiological technique, the atmospheric deposition (dry and wet deposition) of bacterial pathogens to lakes and reservoirs can be studied in view of growing concerns about the outbreak of waterborne diseases.

  7. Preliminary study on airborne particulate matter from three sampling sites in Beijing area by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sampling sites, Chegongzhuang (downtown), Liangxiang-1 and Liangxiang-2 (suburb), are set up in Beijing. PM2.5 (diameter<2.5 μm, fine) and PM10 (diameter<10 μm, coarse) airborne particulate matter (APM) samples are collected using the same Gent stacked filter unit samplers. The APM samples of both size categories were analyzed for some 40 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The differences in average mass ratios of PM2.5/PM10 APM from the 3 sampling sites indicate the difference in composition and source of APM from urban and suburb areas. Seasonable variation and special weather conditions variation are found for Liang Xiang samples taken during 2004, 3-2004, 8. Major pollution elements are preliminarily identified by enrichment factor analysis. (authors)

  8. Genotoxicity of organic extracts of urban airborne particulate matter: an assessment within a personal exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Oussama R; Joyeux, Michel; Nerrière, Eléna; Strub, Marie-Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter, PM(10) and PM(2.5), are associated with a range of health effects including lung cancer. Their complex organic fraction contains genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives. This study evaluates the genotoxicity of the PM(10) and PM(2.5) organic extracts that were sampled in the framework of a personal exposure study in three French metropolitan areas (Paris, Rouen and Strasbourg), using the comet assay, performed on HeLa S3 cells. In each city, 60-90 non-smoking volunteers composed of two groups of equal size (adults and children) carried the personal Harvard Chempass multi-pollutant sampler during 48h along two different seasons ('hot' and 'cold'). Volunteers were selected so as to live (home and work/school) in 3 different urban sectors contrasted in terms of air pollution within each city (one highly exposed to traffic emissions, one influenced by local industrial sources, and a background urban environment). Genotoxic effects are stronger for PM(2.5) extracts than for PM(10), and greater in winter than in summer. Fine particles collected by subjects living within the traffic proximity sector present the strongest genotoxic responses, especially in the Paris metropolitan area. This work confirms the genotoxic potency of particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) organic extracts to which urban populations are exposed. PMID:16901531

  9. Application for airborne particulate matter as a demonstration using k0-NAA method in Dalat nuclear research institute of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne particulate samples have been collected using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM2.5 and PM2-5-10 in two typical sites of industrial (Ho Chi Minh City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. The concentration of trace elements in the samples has been determined by the k0-NAA procedure developed in Dalat NRI. In order to check the developed k0-NAA procedure for the airborne particulate matter, two standard reference materials (SRMs) Urban Particulate NIST-1648 and Vehicle Exhaust Particulates NIES-8 were analyzed and the obtained results have been compared and interpreted in term of deviation between experimental results and the certified values. (author)

  10. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  11. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  12. New tabletop SEM-EDS-based approach for cost-efficient monitoring of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have produced tabletop instruments capable of reasonable imaging resolution at less cost compared to conventional equipment. Combining the SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) allows the possibility of elemental analysis through detection of X-rays emitted from interaction between individual particles and the SEM electron beam, revealing their atomic composition. It's well known that exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM) poses health risks and routine monitoring of the chemical content of these has been realized. Exposure information is of a general character but by combining the chemical build-up of monitored particles and knowledge of their inherent health effects will allow better risk assessment. An analysis technique using a tabletop SEM with EDS is demonstrated on particles collected onto nucleopore filters from urban, industrial and rural areas. Detailed characterization of the instruments analysis capabilities as applied to PM are described. - Demonstration of method for novel scanning electron microscopy in environmental monitoring of chemical constituents of particulate airborne impurities.

  13. Analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in urban and rural area by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED IN URBAND AND RURAL AREA BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. This report presents the work of monitoring study on air particulate matter (PMs) in Indonesia on the period of 2002 to 2004. The PMs were collected at two sampling site that represented an urban and rural area using Gent stacked air sampler for 24 hours, once a month for each sampling point. Fine and coarse fractions of PMs were collected. The PMs deposited on a filter were measured for mass concentration and were analyzed for elemental concentration by using INAA. Irradiation of filters were carried out at GA. Siwabessy reactor and were counted by high-resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The PM10 analysis resulted shows that the range of PM10 for rural site was 5.5 μg.m-3 to 46.9 μg.m-3 while PM10 for urban site was 12.0 μg.m-3 to 93.1 μg.m-3. About 17 elements of Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, I, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, V and Zn were analyzed through short and long irradiation of INAA. Among, the elements of Al, Br, Cl, Fe and Na were found at mayor component. The pollutants of Fe, V, Sb, Cr, Zn and Co were higher at urban site compare to the rural site. It could be conclude that the mean of 24 hours PM10 and mean annual of fine fraction were still below the PMs National Standard for both sampling sites. The INAA technique could be used to control the pollutant concentration on environmental sample. (author)

  14. Airborne particulate matter, platinum group elements and human health: a review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Zereini, Fathi

    2009-04-01

    Environmental concentrations of the platinum group elements (PGE) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) have been on the rise, due largely to the use of automobile catalytic converters which employ these metals as exhaust catalysts. It has generally been assumed that the health risks associated with environmental exposures to PGE are minimal. More recent studies on PGE toxicity, environmental bioavailability and concentrations in biologically relevant media indicate however that environmental exposures to these metals may indeed pose a health risk, especially at a chronic, subclinical level. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent evidence and provide an up-to-date assessment of the risks related to environmental exposures of PGE, particularly in airborne particulate matter (PM). This review concludes that these metals may pose a greater health risk than once thought for several reasons. First, emitted PGE may be easily mobilised and solubilised by various compounds commonly present in the environment, thereby enhancing their bioavailability. Second, PGE may be transformed into more toxic species upon uptake by organisms. The presence of chloride in lung fluids, for instance, may lead to the formation of halogenated PGE complexes that have a greater potential to induce cellular damage. Third, a significant proportion of PGE found in airborne PM is present in the fine fraction that been found to be associated with increases in morbidity and mortality. PGE are also a concern to the extent that they contribute to the suite of metals found in fine PM suspected of eliciting a variety of health effects, especially in vulnerable populations. All these factors highlight the need to monitor environmental levels of PGE and continue research on their bioavailability, behaviour, speciation and associated toxicity to enable us to better assess their potential to elicit health effects in humans. PMID:19181366

  15. Evaluation of Airborne Particulate Matter and Metals Data in Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Environments using ED-XRF and ICP-MS and Co-located Duplicate Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors and sources affecting measurement uncertainty in airborne particulate matter (PM) gravimetric measurements and elemental analyses were investigated as part of the Windsor Ontario Exposure Assessment Study (WOEAS). The assessment was made using co-located duplicate sample...

  16. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM10 and PM2.5) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  17. Study on the behavior of trace elements and radionuclides in airborne particulate matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matters (PM) are collected by HV-1000 high volume air sampler in Musashi Institute of Technology in Japan from October, 2002, to November, 2003. The elements were determined by a neutron activation analysis and radioactive nuclides were detected by γ-ray spectrometry. The concentration of PM decreased with increasing amount of precipitation. The amount of PM was affected by wash out depend on rain a day before. 12 to 17 kinds of elements are determined in the samples. The correlation coefficient of Br and Sb was 0.81 of the concentration of element and 0.60 of concentration of composition. The same tendency was observed among Sc, Fe and La. Na is thought to be affected by sea salt particles. Sc and Th in PM were originated by wikipedia in Asia. The concentration of Sc, V, La and Th are smaller than the earth's crust. However, its Br and Sb were larger than it. Pb-210 and Be-7 are determined and both average concentrations were increased by north wind. (S.Y.)

  18. Correlation analysis of size-resolved airborne particulate matter with classified meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Viet; Park, Gee-Hyeong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed correlations between classified meteorological conditions and size-resolved particulate matter (PM) concentrations over year. Seasonal measurements of airborne PM were conducted on the roof of a university building located in an urban residential area in Ulsan, Korea. A total of 267 daily PM samples were obtained using a nine-stage cascade impactor during the 12-month sampling period (March 2011-March 2012). Among this period, the average PM1.0, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM10 concentrations were the lowest during the summer. The highest and lowest monthly average PM concentrations for all particle size ranges were observed in dry April and humid July, respectively. The PM1.0, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM10 concentrations were negatively correlated (p 80 %) and under moderate humidity conditions (50-80 %) only during the winter season. PM concentrations also negatively correlated with precipitation (p 30 mm) and moderate (10-30 mm) rainfall conditions and only under light rainfall (speed [strong (>7 m/s) and moderate (3-7 m/s) wind]. Most PM concentrations correlated positively with ambient temperature, however, only on days with an average temperature above 20 °C. High and moderate temperatures negatively correlated with high and moderate humid conditions, while low and extra low temperatures in winter period showed positive correlation with high and moderate humidity.

  19. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    Climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 did not cause a statistically significant change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations within any major sub-region of California in the current study. Climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-year period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate change caused increased

  20. Maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter causes postnatal immunological dysfunction in mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to air pollution affects the ontogeny and development of the fetal immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) on immune function in postnatal offspring. Pregnant female ICR mice were intralaryngopharyngeally administered with 30 μl of phosphate buffered solution (the control group) or resuspended PM of Standard Reference Material 1649a at 0.09 (low), 0.28 (medium), 1.85 (high) or 6.92 (overdose) μg/μl once every three days from day 0 to 18 of pregnancy (n = 8–10). Offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 30. Interleukin-4 and interferon-γ levels in plasma and splenocytes, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and expressions of GATA-3 and T-bet mRNA in the spleen were tested. The spleen and thymus were histopathologically examined. The offspring of the medium, high and overdose PM-exposed dams showed significantly suppressed splenocyte proliferation. Decreased interferon-γ and increased interleukin-4 levels in the blood and splenocytes, and lowered T-bet and elevated GATA-3 mRNA expressions were found in the spleen in the medium, high and overdose groups when compared with the control or low dose group (P < 0.05). Histopathology revealed prominent tissue damage in the spleen and thymus in the overdose group. These results suggest that exposure of pregnant mice to PM modulates the fetal immune system, resulting in postnatal immune dysfunction by exacerbation of Thl/Th2 deviation. This deviation is associated with altered T-bet and GATA-3 gene expressions

  1. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p air pollution in Beijing. PMID:27148180

  2. APPLYING DATA ASSIMILATION AND ADJOINT SENSITIVITY TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND POLICY STUDIES OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Source-resolved fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations are needed at high spatial and temporal resolutions for epidemiological studies aimed at identifying more- and less-harmful types of PM. Building on recent advances in air quality modeling, data assimilation, and s...

  3. Redox activity of airborne particulate matter at different sites in the Los Angeles Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies have shown associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health outcomes including increased mortality, emergency room visits, and time lost from school and work. The mechanisms of PM-related health effects are still incompletely understood, but a hypothesis under investigation is that many of the adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. While the adverse effects from PM have historically been associated with the airborne concentration of PM and more recently fine-particle PM, we considered it relevant to develop an assay to quantitatively measure the ability of PM to catalyze ROS generation as the initial step in the induction of oxidative stress. This ability of PM could then be related to different sources, chemical composition, and physical and spatial/temporal characteristics in the ambient environment. The measurement of ROS-forming ability in relation to sources and other factors will have potential relevance to control of redox-active PM. If oxidative stress represents a relevant mechanism of toxicity from PM, the measurement of redox activity represents a first step in the elucidation of the subsequent downstream processes. We have developed an assay for PM redox activity, utilizing the reduction of oxygen by dithiothreitol which serves as an electron source. We have found that PM will catalyze the reduction of oxygen and have examined the distribution and chemical characteristics of the redox activity of PM fractions collected in different sites in the Los Angeles Basin. Samples of concentrated coarse, fine, and ultrafine PM, obtained with aerosol concentrators, were studied with regard to their chemical properties and redox activity. Redox activity was highest in the ultrafine fraction, in agreement with results indicating ultrafines were the most potent toward inducing that heme oxygenase expression and depleting

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites. PMID:25592734

  5. Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarrà, G.; Tamburo, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

  6. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of possible health impact of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible health effects of airborne particulate matter in the workplace were investigated by searching the correlation between the enriched elements in the airborne particulate matter and elemental levels of blood, nail and hair of workers in a metal industry. Blood, hair and nail samples were collected from 58 workers of a metal industry, and airborne particulate matter (APM) samples were collected from halls or buildings where the workers were carrying out their work. The workers were subjected to medical examination comprising medical history recording, physical examination and routine blood check. The collected biological and APM samples were analysed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis. A general tendency of higher zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes in workers than in healthy individuals (controls) was observed. However, more examinations on a larger population need to be carried out in order to confirm this finding on a statistically sound basis. (author)

  7. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter collected from three different sites within the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using a Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples were extracted by sonication, sequentially, with cyclohexane (CX, and dichloromethane (DCM, for a rough fractionation by polarity. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix fraction, and TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without metabolic activation. Mutagenic response was observed for frameshift strain TA98 in assays with and without metabolization for two sites (sites 2 and 3, which had considerable risk of environmental contamination by nonpolar (CX and/or moderately polar (DCM compounds. However, the values of revertants/m3 (rev/m3 were highest on the site subject to automobile exhaust (site 3 in assays without (9.56 rev/m3 and with metabolization (5.08 rev/m3. Maximum mutagenic activity was detected in the moderately polar fraction, decreasing after metabolization. Nevertheless, the nonpolar fractions (CX gave higher mutagenic activity in the presence of metabolization than in the absence of the S9 mix fraction. The responses observed for TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the activity of nitrocompounds.Foi investigada a atividade mutagênica de material particulado de amostras de ar coletadas em três diferentes locais dentro da área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, através do ensaio Salmonella/microssoma. As amostras foram extraídas, em ultra-som, por fracionamento seqüencial de acordo com a polaridade, utilizando os solventes ciclohexano (CX e diclorometano (DCM. As diferentes frações foram testadas para mutagenicidade com as linhagens de Salmonella typhimurium TA98, em presença e ausência de ativação metabólica, e TA98NR e TA98/1,8-DNP6 em ausência de metabolização. Observou-se resposta mutagênica positiva, do tipo erro

  8. A Novel High-Throughput Approach to Measure Hydroxyl Radicals Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Yeongkwon Son; Vladimir Mishin; William Welsh; Shou-En Lu; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Howard Kipen; Qingyu Meng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms linking ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with various adverse health effects. The oxidative potential of PM has been used to characterize the ability of PM induced oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most destructive radical produced by PM. However, there is currently no high-throughput approach which can rapidly measure PM-induced •OH for a large number of samples with an automated system. This study evaluated four existing mo...

  9. Composition of airborne particulate matter in the industrial area versus mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research of air pollution in two different locations on the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. These are the sites Ostrava-Radvanice, which is located in the area affected by the industry and Ostravice in the mountains (without significant effect of the industry. The dust particles collected at these locations were subjected to a wide range of analyses. The mass concentration, the mass-size distribution, mineralogical composition, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentrations of selected metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Co, and Cr were observed at the particulate matter.

  10. Elemental composition of airborne particulate matter from Santiago City, Chile, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendez, M.; Ortiz, J.L.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1984-01-01

    In Chile, the State Public Health Office (Ministerio de Salud Publica) is responsible for pollution control and for air quality. This office has been monitoring only toxic gases and total suspended particulate matter. The present work is the first study in Chile designed to determine trace elements and their concentrations in particulate matter in the air. By use of enrichment factors, 25 trace elements were classified according to natural or anthropogenic origin. There were two sampling periods: July (winter) and September (spring) 1976. Four sites were studied, located about 6 km north, south, west and east of downtown Santiago. The south, north and west sites are urban and 55 m above sea level. The east site is suburban and approximately 270 m higher than the others. Twenty-four-hour samples were collected on Whatman-41 cellulose filter paper, in a modified stainless steel Buchner funnel. Approximately 10 m/sup 3/ were used at the urban sites and 200 m/sup 3/ at the suburban site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used as the analytical technique.

  11. A new approach for determination of soluble trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter using a dynamic extraction procedure coupled to ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The current interest in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is mainly due to its effect on human health. A fraction that is associated with several adverse health effects - including cancer - is the metallic portion. For this reason, a great deal of research has focused on the metal composition of airborne particulate matter. Until now in most studies total elemental concentrations were determined. However, toxic effects of trace metals in airborne PM are only expected if the metals are biologically available. Thus for risk assessment detailed knowledge about the solubility of the investigated metals is required since bioavailability depends thereon. Recently various extraction schemes have been developed for batch-wise fractionation of various metals in airborne particulate matter. Although these batch-wise liquid/solid extraction methods have gained widespread acceptance in literature the eco-toxicological relevance of the information provided with these techniques is questionable, since naturally occurring processes occur always under dynamic conditions. In this study a procedure for the sequential extraction of airborne particulate matter with various leaching solutions and the subsequent on-line ICP-AES measurement of selected trace metals in the derived extracts is presented. For analysis several punches of the filter substrate were packed into indigenously developed micro-columns and treated successively with the different extraction solutions. Evaluation of the derived elution profiles provided information about the kinetics of the extraction process and allowed differentiation between individual soluble fractions.

  12. Stopped-flow injection liquid-liquid extraction spectrophotometric determination of palladium in airborne particulate matter and automobile catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthemidis, A.N.; Themelis, D.G.; Stratis, J.A. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2001-03-30

    A stopped-flow injection liquid-liquid extraction (SF-EX-FIA) spectrophotometric method is reported for the determination of palladium(II), using the 2,2'-dipyridyl-2-pyridylhydrazone (DPPH) as a color forming reagent. The colored complex Pd(II)-DPPH was extracted in CHCl{sub 3} and the absorbance was monitored at 560 nm. An injection valve was used as a commutator in order to combine the stopped-flow technique with liquid-liquid extraction FI system. The calibration graph was linear up to 12 mg l{sup -1} (s{sub r}=0.27%; r=0.9999) with a detection limit of c{sub L}=0.007 mg l{sup -1}. The sampling rate was 20 injections per hour. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of palladium in airborne particulate matter (APM) and in automobile exhaust gas converter catalysts.

  13. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings. PMID:26805862

  14. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1 measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E and mechanical (Building L ventilation; (2 compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3 evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m3 than in Building L (37 µg/m3; I/O was higher in Building E (1.3–2.0 than in Building L (0.5–0.8 for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation are important factors affecting residents’ exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  15. Air pollution and skin diseases: Adverse effects of airborne particulate matter on various skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Cho, Daeho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-05-01

    Environmental air pollution encompasses various particulate matters (PMs). The increased ambient PM from industrialization and urbanization is highly associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide, presenting one of the most severe environmental pollution problems. This article focuses on the correlation between PM and skin diseases, along with related immunological mechanisms. Recent epidemiological studies on the cutaneous impacts of PM showed that PM affects the development and exacerbation of skin diseases. PM induces oxidative stress via production of reactive oxygen species and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-8. In addition, the increased production of ROS such as superoxide and hydroxyl radical by PM exposure increases MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9, resulting in the degradation of collagen. These processes lead to the increased inflammatory skin diseases and skin aging. In addition, environmental cigarette smoke, which is well known as an oxidizing agent, is closely related with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Also, ultrafine particles (UFPs) including black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the incidence of skin cancer. Overall, increased PM levels are highly associated with the development of various skin diseases via the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful for treating PM-induced skin diseases. PMID:27018067

  16. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Most ... issues final PM Implementation Rule Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  17. Analysis of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 over Hong Kong Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanling Zhao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fine particulates (PM2.5; particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM2.5 and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007–2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM2.5 concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM2.5 concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM2.5 emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM2.5 vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM2.5 vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM2.5 concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies.

  18. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter by instrumental neutron activation analysis and induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate were collected using Gent sampler for PM 10 and using high volume sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP). PM 10 sampling was carried out in Bandung during period of January to December 1997. Whereas TSP samples were collected at Serpong (rural area) and Jakarta (urban area) during period of May and July 1995. The concentration of the PM 10 in the air is independent to the level of the rainfall. The levels of the PM 10 and the PM 2.5 are lower than the maximum permissible levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. The element detected using short lived radioactivity measurement in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were Al, Na, V, Mn, Br and Cl. Bromine concentration in both coarse and fine fractions was high, and the enrichment factor for bromine in these fraction was found between 2,000 - 10,000. The elemental concentrations of particulate matter obtained by ICP-MS was found that the Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, In, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, V and Zn in samples from Serpong area, were lower than those in samples taken from Jakarta area. The level of Pb concentrations in TSP samples from Serpong and Jakarta area were lower than Pb concentration proposed Indonesian standard of 2 μg/m3. The data obtained by INAA no significant different to those obtained by ICP-MS. Therefore comparative data can be obtained by these techniques. (author)

  19. A Novel High-Throughput Approach to Measure Hydroxyl Radicals Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongkwon Son

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms linking ambient particulate matter (PM exposure with various adverse health effects. The oxidative potential of PM has been used to characterize the ability of PM induced oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (•OH is the most destructive radical produced by PM. However, there is currently no high-throughput approach which can rapidly measure PM-induced •OH for a large number of samples with an automated system. This study evaluated four existing molecular probes (disodium terephthalate, 3′-p-(aminophenylfluorescein, coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and sodium benzoate for their applicability to measure •OH induced by PM in a high-throughput cell-free system using fluorescence techniques, based on both our experiments and on an assessment of the physicochemical properties of the probes reported in the literature. Disodium terephthalate (TPT was the most applicable molecular probe to measure •OH induced by PM, due to its high solubility, high stability of the corresponding fluorescent product (i.e., 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid, high yield compared with the other molecular probes, and stable fluorescence intensity in a wide range of pH environments. TPT was applied in a high-throughput format to measure PM (NIST 1648a-induced •OH, in phosphate buffered saline. The formed fluorescent product was measured at designated time points up to 2 h. The fluorescent product of TPT had a detection limit of 17.59 nM. The soluble fraction of PM contributed approximately 76.9% of the •OH induced by total PM, and the soluble metal ions of PM contributed 57.4% of the overall •OH formation. This study provides a promising cost-effective high-throughput method to measure •OH induced by PM on a routine basis.

  20. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of possible health impact of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various processes in an industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matters. Elements and hazardous chemicals in the fine particulate matters may enter the human body through inhalation and direct contact with the skin. Excessive inhalation and contact with the fine airborne particulate matter may lead to intoxication due to excessive intake of the hazardous chemicals and toxic elements. The elements will be accumulated in human organs, such as liver, kidneys and brain, manifest in clinical syndromes such as hypertension, renal failure and neurological symptoms and signs. The absorbed elements are excreted through the urinary tract as urine. They also can be excreted through hair and nails. Elevated blood and urinary aluminum levels have been observed after occupational exposure to various aluminum compounds. This phenomenon indicates the absorption through inhalation, as there are no data indicating significant dermal absorption for aluminum. Absorption of chromium compounds in the workplace occurs mainly through inhalation. The absorption is dependent on the valence and solubility of the particular chromium species. Some elements such as trivalent chromium ions are readily cleared from the blood, but hexavalent chromium ions are retained much longer in the blood. The aluminum compounds vary greatly in their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Although the trivalent chromium is readily excreted, continuous intake may cause the blood chromium level to be higher than normal. These elements may either have an deleterious effect on, or be considered essential for human health. In this study, the levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in the workplace are assessed by elemental quantification of blood, hair and nail of workers in a metal industry and in airborne particulate samples that are collected at the workplace. The present report represents progress of activities following the first Research Co-ordination Meeting 1997 in Vienna

  1. Space and time resolved monitoring of airborne particulate matter in proximity of a traffic roundabout in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns over exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) are on the rise. Currently monitoring of PM is done on the basis of interpolating a mass of PM by volume (μg/m3) but has the drawback of not taking the chemical nature of PM into account. Here we propose a method of collecting PM at its emission source and employing automated analysis with scanning electron microscopy associated with EDS-analysis together with light scattering to discern the chemical composition, size distribution, and time and space resolved structure of PM emissions in a heavily trafficated roundabout in Sweden. Multivariate methods (PCA, ANOVA) indicate that the technogenic marker Fe follows roadside dust in spreading from the road, and depending on time and location of collection, a statistically significant difference can be seen, adding a useful tool to the repertoiré of detailed PM monitoring and risk assessment of local emission sources. Highlights: •PM monitoring analysis method of the chemical constituents of individual particles. •Automated analysis provides a large output of data concerning chemical nature of PM. •Multivariate statistical methods used to visualize the analysis. •Chemical nature of PM leads to a complete risk assessment of PM exposure. -- Automated SEM–EDS analysis of captured roadside PM at a traffic roundabout in Sweden displaying the time- and space-resolved chemical differences of the captured particles

  2. Determination of Cr(VI) in ambient airborne particulate matter by a species-preserving scrubber-sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metze, Detlef; Herzog, Helmut; Gosciniak, Bernhard; Jakubowski, Norbert [Institute for Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy (ISAS), PO Box 10 13 52, 44013, Dortmund (Germany); Gladtke, Dieter [Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, PO Box 10 23 63, 45023 Essen (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been sampled at a location close to a metallurgical plant in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and first results on the chromium(VI) content in the collected dust are presented. A special procedure using a scrubber as sampling device was used to preserve Cr(VI) during the sampling procedure. The scrubber solution which consisted of 0.1 mol L{sup -1} TRIS-buffer solution was adjusted to a slightly alkaline pH of 8.6 to reduce the oxidation potential of Cr(VI) and to avoid possible oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI), for example by oxygen (or ozone at ambient concentrations). After sampling Cr(VI) was pre-concentrated on an anion-exchange material and eluted with aqueous 0.6 mol L{sup -1} sodium perchlorate solution. After elution, a species-selective complex of Cr(VI) with diphenylcarbazide (DPC) was prepared; this was extracted into n-hexanol and quantified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. A detection limit of 0.9 ng m{sup -3} for Cr(VI) in ambient aerosols can be achieved with this method. (orig.)

  3. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM10 and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM10 collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM10 exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL METHODOLOGY FOR AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER USING MICROWAVE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS BY ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality in rural agricultural settings has been largely overlooked. Characterization of organic contaminants as VOC's and/or particulate material released from agricultural production operations represent a variety of challenges to the environmental analytical community. In this study, we pres...

  5. RECOVERY OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING SAMPLE PREPARATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide v...

  6. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by Means of airborne particulate matter and bio monitors using Nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make an occupational diagnosis is complex because of the difficulty to identify and characterise the expositions. Physicians do not usually have access to the quantity of raw material managed by the worker, dates, period of exposure to the substance. Besides this the onset of occupational diseases is similar to other chronic diseases. Then, this project aimed at assessing metal levels in a galvanising industry by means of biomonitors, scalp hair and toenails donated by workers, and particulate matter collected on air filter. The analysis of the samples was carried out by k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis, k0-INAA. The project was conducted together with the physicians of the Secretariat Municipal de Saude (Municipal Department of Health) and it was inserted in a Worker's Health Awareness Program. Belo Horizonte and surrounding areas are an important industrial centre, concentrating many industries in several areas. Only in Belo Horizonte there are more than 20 galvanising industries ranging from home factories to well equipped ones. This industry was chosen as Object of this project because it is responsible for the majority of patients who look for medical assistance because of metal contamination. Stationary air sampling was carried out in order to evaluate the level of elemental concentration in the indoor environment of the plant. Comparative Group sampling was carried out the same way as the Work Group for scalp hair and toenails. The irradiations were performed in the reactor TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 in the CDTN. Elemental concentration results determined in the samples from non-exposed people were compared to values in the literature and there were no significant differences between the values. The airborne particulate matter results showed the high level of pollutants which the workers are exposed to inside the galvanising factory. The results obtained confirmed the medical suspicions of workers' contamination and the medical recommendations aimed

  7. Characterization of airborne particulate matter at urban and rural area in Bandung and Lembang Indonesia using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as one of nuclear techniques utilizing research reactor provides a very good, simultaneous, multi-elemental analysis methods for airborne particulate studies. In particular, INAA is known to be a reliable analysis technique with low detection limits and effective for a large number of samples. The ability to provide elemental concentration information on all of the most significant elements enables statistical techniques to be applied in the data and determine the source contribution of the pollutant. Analysis the airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung and Lembang were reported to demonstrate the advantage of INAA method, especially to get a better understanding about the condition of atmosphere in Indonesia due to air pollution

  8. Characterization of the finest and coarse airborne particulate matter in Kuala Lumpur's ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will report the mass concentration of the finest (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) airborne particles in ambient air of Kuala Lumpur area collected using GENT Stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling site (Lat: 03deg 10' 30'' Long: 101deg 43' 24.2'') is about 1 km from Kuala Lumpur City Center. Elemental concentration in the samples collected once every month throughout the year 2002 has been analyzed using the currently available NAA facilities at MINT. Elements determined in the study include Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, NA, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Quality control material used to control the quality of the analytical procedures was NBS 1633a. (author)

  9. Trace element composition of airborne particulate matter in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Size fractionated aerosol samples were collected at an urban site (Dhaka) in Bangladesh for a period of 17 months and at a rural site for six months. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2 μm and 2-10 μm sizes. Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy has been used to determine the concentrations of 18 elements in the range of ng/m3. The elements range from Si to Sr and include Pb. The results of analysis of 292 air particulate samples of course and fine types from the urban site are presented. The results are discussed in the context of air pollution specially that of Pb. 6 refs., 7 tables., 2 figs

  10. Observations of the effect of atmospheric processes on the genotoxic potency of airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feilberg, A.; Nielsen, T.; Poulsen, M.W.B. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Binderup, M.-L. [Institute of Food Safety and Toxicology, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Soeborg (Denmark); Skov, H. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    In this study, the relationship between genotoxic potency and the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and nitro-PAH in urban and semi-rural air masses has been investigated. The Salmonella/microsome assay has been used as a measure of genotoxic potency. We find that the ratios of BaP/mutagenicity and PAH/mutagenicity are highly variable. The processes responsible for the variation are formation and degradation of mutagens and transport of polluted air masses from heavily industrialized regions. Air masses from Central Europe are shown to be highly enriched in mutagens as well as in PAH and nitro-PAH. However, the mutagenic activity is much more elevated than the PAH levels when these air masses are mixed with local urban air. Part of the variation in the PAH/mutagenicity ratio can be explained by photochemical transformation. Since BaP has been used in the past as an indicator of the carcinogenic risk of airborne particles, it is suggested that the cancer risk of air pollution has to be re-evaluated. (author)

  11. Carbon in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon compounds account for a large fraction of airborne particulate matter ('carbonaceous aerosols'). Their presence raises a number of scientific questions dealing with climate issues and possible effects on human health. This review describes the current state of knowledge with respect to the ambient concentrations levels (elemental carbon, organic carbon and organic matter) and the various emission sources, and summarizes the role of atmospheric carbon in the various environmental issues. The report finishes by identifying the actual gaps in knowledge and gives (related) suggestions for future research

  12. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  13. The “geotoxicology” of airborne particulate matter: implications for public health, public policy, and environmental security (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been documented and hypothesized as the cause of a wide variety of adverse health effects. Most attention has focused on potential health effects of occupational and environmental exposures to many types of anthropogenic PM, such as mineral dusts or combustion byproducts of fossil fuels. However, geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources but modified by human activities) are also increasingly of concern as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Geotoxicology can be defined as the study of the toxicological characteristics and potential health effects of geogenic and geoanthropogenic earth materials. Acute exposures to high PM concentrations are associated with exacerbated asthma, other pulmonary inflammatory responses, cardiovascular problems, and other issues. Some diseases can result from inhalation of dust-borne pathogens. PM can contain bioaccessible (readily dissolved in the body’s fluids) contaminants that, if absorbed in sufficient doses, can trigger toxicity. Acutely bioreactive PM, such as alkaline wildfire ash or acidic volcanic fog, can trigger acute irritation or damage of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Biodurable PM such as asbestos fibers and crystalline silica are poorly cleared by lung macrophages, do not readily dissolve in the fluids lining the lungs, and can therefore persist in the lungs for decades. In sufficient dose, pneumoconioses can result from exposure to biodurable minerals, and chronic fluid-mineral reactions in the body (such as redox cycling and formation of free radicals) are thought to help promote cancers such as lung cancer and (in the case of asbestos) mesothelioma. Many key research questions remain, such as the exact mechanisms by which many types of PM cause disease, or the levels of exposure above which various types of PM begin to pose a

  14. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the airborne particulate matter at a location 40 km north of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Bætz Reutergårdh, L.; Dung, N. Tr.; Yu, M.-H.; Yao, W.-X.; Co, H. X.

    Total suspended particulate matter in ambient air was sampled by high-volume samplers at four sites at the Asian Institute of Technology campus, west of the Phahonyothin Road, Phathumthani Province, 40 km North of Bangkok, Thailand. The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionisation and/or liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The PAH profile with relatively high concentrations of benzo(ghi)perylene and coronene, decreasing with the distance from the road, suggested a substantial contribution from the traffic. The concentrations in the core of the campus were in the same range as those reported for residential areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan.

  16. Determination of water-soluble inorganic species in airborne atmospheric particulate matter in an Urban Area in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major water soluble cations and anions in inhalable (INP) and noninhalable (Nip) airbome particulate matter samples have been determined in an urban area of Amman city of Jordan during Winter, 1996 by ion chromatography. The total average level of F-, CI+, NO3+, SO42- and total suspended particles (Tsp) were 1.48, 3.84, 6.40, 45.85 and 221μg/m3, respectively. For cations, the total average levels were 25.42, 6.68, 4.06, 5.84, and 25.05 μg/m3 for Na+, NH4+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, respectively. This study show ss that the concentrations of FΛ, NO3Λ, SO42, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ in the INP fraction were significantly greater than in the Nip fraction while the CI+ and NH4+ levels are greater than in the Nip, In the same sampling site, it was found that the nitrate and sulfate concentrations in air particulate matter are significantly higher in winter, 1996 than in summer season, 1995. However, the levels of fluoride and chloride are greater in summer than in winter. (authors). 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 table

  17. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration

  18. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3σ), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g-1, corresponding to 0.12 ng m-3 in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m3 collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g-1, equivalent to 0.41 ng m-3 in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between -1 and 381 ± 24 ng g-1. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between -3 and 1.47 ± 0.09 ng m-3. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  19. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. PMID:27357408

  20. Determination of lead isotopic composition of airborne particulate matter by ICPMS: implications for lead atmospheric emissions in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quadrupole ICPMS was used for determination of trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected at selected sites within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance network, from February 2005 to February 2007. High enrichment factors indicated that lead is mostly of anthropogenic origin and consequently, the lead isotopic composition is directly related to that of pollution sources. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios were measured and the results were compared to the isotopic signatures of lead from different sources. Various approaches were used to assess the impact of relevant sources and the meteorological conditions in the occurrence and distribution of lead in Canadian atmospheric aerosols. (author)

  1. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  2. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of airborne particulate matter in workplace including tissue analysis and possible impacts on human health in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various processes in a metal industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matter that hazardous to human health. The present study deals with assessment of levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry. The objective is achieved by determination of elemental levels in blood, nail and hair of workers and airborne particulate matter that are collected from their workplace. The elemental levels in blood, nail and hair of the workers will be compared to those of control. Their health condition are examined by medical examination and biochemical analysis of their blood. The blood was drawn following an overnight fast before breakfast, by means of I.V. catheter into three polyethylene tubes. The blood samples in the first tubes were sent to clinical laboratory for biochemical examination. Those in the second and third tubes, which are considered free from metal contamination by the needle of the catheter, are used for trace element study. Sera in the polyethylene tubes were separated from erythrocyte by centrifugation, then cooled by liquid nitrogen and freeze dried. Approximately 1 g of toe nail and hair samples were taken respectively from every worker. To eliminate grease and surface contamination the hair samples were rinse with acetone. Airborne particulate samples were collected from the workplace using Gent sampler. These samples are ready for elemental analysis. Results of biochemical analysis and medical examinations of the workers are presented in this report. The correlation among various parameters will be determined by statistical analysis. (author)

  3. Spatial and temporal variations in airborne particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) across Spain 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Viana, M. M.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Artiñano, B.; Salvador, P.; Sánchez, M.; Garcia Dos Santos, S.; Herce Garraleta, M. D.; Fernandez-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Sanz, M. J.; Palomo-Marín, R.; Pinilla-Gil, E.; Cuevas, E.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.

    Average ranges of particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) concentrations and chemical composition in Spain show significant variations across the country, with current PM 10 levels at several industrial and traffic hotspots exceeding recommended pollution limits. Such variations and exceedances are linked to patterns of anthropogenic and natural PM emissions, climate, and reactivity/stability of particulate species. PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations reach 14-22 μg PM 10 m -3 and 8-12 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at most rural/regional background sites, 25-30 μg PM 10 m -3 and 15-20μg PM 2.5 m -3 at suburban sites, 30-46 μg PM 10 m -3 and 20-30 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at urban background and industrial sites, and 46-50 μg PM 10 m -3 and 30-35 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at heavy traffic hotpots. Spatial distributions show sulphate and carbon particle levels reach maxima in industrialised areas and large cities (where traffic emissions are higher), and nitrate levels increase from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (independent of the regional NO x emissions). African dust outbreaks have an influence on the number of exceedances of the daily limit value, but its additional load on the mean annual PM 10 levels is only highly significant in Southern Iberia and Canary and Balearic islands. The marine aerosol contribution is near one order of magnitude higher in the Canaries compared to the other regions. Important temporal influences include PM intrusion events from Africa (more abundant in February-March and spring-summer), regional-scale pollution episodes, and weekday versus weekend activity. Higher summer insolation enhances (NH 4) 2SO 4 but depletes particulate NO 3- (as a consequence of the thermal instability of ammonium nitrate in summer) and Cl - (due to HCl volatilisation resulting from the interaction of gaseous HNO 3 with the marine NaCl), as well as generally increasing dry dust resuspension under a semi-arid climate. Average trace metal concentrations rise with the highest levels at

  4. Particulate matter dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

  5. Population vulnerability due to the exposure to radon and airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G., E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.m [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ponciano-Rodriguez, G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gaso, M.I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mena, M.; Segovia, N. [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vazquez-Lopez, C. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV (Mexico); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to indoor radon and suspended particulate matter (SPM) is considered a high risk in lung cancer aetiology. In this paper indoor radon and SPM concentration measurements and their correlations, associated with lung cancer cases are given. Mexico City suffers high concentration of SPM as well as other photochemical pollutants such as ozone. During the last decade in Mexico City, radon and SPM have been monitored. The indoor radon measurements were done using the Nuclear Track Methodology, basically the close-end-cup device with polyallyldiglycol carbonate as detector material, followed of an established chemical etching protocol, and automatic digital image analyzer system for counting. SPM size and concentration were obtained from monitoring stations located along the city. The results show that the central-north part of Mexico City has a large concentration of SPM and the vulnerable population (older than 65 years and younger than 14 years) is located essentially in the same region. In this area, a large number of lung cancer cases were found, even if indoor radon levels were below the recommended limits.

  6. The Effect of Seasonal Variations in Airborne Particulate Matter on Asthma-Related Airway Inflammation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of winter and spring particulate matter (PM) on airway inflammation and allergies in a mouse asthma model. PM was collected during 7–28 February 2013 (winter) and during 7–28 April 2013 (spring) in Yonago, Japan. NC/Nga mice were co-sensitized using intranasal instillation of the PMs and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) for 5 consecutive days, and were subsequently challenged using intranasal Df at 7 days after the last sensitization. At 24 h after the challenge, serum immunoglobulin levels, differential leukocyte counts, and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured in the mice’s bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Compared to co-sensitization using spring PM and Df, winter PM and Df induced greater increases in the BALF neutrophil and eosinophil counts and total serum IgE and IgG2a levels. Furthermore, winter PM-sensitized mice exhibited higher BALF levels of interleukin-5, interleukin-13, interleukin-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. Therefore, we observed seasonal variations in the effects of PM on asthma-related airway inflammation. These findings suggest that the compositions of PM vary according to season, and that it is important to evaluate PM compositions in order to understand the associations between asthma and PM. PMID:27294946

  7. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 and PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended

  8. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  9. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rennan G.O., E-mail: rgoa01@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica Ambiental, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Sao Cristovao, 49.100-000, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vignola, Fabiola; Castilho, Ivan N.B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3{sigma}), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.12 ng m{sup -3} in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m{sup 3} collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g{sup -1}, equivalent to 0.41 ng m{sup -3} in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between < 40 ng g{sup -1} and 381 {+-} 24 ng g{sup -1}. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between < 0.12 ng m{sup -3} and 1.47 {+-} 0.09 ng m{sup -3}. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  10. [In vitro study of genotoxic and oxidative effects induced on human pulmonary cells by exposure to PAHs extracted from airborne particulate matter collected in a coke plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, D; Ursini, C L; Pira, E; Romano, C; Ciervo, A; Maiello, R; Caglieri, A; Iavicoli, S

    2007-01-01

    Genotoxic and oxidative effect of airborne particulate matter collected in a coke plant were evaluated on lung epithelial cells (A549). We aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of complex mixtures of PAHs and to identify biomarkers of effect of lung cancer. Particulate matter was analysed by GC/MS. Genotoxic and oxidative effects induced by the exposure to the extract were evaluated by Fpg comet assay. The cells were exposed for 30 min, 2h and 4h to 0.01%, 0.02% and 0.05% of the extract. We evaluated comet percentage and analysed tail moment values of exposed and unexposed cells treated with Fpg enzyme (TMenz) and untreated (TM) that indicate respectively oxidative and direct DNA damage. We found 0.328 ng/m3 of pyrene, 0.33 ng/m3 of benzo(a)anthracene, 1.073 ng/m3 of benzo(b)fluoranthene, 0.22 ng/m3 of benzo(k)fluoranthene, 0.35 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene, 0.079 ng/m3 of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and 0.40 ng/m3 of benzo(g,h,i)perylene. A dose-dependent increase, although not significant, of TM and TMenz in the exposed cells in respect to controls was found that indicates a slight increase of both direct and oxidative damage in exposed cells. A slight increase of comet percentage was found at the highest dose. We show the high sensibility of comet assay to measure early DNA damage also at low doses suggesting the use of such test on A549 to evaluate on target organ the effects of complex mixtures of genotoxic substances. PMID:18409689

  11. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. The primary aim of these CRPs has been to help enhance the research and development capabilities in the Member States, particularly among developing countries; to identify the sources of various environmental contaminants and evaluate their fate; and to provide for the basis of improved health among human populations by the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques. The CRP on Assessment of Levels and Health-Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mining, Metal Refining and Metal Working Industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques focused on improving the competence for research on workplace monitoring in a variety of industrial environments. The personal monitoring of the APM (airborne particulate matter) of the exposed workforce was carried out for the first time by many participants. Nuclear and related analytical techniques, including the application of proton micro-beam, were used to generate the trace element concentration profiles in various biomarkers tissues of the exposed workers. The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) aspects related to the CRP were addressed through intercomparison analyses of APM on filter paper samples and freeze dried human urine samples to generate validated data. These data have helped to generate correlations between the occupational exposure measured and the magnitude of the biological response. Such new information is essential to evolve procedures to considerably reduce/eliminate the pollutants in the workplace environment and to make informed decisions on the evolution of standards in working environments aimed at preserving the health of workers. The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements

  12. Comparison of Lead Species in Household Dust Wipes, Soil, and Airborne Particulate Matter in El Paso, Texas, by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the interplay of indoor and outdoor sources of lead in an urban setting is one foundation in establishing risk for lead exposure in children in our cities. A household may be the source for lead contamination due to the deterioration of interior lead-based paint, or a sink if lead particles are tracked or blown into the home from such potential ambient sources as yard soil or urban street dust. In addressing this issue, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) presents the opportunity to directly and quantitatively speciate lead at low concentrations in bulk samples. We performed XAS analyses on dust wipes from window sills or floors from 8 houses that exceeded Federal standards for lead in dust. We entered these data into a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) that also included El Paso environmental samples: lead-based paints, soils, and airborne particulate matter. A simple two-component mixing system accounted for more than 95% of the variance of this data set. Paint and lead oxide appear to be the principal components, with all the samples falling in a compositional range from pure paint to 75% paint, 25% lead oxide. Note that several different lead compounds are possible constituents of a given lead-based paint. The paints spread from one end out along perhaps a fifth of the range of the compositional axis, followed closely, but not overlapped, by the soil samples, which covered the remainder of the compositional range. Two of the dust wipes plotted within the paint range, and the remaining 6 dust wipes plotted randomly through the soil range. Samples of airborne particulate matter plotted in both the paint and soil ranges. These observations suggest that the lead on most of the dust wipes originated outside the house, probably from deteriorated exterior lead-based paint deposited in adjacent yards. This paint mixed with lead oxide present in the soil and entered the houses by the airborne route. The probable source of the oxide in the soil is former

  13. Salmonella mutagenicity assessment of airborne particulate matter collected from urban areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, differing in anthropogenic influences and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tatiana S; Gotor, Gemma N; Beltrami, Laiana S; Nolla, Celia G; Rocha, Jocelita A V; Broto, Francesc P; Comellas, Lluis R; Vargas, Vera M F

    2010-09-30

    Urban areas are both major sources and major targets of air pollution. The atmospheric environment receives diverse chemical substances, including genotoxic agents that may affect human health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the atmospheric quality in two urban areas in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil), under the influence of greater (Site 1) or lesser (Site 2) anthropogenic sources. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of environmental interest were quantified and the Salmonella/microsome assay was used for the measurement of mutagenicity. Organic compounds extracted from the airborne particulate matter were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect PAHs of interest (known or possible carcinogens). The organic extracts were also tested for mutagenic and cytotoxic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98, TA100, YG1021 and YG1024, with or without S9 activation. At Site 1, benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) were found at higher concentrations and mutagenicity (revertants per μg extract) varied from 1.0±0.25 (TA98, no S9) to 5.2±0.45 (TA98, S9). At Site 2, BghiP and IP were present in larger amounts and the mutagenic responses ranged from 0.6 to 3.7 revertants per μg (both in TA98, S9). The occurrence of BghiP and IP may be related to vehicular emissions. These and the other PAHs studied, as well as the nitro compounds, may contribute to the mutagenicity found in these airborne particles. PMID:20643224

  14. Monitoring of radioactive cesium in Kawasaki derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by a sequential leaching method for airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) was seriously damaged by the huge earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11 March 2011, and has released large amounts of radioactive materials into the environment. Since the accident, radioactive cesium originating from the FDNPP accident was detected over a wide range of the northeastern half of Honshu, the main island of Japan, including the Kanto region. The long-term monitoring of the activities of FDNPP-derived radioactive cesium in surface air must provide important knowledge concerning the dispersion processes of radioactive cesium and its supply to the atmosphere. In this study, we focused on airborne particulate matters (APM) collected at Kawasaki city, Kanagawa. The aim of this study was to obtain the time series date of radioactive cesium activities and to characterize the chemical properties of radioactive cesium in the APM. Consequently, we obtained the following information. Until the spring of 2014, both of the FDNPP-derived 134Cs and the 137Cs activities in the APM, which were still detected, decreased to ca. 10-5 times those observed just after the FDNPP accident. Specifically, their activities decreased rapidly until September, 2011, and then their decrease rates slowed down. Sequential leaching experiments revealed that the chemical properties of radioactive cesium in the APM differed from those in soil; significant amounts of radioactive cesium in the APM existed as a water-soluble form, whereas most of the radioactive cesium in soil was insoluble in water. (author)

  15. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of dissolved analytes even in the presence of leaching agents. Derived results indicated that the investigated leaching agents extract different amounts of trace metals. In general, leaching agents with organic nature yielded comparatively greater extractable and thus bio-accessible trace metal fractions to that of simple solvents like H2O or aqueous NaCl solution. With water, only 26.3±4.0% of Cd was found to be bio-accessible whereas 88.4±24.8 of Cd was obtained as bio-accessible fraction with the use of synthetic gastric juice. The concentrations of bio-accessible metal fractions varied from 0.4 ng m−3 (Cd to 714 ng m−3 (Zn and 0.3 ng m−3 (Cd to 190 ng m−3 (Zn for PM10 samples collected from Karachi (Pakistan and Graz (Austria respectively.

  16. Implementation of a near-real time cross-border web-mapping platform on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration with open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knörchen, Achim; Ketzler, Gunnar; Schneider, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Although Europe has been growing together for the past decades, cross-border information platforms on environmental issues are still scarce. With regard to the establishment of a web-mapping tool on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration for the Euregio Meuse-Rhine located in the border region of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, this article describes the research on methodical and technical backgrounds implementing such a platform. An open-source solution was selected for presenting the data in a Web GIS (OpenLayers/GeoExt; both JavaScript-based), applying other free tools for data handling (Python), data management (PostgreSQL), geo-statistical modelling (Octave), geoprocessing (GRASS GIS/GDAL) and web mapping (MapServer). The multilingual, made-to-order online platform provides access to near-real time data on PM concentration as well as additional background information. In an open data section, commented configuration files for the Web GIS client are being made available for download. Furthermore, all geodata generated by the project is being published under public domain and can be retrieved in various formats or integrated into Desktop GIS as Web Map Services (WMS).

  17. Analysis of palladium concentrations in airborne particulate matter with reductive co-precipitation, He collision gas, and ID-ICP-Q-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsenz, H.; Zereini, F.; Puettmann, W. [J.W. Goethe-University, Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Wiseman, C.L.S. [University of Toronto, Centre for Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    The concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) in the environment has increased significantly in the last 20 years mainly due to their use as catalysts in automotive catalytic converters. The quantitation of these metals in different environmental compartments is, however, challenging due to their very low concentrations and the presence of interfering matrix constituents when inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for analysis. Previously, the research focus was on the analysis of platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh). However, due to the increasing use of palladium (Pd) in automotive catalytic converters, quantitation of this element in airborne particulate matter (PM) is also needed. Compared to Pt and Rh, measurements of Pd using ICP-MS are plagued by greater molecular interferences arising from elements such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), and zirconium (Zr). The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of reductive co-precipitation procedures using both mercury (Hg) and tellurium (Te) for the pre-concentration of Pd from airborne PM. Furthermore, helium (He) was tested as a collision gas for isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-Q-MS) to measure Pd in the Hg and Te precipitates. Airborne PM samples (PM{sub 10}) were collected from Neuglobsow (Brandenburg, north-eastern Germany) and Deuselbach (Rhineland-Palatinate, south-western Germany), considered to represent background levels, and from the city Frankfurt am Main (Hesse, Germany), a high-traffic area. Samples were first digested with aqua regia in a high-pressure asher (HPA) at 320 C and 130 bar prior to the application of reductive co-precipitation procedures. The method was validated with road dust reference material BCR-723 and the CANMET-CCRMP reference material TDB-1 and WPR-1. In airborne PM collected at the background areas Neuglobsow and Deuselbach, Pd was detected with median concentrations values of 0

  18. Analysis of palladium concentrations in airborne particulate matter with reductive co-precipitation, He collision gas, and ID-ICP-Q-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsenz, H; Zereini, F; Wiseman, C L S; Püttmann, W

    2009-11-01

    The concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) in the environment has increased significantly in the last 20 years mainly due to their use as catalysts in automotive catalytic converters. The quantitation of these metals in different environmental compartments is, however, challenging due to their very low concentrations and the presence of interfering matrix constituents when inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for analysis. Previously, the research focus was on the analysis of platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh). However, due to the increasing use of palladium (Pd) in automotive catalytic converters, quantitation of this element in airborne particulate matter (PM) is also needed. Compared to Pt and Rh, measurements of Pd using ICP-MS are plagued by greater molecular interferences arising from elements such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), and zirconium (Zr). The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of reductive co-precipitation procedures using both mercury (Hg) and tellurium (Te) for the pre-concentration of Pd from airborne PM. Furthermore, helium (He) was tested as a collision gas for isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-Q-MS) to measure Pd in the Hg and Te precipitates. Airborne PM samples (PM10) were collected from Neuglobsow (Brandenburg, north-eastern Germany) and Deuselbach (Rhineland-Palatinate, south-western Germany), considered to represent background levels, and from the city Frankfurt am Main (Hesse, Germany), a high-traffic area. Samples were first digested with aqua regia in a high-pressure asher (HPA) at 320 degrees C and 130 bar prior to the application of reductive co-precipitation procedures. The method was validated with road dust reference material BCR-723 and the CANMET-CCRMP reference material TDB-1 and WPR-1. In airborne PM collected at the background areas Neuglobsow and Deuselbach, Pd was detected with median concentrations values of

  19. Characterisation of carbonaceous particulate matter in Edinburgh

    OpenAIRE

    Hammonds, Mark David

    2012-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has important harmful effects on human health, as well as a number of other important atmospheric effects. Although progress has been made in understanding the sources and effects of PM, there remains considerable uncertainty on a number of issues, including the nature of a lot of the carbonaceous material, which comprises 30{50% on average of PM mass. This project aims to compare different methods of PM measurement, and contribute understanding...

  20. Nuclear and atomic techniques in air pollution studies by transplant lichen exposure, bulk deposition and airborne particulate matter collection after 6 month exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the preliminary results obtained in the study 'Air pollution monitoring by sampling airborne particulate matter combined with lichen bioaccumulator exposure', in progress at IDRANAP Center of Excellence EU Project, ICA1-CT-2000-70023, WP2. Transplants of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichen species from the Italian Prealps were exposed for 6 and 12 months at six locations with different degrees and types of industrial activity, as well as on a background site with relatively clean air (Fundata). At each investigated location, bulk deposition was collected for the same periods, while airborne particulate matter was sequentially collected during 2 months, in parallel with those at a reference station (Afumati). Pollution in the investigated areas is mainly due to the following industrial activities: steel manufacturing (Galati); non-ferrous ore processing (Baia Mare); chemicals and non-ferrous industry (Copsa Mica); coal-fired power plant and cement factory (Deva); traffic, coal-fired power plants, inorganic dyes and galvanic treatment factories (Oradea); agriculture, mixed industry and traffic (Afumati). The lichen material was analyzed by INAA, XRFA, and ICP-MS, while the aerosol filters were analyzed by INAA and XRFA. The bulk deposition was analyzed only by INAA. XRFA was carried out at Stuttgart, ICP-MS at Trondheim, while INAA at Bucharest (long lifetime radionuclides) and Delft (short lifetime radionuclides, and, in the case of bulk deposition, short and long lifetime radionuclides). The investigated elements having relevant role in environmental studies were: As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, V, and Zn. Cd, Co, Sb, and Sc could only be determined by INAA and ICP-MS, while Pb and S only by XRFA and ICP-MS. After 6-month exposure, both lichen species showed significant enrichment factors (relative to 'zero level', before exposure) for all the measured elements, except Br, Ca, K, and Mn. Small lichen

  1. Assessment of AMAD and MMAD for airborne particulate matter in the beach mineral separation plants - modification of ALI and DAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral separation process at IRE plants has undergone changes with the introduction of dredge mining and wet concentration process. These steps have necessitated re-assessment of the inhalation hazards in these plants. Air samples were collected using an eight stage Anderson cascade impactor sampler. Activity median aerodynamic diameter of the particulates ranged from 2.7 to 15 μm with an average of 7 μm. GSD varied from 2.6 to 4.6. Based on the ICRP dose conversion factors and taking into consideration the equilibrium status of 232Th and 228Th in monazite, a combined annual limit of intake of 534 Bq and corresponding DAC of 0.22 Bq m-3 is arrived at for the mineral processing plants. The prevailing air activity in the plants indicate individual inhalation exposures due to Th in the range of 1.5 to 2 mSv per year. (author)

  2. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1) at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Jungang Chen; Xinxiao Yu; Fenbing Sun; Xiaoxiu Lun; Yanlin Fu; Guodong Jia; Zhengming Zhang; Xuhui Liu; Li Mo; Huaxing Bi

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1) the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2) the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3) the particle interceptio...

  3. Determination of leachable uranium in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium content of airborne particulates collected on cellulose filters was investigated. As a case study, filter samples from the large area of Thessaloniki, Greece, were used. For the uranium determination instrumental neutron activation analysis was used. To obtain equal counting conditions for all samples after irradiation, independent from the initial matrix, uranium was leached from the filter by using a 0.1M NH4HCO3 solution, forming a stable uranyl complex [UO2(CO3)3]. This complex was absorbed in a batch process on a small amount of chelating ion exchanger Srafion NMRR, which was directly irradiated in the reactor of the NCSR Demokritos. Over the investigated time period in 1997 the mean concentration was found to be 0.047 ng U/m3. In relation to the collected amount of airborne particulates having a mean concentration of 0.52 μg/gU. It can be assumed as a natural uranium level in the environment. (author)

  4. Toxicity to chicken embryos of organic extracts from airborne particulates separated into five sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-07-01

    The chicken embryo assay has been used for research on the toxicity of complex extracts derived from different environmental sources, as well as of individual compounds. However, only a few studies have been made on the toxicological effects of extracts derived from airborne particulate matter in chicken embryo. These studies showed that the toxic effect was due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particles, although their structure and quantity were the factors determining the extent of the toxicity. Airborne particulate matter is composed of particles of different sizes, which can be separated into five classes according to their size by an Andersen high-volume sampler. Each class contained many kinds of compounds such as PAHs. In this study, airborne particulate matter was extracted according to particle size, the extracts analyzed for PAHs, and tested for embryotoxicity.

  5. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  6. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1 the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2 the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3 the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4 the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration.

  7. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  8. Composition of Indoor Particulate Matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Dohányosová, Pavla

    -: -, 2006 - (Fernandes, D.), s. 283-286. (Indoor Climate. II). [Healthy Buildings 2006. Lisboa (PT), 04.06.2006-08.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/04/1190; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/03/1560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : indoor particulate matter * chemical composition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  9. Analysis of the origin and composition of airborne particulate pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed for determination of airborne particulate pollution sources and origins from airborne particulate measurements, analyses of particulate constituents and routine meteorological measurements. The results obtained provide the basis for quantification of the long- and short-time impacts of these pollution sources on immission. The methods were tested in a densely populated urban area (West Berlin) and in a rural district (Waldhof, District of Uelzen) by collecting airborne particulates (fine and coarse particulates) at six measuring points by use of dichotomous collectors and high-volume collectors. The measurements were taken twice a day from November 1989 to November 1990. Analyses were made of the compounds and of the constituents Al, Fe, Si, Ca, Mg, K, Na, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sb, Se, V, Zn, Cl-, NO-3, SO2-4, NH+4, organic carbons (OC) and inorganic elementary (EC) carbons. (orig.). 104 refs., 66 tabs., 79 figs

  10. Particulate Organic Matter (POM) Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on soil organic matter (SOM) pools is of vital importance for studying the impact of soil management and environmental factors on soil organic carbon, an important part of the global carbon cycle. Several conceptual SOM pools with different turnover rates are available to feed models or to study carbon cycles. The fractionation scheme of Zimmermann allows isolating the labile particulate organic matter (POM) pool. Besides its use in conventional soil organic carbon dynamics studies and modelling, this pool can be determining as well in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stability based on the use of stable 15N and 13C isotopes

  11. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, C., E-mail: balducci@iia.cnr.it [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Nervegna, G.; Cecinato, A. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ({Delta}{sup 9}-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm{sup -3} of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  12. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm-3 of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  13. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate ...

  14. Quantification of PAHs and oxy-PAHs on airborne particulate matter in Chiang Mai, Thailand, using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgraeve, Christophe; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; De Wispelaere, Patrick; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 oxygenated PAHs (of which 4 diketones, 3 ketones, 4 aldehydes and one anhydride) on atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The magnetic sector mass spectrometer was run in multiple ion detection mode (MID) with a mass resolution above 10 000 (10% valley definition) and allows for a selective accurate mass detection of the characteristic ions of the target analytes. Instrumental detection limits between 0.04 pg and 1.34 pg were obtained for the PAHs, whereas for the oxy-PAHs they ranged between 0.08 pg and 2.13 pg. Pressurized liquid extraction using dichloromethane was evaluated and excellent recoveries ranging between 87% and 98% for the PAHs and between 74% and 110% for 10 oxy-PAHs were obtained, when the optimum extraction temperature of 150 °C was applied. The developed method was finally used to determine PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentration levels from particulate matter samples collected in the wet season at 4 different locations in Chiang Mai, Thailand (n = 72). This study brings forward the first concentration levels of oxy-PAHs in Thailand. The median of the sum of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentrations was 3.4 ng/m3 and 1.1 ng/m3 respectively, which shows the importance of the group of the oxy-PAHs as PM10 constituents. High molecular weight PAHs contributed the most to the ∑PAHs. For example, benzo[ghi]perylene was responsible for 30-44% of the ∑PAHs. The highest contribution to ∑oxy-PAHs came from 1,8-napthalic anhydride (26-78%), followed by anthracene-9,10-dione (4-27%) and 7H-benzo[de]anthracene-7-one (6-26%). Indications of the degradation of PAHs and/or formation of oxy-PAHs were observed.

  15. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  16. [Chemical characteristics in airborne particulate matter (PM10) during a high pollution spring dust storm episode in Beijing, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Yang; Liu, Yan-Ju; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Mei-Gen; Wang, Cun-Mei

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) was collected at sampling locations of Beijing, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou from April 1st to May 24th, 2012. The mass concentration of PM10 and concentrations of ions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM10 were determined. The results showed that average mass concentration of PM10 were 233.82 microg x m(-3) for Beijing, 279.64 microg x (-3) for Tianjin and 238.13 microg x m(-3) for Zhangjiakou, respectively. Backward trajectories results confirmed dust storm events occurred from 27th to 29th April. The maximum daily mass concentrations of PM10 were 755.54 microg x m(-3) for Beijing, 831.32 microg x m(-3) for Tianjin and 582.82 microg x m(-3) for Zhangjiakou during the dust storm episodes, respectively. Water-soluble ions (Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-)), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were major aerosol components during the dust storm episodes, and their concentrations were higher than non-dust storm days. In addition, dust storm caused increases in NO3-, SO4(2-) and enrichment of secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentration relative to OC, suggesting that chemical reaction processes involving gas-particle conversion occurred during the long-distance transport of aerosol particles. PMID:25338350

  17. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  18. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26289646

  19. QUANTITATION, DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work focuses on analysis of organic molecular markers in airborne particulate matter (PM) by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC/IT MS). The particulate samples used in the method development were collected as PM10 in metropolitan Philadelphia during...

  20. Multi-residue analysis of 30 currently used pesticides in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Yusà, Vicent; Beser, Ma Isabel; Pastor, Agustin

    2009-12-18

    A confirmatory and rapid procedure has been developed for the determination of 30 currently used pesticides (CUP) in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) at trace level. The proposed method includes extraction of PM 2.5-bound pesticides by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by a direct injection into LC-MS/MS. The main parameters affecting the MAE extraction (time, temperature and volume of solvent) were optimised using statistical design of experiments (DoE). The matrix effect was also evaluated. Recoveries ranged from 72 to 109% and the limit of quantification (LoQ) was 32.5 pg m(-3) for chlorpyrifos, 13.5 pg m(-3) for fenhexamid, imazalil and prochloraz, and 6.5 pg m(-3) for the rest of pesticides, when air volumes of 760 m(3) were collected. The method was applied to 54 samples collected from three stations of the atmospheric monitoring network of the Regional Valencia Government (Spain) during April-July 2009. Nineteen out of 30 pesticides investigated were found in at least one sample: omethoate, carbendazim, acetamiprid, thiabendazole, malathion, flusilazole, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, iprovalicarb, myclobutanil, tebuconazole, triflumizole, cyprodinil, tebufenpyrad, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, hexythiazox, flufenoxuron and fenazaquin. The measured concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 1208 pg m(-3). To our knowledge, 11 of the pesticides detected have been reported for the first time in ambient air. PMID:19913234

  1. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celo V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs, in particular platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rh, from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM is important for the estimation of potential risks to human health and to the ecosystem. The aim of this study is to present the first results from an analysis on the concentration and distribution of Pt, Pd and Rh in PM collected on Teflon filters at two selected urban sites (Toronto, Ontario; Edmonton, Alberta collected within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network. In this work, a quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, combined with microwave assisted acid digestion using aqua regia was used. A cation exchange separation was used to alleviate the matrix-induced spectral and nonspectral interferences prior to ICP-MS analysis. To obtain sufficient material needed for PGEs analysis, fine PM (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm; PM2.5 and coarse PM (with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 mm; PM10-2.5 samples were combined into composite samples on a seasonal basis. The obtained results will be discussed and compared with literature data.

  2. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  3. Complexity analysis in particulate matter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Telesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the complex temporal fluctuations of particulate matter data recorded in London area by using the Fisher-Shannon (FS information plane. In the FS plane the PM10 and PM2.5 data are aggregated in two different clusters, characterized by different degrees of order and organization. This results could be related to different sources of the particulate matter.

  4. Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Yauk Carole L; Williams Andrew; Thomson Errol M; Vincent Renaud

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α under the control of ...

  5. A quantitative study of air-borne particulate matter collected on membrane filters by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS or ESCA, in analysing oxidation states and measuring the concentration of elements present in air pollution particulates collected on membrane filters is evaluated. Semi-quantitative data are compared with those from XRF and wet chemical analysis. Differences of about a factor of 2.0-2.5 are found which are critically discussed in relation to particle size and the distribution of ionic species. The importance of intrinsic properties of matrix materials and instrumental factors is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Dispersion model for airborne particulates inside a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical model has been developed for the spread of airborne radioactive particles after they are released inside a building. The model has been useful in performing safety analyses of actinide materials facilities at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), operated for the US Department of Energy by the Du Pont Company. These facilities employ the multiple-air-zone concept; that is, ventilation air flows from rooms or areas of least radioactive material hazard, through zones of increasing hazard, to a treatment system. A composite of the data for dispersion of airborne activity during 12 actual case incidents at SRP forms the basis for this model. These incidents occurred during approximately 90 plant-years of experience at SRP with the chemical and metallurgical processing of purified neptunium and plutonium after their recovery from irradiated uranium. The model gives ratios of the airborne activity concentrations in rooms and corridors near the site of the release. All data are normalized to the data from the air sampler nearest the release point. The model can be applied in predicting airborne activity concentrations from particulate releases elsewhere, if the facility in question has similar features of floor plan, air velocity, and air flow direction. The multiple-air-zone concept has been applied to many designs of nuclear facilities as a safety feature to limit the spread of airborne activity from a release. The model illustrates the limitations of this concept: it predicts an apparently anomalous behavior of airborne particulates; namely, a small migration against the flow of the ventilation air. The following phenomena are suggested as possible mechanisms for this migration: eddy currents in the air flow; leaks of ventilation air between zones; open doors; movement of personnel during an incident; inadequate flow of ventilation air; and thermal gradients. 2 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  7. Magnetic Approaches to Measuring and Mitigating Airborne Particulate Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, B.

    2014-12-01

    Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) generates adverse human health impacts at all life stages from the embryonic to the terminal, including damage to respiratory and cardiovascular health, and neurodevelopment and cognitive function. Detailed understanding of the causal links between PM exposure and specific health impacts, and possible means to reduce PM exposure require knowledge of PM concentrations, compositions and sources at the fine-scale; i.e. beyond the current resolution of spatially-sparse conventional PM monitoring, non-unique elemental analyses, or poorly-validated PM modelling. Magnetically-ordered iron oxide minerals appear to be a ubiquitous component of urban PM. These minerals derive partly from the presence of iron impurities in fuels, which form, upon combustion, a non-volatile residue, often dominated by magnetite, within glassy, spherical condensates. Iron-rich, magnetic PM also arises from abrasion from vehicle components, including disk brakes, and road dust. The ubiquity and diversity of these magnetic PM phases, and the speed and sensitivity of magnetic analyses (down to trace concentrations), makes possible rapid, cost-effective magnetic characterization and quantification of PM, a field of study which has developed rapidly across the globe over the last 2 decades. Magnetic studies of actively-sampled PM, on filters, and passively-sampled PM, on tree leaves and other depositional surfaces, can be used to: monitor and map at high spatial resolution ambient PM concentrations; address the controversial issue of the efficacy of PM capture by vegetation; and add a new, discriminatory dimension to PM source apportionment.

  8. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall objectives: To demonstrate the applicability of nuclear and related techniques in studies that may impact on human health, giving emphasis to the solution of problems that have been identified to be of high priority in national and international programmes for sustainable development. Specific objectives: To develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) of exposed and non-exposed persons; To development suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; To carry out workplace and personal monitoring of APM and characterise the health effects of such exposure in terms of the observed elemental concentration; To carry out tissue analyses of the workers so exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. Achievements: a) Specific industries not previously monitored in individual countries have been targeted in respect of pollution assessment. Some examples are: Stainless steel processing and construction; Galvanising industry; Zinc smelting operations; Mineral fertiliser industry. b) Validation of analytical techniques through quality control exercises: NAT-3 Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of trace and minor elements in urban dust artificially loaded on air filters; NAT-4 Proficiency test on selected trace elements in lyophilised urine and air filters. c) Capacity building through the establishment of new multidisciplinary teams, personnel training and laboratory expertise. d) The sampling procedures have been harmonised through: The application of the ''Gent'' sampler for APM collection, IAEA procedures and IUPAC guidelines for sampling and sample handling of hair, blood and urine. e) All participants performed surveys on targeted industries and selected pollutants. f) The scientific output of the CRP is materialised in various national and international

  9. Single Scattering Albedo Monitor for Airborne Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, Timothy; Massoli, Paola; Kebabian, Paul; Hills, Frank; Bacon, Fred; Freedman, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    We describe a robust, compact, field deployable instrument (the CAPS PMssa) that simultaneously measures airborne particle light extinction and scattering coefficients and thus the single scattering albedo (SSA) on the same sample volume. With an appropriate change in mirrors and light source, measurements have been made at wavelengths ranging from 450 to 780 nm. The extinction measurement is based on cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) techniques as employed in the CAPS PMex particle extinction monitor; scattering is measured using a integrating nephelometry by incorporating a Lambertian integrating sphere within the sample cell. The scattering measurement is calibrated using the extinction measurement. Measurements using ammonium sulfate particles of various sizes indicate that the response of the scattering channel with respect to measured extinction is linear to within 1% up to 1000 Mm-1 and can be extended further (4000 Mm-1) with additional corrections. The precision in both measurement channels is less than 1 Mm-1 (1s, 1σ). The truncation effect in the scattering channel, caused by light lost at extreme forward/backward scattering angles, was measured as a function of particle size using monodisperse polystyrene latex particles (n=1.59). The results were successfully fit using a simple geometric model allowing for reasonable extrapolation to a given wavelength, particle index of refraction and particle size distribution, assuming spherical particles. For sub-micron sized particles, the truncation corrections are comparable to those reported for commercial nephelometers. Measurements of the optical properties of ambient aerosol indicate that the values of the SSA of these particles measured with this instrument (0.91±0.03) using scattering and extinction agreed within experimental uncertainty with those determined using extinction measured by this instrument and absorption measured using a Multi-Angle Absorption Spectrometer (0.89±0.03) where the

  10. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  11. Dispersion model for airborne particulates inside a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical model has been developed for the spread of airborne radioactive particles after they are released inside a building. The model has been useful in performing safety analyses of actinide materials facilities at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These facilities employ the multiple-air-zone concept; that is, ventilation air flows from rooms or areas of least radioactive material hazard, through zones of increasing hazard, to a treatment system. A composite of the data for dispersion of airborne activity during 12 actual case incidents at SRP forms the basis for this model. These incidents occurred during approximately 90 plant-years of experience at SRP with the chemical and metallurgical processing of purified neptunium and plutonium after their recovery from irradiated uranium. The model gives ratios of the airborne activity concentrations in rooms and corridors near the site of the release. The multiple-air-zone concept has been applied to many designs of nuclear facilities as a safety feature to limit the spread of airborne activity from a release. The model illustrates the limitations of this concept: it predicts an apparently anomalous behavior of airborne particulates; namely, a small migration against the flow of the ventilation air

  12. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  13. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Source apportionment of airborne particulates through receptor modeling: Indian scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirthankar; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Raju, M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne particulate chemistry mostly governed by associated sources and apportionment of specific sources is extremely essential to delineate explicit control strategies. The present submission initially deals with the publications (1980s-2010s) of Indian origin which report regional heterogeneities of particulate concentrations with reference to associated species. Such meta-analyses clearly indicate the presence of reservoir of both primary and secondary aerosols in different geographical regions. Further, identification of specific signatory molecules for individual source category was also evaluated in terms of their scientific merit and repeatability. Source signatures mostly resemble international profile while, in selected cases lack appropriateness. In India, source apportionment (SA) of airborne particulates was initiated way back in 1985 through factor analysis, however, principal component analysis (PCA) shares a major proportion of applications (34%) followed by enrichment factor (EF, 27%), chemical mass balance (CMB, 15%) and positive matrix factorization (PMF, 9%). Mainstream SA analyses identify earth crust and road dust resuspensions (traced by Al, Ca, Fe, Na and Mg) as a principal source (6-73%) followed by vehicular emissions (traced by Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Ba and Zn; 5-65%), industrial emissions (traced by Co, Cr, Zn, V, Ni, Mn, Cd; 0-60%), fuel combustion (traced by K, NH4+, SO4-, As, Te, S, Mn; 4-42%), marine aerosols (traced by Na, Mg, K; 0-15%) and biomass/refuse burning (traced by Cd, V, K, Cr, As, TC, Na, K, NH4+, NO3-, OC; 1-42%). In most of the cases, temporal variations of individual source contribution for a specific geographic region exhibit radical heterogeneity possibly due to unscientific orientation of individual tracers for specific source and well exaggerated by methodological weakness, inappropriate sample size, implications of secondary aerosols and inadequate emission inventories. Conclusively, a number of challenging

  15. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  16. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  17. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  18. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  19. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  20. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  1. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  2. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  3. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  4. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  5. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  6. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  8. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  9. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  10. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  11. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  12. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  13. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  14. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  16. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  17. Approach to predict partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cong; FENG Liu

    2005-01-01

    Based on the theoretical linear solvation energy relationship and quantum chemical descriptors computed by AM1 Hamiltonian, a new approach was developed to predict the partitioning of some organic compounds between the airborne particulate and air. It could be successfully used to study the partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate, and evaluate the potential risk of organic compounds.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  19. Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

    2007-03-01

    The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

  20. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract

  1. Mineralogical characterization of airborne individual particulates in Beijing PM10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sen-lin; SHAO Long-yi; WU Ming-hong; JIAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    This work mainly focuses on the mineralogical study of particulate matter(PM10) in Beijing. Samples were collected on polycarbonate filter from April, 2002 to March, 2003 in Beijing urban area. Scanning electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray(SEM/EDX) was used to investigate individual mineral particles in Beijing PM10. 1454 individual mineral particulates from 48 samples were analysed by SEM/EDX. The results revealed that mineral particulates were complex and heterogeneous. 38kinds of minerals in PM10 were identified. The clay minerals, of annual average percentage of 30.1% , were the main composition among the identified minerals, and illite/smectite was the main composition in clay minerals, reaching up to 35%. Annual average percentage of quartz, calcite, compound particulates, carbonates were 13.5%, 10.9%, 11.95%, 10.31%, respectively. Annual average percentage less than 10% were gypsum, feldspar, dolomite, and so on. Fluorite, apatite, halite, barite and chloridize zinc (ZnCl2) were firstly identified in Beijing PM10. Sulfurization was found on surface of mineral particles, suggested extensive atmospheric reaction in air during summer.

  2. Particulate matter and health - From air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the environmental influence in the respiratory health of workers exposed to metal pollutants in their labour activities (metal processing industry). The clinical, respiratory functional and morphological changes were related with blood elemental concentrations in order to evaluate the influence of exposure to inhaled metal airborne particles. In addition, the deposition of particulate matter in the respiratory system was assessed in humans and in an animal model to infer possible mechanisms of interaction of metals with the respiratory tissue. The respiratory affections encountered for the exposure group through clinical, functional and morphological data are related with the number of years of exposure and with high levels of Zn in blood. Methodologies applied have into account the quality of results produced. Interlaboratory checks were carried out using certified reference materials and standard procedures were initiated to assure traceability in chemical analysis of biological matrices using analytical techniques based on X ray spectrometry. (author)

  3. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations and bioaerosol on each floor at a building in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyeon-Ju; Jeong, Na-Na; Chi, Woo-Bae; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Jun, Si-Moon; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in buildings are mostly sourced from the transport of outdoor particles through a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and generation of particle within the building itself. We investigated the concentrations and characteristic of indoor and outdoor particles and airborne bacteria concentrations across four floors of a building located in a high-traffic area. In all the floors we studied (first, second, fifth, and eighth), the average concentrations of particles less than 10 μm (PM10) in winter for were higher than those in summer. On average, a seasonal variation in the PM10 level was found for the first, fifth, and eighth floors, such that higher values occurred in the winter season, compared to the summer season. In addition, in winter, the indoor concentrations of PM10 on the first, fifth, and eighth floors were higher than those of the outdoor PM10. The maximum level of airborne bacteria concentration was found in a fifth floor office, which held a private academy school consisting of many students. Results indicated that the airborne bacteria remained at their highest concentration throughout the weekday period and varied by students' activity. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and slope of linear approximation for the concentrations of particulate matter were used to evaluate the relationship between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter. These results can be used to predict both the indoor particle levels and the risk of personal exposure to airborne bacteria. PMID:26062466

  4. First study of airborne particulate pollution using PIXE analysis in Habana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work reports the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (fine and coarse) collected at the Municipality of Centro Habana, Havana City, Cuba, using the PIXE technique. At present, there is not any information available about element contents in airborne particulate from this region. A five months sampling campaign was carried out, collecting the samples under an air flux of 20 l/min with a Gent SFU Sampler equipped with a system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected. For the PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.0 MeV energy protons from a 2 MV Tandetron Accelerator. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected with minimum detection limits from 1 ng/m3 to 10 ng/m3 for most of the elements. Enrichment factors were also calculated for both fractions in order to identify the natural and anthropogenic group of elements. The quantitative results obtained have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. (author)

  5. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  6. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62... Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 0.15 kg per metric ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln (0.30 lb per ton)....

  7. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  9. Trace elements in airborne particulates in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate materials were monitored continously with calendar month sampling periods at 5 rural/background, 4 rural/developing/peri-urban, 6 urban and 7 industrial sites in South Africa. Concentrations of Al, Br, Ca, Cs, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, V and Zn were determined with neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) employed on a complementary basis. A review of sources of airborne trace elements is given. The monitoring program, sampling, sample-handling procedures, as well as the analytical methods used, are discussed in detail. The results of related studies, i.e. effects of filter materials; sampling rates and geometry; determinations of collection efficiencies; particle size ranges; effects of internal flux monitors on the precision and accuracy of NAA; trace impurities in blank materials; quality control by routine analysis of reference materials; comparison of results obtained by NAA, AAS, and PIXE analysis; are given, as is a review of air-pollution control and research policy in South Africa and of ambient air quality standards. Results are discussed in terms of general patterns in trace-element concentrations and enrichments, the general pattern in population centres, the variability of monthly concentrations, and in terms of long-term trends at background, rural, developing, peri-urban, urban and industrial sites. Cases of concern in respect of increasing concentrations are pointed out, as are the constantly high Pb levels at urban sites

  10. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results for naturally occurring 7Be, 210Pb, 40K, 214Bi, 214Pb, 212Pb, 228Ac and 208Tl and anthropogenic 137Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The 212Pb and 208Tl, 214Bi and 214Pb, 7Be and 210Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The 7Be and 210Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the 7Be, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides

  11. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H. Amy; Ashley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 – 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were ...

  12. DETERMINATION OF MOBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN THE URBAN AIR PARTICULATES MATTER OF ISFAHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, A.; M. Talebi; B BINA

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: In addition to, Carbohyrates, Lipids, Amino acids and vitamins, some of the trace metals are known vital for biological activity. But some of them not only are not necessary, but also they are very toxic and carcinogen. In this research the rate of Mobility and Bioavailability of heavy metals associated with airborne particulates matter such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr have been measured. Methods: The sequential extraction has been used for releasing of heavy metales f...

  13. PM 2.5 Airborne Particulates Near Frac Sand Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kristin; Jacobson, Jeron; Kroening, Zachary; Pierce, Crispin

    2015-11-01

    The rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas extraction in the U.S. has led to 135 active "frac" sand mines, processing plants, and rail transfer stations in Wisconsin. Potential environmental health risks include increased truck traffic, noise, ecosystem loss, and groundwater, light, and air pollution. Emitted air contaminants include fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and respirable crystalline silica. Inhalation of fine dust particles causes increased mortality, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, and lung cancer. In the authors' pilot study, use of a filter-based ambient particulate monitor found PM2.5 levels of 5.82-50.8 µg/m3 in six 24-hour samples around frac sand mines and processing sites. Enforcement of the existing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency annual PM2.5 standard of 12 µg/m3 is likely to protect the public from silica exposure risks as well. PM2.5 monitoring around frac sand sites is needed to ensure regulatory compliance, inform nearby communities, and protect public health. PMID:26638669

  14. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  20. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J.; Gijlswijk, R. van; Wichink Kruit, R.; Segers, A.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the orig

  1. Chemical Coupling Between Atmospheric Ozone and Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Z.; DABDUB, D; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A major fraction of ambient particulate matter arises from atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion. Attempts to reduce particulate matter levels require control of the same organic and nitrogen oxide (NO_x) emissions that are precursors to urban and regional ozone formation. Modeling of the gas-aerosol chemical interactions that govern levels of particulate components showed that control of gas-phase organic and NO_x precursors does not lead to proportionate reductions of the gas-phase–derived...

  2. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  3. Chemical Speciation of Thorium in Marine Biogenic Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Katsumi Hirose

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of particulate thorium in seawater were determined together with the strong organic ligand (SOL) and uranium in particulate matter (PM). The concentrations of particulate Th in surface waters of the western North Pacific and the Sea of Japan ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 pM (1 x 10−12 M), and showed relatively large temporal and spatial variations. In order to chemically characterize the particulate Th in seawater, the relationship between particulate Th and SOL concentrations in sur...

  4. Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuala Lumpur 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban air particulate samples of Kuala Lumpur ambient air have been collected characterize according to fine and coarse airborne particulates. The air filters containing particulate matter were collected using GENT stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling location site (Lat: 03deg 10'30''; Long: 101deg 43'24.2'') is approximately 1 km from the Kuala Lumpur city center. All the sampling conducted from January 2002 until October 2004 was included in the analysis and results were reported. The mass loading for finest air particulate matter (PM 2.5) in Kuala Lumpur are 199±55 μg (2002), 171±53 μg (2003), and 171±61 μg (2004), respectively. The mass loading for coarse air particulate matter (PM 10) in Kuala Lumpur were 125±29 μg (2002), 134±48 μg (2003), and 137 ± 57 μg (2004), respectively. The elemental concentration of the air filters were determined using INAA technique utilizing both short and long irradiation facilities at MINT's TRIGA MKII reactor. Upon irradiation the air filters were counted at suitable counting time using HPGe gamma-ray detectors. The elements reported for this monitoring are Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Certified reference materials were also included in the sample analysis function as quality control materials. (author)

  5. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  6. Environmental Public Health Surveillance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice; Crosson, William

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELiX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM2.5 concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. While use of the Air Quality System (AQS) PM2.5 data alone could meet HELIX-Atlanta specifications, there are only five AQS sites in the Atlanta area, thus the spatial coverage is not ideal. We are using NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for estimating daily ground level PM2.5 at 10 km resolution over the metropolitan Atlanta area supplementing the AQS ground observations and filling their spatial and temporal gaps.

  7. MEMANFAATKAN TANAMAN UNTUK MENGURANGI POLUSI PARTICULATE MATTER KE DALAM BANGUNAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of a building are difficult to escape particulate matter emission. Within this condition, buildings should have vertical element that could block the dispersion of particulate matter to living spaces. Vegetation, a part of vertical elemen for fencing, is considered to do this task. The use of vegetation is chosen with reference to nature and behaviour of particulate matter. Earlier research found that dispersion of particulate matter is mostly at lower atmospheric layer and that particulate matter could be deposited. Therefore, low growing vegetation or climbing plants with particular leaf condition to encourage deposition is predicted suitable. Four vegetation was examined: Duranta repens, Polyscias fruticosa, Stephanotis floribunda and Scindapsus sp. As a preliminary study, there is no valid conclusion could be made from this experiment. However, there are indications that Duranta repens and Stephanotis floribunda block and deposit slightly more particulate matter than the two others. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Polusi particulate matter atau partikel halus tidak hanya terjadi di jalan raya, tetapi juga masuk ke dalam bangunan yang terletak di sepanjang jalan. Oleh karenanya, bangunan seyogyanya memiliki elemen vertikal yang mampu bertugas menghalangi masuknya polusi partikel halus. Salah satu kemungkinan penggunaan elemen vertikal, yaitu tanaman yang ditempatkan pada posisi pagar diteliti dalam studi ini. Mempelajari bahwa partikel halus dengan ukuran tertentu dapat diendapkan dan penyebarannya umumnya terjadi pada lapisan udara rendah, maka studi terhadap tanaman semak atau perdu atau tanaman rambat dengan jenis permukaan daun tertentu lebih diutamakan. Empat jenis tanaman diuji kemampuannya, yaitu: Duranta repens, Polyscias fruticosa, Stephanotis floribunda and Scindapsus sp. Sebagai studi yang sangat awal, masih belum ada hasil valid yang ditawarkan, namun setidaknya ditemukan indikasi bahwa Duranta repens and Stephanotis

  8. CFD Modeling of Particulate Matter Dispersion from Kerman Cement Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Panahandeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: The dispersion of particulate matter has been known as the most serious environmental pollution of cement plants. In the present work, dispersion of the particulate matter from stack of Kerman Cement Plant was investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modeling."nMaterials and Methods: In order to study the dispersion of particulate matter from the stack, a calculation domain with dimensions of 8000m × 800m × 400m was considered. The domain was divided to 936781 tetrahedral control volumes. The mixture two-phase model was employed to model the interaction of the particulate matter (dispersed phase and air (continuous phase. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES method was used for turbulence modeling."nResults: The concentration of particulate matter in the whole calculation domain was computed. The predicted concentrations were compared to the measured values from the literature and a good agreement was observed. The predicted concentration profiles at different cross sections were analyzed."nConclusion:The results of the present work showed that CFD is a useful tool for understanding the dispersion of particulate matter in air. Although the obtained results were promising, more investigations on the properties of the dispersed phase, turbulent parameters and the boundary layer effect is needed to obtain more accurate results.

  9. Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Makiko; Nakano, Tomio; Okuhara, Takaaki; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2011-11-01

    The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of Higashi-Osaka in Japan. The SPM sampler provides particle information about the concentrations of various SPMs (e.g., PM10 and PM2.5) separately. The AEROENT program is world wide ground based sunphotometric observation networks by NASA and provides the spectral information about aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent (α). Simultaneous measurements show that a linear correlation definitely exists between AOT and PM2.5. These results indicate that particulate matter can be estimated from AOT. However AOT represents integrated values of column aerosol amount retrieved from optical property, while particulate matter concentration presents in-situ aerosol loading on the surface. Then simple way using linear correlation brings the discrepancy between observed and estimated particulate matter. In this work, we use cluster information about aerosol type to reduce the discrepancy. Our improved method will be useful for retrieving particulate matter from satellite measurements.

  10. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extent of the potential health hazards of particulate matter (PM inside rabbit farms and the magnitude of emission levels to the outside environment are still unknown, as data on PM concentrations and emissions in and from such buildings is scarce.  The purpose of this study was to quantify airborne PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and emissions on two rabbit farms in Mediterranean conditions and identify the main factors related with farm activities influencing PM generation.  Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were determined continuously using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM in one farm with fattening rabbits and one reproductive doe farm in autumn.  At the same time as PM sampling, the time and type of human farm activity being performed was recorded. Additionally, temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rate were recorded continuously.  Emissions were calculated using a mass balance on each farm.  Results showed PM concentrations in rabbit farms are low compared with poultry and pig farms.  Average PM10 concentrations were 0.082±0.059 mg/m3 (fattening rabbits, and 0.048 ±0.058 mg/m3 (reproductive does. Average PM2.5 concentrations were 0.012±0.016 mg/m3 (fattening rabbits, and 0.012±0.035 mg/m3 (reproductive does. Particulate matter concentrations were significantly influenced by the type of human farm activity carried out in the building rather than by animal activity.  The main PM-generating activity on the fattening rabbit farm was sweeping, and the major PM-generating activity in reproductive does was sweeping and burning hair from the cages.  Average PM10 emissions were 5.987±6.144 mg/place/day (fattening rabbits, and 14.9±31.5 mg/place/day (reproductive does.  Average PM2.5 emissions were 0.20±1.26 mg/place/day (fattening rabbits, and 2.83±19.54 mg/place/day (reproductive does.  Emission results indicate that rabbit farms can be considered relevant point sources of PM emissions, comparable to

  11. Embryotoxicity of organic extracts from airborne particulates in ambient air in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kashimoto, T.

    1986-07-01

    A fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), prepared from an organic extract of airborne particulate matter, was separated into nine subfractions by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The embryotoxicity of each of these fractions was investigated and analysis for PAHs by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed. The ninth subfraction, with coronene as its main component, had the strongest toxic effects on chicken embryos per m/sup 3/ of air. Of the remaining eight subfractions, three had the greatest toxicity: the second fraction with benzofluoranthenes and benzo(e)pyrene as the main components, the fourth fraction having PAH-estimated compounds in small amounts, and the fifth fraction with indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene as the main ingredients had the greatest toxicity. These findings indicate PAHs to be responsible for embryotoxicity but the total amounts were not necessarily proportional to it. For further characterization of toxicity, the effects of each PAH and/or quantification of other embryotoxic compounds possibly present in small amounts should be investigated.

  12. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  13. Association between maternal exposure to particulate matter and premature birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiza Agostini Córdoba de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this time-series study carried out in São José dos Campos, a southeastern Brazilian city, between 01.01.2005 and 31.12.2009, was to estimate the role of maternal exposure to air pollutants and preterm births. Preterm newborns of mothers aged between 18 and 34 years, with at least eight years of schooling, singleton pregnancies and whose delivery was vaginal were included in the study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the role of particulate matter, ozone and sulfur dioxide on preterm delivery with lags of zero up to 30 days. Exposure to particulate matter was associated significantly with preterm newborns in lags of 0, 1 and 3 days; but no association was found between cumulative maternal exposure in lags of 7, 15 and 30 days and the outcome. Maternal exposure to particulate matter therefore has an acute effect on preterm births in a medium-sized Brazilian town.

  14. [Determination of particulate matter in small volume antibiotic injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, M; Tanno, K

    1989-03-01

    Amounts of particulate matter present in 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan were determined using light obscuration particle analyzer (HIAC). The vial volume range of each batch of product was 7-20 ml, and each vial contained 1 g as antibiotic potency. In 4 products, contents of particles between 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter were counted 2,000-7,000 per vial, and particles in other products were counted less than 2,000 per vial. Numbers of particles greater than or equal to 10 microns in diameter were much less than the USP XXI criteria for particulate matter in small volume injections. The product of the highest counts for particles between 10 and 25 microns in diameter showed counts amounted to 0.13% of the USP XXI criteria. In the 25-50 microns particulate diameter range, particulate matters were detected only in 2 products, and they were less than 0.2% of the USP XXI criteria. Particles over 50 microns in diameter were not detected in any products. These results showed that 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan had good qualities regarding contents of particulate matter. PMID:2746842

  15. Black carbon and elemental concentration of ambient particulate matter in Makassar Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less or equal to 10 um or PM10, has been collected on a weekly basis for one year from February 2012 to January 2013 at one site of Makassar, Province of South Sulawesi Indonesia. The samples were collected using a size selective high volume air sampler sited at Daya, a mixed urban, commercial and industrial area in the city of Makassar. The concentration of black carbon (BC) along with a total of 14 elements (i.e Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Ba, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn) were determined from the sample. Results showed that the average particulate mass concentration was 32.9 ± 11.6 μg/m3 with BC and elemental concentration constituted 6.1% and 10.6% of the particulate concentration, respectively. Both BC and elemental constituents contributed 16.7% while 83.3% of the particulate matter remained to be counted for. The black carbon concentration was higher during the dry months which may be attributed to rampant biomass burning during hot and dry weather conditions, apart from other possible sources. Most of the elements were enriched relative to soil origin illustrating of their possible associations with other sources such as marine and anthropogenic derived aerosols, particularly Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which are known to originate from man-made activities

  16. Chemical Speciation of Thorium in Marine Biogenic Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Hirose

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of particulate thorium in seawater were determined together with the strong organic ligand (SOL and uranium in particulate matter (PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface waters of the western North Pacific and the Sea of Japan ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 pM (1 x 10−12 M, and showed relatively large temporal and spatial variations. In order to chemically characterize the particulate Th in seawater, the relationship between particulate Th and SOL concentrations in surface PM was examined. The result reveals that particulate Th in surface PM was well correlated with the SOL concentration in PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface water were linearly related to those of particulate U. Mass balance analysis suggests that the dominant chemical form of Th(IV, as well as of U, in surface PM is a surface complex with the SOL in PM. Our findings suggest that the SOL in PM is a nonmetal-specific chelator originating from the cell surface of microorganisms.

  17. 公路两侧大气颗粒物中的重金属污染特征及其影响因素%Pollution characterization and controlling factors of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter near expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵莉; 肖化云

    2012-01-01

    Metal concentrations were measured in different size airborne particles collected near two expressways with different traffic densities from April 2009 to June 2009.The pollution characterization and distribution mode of Zn,Pb,Mn,Cu,Cd,Sb in airborne particles were studied to discuss the influence of traffic volume,particle size,weather and distance.The results show that Zn concentration in airborne particles was the highest,followed by Pb,Mn,Cu,Cd,and Sb concentration was the lowest.The metal concentration was highly dependent on traffic volume,indicating that traffic was the main source of these metals.The high concentrations of Zn and Mn in PM10(possibly originated from gas exhaust) and 10 μmDa50≤100 μm particles(possibly associated with tire wear) suggest that gas exhaust and tire wear were the main sources of Zn and Mn.Antimony(Sb) existed mostly in PM10 and originated mainly from the wear of brake linings.The concentration of Cu was high in both PM10 and 10 μmDa50≤100 μm particles,suggesting that Cu had other sources than the wear of brake linings.Lead(Pb) and Cd existed mainly in PM10.Weather mainly influenced the Zn concentration,but not other metals.Within 10 meters from the expressway,the metal concentration decreased little.The concentrations of Pb,Sb in the countryside was noticeably lower as compared with their concentrations near the expressway,which may be explained by the fact that the main source of airborne Pb,Sb was traffic.%选择昌九高速公路(赣粤高速公路南昌至九江段)、昌樟高速公路(赣粤高速公路南昌至樟树段)为研究对象,采集了公路两侧10μm

  18. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  19. Elemental Composition In Airborne Particulate Sample Of Bandung and Lembang Region In 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of airborne particulate of Bandung higher than that of Lembang. The PM2.5 fraction was in the range of 4,3 μg/m3 to 21,1 μg/m3 for Bandung area, and 2,9 μg/m3 to 19,2 μg/m3 for Lembang area for 24 hours sampling time. The PM10 fraction of Bandung area was in the range of 12,1 μg/m3 to 44, 1 μg/m3, where a s the PM10 fraction of Lembang area was in the range of 5,2 μg/m3 to 30,6 μg/m3. The data much lower than that of National ambient air quality standard for 24 hours, 65 μg/m3 and 150 μg/m3 for PM2.5 fraction and PM10 fraction respectively. No clear correlation either concentration of fine or coarse particulate to rainfall. For teen elements, which were Al, Br, Ca, Ce, CI, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V and Zn, were detected. The elements of Br, Ce, CI, Cr, I, Sb and Zn were enriched in fine and coarse of Bandung and Lembang samples, where as AI, Ca, Mn, Na and V were not enriched. The special element of Fe was enriched in fine particulate of Lembang, where as in particulate of Bandung was not enriched. Analysis of coarse particulate samples indicated the similar results to fine particulate except for Ce. The results of analysis explained that pollutant source of Bandung and Lembang were the same. Some elements such as Br, CI and I possibly come from organic material burning; Br and CI could be from motor vehicle; Cr, and Zn could be from paint factory; Zn and Sb could be from refuse incineration; while Ce could be from electronic factory. The calculation results indicated that enrichment factor of elements in fine particulate higher than that of coarse particulate. Furthermore the enrichment factor of element in airborne particulate of Bandung area was higher than that of airborne particulate of Lembang

  20. Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yauk Carole L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter and wildtype littermates (C57BL/6 background were exposed by inhalation for 4 h to particulate matter (0 or 42 mg/m3 EHC-6802 and euthanized 0 or 24 h post-exposure. The low alveolar dose of particles (16 μg did not provoke an inflammatory response in the lungs of wildtype mice, nor exacerbate the chronic inflammation in TNF animals. Real-time PCR confirmed particle-dependent increases of CYP1A1 (30–100%, endothelin-1 (20–40%, and metallothionein-II (20–40% mRNA in wildtype and TNF mice (p Conclusion Our data support the hypothesis that health effects of acute exposure to urban particles are dominated by activation of specific physiological response cascades rather than widespread changes in gene expression.

  1. Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Acute Exposures to Airborne Particulates in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, M. S.; Schlegel, T. T.; Knapp, C. F.; Patwardhan, A. R.; Jenkins, R. A.; Ilgner, R. H.; Evans, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate cardiac autonomic changes associated with acute exposures to airborne particulates. Methods: High fidelity 12-lead ECG (CardioSoft, Houston, TX) was acquired from 19 (10 male / 9 female) non-smoking volunteers (age 33.6 +/- 6.6 yrs) during 10 minutes pre-exposure, exposure and post-exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), cooking oil fumes, wood smoke and sham (water vapor). To control exposure levels, noise, subject activity, and temperature, all studies were conducted inside an environmental chamber. Results: The short-term fractal scaling exponent (Alpha-1) and the ratio of low frequency to high frequency Heart Rate Variability (HRV) powers (LF/HF, a purported sympathetic index) were both higher in males (pcardiac responses to some acute airborne particulates are gender related.

  2. Relationship between redox activity and chemical speciation of size-fractionated particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Arthur K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanisms of airborne particulate matter (PM related health effects remain incompletely understood, one emerging hypothesis is that these adverse effects derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS within affected cells. Typically, ROS are formed in cells through the reduction of oxygen by biological reducing agents, with the catalytic assistance of electron transfer enzymes and redox active chemical species such as redox active organic chemicals and metals. The purpose of this study was to relate the electron transfer ability, or redox activity, of the PM samples to their content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various inorganic species. The redox activity of the samples has been shown to correlate with the induction of the stress protein, hemeoxygenase-1. Results Size-fractionated (i.e. Conclusion The results of this work demonstrate the utility of the dithiothreitol assay for quantitatively assessing the redox potential of airborne particulate matter from a wide range of sources. Studies to characterize the redox activity of PM from various sources throughout the Los Angeles basin are currently underway.

  3. Deposition of Suspended Fine Particulate Matter in a Library

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráčková, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, 3 April (2013). ISSN 2050-7445 R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : fine particulate matter * deposition * brownian diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.heritagesciencejournal.com/content/1/1/7

  4. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2... shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which...

  5. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or greater....

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF COTTON GIN PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS – FIRST YEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns, the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt, including the National, Texas, Southern, Southeastern, and California associations, agreed that there is an urgent...

  7. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  8. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction ha...

  9. Detecting inertial effects with airborne matter-wave interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Remi; Stern, Guillaume; Zahzam, Nassim; Cheinet, Patrick; Battelier, Baptiste; Villing, André; Moron, Frédéric; Lours, Michel; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Inertial sensors relying on atom interferometry offer a breakthrough advance in a variety of applications, such as inertial navigation, gravimetry or ground- and space-based tests of fundamental physics. These instruments require a quiet environment to reach their performance and using them outside the laboratory remains a challenge. Here we report the first operation of an airborne matter-wave accelerometer set up aboard a 0g plane and operating during the standard gravity (1g) and microgravity (0g) phases of the flight. At 1g, the sensor can detect inertial effects more than 300 times weaker than the typical acceleration fluctuations of the aircraft. We describe the improvement of the interferometer sensitivity in 0g, which reaches 2 x 10-4 ms-2 / \\surdHz with our current setup. We finally discuss the extension of our method to airborne and spaceborne tests of the Universality of free fall with matter waves.

  10. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  11. On the removal of airborne particulate radioactivity under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of an accident, the filter elements in the ventilation systems of a nuclear facility may become a part of the remaining fission product barrier. Within the framework of the Project Nuclear Safety of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, contributions are made to an increase in reliability of the air cleaning systems under accident conditions. These include the development and verification of computer programs for the estimation of those conditions prevailing inside the air cleaning systems in the case of an accident. Experimental investigations into the response of HEPA filters to differential pressures involving both dry and moist air have demonstrated the occurence of structural failures with subsequent loss of efficiency at relatively low values of differential pressures. With regard to further investigations, a new test facility was put into operation for the realization of superimposed challenges. A new method for testing particulate removal efficiency under high temperature or high humidity was developed. Finally, first results of code development work and of the corresponding verification experiments are reported on. (orig.)

  12. Environmental atmosphere suspended particulate matter analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the environmental indicators of the atmosphere environment is suspended particulate matter (SPM). Recently, the concentration of particulate matter under 2.5 micro-meters (PM2.5) among SPM is regarded as important, and an environmental standard has been established for PM2.5 concentration. S.H.I. Examination and Inspection (SEI), Ltd. analyzes the components of PM2.5 by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a Van de Graaff accelerator. SEI's PIXE analysis system quantifies the components by an external standard method. As a method for validating the reliability, the certified values of standard matter SRM2783 were compared with SEI's analysis values, and it was confirmed that the uncertainty of the analysis values of PM2.5 with this analysis system was within 10%. (author)

  13. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants

  14. Modeling air quality during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CPRAQS) using the UCD/CIT source-oriented air quality model - Part III. Regional source apportionment of secondary and total airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Qi; Lu, Jin; Kleeman, Michael

    A comprehensive air quality modeling project was carried out to simulate regional source contributions to secondary and total (=primary + secondary) airborne particle concentrations in California's Central Valley. A three-week stagnation episode lasting from December 15, 2000 to January 7, 2001, was chosen for study using the air quality and meteorological data collected during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). The UCD/CIT mechanistic air quality model was used with explicit decomposition of the gas phase reaction chemistry to track source contributions to secondary PM. Inert artificial tracers were used with an internal mixture representation to track source contributions to primary PM. Both primary and secondary source apportionment calculations were performed for 15 size fractions ranging from 0.01 to 10 μm particle diameters. Primary and secondary source contributions were resolved for fugitive dust, road dust, diesel engines, catalyst equipped gasoline engines, non-catalyst equipped gasoline engines, wood burning, food cooking, high sulfur fuel combustion, and other anthropogenic sources. Diesel engines were identified as the largest source of secondary nitrate in central California during the study episode, accounting for approximately 40% of the total PM 2.5 nitrate. Catalyst equipped gasoline engines were also significant, contributing approximately 20% of the total secondary PM 2.5 nitrate. Agricultural sources were the dominant source of secondary ammonium ion. Sharp gradients of PM concentrations were predicted around major urban areas. The relative source contributions to PM 2.5 from each source category in urban areas differ from those in rural areas, due to the dominance of primary OC in urban locations and secondary nitrate in the rural areas. The source contributions to ultra-fine particle mass PM 0.1 also show clear urban/rural differences. Wood smoke was found to be the major source of PM 0.1 in urban areas while

  15. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  16. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption on selected solid particulate matter fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, Frantisek; Huzlik, Jiri; Pawelczyk, Adam; Hoza, Ignac; Naplavova, Magdalena; Jedlicka, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    This article is directed to evaluating the proportion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) captured on particulate matter (PM) classified as PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, i.e. particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5-10 μm and 2.5 μm. During three week-long and one 2-day campaigns, 22 paired air samples were taken in parallel of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions inside the Mrázovka tunnel in Prague, Czech Republic. Following sample preparation, concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual pairs of each PAH were tested by the nonparametric method using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. At significance level p detection limit, where increased measurement error can be expected.

  18. Particulate matter formation from photochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Several experiments were performed in the European Photo-reactor - EUPHORE - for studying aerosol formation from organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl. The mass concentration yields obtained (Y) were in the range 5 - 44% for the photo-oxidation reactions in the presence and the absence of NOx. These results confirm the importance of studying pesticides as significant precursors of atmospheric particulate matter due to the serious risks associated to them. The studies based on the use of EUPHORE photoreactor provide useful data about atmospheric degradation processes of organophosphorus pesticides to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the specific degradation products, including the formation of secondary particulate matter, could complete the assessment of their potential impact, since the formation of those degradation products plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry, global climate change, radiative force, and are related to health effects.

  19. Gaseous pollutants in particulate matter epidemiology: confounders or surrogates?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarnat, J A; Schwartz, J.; Catalano, P J; Suh, H H

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiologic studies use ambient pollutant concentrations as surrogates of personal exposure. Strong correlations among numerous ambient pollutant concentrations, however, have made it difficult to determine the relative contribution of each pollutant to a given health outcome and have led to criticism that health effect estimates for particulate matter may be biased due to confounding. In the current study we used data collected from a multipollutant exposure study conducted i...

  20. Electrically heated particulate matter filter soot control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2016-03-15

    A regeneration system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A control module determines a current soot loading level of the PM filter and compares the current soot loading level to a predetermined soot loading level. The control module permits regeneration of the PM filter when the current soot loading level is less than the predetermined soot loading level.

  1. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  2. Establishing the origin of particulate matter across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Martijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. In this paper we like to provide an overview of recent source apportionment studies aimed at PM and its precursors carried out at TNO. The source apportionment module that tracks the origin of modelled particulate matter distributions throughout a LOTOS-EUROS simulation will be explained. To optimally apply this technology dedicated emission inventories, e.g. fuel type specific, need to be generated. Applications to Europe shows that in northwestern Europe the contribution of transport and agricultural emissions dominate the PM mass concentrations, especially during episodic events. In eastern Europe, the domestic and energy sector are much more important. In southern Europe the picture is more mixed, although the frequent high levels of desert dust stand out. Evaluation of the source allocation against experimental data and PMF analyses is challenging as there is only a limited availability of source specific tracers or factors that can be used for direct comparison. Nonetheless, for the available tracers such as vanadium for heavy fuel oil combustion an evaluation is very well possible. The source apportionment technique can also be used to interpret particulate matter formation efficiencies. It will be shown that the conversion rates for the secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (NOx, NH3 and SO2) have changed during the last 20 years. A particular problem is related to the fact that CTMs systematically underestimate observed PM levels, which means that the contribution of certain source categories (natural, agriculture, combustion) are underestimated. Future developments needed to improve the source apportionment information concerning process knowledge, data assimilation as well as model implementation will be discussed. Specific challenges concerning the

  3. Particulate Matter and Ozone: Remote Sensing and Source Attribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sungshik

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and tropospheric ozone are air pollutants that are harmful to human health and have broad implications for climate. Despite their importance, there remain large uncertainties related to their sources, evolution in the atmosphere, and impact downwind. In this thesis, I work to address some of these uncertainties through integrated analysis of ground, aircraft, and satellite observations and using both forward and inverse modeling approaches. A new, high-resolution d...

  4. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-01

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs (wash waters, first-order desorption rates for PAHs with log Kow > 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples. PMID:27312518

  5. Spatial statistics of atmospheric particulate matter in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghui; Wang, Yangjun; Huang, Yongxiang; Zhou, Quan; Lu, Zhiming; Shi, Xiang; Liu, Yulu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the spatial dynamics of the atmospheric particulate matters (resp. PM10 and PM2.5) are studied using turbulence methodologies. It is found experimentally that the spatial correlation function ρ(r) shows a log-law on the mesoscale range, i.e., 50 ≤ r ≤ 500 km, with an experimental scaling exponent β = 0.45. The spatial structure function shows a power-law behavior on the mesoscale range 90 ≤ r ≤ 500 km. The experimental scaling exponent ζ(q) is convex, showing that the intermittent correction is relevant in characterizing the spatial dynamic of particulate matter. The measured singularity spectrum f(α) also shows its multifractal nature. Experimentally, the particulate matter is more intermittent than the passive scalar, which could be partially due to the mesoscale movements of the atmosphere, and also due to local sources, such as local industry activities.

  6. Chernobylsk accident: radioactivity measurement of airborn particulate in the AM/CNR network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of the radioactivity measurements performed on samples of airborne particulates taken at the station of the AM/CNR network after the Chernobylsk accident. In particular for the 16 operating stations are reported tables and trends referred to the beta total measurements performed on two samples per day per station and the activity of some gamma emitting radionuclides deriving from the analysis made on concentrations of filters referred to North-Central and Southrn Italy plus Islands. The presentation of data is preceded by a short description of the AM/CNR network and the sampling system as well as the methodology of total beta measurement and gamma analysis

  7. Distribution of particulate organic matter in Rajapur and Vagothan estuarines (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tulaskar, A.S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    The distribution of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and particulate proteins (PP) in the suspended particulate matter was studied. The POC, PCHO and PP concentrations ranged from 176 to 883 mu g.l/1, 115 to 647 mu...

  8. Short-term mechanisms of toxic action of airborne particulates underlie dose-rate dependent health risks and support control of one-hour airborne particle levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, R.A.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1999-07-01

    Twenty-four-hour airborne particle mass levels permissible under the NAAQS have been associated with mortality and morbidity in communities, motivating reconsideration of the standard. Reports of shorter-term mechanisms of toxic action exerted by airborne PM and PM constituents are emerging. The mechanisms are diverse, but have in common a short time frame of toxic action, from minutes to hours. In view of documented PM excursions also lasting minutes to hours, this study inquires whether such short-term mechanisms might contribute to explaining daily morbidity and mortality. Toxicology experiments have demonstrated the harmfulness of brief exposure to PM levels in the range of observed excursions. This suggests that toxicological processes initiated by short-term inhalation of PM may exert clinically important effects, and that weak associations of 24-hour-average particle mass with mortality and morbidity may represent artifacts of stronger, shorter-term associations whose full magnitude remains to be quantified. In one study, the area of lung surface developing lesions was elevated in rats breathing the same four-hour dose of aerosols, when the four-hour average rate of aerosol delivery included a short-term (five-minute) burst fifty percent above the average dose rate. Elevations were observed with each of two aerosols tested. The magnitude of the effect was higher with one of the two aerosols, whose dose rate included four excursions rather than just one excursion. Particulate matter inhaled or instilled intratracheally has produced morbidity in animals, including apnea and electrophysiological effects in dogs. Other studies reveal that PM can kill rats via electrophysiological and possibly other mechanisms. PM has also adversely affected asthmatic people in controlled clinical settings during exercise or, in one study, at rest.

  9. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  10. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  11. Characterization of polar organics in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokouchi, Y.; Ambe, Y.

    The methanol-extractable highly polar organics in atmospheric aerosol were characterized using GC-MS. Dicarboxylic acids having 2-16 carbon numbers were detected with a total concentration of 172 ng m -3. Azelaic acid ( C9) was the most abundant diacid and it possibly originated from the ozonolysis of unsaturated carboxylic acids such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, which mainly originate from terrestrial plants. A compound, which was tentatively identified as tetrahydrofuroic acid, contributed to about 10% of the highly polar organics. Other polyfunctional compounds found in the samples included some ketocarboxylic acids and aromatic acids such as phthalic acids, anisic acid and vanillic acid.

  12. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several trace elements are being introduced into the atmosphere from various sources. Since many of the trace elements are highly toxic, the concentrations of them should be measured and controlled continuously for public health. Concentrations of trace elements have been determined in air samples collected from seven different districts of Ankara by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.)

  13. Accuracy of chemical analysis of airborne particulates: results of an intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since suitable standard reference materials for chemical analysis of airborne particulates are not available, an intercomparison exercise was carried out among 40 interested laboratories in order to evaluate the accuracy of various trace analysis techniques for this specific application. Six hundred grams of airborne particulates were collected from the inlet filters of the air conditioning installation of a hotel in the center of Milan. The sample was sieved to remove coarser particles, thoroughly mixed, and distributed in 1 to 5 gram aliquots. The homogeneity was checked by relative measurements carried out by three independent techniques. For 40 elements no inhomogeneity was found to exceed the analytical error, which was estimated to be approximately 10 percent. The data of the analytical exercise are being collected and evaluated. Results are available for 56 elements, but to date only 33 have been determined by more than one technique. Activation analysis, emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption, x-ray fluorescence and various wet chemical methods contributed to the intercomparison. No result was received from mass spectroscopic methods and, although analyses were specifically encouraged, very few results were received on the organic components. From a first approximate evaluation a good agreement was found for Al, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Pb, Cl, S, Si, Ti, Mn, while for the other elements no definite conclusion can yet be drawn. An attempt will be made to interpret important cases of systematic errors, a few of which are already evident

  14. Simultaneously catalytic removal of NOx and particulate matter on diesel particulate filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The simultaneous removal of NOx and particulate matter (PM) exhausted from diesel engine was studied with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) on which a mixed metal oxide catalyst, Cu0.95K0.05Fe2O4 was loaded. The NOx reduction was observed in the same temperature range of the CO2 formation, implying the occurrence of the simultaneous removal of NOx and PM in an oxidizing atmosphere. It was shown that SOF and soot in PM are attributed to the reduction of NOx at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The oxidation of PM was enhanced by the coexistence of NO and O2. The ignition and exhaustion temperatures of PM decrease as the order NO>O2>NO+O2. This is a combined process of PM trapping as well as the catalytic reactions of soot oxidation and NOx reduction, promising the most desirable after-treatment of diesel exhausts.

  15. Elemental analysis of airborne particulate by using thermal and epithermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis was used to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na, V, and Ti concentrations, whereas epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to determine Cu, I and Si concentrations. Counting by Compton suppression both in thermal neutron activation and epithermal neutron activation analysis showed the significantly different on detection limit of element compare with normal counting system. It revealed counting by Compton suppression gave better result. The enrichment factor of elements indicated that V and Mn were enriched in several fine particulate samples. Ca, Si and Na were not enriched, whereas Br, I and Cl were enriched in fine airborne particulate or in coarse one. It was found that Cl and Na did not have correlation, while Br and I showed the same enrichment the same enrichment trend and high correlation (0,9). It means that Br and I were from the same pollutant source. It could concluded that the thermal neutron and epithermal neutron activations analysis combined with counting by Compton suppression could enhance sensitivity of analysis of elemental air bone particulate that was very useful in air pollution study. Key words : activation analysis, thermal neutron, epithermal neutron, Compton

  16. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  18. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  19. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  20. Size-resolved particulate matter composition in Beijing during pollution and dust events

    OpenAIRE

    Dillner, Ann M.; Schauer, James J; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Cass, Glen R.

    2006-01-01

    Each spring, Beijing, China, experiences dust storms which cause high particulate matter concentrations. Beijing also has many anthropogenic sources of particulate matter including the large Capitol Steel Company. On the basis of measured size segregated, speciated particulate matter concentrations, and calculated back trajectories, three types of pollution events occurred in Beijing from 22 March to 1 April 2001: dust storms, urban pollution events, and an industrial pollution event. For eac...

  1. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on particulate organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate organic matter (POM) is a key organic matter fraction which can influence soil fertility. Its interactions with hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOCs) have not been characterized and the mechanisms of retention of HOCs by POM remain unclear. In the present study, sorption behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) by POMs separated from different soils were examined and the POMs were characterized by elemental analysis, solid state 13C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that POMs were mainly composed of aliphatic components with high polarity. The different original POMs showed similar chemical composition and configuration. Sorption behaviors of PAHs indicated that there was no significant difference in sorption capacity among the POMs. Sorption of NAP and PHE by POMs displayed a nonlinear isotherm, while sorption of PYR yielded a linear isotherm. No significant hysteresis and ionic strength effect were observed for PAH desorption from the POMs.

  2. Photoinduced particulate matter in a parenteral formulation for bisnafide, an experimental antitumor agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, J T; Chan, L L; Walker, J T; Segretario, J; Everlof, J G; Hussain, M A

    1999-08-01

    This paper assesses the cause of particulate formation in vials of the experimental antitumor agent bisnafide and investigates pharmaceutical techniques to reduce the number of particulates in the product. Solution preparation and particulate isolation were performed under Class 100 laminar air flow. Reversed-phase HPLC and infrared microscopy were used to characterize drug and isolated particulate matter, whereas a Hiac particle counter was used to quantify the particulate matter. Particulate matter was observed following agitation of the drug solutions and was found to be associated with specific lots of drug substance. HPLC of the isolated particulate matter indicated that the particulates consisted largely of bisnafide and impurities that were identified as the products of photodegradation, confirmed to be the result of the photolytic cleavage of bisnafide to form a poorly soluble aldehyde. The aldehyde may, in turn, interact with bisnafide molecules to form the particulate matter as suggested by the observed pH-dependent reversibility of the particulate phenomenon. The particulate matter could be reduced by protecting solutions of bisnafide from light during chemical synthesis and production of the dosage form and, alternatively, by reducing the solution pH to 3.0 or less, addition of surfactants below their critical micelle concentration, and removal of impurities by froth flotation of the bisnafide solutions. PMID:10434290

  3. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment. PMID:27310460

  4. Particulate matter analysis at elementary schools in Curitiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigo, Devanir; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Janissek, Paulo R.; Godoi, Ricardo H.M. [Positivo University, Curitiba (Brazil); Makarovska, Yaroslava; Krata, Agnieszka; Grieken, Rene van [University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Antwerp (Belgium); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [University of the Witwatersrand, Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, Wits (South Africa); Alfoldy, Balint [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Health Physics Department, Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-06-15

    The particulate matter indoors and outdoors of the classrooms at two schools in Curitiba, Brazil, was characterised in order to assess the indoor air quality. Information concerning the bulk composition was provided by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). From the calculated indoor/outdoor ratios and the enrichment factors it was observed that S-, Cl- and Zn-rich particles are of concern in the indoor environment. In the present research, the chemical compositions of individual particles were quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis low Z EPMA. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition associations. Five classes were identified based on major elemental concentrations: aluminosilicate, soot, organic, calcium carbonate and iron-rich particles. The majority of the respirable particulate matter found inside of the classroom was composed of soot, biogenic and aluminosilicate particles. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the human respiratory system were calculated revealing the deposition of soot at alveolar level. The results showed that on average 42% of coarse particles are deposited at the extrathoracic level, whereas 24% are deposited at the pulmonary region. The fine fraction showed a deposition rate of approximately 18% for both deposition levels. (orig.)

  5. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ) concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities; health risk to adults and children associated with PAHs inhalation was assessed by taking into account the lifetime average daily dose and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR was within the acceptable range (10-6-10-4), indicating a low health risk to residents in these areas.

  6. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  7. Carcinogenicity of airborne fine particulate benzo(a)pyrene: an appraisal of the evidence and the need for control.

    OpenAIRE

    PERERA, F.

    1981-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene(BaP) originating from fossil fuel and other organic combustion processes is largely adsorbed on fine particulate and hence is a widespread atmospheric pollutant. Available emissions and air quality data are based on the total weight of particulate matter without reference to size and give little information on trends and concentrations of fine particulate BaP. Greater reliance on coal, synfuels and diesel fuel for energy production and transportation will significantly increase...

  8. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lang-Yona; Dannemiller, K.; Yamamoto, N; N. Burshtein; Peccia, J; O. Yarden; Rudich, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal spores in atmosph...

  9. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lang-Yona; Dannemiller, K.; Yamamoto, N; N. Burshtein; Peccia, J; O. Yarden; Rudich, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal...

  10. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the eastern mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lang-Yona; Dannemiller, K.; Yamamoto, N; N. Burshtein; Peccia, J; O. Yarden; Rudich, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal spores in atmosph...

  11. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  12. Characterization of Particulate Matter from a Heavily Industrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarini, Simone; Ynoue, Rita Yuri

    2011-01-01

    A characterization of PM aerosols collected in Cubatão, Brazil is presented. Throughout 2009, 5 sampling campaings were carried out at CEPEMA (Centro de Capacitação e Pesquisa em Meio Ambiente da Universidade de São Paulo), in the vicinity of PETROBRAS oil refinery. Mini-vol portable air sampler was deployed to collect coarse and fine particles. Size-fractionated particle samples were collected by a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) device. Gravimetric analysis showed three peaks for mass size distributions: the After-Filter stage (cut point diameter of less than 0,1μm), stage 7A (d=0,32μm) and stage 3A (d= 3,2μm). Fine particle matter (FPM) concentrations were almost always lower than coarse particle matter (CPM) concentrations. Comparison between the PM2.5 (particulate matter lower than 2.5μg.m-3) measurements by the MOUDI and Mini-Vol sampler reveals good agreement. However, MOUDI underestimates CPM. Reflectance analysis showed that almost all the Black Carbon is found in the Mini-Vol FPM and lower stages of the MOUDI, with higher concentrations at the After-Filter. The atmospheric loading of PM 2.5 was elevated at night, mainly due to more stable atmospheric conditions. Aerosol samples were analyzed for water- soluble ions, black carbon (BC), and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques.

  13. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  17. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5 and PM2.5-1.0) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM10-2.5 4.1-7.4 μg m-3 and PM2.5-1.0 2.0-3.3 μg m-3) than indoors (average PM10-2.5 13.6-26.7 μg m-3 and PM2.5-1.0 3.7-7.4 μg m-3). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM10-2.5 and 1.4-4.8 for the PM2.5-1.0 values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM10-2.5) and 19.1 (PM2.5-1.0). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate

  18. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  19. Some improvements in air particulate matter analysis by INAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, M. M.; Freitas, M. C.; Almeida, S. M.; Reis, M. A.

    2001-06-01

    At ITN, analysis of air particulate matter has been made since 1999, stimulated by a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Samples are analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Heavy metals and other elements are determined. The procedures for filter analysis have recently been changed, leading to the present comparison between the old and the new procedures. For INAA, in this new procedure we look for the 336.2 keV gamma line of 115mIn in addition to the gamma-ray line of 527.9 keV used for the detection of 115Cd. Cd evaluations obtained by both gamma lines are compared and detection limits for Cd are presented. Preliminary results for Cd, As, Ni, and Hg are shown for a region in the north of Lisbon.

  20. Some improvements in air particulate matter analysis by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinha, M.M. E-mail: mmanuelf@itn1.itn.pt; Freitas, M.C.; Almeida, S.M.; Reis, M.A

    2001-06-01

    At ITN/ analysis of air particulate matter has been made since 1999/ stimulated by a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Samples are analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Heavy metals and other elements are determined. The procedures for filter analysis have recently been changed/ leading to the present comparison between the old and the new procedures. For INAA/ in this new procedure we look for the 336.2 keV gamma line of {sup 115m}In in addition to the gamma-ray line of 527.9 keV used for the detection of {sup 115}Cd. Cd evaluations obtained by both gamma lines are compared and detection limits for Cd are presented. Preliminary results for Cd/ As/ Ni/ and Hg are shown for a region in the north of Lisbon.

  1. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  2. Simulations of dispersion and deposition of coarse particulate matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the dispersion and deposition of coarse anthropogenic particulate matter (PMc, aerodynamic diameters> 10 mm), a FORTRAN simulator based on the numerical integrator of Bulirsch and Stoer has been developed. It calculates trajectories of particles of several shapes released into the atmosphere under very general conditions. This first version, fully three-dimensional, models the meteorology under neutral stability conditions. The simulations of such pollutants are also important because the standard software (usually originating in the United States Environmental Protection Agency-EPA-) describe only the behavior of PM10 (diameter less than 10 mm). Bulirsch and Stoer integrator of widespread use in astrophysics, is also very fast and accurate for this type of simulations. We present 2D and 3D trajectories in physical space and discuss the final deposition in function of various parameters. PMc simulations results in the range of 50-100 mm and densities of 5.5 g cm-3 emitted from chimneys, indi...

  3. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  4. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  5. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Kuenen, Jeroen; van Gijlswijk, René; Wichink Kruit, Roy; Segers, Arjo; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the origin of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Netherlands for 2007-2009 at the source sector level, distinguishing between national and foreign sources. The results suggest that 70-80% of modeled PM10 and 80-95% of PM2.5 in the Netherlands is of anthropogenic origin. About 1/3 of anthropogenic PM10 is of Dutch origin and 2/3 originates in foreign countries. Agriculture and transport are the Dutch sectors with the largest contribution to PM10 mass in the Netherlands, whereas the foreign contribution is more equally apportioned to road transport, other transport, industry, power generation and agriculture. For the PM2.5 fraction, a larger share is apportioned to foreign and anthropogenic origin than for PM10, but the same source sectors are dominant. The national contribution to PM levels is significantly higher in the densely populated Randstad area than for the country on average and areas close to the borders. In general, the Dutch contribution to the concentration of primary aerosol is larger than for secondary species. The sectoral origin varies per component and is location and time dependent. During peak episodes, natural sources are less important than under normal conditions, whereas especially road transport and agriculture become more important.

  6. Some improvements on air particulate matter analysis by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At ITN analysis of air particulate matter is being made since 1994. Use is being made of PM10 Gent samplers with separation in two fractions: E.A.D. (equivalent aerodynamic diameter) < 2.5 μm and 2.5 μm < E.A.D. <10 μm. Costar-Nuclepore polycarbonate filters are used. Filters are routinely analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Heavy metals and other elements are determined. The procedure used consists in cutting the filter in three parts: one half for INAA, one quarter for PIXE and one quarter left for other eventual uses. For INAA, the half filter was rolled up, irradiated in pure polyethylene container and gamma measurement made including the irradiated polyethylene container. Blanks consisting of polyethylene container + half filter (clean) were also irradiated for impurity content correction. For some elements correction was quite relevant; therefore decision was taken is irradiating the rolled filter within a tin foil which after irradiation was removed and the half filter put into a polyethylene container not-irradiated. In this work comparison is made between the two situations, showing advantages and disadvantages of both procedures. For INAA, Cd-115 was used for Cd determination and very seldom the 527.9 keV gamma line was visible. Now we also look for the 336.2 keV gamma line of In-115m. In this work Cd results obtained by both gamma lines are shown and compared and detection limits for Cd are presented. Taking into account the EU directive 96/62/CE, which will demand very soon determination of Cd, As, Ni, and Hg, some results on these elements in air particulate matter collected in the neighbourhood of Lisbon are shown. (author)

  7. Environmental particulate matter induces murine intestinal inflammatory responses and alters the gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM is a key pollutant in ambient air that has been associated with negative health conditions in urban environments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orally administered PM on the gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions. METHODS: Wild-type 129/SvEv mice were gavaged with Ottawa urban PM10 (EHC-93 for 7-14 days and mucosal gene expression analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Intestinal permeability was measured by lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine. At sacrifice, segments of small and large intestine were cultured and cytokine secretion measured. Splenocytes were isolated and incubated with PM10 for measurement of proliferation. Long-term effects of exposure (35 days on intestinal cytokine expression were measured in wild-type and IL-10 deficient (IL-10(-/- mice. Microbial composition of stool samples was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short chain fatty acids were measured in caecum. RESULTS: Short-term treatment of wild-type mice with PM10 altered immune gene expression, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the small intestine, increased gut permeability, and induced hyporesponsiveness in splenocytes. Long-term treatment of wild-type and IL-10(-/- mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the colon and altered short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial composition. IL-10(-/- mice had increased disease as evidenced by enhanced histological damage. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of airborne particulate matter alters the gut microbiome and induces acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the intestine.

  8. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  9. Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzi, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Carslaw, K.; Decesari, S.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Facchini, M. C.; Fowler, D.; Koren, I.; Langford, B.; Lohmann, U.; Nemitz, E.; Pandis, S.; Riipinen, I.; Rudich, Y.; Schaap, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Vignati, E.; Wild, M.; Williams, M.; Gilardoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 °C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China

  10. Indoor and outdoor airborne particles. An in vitro study on mutagenic potential and toxicological implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Houdt, van, R.

    1988-01-01

    IntroductionAir pollution components are present as gases and as particulate matter. As particle deposition takes place in various parts of the respiratory system particulate matter may have other toxicological implications than gaseous pollutants, which all may penetrate in the lower part of the respiratory tract. In addition, suspended particulate matter represents a group of pollutants of variable physical as well as chemical composition. Therefore airborne particulate matter cannot be reg...

  11. DETERMINATION OF MOBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN THE URBAN AIR PARTICULATES MATTER OF ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KALANTARI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In addition to, Carbohyrates, Lipids, Amino acids and vitamins, some of the trace metals are known vital for biological activity. But some of them not only are not necessary, but also they are very toxic and carcinogen. In this research the rate of Mobility and Bioavailability of heavy metals associated with airborne particulates matter such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr have been measured. Methods: The sequential extraction has been used for releasing of heavy metales from solid samples as airborne particulates matter on the paper filter samples. Five stages in the sequential extraction procedure developed by Tessier, et al, was first used for extraction and determination of the concentration and percentages of heavy metals which could be released in each stage. In the 1st stage, exchangable metals were released. The sample was extracted with 10 ml of ammonium acetat, pH=7 for 1h. Then the sample was centrifuged at 2000 rpm. The solution of extraction, was analysed for Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr. In the 2nd stage, heavy metals bound to carbonates which were sensitive to pH were extracted. The residue from stage 1, with 10 ml of sodium acetate 1 M the pH was adjusted to 5 with acetic acid. Then the sample was centrifuged as stage 1. In the third stage heavy metals bound to iron and manganese oxides were extracted. The residue from stage 2 was reacted with 10 ml hydroxyl amine hydrochloride at 25% v/v. In the 4th stage metals bound to sulfides and organic compounds were extracted. The residue from stage 3 with 5 ml nitric acid and 5 ml hydrogen peroxide 30% and heated at 85° C. Finally in the 5th stage residual heavy metals were extracted. the residue from fraction 4 with 10 ml nitric acid and 3 ml hydroflouric acid were extracted. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in some fractions of sequential extraction were too low, so, we carried out preconcentration method for these two elements. Results and Discussion: The results

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission limit for particulate matter. 2. Fabric filter control a. Install and operate a bag leak detection... Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection... Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated in § 63.7500, you must comply with...

  13. Development and preliminary evaluation of a particulate matter emission factor model for European motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R B; Colls, J J

    2000-10-01

    Although modeling of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles is now quite advanced, prediction of particulate emissions is still at an unsophisticated stage. Emission factors for gasoline vehicles are not reliably available, since gasoline vehicles are not included in the European Union (EU) emission test procedure. Regarding diesel vehicles, emission factors are available for different driving cycles but give little information about change of emissions with speed or engine load. We have developed size-specific speed-dependent emission factors for gasoline and diesel vehicles. Other vehicle-generated emission factors are also considered and the empirical equation for re-entrained road dust is modified to include humidity effects. A methodology is proposed to calculate modal (accelerating, cruising, or idling) emission factors. The emission factors cover particle size ranges up to 10 microns, either from published data or from user-defined size distributions. A particulate matter emission factor model (PMFAC), which incorporates virtually all the available information on particulate emissions for European motor vehicles, has been developed. PMFAC calculates the emission factors for five particle size ranges [i.e., total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM5, PM2.5, and PM1] from both vehicle exhaust and nonexhaust emissions, such as tire wear, brake wear, and re-entrained road dust. The model can be used for an unlimited number of roads and lanes, and to calculate emission factors near an intersection in user-defined elements of the lane. PMFAC can be used for a variety of fleet structures. Hot emission factors at the user-defined speed can be calculated for individual vehicles, along with relative cold-to-hot emission factors. The model accounts for the proportions of distance driven with cold engines as a function of ambient temperature and road type (i.e., urban, rural, or motorway). A preliminary evaluation of PMFAC with an available dispersion model to predict

  14. Air particulate matter exacerbates lung response on Sjögren's Syndrome animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, S; Orona, N; Villalón, L; Saldiva, P H N; Tasat, D R; Berra, A

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated air particulate matter (PM) inhalation with a decline in lung function and increased morbo-mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases, particularly in susceptible populations. Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by cellular infiltration in exocrine glands and extraglandular tissue, being the respiratory tract an important target. We evaluated the effect of PM on the airways of NOD mice, which develop SS and BALB/c mice. BALB/c or NOD mice (2-3 months) were randomized in two groups and exposed to intranasal instillation either with saline (control) or ROFA solution (1mg/kg body weight). After 24h, mice were euthanized in order to perform lung histology, or measure total cell number (TCN), differential cell count (DCC) and superoxide anion generation in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. BALB/c mice showed normal histoarchitecture, while NOD mice showed lymphocytic peribronchial infiltrates. ROFA exposure affected the respiratory tract from both BALB/c and NOD mice, with a significant increase in the TCN (p<0.05) and generation of O2(-) (p<0.05), as well as an imbalance in the DCC (p<0.05). All histological observations correlated with the cellular parameters evaluated. Lesions in NOD mice were more severe than those of BALB/c, showing cellular infiltration in the alveoli and leading to a greater decrease in the alveolar space. We have proved that in this experimental Sjögren's Syndrome animal model (NOD mice); airborne pollution exacerbates pre-existing pulmonary lesions. These findings show experimental evidence on the harmful effects of airborne pollution on the airways of patients with Sjögren's Syndrome. PMID:25467751

  15. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ) concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities; health risk to adults and children associated with PAHs inhalation was assessed by taking into account the lifetime average daily dose and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR was within the acceptable range (10-6-10-4), indicating a low health risk to residents in these areas.

  16. The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

  17. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Beelen, R; Wang, M.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We...... meta-analysis. RESULTS: The 245,782 cohort members contributed 3,229,220person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean, 13.1years), 1878 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. In the meta-analyses, elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer were associated with all elements except V; none was.......59; 1.12-2.26 per 2ng/m(3)) and PM10 K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PM10 and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed to...

  18. Sources of atmospheric carbonaceous particulate matter in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabada, J.C.; Pandis, S.N.; Robinson, A.L. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The organic carbon (OC)/elemental carbon (EC) tracer method is applied to the Pittsburgh, PA, area to estimate the contribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) to the monthly average concentration of organic particulate matter (PM) during 1995. An emissions inventory is constructed for the primary emissions of OC and EC in the area of interest. The ratio of primary emissions of OC to those of EC ranges between 2.4 in the winter months and 1.0 in summer months. A mass balance model and ambient measurements were used to assess the accuracy of the emissions inventory. It is estimated to be accurate to within 50%. The results from this analysis show a strong monthly dependence of the SOA contribution to the total organic PM concentration, varying from near zero during winter months to as much as 50% of the total OC concentration in the summer. Local wood and fugitive sources combustion are major sources of primary OC in western Pennsylvania on an annual basis (33 and 22% respectively), and wood burning is the dominant source during winter months. The coke producing industry and diesel combustion are the dominant sources of the primary EC emissions (21 and 30% respectively). The EC emissions show a weaker monthly dependence compared with that shown by OC sources. 57 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  20. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM2.5 and PM10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  1. Characteristics and cellular effects of ambient particulate matter from Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro tests using human adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and small mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line J774A.1 were conducted to test toxicity of six PM (particulate matter) samples from Beijing. The properties of the samples differ significantly. The production of inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α for J774A.1) and chemokine (IL-8 for A549) and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used as endpoints. There was a positive correlation between water soluble organic carbon and DTT-based redox activity. Both cell types produced increased levels of inflammatory mediators and had higher level of intracelllar ROS, indicating the presence of PM-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which were dose-dependent and significantly different among the samples. The releases of IL-8 from A549 and TNF-α from J774A.1 were significantly correlated to PM size, Zeta potential, endotoxin, major metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. No correlation between ROS and these properties was identified. - Highlights: • Six PMs from Beijing were tested for toxicity using A549 and J774A.1 cell lines. • The properties of the PM samples differ significantly. • Dose-dependent inflammatory response and oxidative stress were found. • The release of inflammatory cytokine was significantly correlated to PM properties. • No correlation between ROS and PM properties was identified. - Cellular toxicity of PM2.5 from Beijing depends on their properties

  2. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R A O; Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2015-07-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM2.5 and PM10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. PMID:25795175

  3. Vis-NIR characterization of particulate matter in urban and industrial sites in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, R.; Montagnoli, M.; Salvatori, R.; Perrino, C.

    2010-12-01

    The optical properties of particulate matter are key parameters for the definition of the radiative balance of the atmosphere and require a deeper comprehension for improving modelling. Considering the cognitive gap evidenced by IPCC guidelines, additional tools are necessary for understanding how size distribution and mineralogy contribute to the complexity of a matrix such as particulate matter. Knowing that concentration and chemical composition are nowadays features that are “traditionally” investigated, the role of mineralogy and size distribution on the physico-chemical behaviour of airborne particles represent evidently primary goals for emerging approaches. From this point of view Vis-NIR spectroscopy could be considered an innovative technique. It is in fact a non-destructive and a relatively low-cost technique that provide information on the optical properties of materials. It is largely applied for Earth sciences purposes (for example: Pedology, Geology and Remote sensing) and requires a “calibration” with chemical or physical parameters. The difference between this technique and already developed methods (such as Aethalometry or other optical systems) consists on the simultaneous investigation of several wavelengths of the visible and near infrared regions instead of single bands. The development of this approach, focused on the relationship between light scattering and properties of materials, can provide important knowledge on the mineralogical composition of airborne particles and on the size distribution of particles. In addition of that the development of a database, constituted by airborne materials collected in different sites, can represent the link between remote or ground observations, radiative modelling and in situ sampling. The work carried out until now is based on field campaigns performed in the Mediterranean basin where PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in urban, traffic, industrial and background sites. Samples were

  4. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  5. Potential Marine Organisms Affecting Airborne Primary Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, J. Y.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The oceans cover 70% of earth with the marine environment contributing ~50% of the global biomass. Particularly during periods of high biological activity associated with phytoplankton blooms, primary emitted aerosol particles dominated by organic compounds in the submicron size range, are ejected from surface waters increasing in concentration exponentially with overlying wind speeds. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, where seawater concentrations of biogenic particles can reach 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms, and even 106 cells per ml in winter when empty frustules and fragments of diatoms are resuspensed from shallow shelf sediments by strong winds, and mix with living pico- and nanoplankton in surface sea waters. This organic aerosol fraction can have a significant impact on the ability of ocean derived aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei. It has been shown that small insoluble organic particles are aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer (SML) via bubble bursting. The exact composition and complexity of the SML varies spatially and temporally but includes phytoplankton cells, microorganisms, organic debris, and a complex mixture of proteins, polysaccharides, humic-type material and waxes, microgels and colloidal nanogels, and strong surface active lipids. The specific chemical composition is dependent on the fractionation of organic matter which originates from in-situ production, from underlying water and even from atmospheric deposition. These conditions will most likely determine the nature of the organic and biogenic material. Here we review the types, sizes, and properties of ocean-derived particles and organic material which present potential candidates for airborne biogenic and organic particles.

  6. Ambient particulate matter air pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m(3) in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%-55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  7. Organic composition of aerosol particulate matter during a haze episode in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi Bin Abas, M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Maah, M. Jamil; Abu Samah, Azizan; Oros, Daniel R.; Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    The solvent-extractable compounds of urban airborne particulate matter were analyzed to determine the distributions of homologous and biomarker tracers. Samples were collected by high-volume air filtration during the haze episode of 1997 around the University of Malaya campus near Petaling Jaya, a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These results show that the samples contain n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkanols, methyl n-alkanoates, n-alkyl nitriles, n-alkanals, n-alkanoic acids, levoglucosan, PAHs, and UCM as the dominant components, with minor amounts of terpenoids, glyceryl esters and sterols, all derived from natural biogenic sources (vascular plant wax), from burning of biomass, and from anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuel products (lubricating oil, vehicle emissions, etc.). Some compositional differences are observed in the samples and greater atmospheric concentrations were found for almost all organic components in the samples collected near a roadway. The results interpreted in terms of major sources are due to local build-up of organic contaminants from vehicular emissions, smoke from biomass burning, and natural background as a result of the atmospheric stability during the haze episodes. The organic components transported in from areas outside the region, assuming all smoke components are external to the city, amount to about 30% of the total organic particle burden.

  8. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against urban and industrial particulate matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L L Greenwell; T Moreno; R J Richards

    2003-02-01

    This investigation focuses on the application of an in vitro assay in elucidating the role of lung lining fluid antioxidants in the protection against inhaled particles, and to compare the toxicities of different airborne particulate matter (PM), PM10, collections from South Wales, UK. PM collections from both urban and industrial sites caused 50% oxidative degradation of DNA in vitro at concentrations as low as 12.9 ± 2.1 g ml–1 and 4.9 ± 0.9 mg ml–1 respectively. The primary source of this bioreactivity was found to be the soluble fraction of both particle collections. The coarser PM10–2.5 fraction also showed greater oxidative bioreactivity than the PM2.5–0.1 in both cases. When repeated in the presence of a low molecular weight fraction of fresh pulmonary lavage fluid, as well as in artificial lung lining fluid (200 M urate, glutathione and ascorbate), the DNA damage was significantly reduced in all cases ( < 0.05). The antioxidants exerted a greater effect on the industrial samples than on the urban samples, and on the PM10–2.5 fractions than on the PM2.5–0.1 fractions, supporting the previous findings that respirable PM and urban samples contain fewer free radical sources than inhalable PM and industrial samples.

  9. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H. Amy

    2015-01-01

    Summary An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 – 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were housed within plastic closed-face cassette samplers (CFCs). A method detection limit (MDL) of 0,075 mg per sample was estimated. Precision Sr at 0,5 - 4 mg per sample was 0,031 and the estimated bias was 0,058. Weight stability over 28 days was verified for both blanks and spiked capsules. Independent laboratory testing on blanks and field samples verified long-term weight stability as well as sampling and analysis precision and bias estimates. An overall precision estimate Ŝrt of 0,059 was obtained. An accuracy measure of ±15,5% was found for the gravimetric method using PVC internal capsules. PMID:26435581

  10. Occupational exposure to particulate matter from three agricultural crops in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Rebecca E; Bennett, Deborah H; Garcia, John; Schenker, Marc B

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural work is a major contributor to California's and the nation's economy and employs a large number of workers. However, agricultural work can have numerous risks, such as exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) and other airborne pollutants with potential adverse health effects. To determine the magnitude of occupational exposures, PM levels were assessed for 89 workers from three major crops in California; almonds, melons and tomatoes. Personal samples were collected for PM2.5 and inhalable PM using personal sampling equipment. Geometric mean concentrations from personal exposure for workers in almonds (inhalable PM=4368 μg/m(3), PM2.5=122 μg/m(3), N=5), tomatoes (inhalable PM=1410 μg/m(3), PM2.5=12 μg/m(3), N=33), and melons (inhalable PM=1118 μg/m(3), PM2.5=19 μg/m(3), N=51) showed high PM exposure when working with these three crops. Large exposure differences by crop were more common than by task (i.e. harvesting, packing and weeding) among the three crops studied. This is the largest study of agricultural workers engaged in hand harvesting, a significant employer of farm labor, and relatively high levels of exposure to PM were measured. PMID:23831254

  11. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.528 Section 52.528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... and Port Everglades plants of Florida Power and Light Company from the particulate emission limits...

  12. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  13. Seasonally varying nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of particulate organic matter in Lake Kinneret, Israel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hadas, O.; Altabet, M.A.; Agnihotri, R.

    Large temporal variations in the nitrogen isotopic composition (delta sup(15) N) of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) species in Lake Kinneret occurred in response to seasonal phasing of dominant nitrogen cycle...

  14. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  15. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Schaap, Martijn [TNO, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France); Drebszok, Kamila; Wyrwa, Artur [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Stetter, Daniel [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  16. Ambient particulate matter affects cardiac recovery in a Langendorff ischemia model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagate, Karim; Meiring, James J; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Cassee, Flemming R; Wiegand, Herbert; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Borm, Paul J A

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity among subjects with cardiovascular impairment. We hypothesized that exposure of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats to PM impairs the recovery of cardiovascular performance after coronary occlusion and

  17. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

  18. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  19. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  20. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  1. Source apportionment of atmospheric fine particulate matter collected at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The trends in secondary organic aerosol at a remote location are studied using atmospheric fine particulate matter samples collected at Seney National Wildlife...

  2. Study on the Adsorption Capacities for Airborne Particulates of Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions in Beijing (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kang Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscape plants are an important component of the urban ecosystem, playing a significant role in the adsorption of airborne particulates and air purification. In this study, six common landscape plants in Beijing were chosen as research subjects, and the adsorption capacities for each different plant leaf and the effects of the leaf structures for the adsorption capacities for particulates were determined. Preliminary results show that needle-leaved tree species adsorbed more airborne particulates than broad-leaved tree species for the same leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis exhibits the highest adsorption capacity, at 3.89 ± 0.026 μg·cm−2, almost two times as much as that of Populus tomentosa (2.00 ± 0.118 μg·cm−2. The adsorption capacities for PM10 of the same tree species leaves, in different polluted regions had significant differences, and the adsorption capacities for PM10 of the tree species leaf beside the Fifth Ring Road were higher than those of the tree species leaves in the Botanical Garden, although the adsorption capacities for PM2.5 of the same tree species in different polluted regions had no significant differences. By determining the soluble ion concentrations of the airborne particulates in two regions, it is suggested that the soluble ion concentrations of PM10 in the atmosphere in the Botanical Garden and beside the Fifth Ring Road have significant differences, while those of PM2.5 in the atmosphere had no significant differences. In different polluted regions there are significant adaptive changes to the leaf structures, and when compared with slightly polluted region, in the seriously polluted region the epidermis cells of the plant leaves shrinked, the surface textures of the leaves became rougher, and the stomas’ frequency and the pubescence length increased. Even though the plant leaves exposed to the seriously polluted region changed significantly, these plants can still grow normally and healthily.

  3. Chronic exposure to particulate matter and risk of cardiovascular mortality: cohort study from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Eva; Ho, Wen-Chao; Lin, Meng-Hung; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Hsien-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality is limited in Asian populations. Methods We conducted a cohort study on the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality using 43,227 individuals in a civil servants health service in Taiwan. Each participant was assigned an exposure level of particulate matter based on their district of residence using air pollution data collected by the Taiwan E...

  4. Reduction of fine particulate matter in urban areas through biological fixation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article retrieves an experiment carried out in Milan under the tunnel connecting Viale Brianza and Viale Lunigiana that was aimed at assessing the efficacy of the system patented by the company Eurovix for the reduction of particulate matter by means of biological fixation of PM10 to the ground. at the same time we evaluated the reduction, by means of selective enzymatic degradation of IPA concentration absorbed on particulate matter

  5. Sub-micrometre particulate matter is primarily in liquid form over Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Zhaoheng; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter influences the Earth’s energy balance directly, by altering or absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by influencing cloud formation. Whether organic particulate matter exists in a liquid, semi-solid, or solid state can affect particle growth and reactivity, and hence particle number, size and composition. The properties and abundance of particles, in turn, influence their direct and indirect effects on energy balance. Non-liquid particulate matter was identified over a boreal forest of Northern Europe, but laboratory studies suggest that, at higher relative humidity levels, particles can be liquid. Here we measure the physical state of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 1 μm over the tropical rainforest of central Amazonia in 2013. A real-time particle rebound technique shows that the particulate matter was liquid for relative humidity greater than 80% for temperatures between 296 and 300 K during both the wet and dry seasons. Combining these findings with the distributions of relative humidity and temperature in Amazonia, we conclude that near-surface sub-micrometre particulate matter in Amazonia is liquid most of the time during both the wet and the dry seasons.

  6. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological and environmental monitoring was carried out at a steel processing sector of a steel plant in Portugal. Approximately 70 workers were surveyed for their respiratory function and blood elemental contents as indicators for a long-term exposure. The characterisation of chemical elements in air at the workplace was also evaluated taking in account the separation of particles by their aerodynamic diameter. Two fractions were collected, a coarse fraction for particles below 10 μm and above 2 μm, and a fine fraction for particles below 2 μm. PIXE and INAA analytical techniques were used for the determination of blood and aerosol elemental concentrations. Up to 12 elements (Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb) were determined in blood and so far, up to 18 elements for aerosols (e.g., Na, Al Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb). The concentrations of the essential elements in blood (e.g., Fe, Zn and Se) were found to be altered relative to a reference Portuguese group constituted by non-exposed persons. Relative to the blood average elemental contents for As, Sb, Hg and Pb, the levels determined were below maximum permissible concentrations or reference values, except for Pb. Nevertheless, concentrations above maximum limit values were determined for some of the surveyed subjects. There are evidences that the levels of Se, Cu, and Sb in blood are influenced by exposure. Also, living habits (smoking and other activities) and pulmonary affections may modulate As, Pb and Zn concentrations in blood. For all the chemical elements identified in the particulate matter of the working atmosphere the limit values indicated in the Portuguese regulation were not exceeded, except for Fe. (author)

  7. Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.

  8. Decreased carbon and nutrient input to boreal lakes from particulate organic matter following riparian clear-cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Robert; Culbert, Heather; Peters, Robert

    1996-07-01

    The plankton communities of oligotrophic Canadian Shield lakes are strongly regulated by the allochthonous supply of total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a proportion of both of which originate from particulate organic matter. Although decreased inputs of allochthonous leaf litter have been documented for small streams whose riparian forests have been removed, no such data exist for boreal lakes. Through estimates of airborne litter input from forested and clear-cut shorelines and laboratory measurements of concentrations released from leaf leachate, we determined that riparian deforestation resulted in reductions of DOC from 17.8 to 0.4 g/m shoreline/yr and of TP from 2.9 to 0.3 g/m shoreline/yr. Previous predictive models indicate that such reductions may be substantial enough to decrease basic metabolic processes of lake plankton communities by as much as 9% in primary production and 17% in respiration.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10. PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1. PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1). PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter. PMID:27247608

  11. [Testing of Concentration and Characteristics of Particulate Matters Emitted from Stationary Combustion Sources in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-qi; Wu, Xiao-dong; Wang, Chen; Liang, Yun-ping; Ma, Zhao-hui

    2016-05-15

    A self-built monitoring sampling system on particulate matters and water soluble ions emitted from stationary combustion sources and a size separated sampling system on particulate matters based on FPS4000 and ELPI + were applied to test particulate matters in fumes of typical stationary combustion sources in Beijing. The results showed that the maximum concentration of total particulate matters in fumes of stationary combustion sources in Beijing was 83.68 mg · m⁻³ in standard smoke oxygen content and the minimum was 0.12 mg · m⁻³. And particle number concentration was in the 10⁴-10⁶ cm⁻³ number of grade. Both mass and number concentration ranking order of particulate matters emitted from stationary combustion sources in Beijing was: heating gas fired boilers power plant coal fired boilers coal fired boilers. And two or three peaks existed under 1 µm of particulate size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution. The number concentration for PM₂.₅ accounted for over 99.8% of that for PM₁₀ and that for PM₀.₁ accounted for over 83% of that for PM₂.₅. But the proportions of PM₀.₁, and PM₂.₅ in PM₁₀ were significantly lower in quality analysis,the proportion of PM₂.₅ in PM₁₀ was about 82%, and that of PM₀.₁ in PM₂.₅ was about 27%-33%. PMID:27506016

  12. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  13. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  14. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

  15. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Oyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV and Heavy (HDV duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel. The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5 in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS, and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT. The organic aerosol (OA desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF organic aerosol (OA and organic carbon (OC were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the

  16. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any...

  17. METEOROLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM. PARTICULATE MATTER AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING REPORT, JANUARY THROUGH DECEMBER 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental field studies in the Yucca Mountain site characterization activities have included monitoring ambient levels of particulate matter since April 1989. The monitoring and reporting work was performed by the Management and Operating Environmental Field Programs Division. The parameters monitored, methods used in the monitoring, and the sampling schedule complied with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations and monitoring guidance. The inhalable particulate matter results have been reported to the State of Nevada since July 1991 to comply with State of Nevada air quality permit requirements. Three previous project reports presented the results obtained through 1995 (Environmental Field Programs Division 1992a; 1992b; 1996). This report presents the results obtained during 1996. Results of this monitoring program continue to identify that particulate matter remains well below applicable ambient air quality standards. The maximum inhalable particulate matter result was 60 micrograms per standard cubic meter; this result is less than one-half of the applicable 24-hour National (and Nevada) Ambient Air Quality Standard of 150 micrograms per standard cubic meter. The annual inhalable particulate matter averages for the period were approximately one-fifth of the applicable annual standard of 50 micrograms per standard cubic meter. The 1996 results were similar to results from 1989 to 1995

  18. Current state of particulate matter research and management in Serbia (Introductory paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Jovašević-Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is the air pollutant that currently receives most attention from the atmospheric research community, the legislative authorities and the general public. Limiting particulate matter in the atmosphere which will result in significant benefits for human health, with associated positive economic consequences. Successful management of particulate matter requires scientific knowledge about particulate matter “from cradle to grave”, covering sources of particles, processes that govern their formation, composition, dispersion and fate in the atmosphere, as well as knowledge about human exposure and associated health and well being. Such knowledge allows to design and perform effective and efficient abatement measures and monitoring. This paper provides an introduction to the research and monitoring regarding particulate matter in Serbia. The contributions were first partly presented at the 2nd international workshop of the WeBIOPATR “Outdoor concentration, size distribution and composition of respirable particles in WB urban area” project in September 2009. This information provides context to the contributions in this number, and was part of the rationale of the project WeBIOPATR.

  19. Seasonal variations and source estimation of saccharides in atmospheric particulate matter in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Linlin; Engling, Guenter; Du, Zhenyu; Cheng, Yuan; Duan, Fengkui; Liu, Xuyan; He, Kebin

    2016-05-01

    Saccharides are important constituents of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In order to better understand the sources and seasonal variations of saccharides in aerosols in Beijing, China, saccharide composition was measured in ambient PM samples collected at an urban site in Beijing. The highest concentrations of total saccharides in Beijing were observed in autumn, while an episode with abnormal high total saccharide levels was observed from 15 to 23 June, 2011, due to extensive agricultural residue burning in northern China during the wheat harvest season. Compared to the other two categories of saccharides, sugars and sugar alcohols, anhydrosugars were the predominant saccharide group, indicating that biomass burning contributions to Beijing urban aerosol were significant. Ambient sugar and sugar alcohol levels in summer and autumn were higher than those in spring and winter, while they were more abundant in PM2.5 during winter time. Levoglucosan was the most abundant saccharide compound in both PM2.5 and PM10, the annual contributions of which to total measured saccharides in PM2.5 and PM10 were 61.5% and 54.1%, respectively. To further investigate the sources of the saccharides in ambient aerosols in Beijing, the PM10 datasets were subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Based on the objective function to be minimized and the interpretable factors identified by PMF, six factors appeared to be optimal as to the probable origin of saccharides in the atmosphere in Beijing, including biomass burning, soil or dust, isoprene SOA and the direct release of airborne fungal spores and pollen. PMID:26921589

  20. The UK particulate matter air pollution episode of March–April 2014: more than Saharan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, M.; Heal, M. R.; Twigg, M. M.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Braban, C. F.; Lingard, J. J. N.; Ritchie, S.; Beck, R. C.; Móring, A.; Ots, R.; Di Marco, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.; Reis, S.

    2016-04-01

    A period of elevated surface concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in the UK in spring 2014 was widely associated in the UK media with a Saharan dust plume. This might have led to over-emphasis on a natural phenomenon and consequently to a missed opportunity to inform the public and provide robust evidence for policy-makers about the observed characteristics and causes of this pollution event. In this work, the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM) was used in conjunction with speciated PM measurements to investigate the sources and long-range transport (including vertical) processes contributing to the chemical components of the elevated surface PM. It is shown that the elevated PM during this period was mainly driven by ammonium nitrate, much of which was derived from emissions outside the UK. In the early part of the episode, Saharan dust remained aloft above the UK; we show that a significant contribution of Saharan dust at surface level was restricted only to the latter part of the elevated PM period and to a relatively small geographic area in the southern part of the UK. The analyses presented in this paper illustrate the capability of advanced ACTMs, corroborated with chemically-speciated measurements, to identify the underlying causes of complex PM air pollution episodes. Specifically, the analyses highlight the substantial contribution of secondary inorganic ammonium nitrate PM, with agricultural ammonia emissions in continental Europe presenting a major driver. The findings suggest that more emphasis on reducing emissions in Europe would have marked benefits in reducing episodic PM2.5 concentrations in the UK.

  1. Contribution of fungal spores to particulate matter in a tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polyols arabitol and mannitol, recently proposed as source tracers for fungal spores, were used in this study to estimate fungal contributions to atmospheric aerosol. Airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) was collected at Jianfengling Mountain, a tropical rainforest on Hainan Island situated off the south China coast, during spring and analyzed for arabitol and mannitol by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The average concentrations of arabitol and mannitol exhibited high values with averages of 7.0 and 16.0 ng m-3 respectively in PM2.5 and 44.0 and 71.0 ng m-3 in PM10. The two tracers correlated well with each other, especially in the coarse mode aerosol (PM2.5-10), indicating they were mainly associated with coarse aerosol particles and had common sources. Arabitol and mannitol in PM10 showed significant positive correlations with relative humidity, as well as positive correlations with average temperature, suggesting a wet emissions mechanism of biogenic aerosol in the form of fungal spores. We made estimations of the contribution of fungal spores to ambient PM mass and to organic carbon, based on the observed ambient concentrations of these two tracers. The relative contributions of fungal spores to the PM10 mass were estimated to range from 1.6 to 18.2%, with a rather high mean value of 7.9%, and the contribution of fungal spores to organic carbon in PM10 ranged from 4.64 to 26.1%, with a mean value of 12.1%, implying that biological processes are important sources of atmospheric aerosol.

  2. Contribution of fungal spores to particulate matter in a tropical rainforest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ting; Chan Chuenyu; Zhang Yinan; Zhang Zhisheng; Lin Mang; Sang Xuefang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Engling, Guenter [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Li, Y D [Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Bureau of Forestry, Guangzhou (China); Li, Yok-Sheung, E-mail: guenter@gate.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: chzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2010-04-15

    The polyols arabitol and mannitol, recently proposed as source tracers for fungal spores, were used in this study to estimate fungal contributions to atmospheric aerosol. Airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}) was collected at Jianfengling Mountain, a tropical rainforest on Hainan Island situated off the south China coast, during spring and analyzed for arabitol and mannitol by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The average concentrations of arabitol and mannitol exhibited high values with averages of 7.0 and 16.0 ng m{sup -3} respectively in PM{sub 2.5} and 44.0 and 71.0 ng m{sup -3} in PM{sub 10}. The two tracers correlated well with each other, especially in the coarse mode aerosol (PM{sub 2.5-10}), indicating they were mainly associated with coarse aerosol particles and had common sources. Arabitol and mannitol in PM{sub 10} showed significant positive correlations with relative humidity, as well as positive correlations with average temperature, suggesting a wet emissions mechanism of biogenic aerosol in the form of fungal spores. We made estimations of the contribution of fungal spores to ambient PM mass and to organic carbon, based on the observed ambient concentrations of these two tracers. The relative contributions of fungal spores to the PM{sub 10} mass were estimated to range from 1.6 to 18.2%, with a rather high mean value of 7.9%, and the contribution of fungal spores to organic carbon in PM{sub 10} ranged from 4.64 to 26.1%, with a mean value of 12.1%, implying that biological processes are important sources of atmospheric aerosol.

  3. Toxicity assessment of atmospheric particulate matter in the Mediterranean and Black Seas open waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Sofia R; Dachs, Jordi; van Drooge, Barend L; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition of particulate matter (PM) is recognized as a relevant input vector for toxic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), into the marine environment. In this work we aimed to analyse the biological activity and potential adverse effects of PM constituents to aquatic organisms. Organic extracts of atmospheric PM samples from different sub-basins of the Mediterranean and Black Seas were screened using different toxicological tests. A yeast-based assay (AhR-RYA) revealed that dioxin-like activity correlated with the concentration of total PAHs in the PM samples, as well as with their predicted toxic equivalent values (TEQs). Although the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (the ZET assay) showed no major phenotypical adverse effects, up-regulation of mRNA expression of cyp1a, fos and development-related genes (previously described as related to PM toxicity) was observed in exposed embryos when compared to controls. Results showed that mRNA patterns of the studied genes followed a similar geographic distribution to both PAH content and dioxin-like activity of the corresponding extracts. The analysis also showed a distinct geographical pattern of activation of pancreatic markers previously related to airborne pollution, probably indicating a different subset of uncharacterized particle-bound toxicants. We propose the combination of the bioassays tested in the present study to be applied to future research with autochthonous species to assess exposure and potential toxic effects of ambient PM. The present study emphasizes the need for more in-depth studies into the toxic burden of atmospheric PM on aquatic ecosystems, in order to improve future regulatory guidelines. PMID:26745302

  4. The UK particulate matter air pollution episode of March–April 2014: more than Saharan dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A period of elevated surface concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in the UK in spring 2014 was widely associated in the UK media with a Saharan dust plume. This might have led to over-emphasis on a natural phenomenon and consequently to a missed opportunity to inform the public and provide robust evidence for policy-makers about the observed characteristics and causes of this pollution event. In this work, the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM) was used in conjunction with speciated PM measurements to investigate the sources and long-range transport (including vertical) processes contributing to the chemical components of the elevated surface PM. It is shown that the elevated PM during this period was mainly driven by ammonium nitrate, much of which was derived from emissions outside the UK. In the early part of the episode, Saharan dust remained aloft above the UK; we show that a significant contribution of Saharan dust at surface level was restricted only to the latter part of the elevated PM period and to a relatively small geographic area in the southern part of the UK. The analyses presented in this paper illustrate the capability of advanced ACTMs, corroborated with chemically-speciated measurements, to identify the underlying causes of complex PM air pollution episodes. Specifically, the analyses highlight the substantial contribution of secondary inorganic ammonium nitrate PM, with agricultural ammonia emissions in continental Europe presenting a major driver. The findings suggest that more emphasis on reducing emissions in Europe would have marked benefits in reducing episodic PM2.5 concentrations in the UK. (letter)

  5. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52..., in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspends the... nonattainment areas have clean data for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  8. Assessing the performance of methods to detect and quantify African dust in airborne particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Mar; Salvador, Pedro; Artíñano, Begoña; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Pey, Jorge; Latz, Achim J; Cabañas, Mercè; Moreno, Teresa; García dos Santos, Saúl; Herce, María Dolores; Diez Hernández, Pablo; Romero García, Dolores; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía

    2010-12-01

    African dust (AD) contributions to particulate matter (PM) levels may be reported by Member States to the European Commission during justification of exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV). However, the detection and subsequent quantification of the AD contribution to PM levels is complex, and only two measurement-based methods are available in the literature: the Spanish-Portuguese reference method (SPR), and the Tel Aviv University method (TAU). In the present study, both methods were assessed. The SPR method was more conservative in the detection of episodes (71 days identified as AD by SPR, vs 81 by TAU), as it is less affected by interferences with local dust sources. The mean annual contribution of AD was lower with the TAU method than with SPR (2.7 vs 3.5 ± 1.5 μg/m(3)). The SPR and TAU AD time series were correlated with daily aluminum levels (a known tracer of AD), as well as with an AD source identified by the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Higher r(2) values were obtained with the SPR method than with TAU in both cases (r(2) = 0.72 vs 0.56, y = 0.05x vs y = 0.06x with aluminum levels; r(2)=0.79 vs 0.43, y = 0.8x vs y = 0.4x with the PMF source). We conclude that the SPR method is more adequate from an EU policy perspective (justification of DLV exceedances) due to the fact that it is more conservative than the TAU method. Based on our results, the TAU method requires adaptation of the thresholds in the algorithm to refine detection of low-impact episodes and avoid misclassification of local events as AD. PMID:21049991

  9. Distribution and composition of suspended particulate matter in the Atlantic Ocean: Direct measurements and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitzin, A. P.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Burenkov, V. I.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Politova, N. V.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Klyuvitkina, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the real distribution and spatial-temporal variations of suspended particulate matter and its main components in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean on the basis of direct and satellite measurements for development of new and perfection of available algorithms for converting satellite data. The distribution fields of suspended particulate matter were calculated and plotted for the entire Atlantic Ocean. It is established that its distribution in the open ocean is subordinate to the latitudinal climatic zonality. The areas with maximum concentrations form latitudinal belts corresponding to high-productivity eutrophic and mesotrophic waters of the northern and southern temperate humid belts and with the equatorial humid zone. Phytoplankton, the productivity of which depends primarily on the climatic zonality, is the main producer of suspended particulate matter in the surface water layer.

  10. Assessment of the natural sources of particulate matter on the opencast mines air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, J I; Huertas, M E; Cervantes, G; Díaz, J

    2014-09-15

    Particulate matter is the main air pollutant in open pit mining areas. Preferred models that simulate the dispersion of the particles have been used to assess the environmental impact of the mining activities. Results obtained through simulation have been compared with the particle concentration measured in several sites and a coefficient of determination R(2)0.95) between meteorological variables and particulate matter concentration being humidity, humidity of the previous day and temperature, the meteorological variables that contributed most significantly in the variance of the particulate matter concentration measured in the mining area while the contribution of the AERMOD estimations to the short term TSP (Total Suspended Particles) measured concentrations was negligible (<5%). The multiple regression model was used to identify the meteorological condition that leads to pollution episodes. It was found that conditions drier than 54% lead to pollution episodes while humidities greater than 70% maintain safe air quality conditions in the mining region in northern Colombia. PMID:25016110

  11. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Priemus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.

  12. Particulate Matter Assessment in the Air Based on the Heavy Metals Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandačka Dušan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matters are the result of various processes in the atmosphere that are part of everyday life. The chemical composition of these particles is mainly influenced by their origin. Their behavior is also dependent on meteorological conditions and other factors as well. The aim of this paper was to identify sources of particulate matters by means of statistical methods due to the presence of 17 heavy metals. The problem solving assumes the knowledge of multivariate statistical data analysis methods as principal components analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multivariate regression and vector algebra. For the application of methodology suitable software may prove appropriate.

  13. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    401. This difference may be the result of using filter media at Station 400 with a smaller pore size than the media used at the other two stations. Average annual gamma exposure at Station 401 is slightly greater than at Station 400 and 402. Average annual gamma exposure at all three TTR stations are in the upper range to slightly higher than values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the TTR. At higher wind speeds, the saltation counts are greater at Station 401 than at Station 402 while the suspended particulate concentrations are greater at Station 402 than at Statin 401. Although these observations seem counterintuitive, they are likely the result of differences in the soil material present at the two sites. Station 401 is located on an interfluve elevated above two adjacent drainage channels where the soil surface is likely to be composed of coarser material. Station 402 is located in finer sediments at the playa edge and is also subject to dust from a dirt road only 500 m to the north. During prolonged high wind events, suspended dust concentrations at Station 401 peaked with the initial winds then decreased whereas dust concentrations at Station 402 peaked with each peak in the wind speed. This likely reflects a limited PM10 source that is quickly expended at Station 401 relative to an abundant PM10 source at Station 402. In CY2013, to facilitate comparisons between radiological analyses of collected dust, the filter media at all three stations will be standardized. In addition, a sequence of samples will be collected at Station 400 using both types of filter media to enable development of a mathematical relationship between the results derived from the two filter types. Additionally, having acquired approximately four years of observations at Stations 400 and 401 and a year of observations at Station 402, a period-of-record analysis of the radiological and airborne dust conditions will be undertaken.

  14. The nature of particulate organic matter settled on solid substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, M.O.; Wagh, A.B.

    National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, India. Received 25/0 I/90, in revised form 16/02/90, accepted 22/03/90. Particulate material settled on aluminium and glass panels during their immersion in estuarine water was analysed... etre principale ment d'origine hactcrienne. Oceollo!ogica Acta, 1990, 13.4,471-474. INTRODUCTION Solid substrata placed in an aquatic environment adsorb organic molecules from the ambient waters onto their surfaces, making them readily available...

  15. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  16. Preliminary studies of airborne particulate emmisions from the Ampellum S.A. copper smelter, Zlatna, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. Williamson

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have been carried on the characterization of particulate emissions from the Ampellum S.A. copper smelter in the town of Zlatna, Romania. The particulates studied were collected on polycarbonate filters using air pump apparatus and on the surfaces of lichens. Mass of total suspended particulates (TSP and PM10 varied from 19 to 230 μg/m3 and 3 to 146 μg/m3, respectively (PM10/TSP = 0.14 to 1.0, depending on wind direction and proximity to the smelter. Particulates on collection filters from a site directly downwind from the smelter have a mean equivalent spherical diameter (ESD of 0.94 μm (s.d. 1.1 and are dominantly made up of material with the composition of anglesite (PbSO4. The remainder of the material is a heterogeneous mixture of silicates and Fe-, Pb- and Cu-bearing phases. Particulates > 5 μm ESD are rare on the TSP filters, mainly due to the restricted sampling durations possible with the equipment used (<3 hours. Particulates have therefore been studied in the lichen Acarospora smaragdula, which was growing on posts downwind from the smelter and which was found to contain high levels and a broader range of particulates compared with the filters (<5 to 100 μm in diameter. Larger particles include 20-30 μm diameter Fe-rich spherules, which occasionally have Pb- and S-rich encrustations on their surfaces. The nature and possible health effects of the particulates are discussed and recommendations made for future studies.

  17. Establishment of Exposure-response Functions of Air Particulate Matter and Adverse Health Outcomes in China and Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHANG-HONG CHEN; BING-YAN WANG; QING-YAN FU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To obtain the exposure-response functions that could be used in health-based risk assessment of particulate air pollution in China. Methods Meta analysis was conducted on the literatures on air particulate matter and its adverse health outcomes in China and worldwide. Results For each health outcome from morbidity to mortality changes, the relative risks were estimated when the concentration of air particulate matter increased to some certain units. Conclusion The exposure-response functions recommended here can be further applied to health risk assessment of air particulate matter in China.

  18. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. PMID:24607629

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) B Appendix B to Part 50... Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1...

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic matter associated to particulate matter emitted from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the organic matter (OM) content associated with particulate matter (PM) emissions from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion have been studied. The two main aims of the work have been (a) to study OM and PAH emissions as a function of the coal fluidized bed combustion (FBC) variables in solid phase and (b) to check if there is any correlation between OM and PAH contained in the PM. The combustion was carried out in a laboratory scale plant at different combustion conditions: temperature, percentage of oxygen excess, and total air flow. PAH associated on the particulate matter have been analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy in the synchronous mode (FS) after PM extraction by sonication with dimethylformamide (DMF). It can be concluded that there is not a direct relationship between the OM content and the PAH supported in the PM emitted. In addition, neither PM or OM show dependence between themselves

  1. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  2. A comprehensive study of the characterization of particulate matter emissions from a Delmarva broiler poultry operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shannon E.

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural practices, including those from animal feeding operations (AFO's) have become an increasingly important topic, and has generated considerable interest from local and state agencies, as well as, the local community over the past decade. Because of growth in population, and an increase in commercial and residential development within close proximity to these operations, which house a large number of animals in confinement, and because of a better understanding of the effects of exposure to airborne contaminants on health, this has lead to an increase in concerns and a demand for more research to be conducted on PM from AFO's. Particulate matter generated within, and emitted from, AFO's can carry with it various components including metals and microorganisms that can negatively affect health. This research was conducted in order to verify if PM from a broiler poultry operation on Delmarva has the potential to become a health concern. The first step was to determine concentrations of two size segregated fractions of PM from indoor and outdoor sampling sites over four seasonal periods, early summer (ES), late summer (LS), Fall (F), and Winter (W). Both PM10 and PM2.5 were collected because of their classification from the Environmental Protection Agency as having the ability to cause significant health effects with short-term exposure. Next, temporal and spatial characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on PM concentrations over the four seasonal periods. Following this, the chemical composition and morphology of PM10 and PM2.5 generated from the broiler poultry operation was investigated. Finally, further detailed information was obtained on arsenic speciation and oxidation state in PM to investigate toxicity. Arsenic use in the poultry industry has been occurring for a number of decades, and is most frequently administered in the organic form. However, studies have shown that these organo

  3. Rapid determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter using accelerated solvent extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianci

    2016-05-01

    A method has been developed for the trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are known as persistent organic pollutants and ubiquitous constituents of fine particulate matter that causes growing airborne pollution. The method, which was especially for samples of airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, utilized accelerated solvent extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. Four principal parameters of accelerated solvent extraction were optimized to obtain maximum extraction efficiency. Using the established synergetic programs of gradient elution and fluorescence wavelength switching, a rapid separation was achieved in 6.56 min with good linearity for 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (coefficient of determination above 0.999). The limits of detection ranged from 0.833 to 10.0 pg/m(3) . The precision of the method expressed as inter-day relative standard deviation ranged from 0.2 to 1%, which was calculated from nine repetitive measurements of 8.00 μg/L analytes. Average spiked recoveries ranged from 71.6 to 97.7%, with the exception of naphthalene. The rapid, sensitive, and accurate method can meet the pressing needs of health risk assessment and increasingly heavy daily tasks of air quality monitoring. PMID:26991966

  4. MERIS imagery of Belgian coastal waters: mapping of suspended particulate matter and chlorophyll-a

    OpenAIRE

    Ruddick, K.; PARK, Y.; B. Nechad

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a first application-oriented analysis of MERIS products for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (CHL) concentration in Belgian coastal waters. Regional algorithms designed for Belgian waters have been implemented and compared with the standard MERIS products, termed Total Suspended Matter and Algal2 respectively. The standard and regional SPM products seem robust and give similar data. Notwithstanding a more complete match-up validation analysis, these pr...

  5. Simulation of Height of Stack Pile using SCREEN3 module for Particulate Matter Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi Musalaiah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is regarding the air pollution in selected areas near to port (beside stack yards of port interested in particulate matter pollution. In this study, the amount of air pollution due to particulates is analyzed. The amount of air pollution is estimated using SCREEN 3 Methodology. In this study, SCREEN 3 methodology is a predefined software tool which can be used to estimate particulate matter pollution levels at different source release heights, terrain heights and at particular receptor height. The results obtained are reported and finally concluded that to avoid the pollution in the selected area, it is better to construct a periphery along the sides of stack yard (source of pollution

  6. Impact of Long-term Exposure to Air Particulate Matter on Life Expectancy and Survival Rate of Shanghai Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of long-term air particulate matter exposure on the life expectancy and survival rate of Shanghai residents. Methods Epidemiology - based exposureresponse function was used for the calculation of attributable deaths to air particulate matter in Shanghai, and the effect of long-term exposure to particulate matter on life expectancy and survival rate was estimated using the life table of Shanghai residents in 1999. Results It was shown that in 1999, the long-term air particulate matter exposure caused 1.34-1.69 years reduction of life expectancy and a decrease of survival rate for each age group of Shanghai residents. Conclusion The effect of long-term exposure to air particulate matter on life expectancy is substantial in Shanghai.

  7. The added value of a proposed satellite imager for ground level particulate matter analyses and forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.M.A.; Segers, A.J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Vautard, R.; Siddans, R.; Elbern, H.; Tjemkes, S.A.T.; Schaap, M.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring aerosols over wide areas is important for the assessment of the population's exposure to health relevant particulate matter (PM). Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can contribute to the improvement of highly needed analyzed and forecasted distributions of PM when combi

  8. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The following terms that are used in this... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a) What is...

  9. Behaviour of Particulate Matter in the Indoor Environment of the National Library in Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Ondráčková, Lucie; Mašková, Ludmila; Ondráček, Jakub; Zíková, Naděžda

    -: -, 2012, s. 45. ISBN N. [International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments "Standards and Guidelines" /10./. London (GB), 17.06.2012-20.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : particulate matter * indoor environment * measuring campaigns Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iaq2012/index

  10. Detailed Study of Fine Particulate Matter during 2013 New Year’s Celebrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelová, Lucie; Vodička, Petr; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír

    Prague : Czech Aerosol Society, 2013, A115. ISBN N. [European Aerosol Conference (EAC 2013). Prague (CZ), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/11/1342 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fine particulate matter * firrworks * aerosol mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://eac2013.cz/index.php

  11. PIXE analysis of suspended particulate matter originally collected for beta-ray absorption mass monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of transferring suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the used filter of a beta-absorption mass monitor to a polycarbonate filter for subsequent PIXE analysis has been developed. The method allows determination of the relative elemental composition of SPM. It was demonstrated that PIXE analysis can detect S, Cl, Fe and Zn in SPM sampled over a one-hour period. (author)

  12. IMPROVED SOURCE APPORTIONMENT AND SPECIATION OF LOW-VOLUME PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research will examine methods with the high sensitivity and low limits of detection needed to analyze a wide range of chemical species in particulate matter collected with personal samplers. Dr. Schauer and colleagues will develop sensitive methods to detect trace meta...

  13. INSTILLATION OF COARSE ASH PARTICULATE MATTER AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCES A SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary ischemic events increase significantly floowing a “bad air” day. Ambient particulate matter (PM10) is the pollutant most strongly associated with these events. PM10 causes inflammatory injury to the lower airways. It is not clear, however, if pulmonary inflation transl...

  14. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 28, 1988, the Governor's designee for Arizona submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1638 Section 52.1638 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  16. Elemental constituents of particulate matter and newborn’s size in eight European cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, M.; Gehring, U.; Beelen, R.; Wang, M.; Giorgis-Allemand, L.; Andersen, A.M.N.; Basagaña, X.; Bernard, C.; Cirach, M.; Forastiere, F.; Hoogh, K. de; Gražuleviĉvienė, R.; Gruzieva, O.; Hoek, G.; Jedynska, A.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.M.; Krämer, U.; Kukkonen, J.; Porta, D.; Postma, D.S.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Rossem, L. van; Sunyer, J.; Sørensen, M.; Tsai, M.Y.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Wilhelm, M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Pershagen, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Kogevinas, M.; Slama, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM) may depend on its chemical composition. Associations between maternal exposure to chemical constituents of PM and newborn’s size have been little examined. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to elemental

  17. Patients with asthma demonstrate airway inflammation after exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ..To the Editor"': Of the three major particulate matter (PM) size fractions (ultrafme, fine and coarse),coarse PM (PM2.5- 10) has been the least examined in terms of its health effects on susceptible populations, this despite having characteristics that make it particula...

  18. 40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.62 Section 52.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Electric Cooperative—Lowman Steam Plant; Alabama Power Company-Gorgas Steam Plant, Gaston Steam...

  19. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. - Highlights: ► AQS for particulate matter concentrations adjusted by pressure and temperature. ► Particulate matter concentrations can be underestimated in high altitude Cities. ► Particulate matter concentrations must be compared under the same conditions. - In order to compare high altitude atmospheric PM concentrations with AQS, one must consider T and P of the sampling site.

  20. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval. The... area are approved on condition that the State submit by December 31, 1987, a definition of the...

  1. Indoor/outdoor Particulate Matter Number and Mass Concentration in Modern Offices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatoutsidou, S.E.; Ondráček, Jakub; Tesař, Ondřej; Tørseth, K.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Lazaridis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 462-474. ISSN 0360-1323 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : modern offices * particulate matter * mechanical ventilation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.341, year: 2014

  2. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - Final year of field work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter (PM) with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt agreed that there is an urgent need to collect gin emission data. The primary issues surrounding PM re...

  3. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m3/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis

  4. Lateral supply and downward export of particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, Catherine; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Hardge, Kristin; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Fahl, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed at 4 depths in the eastern Fram Strait from July 2007 to June 2008 to investigate variations in the magnitude and composition of the sinking particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor. Sediment traps were deployed at 196 m in the Atlantic Water layer, at 1296 and 2364 m in the intermediate and deep waters, and at 2430 m on a benthic lander in the near-bottom layer. Fluxes of total particulate matter, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic matter, lithogenic matter, biogenic particulate silica, calcium carbonate, dominant phytoplankton cells, and zooplankton fecal pellets increased with depth, indicating the importance of lateral advection on fluxes in the deep Fram Strait. The lateral supply of particulate matter was further supported by the constant fluxes of biomarkers such as brassicasterol, alkenones, campesterol, β-sitosterol, and IP25 at all depths sampled. However, enhanced fluxes of diatoms and appendicularian fecal pellets from the upper waters to the seafloor in the presence of ice during spring indicated the rapid export (15-35 days) of locally-produced large particles that likely contributed most of the food supply to the benthic communities. These results show that lateral supply and downward fluxes are both important processes influencing the transport of particulate matter to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait, and that particulate matter size dictates the prevailing sinking process.

  5. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Ghafarian, P.; Najafi, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Being hemmed in on two sides by high mountains, the urban area of Tehran is characterized by high levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which have adverse consequences on human health, ecosystems and environment. Using air quality measurements taken in different regions of Tehran, spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants are analyzed to identify the typical climatological aspects of air pollutants. In terms of particulate matter concentrations, South Tehran is more polluted than Central to North Tehran, while West Tehran is more polluted than the East. Concentrations of particles in North Tehran are lower in the midday compared to the midnight, whereas the opposite is true in South Tehran. The observed annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in North Tehran were 37.5 and 76.3 μg m-3, respectively, which are substantially greater than the national annual mean safety limits of 10 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 20 μg m-3 for PM10. The observed high levels of particulate matter underline the essential need for a coordinated action to reduce the rapidly increasing air pollution over the growing urban area of Tehran. Noticeable monthly (seasonal) variations are evident in the observed PM10 concentrations, with a minimum of 61.5 μg m-3 in March (spring) and a maximum of 82.9 μg m-3 in July (summer), reflecting contribution of weather conditions. Analyzing daily PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations indicate that mid-week Wednesdays (Mondays) are the most polluted days. The higher mid-week concentrations reflect contribution of heavy vehicular traffic, industrial operation and increased commercial activities. Strong diurnal variations in the concentrations of particulate matter in North Tehran are detected, varying from a peak in late night to a minimum in late afternoon, indicating contribution of deeper daytime convective boundary layer and stronger winds in dispersion of particles.

  6. Chemical characterization of a polar portion in the neutral fraction derived from airborne particulate extracts responsible for the embryotoxicity in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected with a high-volume air sampler between June 1984 and May 1985 on the roof top of the authors institute. The tar material extracted was separated into six fractions by liquid-liquid partition and silica gel column chromatography. These fractions were then tested for their embryotoxicities by a chicken embryo assay. A moderately polar fraction per weight and a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) had the greatest toxicity for chicken embryos. When the polar fraction was purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, the purified fraction was 3.7 times more toxic than the original polar fraction. To determine the responsible components for the toxicity, the purified fraction as well as the original fraction was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The characterized components were classified into oxygenated PAHs (containing ketones, quinones, and aldehydes), nitrogen-containing PAHS, diphenyl-substituted aliphatic ketones (or diketones), and esters of aliphatic acids.

  7. Origin of particulate matter and gaseous precursors in the Paris Megacity: Results from intensive campaigns, long term measurements and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Petetin, Hervé; Zhang, Qijie; Prevot, André S. H.; Sciare, Jean; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Rosso, Amandine; Crippa, Monica; Zotter, Peter; Freutel, Fredericke; Poulain, Laurent; Freney, Evelyne; Sellegri, Karine; Drewnick, Frank; Borbon, Agnès; Wiedensohler, Aflred; Pandis, Spyros N.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties on the origin of primary and secondary particulate matter and its gaseous precursors in megacities is still large and needs to be reduced. A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns (MEGAPOLI) and from additional one year observations (PARTICULATE and FRANCIPOL), revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was a surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The data set of urban local and advected PM concentrations in the Paris area were used for a thorough evaluation of the CHIMERE model and revealed error compensation for the local and advected components of organic matter and nitrate. During spring time, CHIMERE simulations overestimate the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate peaks to NH3, because (i) they underestimate the urban background NH3 levels, probably due to neglecting enhanced NH3 emissions for larger temperatures, and because they overestimate HNO3. However, from an ensemble of mobile Max-DOAS NO2 column and airborne NOy measurements around Paris, no clear sign on a NOx emission bias in the TNO-Airparif data set was made evident. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Implementation

  8. Conference particulate matter and indoor environment, I.N.E.R.I.S.; Particulate matter and indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Comprehensive characterisation of indoor and outdoor air as well as pollution emission sources Integrated health and environmental risk assessment Scientific and technical basis for airborne pollution management and control Fine and coarse particles. The sources of indoor air pollution are originate separately, are transported separately, are removed from atmosphere by different mechanisms, have different optical properties, have different chemical properties, require different control techniques. for the health effects due to particles, they decrease the lung function, increase respiratory symptoms, increase chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, increased cardiovascular disease, increased mortality. The different sources contributing to the highest concentrations are: concentrations: tobacco smoking, cooking, vacuuming, dusting and sweeping, heaters, stoves, fireplaces and some other non identified sources. In the future we want more focus on fine and ultra fine particles, investigate source apportionment of particles, better understanding and quantification of exposure, to implement guidelines for particle concentration in indoor air and find better cleaning technologies. (N.C.)

  9. Export of particulate matter from Tokyo Bay studied with radiochemical tracers, 210Po and 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment traps were deployed at the mouth of Tokyo Bay in the winter of 1991 and the summer of 1993, each for a few days. The fluxes of total mass, 210Pb (parent) and 210Po (daughter) increased with depth, especially in the near-bottom layer. All the fluxes of total mass, 210Po and 210Pb decreased offshore at the same depth, while they increased offshore at the same distance above the bottom. The observed particulate flux of 210Pb in the water column was one to two orders of magnitude larger than the sedimentation rate at the bottom. The activity ratio of 210Po/210Pb in the near-bottom layer was largest at each station and did not vary from station to station. These findings indicate that enormous amounts of particulate matter are transported fairly quickly offshore through the near-bottom layer at the entrance. The variation in total mass flux was well synchronized with the tidal cycle at a mid-depth of 85 m in the water column of 240 m in winter of 1991, where the fluxes were larger during ebb and smaller during flood tides. The particulate flux of 210Po was also larger by a factor of about 2 during ebb, while the concentration of 210Pb was about 40 % larger during flood than ebb. These findings indicate that the tidal current is a major conveyor of particulate matter at the mid-depths. The tidal variation, however, was weak for the results obtained in the near-bottom layer in 1993, where much particulate matter was transported toward the Kuroshio region along the valley of Tokyo Bay. Our results suggest that even bays having narrow mouths, such as Tokyo Bay, are a large source of particulate material to the open oceans. (author)

  10. Characteristics and chemical compositions of particulate matter collected at the selected metro stations of Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A campaign was conducted to assess and compare the air quality at the different metro platforms at Shanghai City, focusing on particulate matter (PM) levels, chemical compositions, morphology and mineralogy, as well as species of iron. Our results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations for the three metro lines were 177.7 μg/m3, 105.7 μg/m3 and 82.5 μg/m3, respectively, and the average PM1 concentrations for the three lines were 122.3 μg/m3, 84.1 μg/m3 and 59.6 μg/m3, respectively. Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Sr, Ba and Pb concentrations in all of the sampling sites were significantly higher than that in the urban ambient air, implicating that these trace metals may be associated with the metro systems working. Individual airborne dusts were studied for morphology and mineralogy characteristics. The results revealed that the presence of most individual particles were with no definite shape and most of them were with a large metal content. Furthermore, Fe-rich particles had significantly higher abundance in the metro systems, which were more frequently encountered in the underground lines than the aboveground line. The 2D distribution map of an interested Fe-rich particle showed an uneven Fe distribution, implying that a hollow or core of other substance exists in the particle center during the formation process. Cluster analysis revealed that Fe-rich particles were possibly a mixture of Fe species. Fitting of X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectra (XANES) showed the main iron species within the particles collected from the three contrasting metro lines of Shanghai to be hematite, magnetite, iron-metal and mineral Fe. Hematite and mineral Fe were all found in three lines, while magnetite only existed in aboveground metro line. Iron-metal was determined in both the older and younger underground lines, based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. As diverse Fe species have different physical–chemical characteristics and toxicity, the speciation of Fe

  11. Flux estimation of fugitive particulate matter emissions from loose Calcisols at construction sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hala A.; Kumar, Prashant; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.

    2016-09-01

    A major source of airborne pollution in arid and semi-arid environments (i.e. North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, and Australia) is the fugitive particulate matter (fPM), which is a frequent product of wind erosion. However, accurate determination of fPM is an ongoing scientific challenge. The objective of this study is to examine fPM emissions from the loose Calcisols (i.e. soils with a substantial accumulation of secondary carbonates), owing to construction activities that can be frequently seen nowadays in arid urbanizing regions such as the Middle East. A two months field campaign was conducted at a construction site, at rest, within the city of Doha (Qatar) to measure number concentrations of PM over a size range of 0.25-32 μm using light scattering based monitoring stations. The fPM emission fluxes were calculated using the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) in an iterative manner and were fitted to a power function, which expresses the wind velocity dependence. The power factors were estimated as 1.87, 1.65, 2.70 and 2.06 for the four different size classes of particles ≤2.5, 2.5-6, 6-10 and ≤10 μm, respectively. Fitted power function was considered acceptable given that adjusted R2 values varied from 0.13 for the smaller particles and up to 0.69 for the larger ones. These power factors are in the same range of those reported in the literature for similar sources. The outcome of this study is expected to contribute to the improvement of PM emission inventories by focusing on an overlooked but significant pollution source, especially in dry and arid regions, and often located very close to residential areas and sensitive population groups. Further campaigns are recommended to reduce the uncertainty and include more fPM sources (e.g. earthworks) and other types of soil.

  12. Particulate organic matter dynamics in coastal systems of the northern Beibu Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, David; Unger, Daniela; Qiu, Guanglong

    2014-07-01

    Estuarine particle fluxes are an integral part of land-ocean-connectivity and influence coastal environmental conditions. In areas with strong anthropogenic impact they may contribute to coastal eutrophication. To investigate the particulate biogeochemistry of a human affected estuary, we sampled suspended, sedimentary and plant particulate matter along the land-ocean continuum from Nanliu River to Lianzhou Bay in southern China. Riverine particle fluxes exceed inputs from land based pond aquaculture. Elemental (C/N) and isotopic composition of particulate organic carbon (δ13C) and total nitrogen (δ15N) showed that suspended and sedimentary organic matter (OM) mainly derive from freshwater and marine phytoplankton, with minor contributions from terrestrial and aquaculture derived particles. Amino acid composition indicates subseasonal variability of production and freshness of phytoplankton OM. Strongest compositional changes of suspended particles are associated with storm-related extreme precipitation events, which introduce soil derived OM. High concentrations of chlorophyll a reflect eutrophic conditions in riverine and coastal waters. Human impact results in high δ15N signals in suspended, sedimentary and plant particulate matter. Using these in a comparison with two little affected sites shows that anthropogenic influence disperses from the Nanliu River to remote estuaries and mangrove areas. Our results suggest that autochthonous production binds anthropogenic nutrients in particles that are transported along the coast.

  13. Particulate matter test in small volume parenterals: critical aspects in sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanetto, F; Conti, B; Genta, I; Ponci, R; Montanari, L; Grassi, M

    1989-06-01

    The following critical steps of the particulate matter test sampling methodology for small volume parenteral products (SVPs), conduct by light blockage method, were considered: 1) reliability of the small volume aspirator sampler for different sample volumes; 2) particulate matter distribution inside each ampoule in liquid products (8 liquid SVPs tested); 3) influence of the sample preparation method on the evaluation of the final contamination of the sample. Nine liquid SVPs were tested by preparing samples following the three U.S.P. XXI methods: 1) unit as it is (direct analysis), II) unit diluted, III) sample obtained by combining several units. Particles counts were performed by a HIAC/ROYCO model 3000 counter fitted with a small volume sampler. The validation of the sampler shows that it should be improved. A more accurate and strict validation than the one stated by U.S.P. XXI is suggested. The particulate matter distribution in liquid products is found to be uniform inside the ampoule in the size range greater than or equal to 2 microns-greater than or equal to 10 microns; the analysis can be performed examining only a portion of the whole content. The three sample preparation methods lead to significantly different contamination results. The particulate control test should be conduct by direct analysis, as it is carried out under the same conditions as for product use. The combining method (III) is suggested for products of less than 2 ml volume that cannot be examined by direct analysis. PMID:2803449

  14. ON LINE MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of fine particulate in pulverized coal flames has several applications of importance. These include but are not limited to: (1) The detection of fine particulate in the effluent for pollution control; (2) The detection of soot and fuel burnout in real time within a boiler; and (3) The quantification of soot within coal flame for improved understanding of pulverized coal flame heat transfer and soot modeling. A method has been investigated using two-color extinction along a line of sight within the flame which provides a continuous real-time measurement of the soot concentration. The method uses two inexpensive HeNe lasers and simple light detectors. The results of testing the method on a pilot scale 0.2 MW pulverized coal reactor demonstrate the method is working well in a qualitative sense and an error analysis performed on the uncertainty of the assumed values demonstrates the method to be accurate to within(+-) 30%. Additional experiments designed to quantify the measurement more accurately are ongoing. Measurements at the end of the reactor just prior to the exit showed soot could not be detected until the overall equivalence ratio became greater than 1.0. The detection limit for the method was estimated to be 1 x 10(sup -8) soot volume fraction. Peak soot concentration was found to approach a level of 0.88 x 10(sup -6) at the sootiest condition. The method was used to obtain an axial profile of soot concentration aligned with the down-fired pulverized coal flame for three different flame swirls of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 and an overall equivalence ratio of 1.2. The axial measurements showed the soot concentration to increase initially and level off to a constant maximum value. At 0.5 swirl the soot volume fraction increased more rapidly near the burner and both the 0.5 and 1.5 swirl cases showed that soot had reached a maximum by 0.9 m, but the 0 swirl soot concentration was still increasing. Previous measurements of species and velocity in the reactor

  15. Particulate Matter Pollution and Population Exposure Assessment over Mainland China in 2010 with Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Yao; Ning Lu

    2014-01-01

    The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5). In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5) over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-base...

  16. [Analyzer Design of Atmospheric Particulate Matter's Concentration and Elemental Composition Based on β and X-Ray's Analysis Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang-quan; Liu, He-fan; Zeng, Guo-qiang; Zhang, Qing-xian; Ren, Mao-qiang; Li, Dan; Gu, Yi; Luo, Yao-yao; Zhao, Jian-kun

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter requires real-time analysis, such as particulate matter's concentrations, their element types and contents. An analyzer which is based on β and X rays analysis techniques is designed to meet those demands. Applying β-ray attenuation law and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis principle, the paper introduces the analyzer's overall design scheme, structure, FPGA circuit hardware and software for the analyzer. And the analyzer can measure atmospheric particulate matters' concentration, elements and their contents by on-line analysis. Pure elemental particle standard samples were prepared by deposition, and those standard samples were used to set the calibration for the analyzer in this paper. The analyzer can monitor atmospheric particulate matters concentration, 30 kinds of elements and content, such as TSP, PM10 and PM2.5. Comparing the measurement results from the analyzer to Chengdu Environmental Protection Agency's monitoring results for monitoring particulate matters, a high consistency is obtained by the application in eastern suburbs of Chengdu. Meanwhile, the analyzer are highly sensitive in monitoring particulate matters which contained heavy metal elements (such as As, Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb and so on). The analyzer has lots of characteristics through technical performance testing, such as continuous measurement, low detection limit, quick analysis, easy to use and so on. In conclusion, the analyzer can meet the demands for analyzing atmospheric particulate matter's concentration, elements and their contents in urban environmental monitoring. PMID:27400540

  17. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for

  18. Characterization of airborne particulates by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and carbon-14 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorhees, K.J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden); Durfee, S.L.; Currie, L.A.; Klouda, G.A.

    1981-08-01

    Pyrolysis/mass spectrometry (Py/MS) has been used to characterize the composition of organics in an ambient air particulate sample from the eastern Utah oil shale lands. The procedure involved collection of the individual contributors, pyrolysis of these samples, and finally a least-squares fitting of the individual contributor spectra to the pyrolysis mass spectrum of the ambient sample. The Py/MS results were verified by using /sup 14/C analysis.

  19. Deposition measurement of particulate matter in connection with corrosion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferm, Martin; Watt, John; O'Hanlon, Samantha; De Santis, Franco; Varotsos, Costas

    2006-03-01

    A new passive particle collector (inert surrogate surface) that collects particles from all directions has been developed. It was used to measure particle deposition at 35 test sites as part of a project that examined corrosion of materials in order that variation in particulate material could be used in development of dose-response functions in a modern multi-pollutant environment. The project, MULTI-ASSESS, was funded by the EU to examine the effects of air pollution on cultural heritage. Passive samplers were mounted rain-protected, and both in wind-protected and wind-exposed positions, to match the exposure of the samples for corrosion studies. The particle mass and its chemical content (nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, calcium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and potassium) were analysed. The loss of light reflectance on the surrogate surface was also measured. Very little ammonium and potassium was found, and one or more anions are missing in the ion balance. There were many strong correlations between the analysed species. The mass of analysed water-soluble ions was fairly constant at 24% of the total mass. The particle mass deposited to the samplers in the wind-protected position was about 25% of the particles deposited to an openly exposed sampler. The Cl-/Na+ ratios indicate a reaction between HNO(3) and NaCl. The deposited nitrate flux corresponds to the missing chloride. The Ca2+ deposition equals the SO4(2-) deposition and the anion deficiency. The SO4(2-) deposition most likely originates from SO2 that has reacted with basic calcium-containing particles either before or after they were deposited. The particle depositions at the urban sites were much higher than in nearby rural sites. The deposited mass correlated surprisingly well with the PM(10) concentration, except at sites very close to traffic. PMID:16518649

  20. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  1. Bioaccumulation of cadmium bound to ferric hydroxide and particulate organic matter by the bivalve M. meretrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferric hydroxide and particulate organic matter are important pools of trace metals in sediments and control their accumulation by benthic animals. We investigated bioaccumulation of cadmium in bivalve Meretrix meretrix by using a simplified system of laboratory synthesized iron oxides and commercially obtained humic acids to represent the inorganic and organic matrix found in nature. The results showed that bioaccumulation characteristics were distinctly different for these two substrates. Bioaccumulation from ferric hydroxide was not observed at 70 and 140 mg/kg, while the clams started to absorb Cd at 140 mg/kg from organic matter and the bioaccumulation rate was faster than that from ferric hydroxide. Within 28 d, accumulation of Cd from organic matter appeared to reach a steady state after rising to a certain level, while absorption from ferric hydroxide appeared to follow a linear profile. The findings have implications about the assimilation of trace metals from sediments by benthic animals. - Highlights: ► Accumulation of Cd adsorbed on ferric hydroxide and particulate organics was studied. ► Bioaccumulation characteristics were distinctly different for the substrates. ► The result was attributed to different properties and bio-responses of the particles. ► Bivalves may not accumulate more metals associated with more bioavailable particles. - Bioaccumulation characteristics of adsorbed Cd on ferric hydroxide and particulate organic matter by bivalve M. meretrix are distinctly different.

  2. Variation in characteristics of ambient particulate matter at eight locations in the Netherlands - The RAPTES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strak, Maciej; Steenhof, Maaike; Godri, Krystal J.; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Lebret, Erik; Brunekreef, Bert; Kelly, Frank J.; Harrison, Roy M.; Hoek, Gerard; Janssen, Nicole A. H.

    2011-08-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown health effects related to short- and long-term exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM). It is not clear however which specific characteristics (e.g., size, components) or sources of PM are responsible for the observed effects. The aim of RAPTES (Risk of Airborne Particles: a Toxicological-Epidemiological hybrid Study) was to investigate which specific physical, chemical or oxidative characteristics of ambient PM are associated with adverse effects of PM on health. This was done by performing experimental exposure of human volunteers to air pollution at several real-world settings that had high contrast and low correlation between several PM characteristics. For this goal, eight sites in the Netherlands that differed in local PM emission sources were chosen for extensive air pollution characterization. Measurement sites included an underground train station, three different road traffic sites, an animal farm, a sea harbor, a site located in the vicinity of steelworks, and an urban background site. Five- to six-hours average concentration measurements at each site were made between June 2007 and October 2009. We measured PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentration (PNC), oxidative potential of PM, absorbance, endotoxin content, as well as elemental and chemical composition of PM, and gaseous pollutants concentrations. This paper presents a detailed characterization of particulate air pollution at the sampling sites. We found significant differences in all PM characteristics between the sites. The underground train station, compared to each outdoor location, had substantially higher concentrations of nearly all PM characteristics. The average PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass concentrations at the underground train station were 394 μg m -3 and 137 μg m -3, respectively, which was 14.1 and 7.6 times higher than the urban background. The sum of the concentrations of trace metals in fine and coarse PM was nearly

  3. Concentrations of particulate matter and humic substances in deep groundwaters and estimated effects on the adsorption and transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of particulate matter such as colloids and microbes in deep Swedish groundwaters has been measured and has been found to be low in all waters. The results are summarized in this paper. The sorption capacity of relevant radionuclides on the particulate matter has been assessed based on many direct measurements and on comparisons with measurements on similar systems. The maximum transport capacity of nuclides by the particulate matters has been estimated for reversible as well as irreversible sorption of nuclides to particles. (au)

  4. Evaluating the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of air particulate matter: A comparison of two extraction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Isabel C; Oliveira, Ivo F; Franklin, Robson L; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have focused on assessing the genotoxic potential of the organic fraction of airborne particulate matter. However, the determination of water-soluble compounds, and the evaluation of the toxic effects of these elements can also provide valuable information for the development of novel strategies to control atmospheric air pollution. To determine an appropriate extraction method for assessing the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of PM, we performed microwave assisted (MW) and ultrasonic bath (US) extractions, using water as solvent, in eight different air samples (TSP and PM10). Mutagenicity and extraction performances were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100, followed by chemical determination of water-soluble metals. Additionally, we evaluated the chemical and biological stability of the extracts testing their mutagenic potential and chemically determining elements present in the samples along several periods after extraction. Reference material SRM 1648a was used. The comparison of MW and US extractions did not show differences on the metals concentrations, however positive mutagenic responses were detected with TA98 strain in all samples extracted using the MW method, but not with the US bath extraction. The recovery, using reference material was better in samples extracted with MW. We concluded that the MW extraction is more efficient to assess the mutagenic activity of the soluble fraction of airborne PM. We also observed that the extract freezing and storage over 60 days has a significant effect on the mutagenic and analytical results on PM samples, and should be avoided. PMID:27258903

  5. Examination of particulate matter and heavy metals and their effects in at-risk wards in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Natasha Ann

    One of the major contributions to pollution in the Washington, DC urban environment is particulate matter (PM). Quite often, ambient airborne toxics are closely associated with fine PM (PM2.5). We have performed high-resolution aerosol measurements of PM2.5 in four wards (Ward 1, 4, 5, and 7) of Washington, DC during two intensive observational periods (IOP). The first IOP occurred during the summer of 2003 (June 23rd to August 8th). The second IOP transpired during the late fall season of 2003 (October 20th to December 4 th). The measurement platform consisted of a Laser Particle Counter (LPC) and a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Cascade Impactor (QCM) to obtain both in-situ number and mass density distributions across the measurement sites. The data shows spatial distributions of particulate matter characterized as a function of size and mass properties. The QCM analyses show significant levels (> 15 mug/m3) of ward-averaged PM2.5 in Wards 4, 1, and 7 respectively during the summer IOP. However, all wards were less than the EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 15 mug/m 3 during the fall IOP ward-averaged measurements. Yet, investigations of the site-averaged measurements during the fall revealed some specific locations in Ward 4 that exceeded the NAAQS. Results also show that the aerosol mass density peaked in the 0.3 mum mode during the summer IOP and in the 0.15 mum mode during the fall IOP. The number density peaked in the 0.3--0.5 mum size range. Accordingly, the distributions have also been analyzed as a function of meteorological factors, such as wind speed and direction via NOAA HYSPLIT trajectories. One important attribute to this study is the evaluation of risks amongst IBC subgroups (youth, adults, elderly, black, white, hispanic, male, and female) for bath pediatric asthma rates and the onset of lung cancer over a lifetime (70-year period) when exposed to these levels of particulates. It has been determined that there are individual excess

  6. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice. PMID:26681325

  7. Sampling for diesel particulate matter in mines : Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program (DEEP), technology transfer initiative, October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and chemical characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from exhaust gases from diesel powered mining equipment were presented along with guidelines and regulation for exposure monitoring in the workplace. The report addresses issues related to personal and direct exhaust sampling in mines and presents evidence about potential carcinogenicity of the solid fraction of diesel exhaust. The incomplete combustion of diesel fuel results in the formation of solid and liquid particles in the exhaust. DPM is defined as being the portion of diesel exhaust which is made up of solid carbon particles and the attached chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganics such as sulphate compounds. DPM is a submicron aerosol and as such, it is a respirable dust which penetrates deep into the lungs. In addition, DPMs are not easily removed from the air stream because of their small size. Control of DPM is crucial because once they are airborne, they are likely to remain that way and will affect the workplace where they are produced as well as workplaces downwind. In January 2001, the Mine Safety and Health Administration issued a ruling for U.S. metal and non-metal mines requiring that mines meet a limit of exposure of 0.40 mg/m3. Mines are expected to reduce exposure to meet a 0.16 mg/m3 limit of exposure by January 2006. European mines and tunnel construction projects must also meet DPM exposure limits. DPM sampling in Canada has been regulated for nearly one decade. Sampling protocols in Canada and the United States were described with reference to equipment and procedures testing DPM filtration efficiency of after-treatment modules and to evaluate the impact of diesel equipment maintenance on gaseous particulate emissions. 23 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric particulate matter of Northern China: distribution, sources, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuangshuang; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Liufei; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Mei; He, Ping

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this work are to track the contamination levels, distribution characteristics, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in atmospheric particulate matter (APM) of Northern China and to provide more comprehensive and fundamental data for risk assessment of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in environments. Samples were extracted and purified by the microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction system, respectively. PCBs and OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged from 0.73 to 112.65 ng/g and 0.14 to 34.73 ng/g, respectively. PCBs in atmospheric particulates collected from Shijiazhuang City had the highest concentration, whereas OCP congeners were at the relatively low levels. However, the highest concentration of OCPs occurred in Yongning City. The principal component analysis indicated that the predominant compositions of PCBs in most of samples were tetrachlorobiphenyl (Tetra-CB), pentachlorobiphenyl (Penta-CB), hexachlorobiphenyl (Hexa-CB), and heptachlorbiphenyl (Hepta-CB), while hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, chlordanes, and endosulfans were the dominant components of OCPs, which was attributed to their application characteristics. OCs in those particles were further used to assess a potential cancer risk to humans via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Cancer risk was evaluated in airborne particles caused by PCBs and OCPs. TEQPCBs values suggested that the representative areas were subject to different pollution degrees. However, the pollution of OCPs in certain areas should be a concern due to 41.6% of the high risk, which could pose a potential risk to organisms. PMID:26139408

  9. Numerical study of atmospheric particulate matters: source apportionment to characterize 3D transport and transformation of precursors and secondary pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongwei

    In recent years, Mainland China, and in particular the industrial hotbed of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) has experienced an increasingly serious problem of high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. Following the tightening-up of China's air quality policies in recent years, and with especially fine particles now added to a new air quality objective, the identification of major source regions and major types of pollutants has become critically important. In this study, a source-oriented method (Particulate Source Apportionment Technology: PSAT) implemented in 3-D Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx), has been applied to analyze how different emission activities impact fine particle concentration in the PRD region. By using this method, a detailed source region and emission category contribution matrix is derived for all regions within the Hong Kong/PRD region. Source appointment results shows that, in summer and spring time, emissions inside PRD region are the major fine particle sources, contribution 70.7% (11.2 mug/m3) and 52.5% (13.1 mug/m3) to the total figure. Super-regional transports are found to be significant in autumn and winter, contribution 58.5% (20.2 mug/m3) and 64.6% (27.8 mug/m3) of the total fine particles in PRD and Hong Kong region. Another important cause of high PM levels has been the transport of fine particles between cities within the PRD region, with three different regions selected for detailed analysis. Results show that mobile vehicle and industry emission are the two major sources for fine particles. Meanwhile, over the same period in Hong Kong, marine proved to be another very significant source of particle pollutant in addition to the significant impact from motor vehicle. Results show that for the Hong Kong/PRD region local reduction of mobile sources and collaboration between different areas could have succeeded in alleviating the air pollution problem.

  10. A study of control policy in the Pearl River Delta region by using the particulate matter source apportionment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongwei; Fung, Jimmy Chi Hung; Yao, Teng; Lau, Alexis Kai Hon

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, Mainland China, and in particular the industrial hotbed of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) has experienced an increasingly serious problem of high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. Following the tightening-up of China's air quality policies in recent years, and with especially fine particles now added to a new air quality objective, the identification of major source regions and major types of pollutants has become crucial. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx), together with the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) source apportionment method, has been applied to analyze how different emission activities influence PM concentration in the PRD region. By using this method, a detailed source region and emission category contribution matrix is derived for all regions within the Hong Kong/PRD region and source appointment results show that, on average, for different cities super-regional transport and mobile vehicles are the two major fine particle sources, contributing 62% (34.3 μg m-3) and 21% (12.2 μg m-3) of the total figure in December, and 42% (13.1 μg m-3) and 28% (9.7 μg m-3) in April. Meanwhile, over the same period in Hong Kong, in addition to these two factors, marine proved another very significant source of particle pollutant, amounting to 18% of the total figure (4.7 μg m-3). Another important cause of high PM levels has been the transport of fine particles between cities within the PRD region, with three different regions selected for detailed analysis. Results show that for the Hong Kong/PRD region local reduction of mobile sources and collaboration between different areas could have succeeded in alleviating the air pollution problem.

  11. A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C. Fang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI, and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26, however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes.

  12. Removal efficiency of particulate matters at different underlying surfaces in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Mo, Lichun; Zhu, Lijuan; Yang, Yilian; Liu, Jiatong; Qiu, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhenming; Liu, Jinglan

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution has been increasingly becoming serious in Beijing and has drawn the attention of the local government and general public. This study was conducted during early spring of 2013 and 2014 to monitor the concentration of PM at three different land surfaces (bare land, urban forest, and lake) in the Olympic Park in Beijing and to analyze its effect on the concentration of meteorological factors and the dry deposition onto different land cover types. The results showed that diurnal variation of PM concentrations at the three different land surfaces had no significant regulations, and sharp short-term increases in PM10 (particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter lake's PM10 removal efficiency is higher than that of the bare land because of the relatively higher PM resuspension rates on the bare land. However, the PM2.5 removal efficiency is lower than that of the bare land because of the significantly lower dry deposition velocity. PMID:26308922

  13. Multi-elemental semi-quantitative analyses of suspended particulate matter by glow discharge MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the possibilities for multi-elemental analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) by glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). To cope with the small sample volume, SPM sample was deposited on the surface of a high purity (7N grade) indium electrode. NIST SRM 1648 Urban Particulate Matter was analyzed to evaluate the method. For 34 elements, GDMS results agreed well with their reference values within a factor of 2 from the major constituents (12.5 wt% of Si) to the trace constituents (down to 0.8 μg/g of Eu), even when using typical relative sensitivity factors (RSF). A total of 53 elements including halogens were analyzed using approximately 10 mg of SPM sample by GDMS with sub-μg/g sensitivity. (author)

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total extractable particulate organic matter in the Arctic aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of total suspended particulate matter were collected in March and August 1979 at Barrow, Alaska, a remote site in the Arctic. Ambient concentrations of extractable particulate organic matter (POM), of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and of 210Pb were determined. The samples were also examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Average concentrations of POM and PAH were similar to those reported for other remote sites in the northern hemisphere, but the concentrations were considerably higher in March than in August. The presence of fly ash in the samples collected during the March sampling period, as well as seasonal differences in the concentrations of the organic species and 210Pb and in meteorology indicate that the principal source of POM and PAH was fossil fuel combustion in the mid-latitudes during the March sampling period. (author)

  15. Evaluation of a portable photometer for estimating diesel particulate matter concentrations in an underground limestone mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Winthrop F; Gladis, David D; Schumacher, Matthew F; Ragatz, Adam C; Kittelson, David B

    2010-07-01

    A low cost, battery-operated, portable, real-time aerosol analyzer is not available for monitoring diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations in underground mines. This study summarizes a field evaluation conducted at an underground limestone mine to evaluate the potential of the TSI AM 510 portable photometer (equipped with a Dorr-Oliver cyclone and 1.0-mum impactor) to qualitatively track time-weighted average mass and elemental, organic, and total carbon (TC) measurements associated with diesel emissions. The calibration factor corrected correlation coefficient (R2) between the underground TC and photometer measurements was 0.93. The main issues holding back the use of a photometer for real-time estimation of DPM in an underground mine are the removal of non-DPM-associated particulate matter from the aerosol stream using devices, such as a cyclone and/or impactor and calibration of the photometer to mine-specific aerosol. PMID:20410071

  16. Piezoelectric properties of quartz and cristobalite airborne particulates as a cause of adverse health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B. J.; Pastiroff, S.; Cressey, G.

    Inhalation of quartz and cristobalite dusts is commonly linked with health effects although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Grinding of these piezoelectric silica polymorphs produces particulates with transient piezoelectric charges. This is likely to cause vigorous reaction with atmospheric gases and, through interaction with surface charges and 'dangling bonds', may lead to the formation of highly deleterious ozonide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. It is hoped that this study will encourage experimental work to quantify piezoelectric effects in silica dusts and to develop a method for their neutralisation during cutting and grinding processes.

  17. Satellite constraints on surface concentrations of particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Hotmann, Bonne

    Because of the increasing evidence of the widespread adverse effects on human health from exposure to poor air quality and the recommendations of the World Health Organization to significantly reduce PM2.5 in order to reduce these risks, better estimates of surface air quality globally are required. However, surface measurements useful for monitoring particulate exposure are scarce, especially in developing countries which often experience the worst air pollution. Therefore, other methods are necessary to augment estimates in regions with limited surface observations. The prospect of using satellite observations to infer surface air quality is attractive; however, it requires knowledge of the complicated relationship between satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface concentrations. This dissertation explores how satellite observations can be used in conjunction with a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to better understand this relationship. First, we investigate the seasonality in aerosols over the Southeastern United States using observations from several satellite instruments (MODIS, MISR, CALIOP) and surface network sites (IMPROVE, SEARCH, AERONET). We find that the strong summertime enhancement in satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (factor 2-3 enhancement over wintertime AOD) is not present in surface mass concentrations (25-55% summertime enhancement). Goldstein et al. [2009] previously attributed this seasonality in AOD to biogenic organic aerosol; however, surface observations show that organic aerosol only accounts for ~35% of PM2.5 mass and exhibits similar seasonality to total surface PM2.5. The GEOS-Chem model generally reproduces these surface aerosol measurements, but under represents the AOD seasonality observed by satellites. We show that seasonal differences in water uptake cannot sufficiently explain the magnitude of AOD increase. As CALIOP profiles indicate the presence of additional aerosol in the lower troposphere

  18. A rapid method for the analysis of methyl dihydrojasmonate and galaxolide in indoor and outdoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontal, Marta; van Drooge, Barend L; Grimalt, Joan O

    2016-05-20

    A method for the analysis of methyl dihydrojasmonate (MHDJ) in air particulate matter (PM1 and PM2.5) is described for the first time. This fragrance is determined together galaxolide (HHCB). Airborne particles were collected by filtration of air volumes between 100 and 1000m(3). Recovery efficiencies of filter extraction with Soxhlet and pressurized liquids were evaluated. The method included reaction with BSTFA:TMCS for generation of trimethylsilyloxy derivatives which prevented deleterious effects in the gas capillary column by interaction of hydroxyl groups from air constituents other than these fragrances. This step avoided the use of additional clean up methods such as liquid column chromatography affording direct quantification by GC-EI-MS. The proposed method had enough sensitivity for quantification of these fragrances in indoor and outdoor environmental samples using small aliquots of the PM extracts, e.g. 2.5%, and therefore saving sample material for eventual determination of other compounds. The detection limits were 0.03ng and 0.01ng for MHDJ and HHCB, respectively. Both MHDJ and HHCB were predominantly found in the smallest PM fraction analyzed (fragrances in indoor environments. Information on the occurrence of this and other fragrances is needed to increase the understanding on the influence of anthropogenic activities in the formation of organic aerosols and source apportionment. PMID:27113676

  19. Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; Bhosle, N.B.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    . Mar. Syst.: 77(1-2); 2009; 137-147 Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal Loreta Fernandes a,* , Narayan B. Bhosle a , S. G. Prabhu Matondkar a , Ravi Bhushan b a National Institute... result, low or no nutrients are injected into the surface waters thereby, influencing biological production (Prasanna Kumar et al., 2007). However, it is not known how these physical and chemical parameters influenced the quality and the quantity...

  20. Monitoring Automotive Particulate Matter Emissions with LiDAR: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Mazzoleni; Hampden D. Kuhns; Hans Moosmüller

    2010-01-01

    Automotive particulate matter (PM) causes deleterious effects on health and visibility. Physical and chemical properties of PM also influence climate change. Roadside remote sensing of automotive emissions is a valuable option for assessing the contribution of individual vehicles to the total PM burden. LiDAR represents a unique approach that allows measuring PM emissions from in-use vehicles with high sensitivity. This publication reviews vehicle emission remote sensing measurements using ul...

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone Protects Endothelial Cells against Inflammatory Events Induced by Urban Particulate Matter and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Huerta-García; Angélica Montiél-Dávalos; Ernesto Alfaro-Moreno; Gisela Gutiérrez-Iglesias; Rebeca López-Marure

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and nanoparticles (NPs) induce activation and dysfunction of endothelial cells characterized by inhibition of proliferation, increase of adhesion and adhesion molecules expression, increase of ROS production, and death. DHEA has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in HUVEC activated with proinflammatory agents. We evaluated if DHEA could protect against some inflammatory events produced by PM10 and TiO2 NPs in HUVEC. Adhesion was evaluated by a coculture...

  2. A Bayesian Multivariate Receptor Model for Estimating Source Contributions to Particulate Matter Pollution using National Databases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Time series studies have suggested that air pollution can negatively impact health. These studies have typically focused on the total mass of fine particulate matter air pollution or the individual chemical constituents that contribute to it, and not source-specific contributions to air pollution. Source-specific contribution estimates are useful from a regulatory standpoint by allowing regulators to focus limited resources on reducing emissions from sources that are major cont...

  3. Experimental Measure Of Drh And Crh Of Particulate Matter For Cultural Heritage Applications

    OpenAIRE

    CASATI, M.; Rovelli, G; D'Angelo, L.; Ferrero, L.; Perrone, MG; E. Bolzacchini

    2014-01-01

    Phase transitions and moisture adsorption property of Particulate Matter deposed on surfaces can determine decay process. Number of dissolution-crystallization cycles and time of wetness are very important decay-indicators. Deliquescence and crystallization of complex mixtures show an hysteresis behavior that depends on the chemical composition. In this work DRH and CRH experimental measurement of PM are used to compute decay-indicators for heritage materials. In this way t...

  4. Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moukhtar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng μl−1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m−3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰ for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m−3.

    In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m−3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m−3 in some samples from a suburban location.

  5. Development of analytical techniques for the characterization of natural and anthropogenic compounds in fine particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Piazzalunga,

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol is of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, for the biosphere, the climate and public health. The primary parameters that determine the environmental and health effects of aerosol particles are their concentration and chemical composition. In this work we have developed the analytical techniques to study particulate matter composition. The knowledge of PM composition can be useful to identify the main PM sources, the health risk and the formation or depositio...

  6. Rancang Bangun Alat Pereduksi Particulate Matter (PM) Gas Buang Mesin Diesel Dengan Metode Cyclone

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Revari; I Made Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Gas buang dari hasil proses pembakaran berpengaruh terhadap pencemaran udara dan lingkungan khususnya motor diesel. Proses pembakaran bahan bakar pada motor bakar menghasilkan gas buang yang mengandung unsur Nitrogen Oksida (NOx), Sulfur Oksida (SOx), Particulate Matter (PM), Karbon Monoksida (CO), dan Hidrokarbon (HC) yang bersifat mencemari udara. Agar motor diesel yang digunakan tidak mengakibatkan pencemaran udara berlebih, perlu dilakukan suatu penelitian menurunkan emisi gas buang motor...

  7. Foam fractionation efficiency of a vacuum airlift—Application to particulate matter removal in recirculating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barrut, Bertrand; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Callier, Myriam; Champagne, Jean-yves; Grasmick, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of particulate organic matter (POM) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) has become an important issue with the intensification of finfish production. The objective of this study was to assess the foam fractionation efficiency of a vacuum airlift in different conditions (POM concentrations, airflow rates, bubble sizes, water renewal rates and feed addition). In sea water, the vacuum airlift allowed removing 20% of the initial POM concentration per hour (foam fractionati...

  8. Trace elements in suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction of the Arno River waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 46 elements along the course of the Arno River (Tuscany, Italy) have been determined by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Both suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction have been investigated. No chemical treatment has been performed on the samples, either before or after irradiation. Anticoincidence techniques have been employed in the γ spectroscopy. Results are briefly discussed also from a methodological point of view. 4 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  9. Impact of the 2002 Canadian Forest Fires on Particulate Matter Air Quality in Baltimore City

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, A.; Symons, J. M.; J. Kleissl; Wang, L.; Parlange, M. B.; Ondov, J.; Breysse, P. N.; Diette, G B; Eggleston, P.A.; T. J. Buckley, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With increasing evidence of adverse health effects associated with particulate matter (PM), the exposure impact of natural sources, such as forest fires, has substantial public health relevance. In addition to the threat to nearby communities, pollutants released from forest fires can travel thousands of kilometers to heavily populated urban areas. There was a dramatic increase in forest fire activity in the province of Quebec, Canada, during July 2002. The transport of PM released from these...

  10. Chronic Residential Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Systemic Inflammatory Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Stang, Andreas; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Memmesheimer, Michael; Bröcker-Preuss, Martina; Mann, Klaus; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to urban air pollution may accelerate atherogenesis, but mechanisms are still unclear. The induction of a low-grade systemic inflammatory state is a plausible mechanistic pathway. Objectives: We analyzed the association of residential long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and high traffic with systemic inflammatory markers. Methods We used baseline data from the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 4,814 parti...

  11. Personal Exposure to Household Particulate Matter, Household Activities and Heart Rate Variability among Housewives

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ya-Li; Chen, Hua-Wei; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between indoor air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV) has been well-documented. Little is known about effects of household activities on indoor air quality and HRV alteration. To investigate changes in HRV associated with changes in personal exposure to household particulate matter (PM) and household activities. Methods We performed 24-h continuous monitoring of electrocardiography and measured household PM exposure among 50 housewives. The outcome variables...

  12. Outdoor Particulate Matter Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamra, Ghassan B.; Guha, Neela; Cohen, Aaron; Laden, Francine; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jonathan M. Samet; Vineis, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco; Saldiva, Paulo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Loomis, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution was recently designated a Group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This determination was based on the evidence regarding the relationship of PM2.5 and PM10 to lung cancer risk; however, the IARC evaluation did not include a quantitative summary of the evidence. Objective: Our goal was to provide a systematic review and quantitative summary of the evidence regarding the relationship between PM an...

  13. Possible Noncausal Bases for Correlations Between Low Concentrations of Ambient Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Valberg, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of populations living in areas with good air quality have reported correlations between daily average levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality rates. These associations persist at PM levels below current air quality standards and are difficult to reconcile with the toxicology of PM chemical constituents. The unusual level of lethality per unit PM mass predicted by these associations may result from confounding by unmeasured societal, behavioral, or stress...

  14. Bioavailable transition metals in particulate matter mediate cardiopulmonary injury in healthy and compromised animal models.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, D L; Dreher, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    Many epidemiologic reports associate ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) with human mortality and morbidity, particularly in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infection, asthma). Because much ambient PM is derived from combustion sources, we tested the hypothesis that the health effects of PM arise from anthropogenic PM that contains bioavailable transition metals. The PM samples studied derived from three emission sources (two...

  15. The mass distribution of coarse particulate organic matter exported from an Alpine headwater stream

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Turowski; A. Badoux; Bunte, K.; Rickli, C.; Federspiel, N.; M. Jochner

    2013-01-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) particles span sizes from 1 mm, with a dry mass less than 1 mg, to large logs and entire trees, which can have a dry mass of several hundred kilograms. Pieces of different size and mass play different roles in stream environments, from being the prime source of energy in stream ecosystems to macroscopically determining channel morphology and local hydraulics. We show that a single scaling exponent can describe the mass distribution of...

  16. Elemental Constituents of Particulate Matter and Newborn's Size in Eight European Cohorts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Marie; Basaga??a Flores, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Sunyer Deu, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, R??my

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM) may depend on its chemical composition. Associations between maternal exposure to chemical constituents of PM and newborn's size have been little examined. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to elemental constituents of PM with term low birth weight (LBW; weight < 2,500 g among births after 37 weeks of gestation), mean birth weight, and head circumference, relying on standardized fine-scale exposu...

  17. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Reifferscheid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  18. Characterisation of atmospheric particulate matter by diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregušová, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    University of Antwerp, 2012. s. 222. [International Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry /37./. 22.05.2012-25.05.2012, Antwerp] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : particulate matter * DGT technique * platinum group metals Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. Low-wind/high particulate matter episodes in the Calexico/Mexicali region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry E; Jaramillo, Isabel C; Quintero-Núñez, Margarito; Wagner, David A; Collins, Kimberly; Meuzelaar, Henk L C; Lighty, JoAnn S

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently classifies Imperial County, CA, as a nonattainment area for PM10 (particulate matter [PM] agricultural burning accounted for 6.7% of organic-fraction PM10 for low-wind/high-PM episodes versus 0.25% at other times. This preliminary source attribution also revealed that motor vehicles were the most important relative contributor to organic PM10. PMID:21243902

  20. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus jap...

  1. Interactions between Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Stone Surfaces by Means of Laboratory and Field Studies

    OpenAIRE

    CASATI, M.

    2016-01-01

    The PhD work is focused on the interactions between atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and stone surfaces, particularly with reference to the decay phenomena that can happen as a consequence of PM deposition. Laboratory studies have been focused on the relationship between PM’s chemical composition and the decay hazards to which the stone surfaces subjected to PM deposition are exposed. A new evaluation method has been proposed. The method exploits experimental measurements of deliquescence ...

  2. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Reifferscheid; Oepen, Britta v.

    2002-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  3. NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission reduction potential by biodiesel usage

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    The transport in many countries is the most significant source for NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Therefore, the possibility of reducing NOx and PM emissions is experimentally investigated using biodiesel and some of its blends with mineral diesel. Attention is focused on the optimal bus dieselengine adjustments for each tested fuel. The obtained engine characteristics are compared to each other by considering the 13 modes of the European stationary cycle test. The optimal injecti...

  4. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo; Matlou Ingrid Mokgobu; Murembiwa Stanley Mukhola; Raymond Paul Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease...

  5. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  6. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  7. The impact of ambient particulate matter (PM10) on the population mortality for cerebrovascular diseasesa case-crossover study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between the concentration of ambient inhalable particulate matter(PM10) and population mortality for cerebrovascular diseases and to explore the impact of PM10 on cerebrovascular

  8. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  9. Can particulate organic matter reveal emerging changes in soil organic carbon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Magnus; Kirchmann, Holger; Magid, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether particulate organic matter (POM) in sand fractions, isolated by wet sieving after treatment with Na hexametaphosphate, can be a sensitive indicator of incipient changes in the content and composition of soil organic matter. In five long-term field experiments including....... Although organic matter in Fraction B had a higher intrinsic sensitivity to soil management, which was partly able to overcome the larger errors, we concluded that an observer would be more likely to detect changes by measuring total organic C and N, when monitoring decadal changes in C and N pools....... This makes the investigated POM fractions less suitable as indicators for changes in soil C stocks. However, the C/N ratio of Fraction B showed a distinct signature of the history of organic matter input to the soil, which was absent in the C/N ratio of the total fine earth. © Soil Science Society of America...

  10. Policy research programme on particulate matter. Main results and policy consequences; Beleidsgericht onderzoeksprogramma fijn stof. Resultaten op hoofdlijnen en beleidsconsequenties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, J.; Koelemeijer, R.B.A.

    2010-06-15

    The Policy-Oriented Research on Particulate Matter (BOP) programme aimed at increasing knowledge on particulate matter so that future policy can be supported adequately. The main research objectives of BOP were to improve knowledge of the PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations, composition and sources of particulate matter; Increasing the understanding of the behavior of particulate matter in the urban area; Determining the trends in concentrations of particulate matter and its components; and Clarify the impact of policies in the past and the future of PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations. The first part of this study presents the main findings of the study, discussing the (chemical) composition of particulate matter, concentration trends, expected developments, health impacts, policy implications, and how to proceed with the particulate matter dossier. In the second part of the study the underlying analysis are elaborated. [Dutch] Het Beleidsgericht Onderzoeksprogramma Particulate Matter (BOP) had als doel om de kennis over fijn stof te vergroten, zodat beleidsvorming in de toekomst adequater ondersteund kan worden. De belangrijkste onderzoeksdoelstellingen van BOP waren: Verbeteren van de kennis over de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties, de samenstelling en de bronnen van fijn stof; Vergroten van het inzicht in het gedrag van fijn stof in het stedelijke gebied; Bepalen van de trends in fijnstofconcentraties en de bestanddelen ervan; Verduidelijken van de invloed van beleidsmaatregelen in het verleden en de toekomst op de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties. Het eerste deel van deze studie, de Bevindingen, presenteert de belangrijkste uitkomsten van het onderzoek. Hierbij komen achtereenvolgens aan de orde: de (chemische) samenstelling van fijn stof, trends in concentraties, verwachte ontwikkelingen, gezondheidseffecten, beleidsconsequenties en hoe nu verder te gaan met het dossier fijn stof. In het tweede deel van de studie, de Verdieping, staat de verantwoording en worden de

  11. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil -ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: heloisa@ulbra.br

    2008-01-15

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m{sup 3}/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis.

  12. Pavement wear and airborne dust pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Snilsberg, Brynhild

    2008-01-01

    In several large cities in Norway the traffic volume is high. The use of studded tires and other friction enhancing measures during winter leads to significant pavement wear, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of airborne particulate matter, often exceeding the limits set in the ambient air regulation. This represents a nuisance or health risk for people being exposed to the pollution. According to regulations set by the European Union particulate matter is measured and regulate...

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborn particulates in an industrial Greek city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon-induced X-ray fluorescence is used at a medium-sized Greek industrial city to detect trace elements with 20(109Cd source which emits mainly Ag X-rays, has been used in a π-geometry. The source in the form of a ring was housed in an aluminium shield backed with iron. In the center of the ring a small hole allowed viewing of the sample by a Si(Li) detector. The latter had a resolution of about 0.18 keV FWHM for the Mn Kα X-ray. The calibration of the system was made by using targets of well known thicknesses. Samples of airborn dust were collected by drawing with a pump about 10 m3 of air through a Whatman 41 filter paper. The volume of the air passed was measured with a gas meter. Efficiency of the air filtration was estimated by using two filters in series during air sampling. The efficiency of collection for each element was then estimated from the measured amount of each element at the two filters. Tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  14. Characterisation of airborne particulates in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, South Ural Mountains of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B. J.; Udachin, V.; Purvis, O. W.; Spiro, B.; Cressey, G.; Jones, G. C.

    2003-04-01

    Atmospheric airborne total suspended particulates (TSP) have been characterised in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, south Ural mountains of Russia. TSP was collected on filters using air-pump apparatus at sampling sites up- and down-wind of the smelter and large waste dumps and tailings. Particle size, mineralogy and elemental compositions have been determined using a combination of SEM/EDX, image analysis, XRD and ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The results have been compared with those for dusts collected from the smelter blast furnace and converter stacks and filtrates of snow melt waters. TSP concentrations in samples downwind from the smelter were 90 and 156 ug/m3, well below the Russian recommended maximum (500 ug/m3, 24 hr average). However, with a mean equivalent spherical diameter (ESD) of 0.5 um (s.d. = 0.2), the particles are respirable, and therefore able to penetrate into the unciliated (alveolar) airways of the lung. Such particles fall within the size class known as PM10, for which the EU target maximum is 50 ug/m3 (24-h mean value). Pb concentrations (16-30 ug/m3) were well above Russian maximum permitted levels in air (1 ug/m3, averaged over any time period) and the samples contain elevated Cd, As, S, Sn and Zn. Individual particulates downwind from the smelter consist of complex aggregates mainly made up of anglesite (PbSO4), Zn2SnO4 and poorly ordered or amorphous Zn sulphates. A smelter source for these phases is likely as anglesite and Zn2SnO4 form a major component of converter dusts, along with gunningite (ZnSO4(H2O)), zincite (ZnO), sphalerite and galena, and with anglesite also being contained in the blast furnace dust, along with hematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. Also, samples taken upwind of the smelter, but downwind of large waste dumps and tailings, have very different particle size (mean ESD > 1.3 um) and compositions, being dominated by silicates and Fe-rich phases. With the exception of gunningite, which is

  15. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N [Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian, E-mail: umphsp@leeds.ac.u [Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research Division, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, The LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  16. Confinement of airborne particulate radioactivity in the case of an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of an accident, the filter elements on the inlets and exhausts of the air-cleaning systems of a nuclear facility may become a part of the remaining fission product barrier. Among others, the Project Nuclear Safety is pursuing the information necessary to insure safe operation of air-cleaning systems under accident conditions. Experimental investigations into the response of HEPA filters to differential presssures involving both dry and moist air have demonstrated the occurrence of structural failure with subsequent loss of efficiency at low values of differential pressures. Contributions are being made to the development and verification of computer codes used to calculate those fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic conditions expected to prevail in an air-cleaning system as a result of potential accident situations. With regard to further investigations, a new test facility was put into operation for the realization of superimposed challenges and a new method for testing particulate removal efficiency under high temperature or high humidity was developed. (orig./HP)

  17. Design, testing and demonstration of a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) and payload for measuring wind speed and particulate matter in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Kevin Donald Alexander

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air directly influenced by the Earth's surface and is the layer of the atmosphere most important to humans as this is the air we live in. Methods for measuring the properties of the ABL include three general approaches: satellite based, ground based and airborne. A major research challenge is that many contemporary methods provide a restricted spatial resolution or coverage of variations of ABL properties such as how wind speed varies across a landscape with complex topography. To enhance our capacity to measure the properties of the ABL, this thesis presents a new technique that involves a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) equipped with a customized payload for measuring wind speed and particulate matter. The research presented herein outlines two key phases in establishing the proof of concept of the payload and its integration on the sUAS: (1) design and testing and (2) field demonstration. The first project focuses on measuring wind speed, which has been measured with fixed wing sUASs in previous research. but not with a helicopter sUAS. The second project focuses on the measurement of particulate matter, which is a major air pollutant typically measured with ground-based sensors. Results from both proof of concept projects suggest that ABL research could benefit from the proposed techniques. .

  18. SYSTEMIC VASCULAR DISEASE IN MALE B6C3F1 MICE EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER BY INHALATION: STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest an association between ambient particulate matter and cardiopulmonary diseases in humans. The mechanisms underlying these health effects are poorly understood. To better understand the potential relationship between particulate-ma...

  19. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of small cyclone separator to remove fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Han Gyul; Kim, Hong Seok [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A cyclone separator has been widely used in various industrial processes for removing fine particulate matter because it is easy to fabricate, cost effective, and adaptable to extremely harsh conditions. However, owing to the complex flow field in cyclones, a complete understanding of the detailed mechanisms of particulate removal has not yet been gained. In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed for calculating the collection efficiency and cut off size in cyclones by taking into account the effects of geometrical and flow parameters. The collection efficiency and cut off size values predicted by the theoretical model showed good agreement with experimental measurements for particles with a diameter of 0.5-30{mu}m. It was also revealed that the surface friction, along with the flow and geometrical parameters, has a significant effect on the cyclone performance.

  20. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of small cyclone separator to remove fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cyclone separator has been widely used in various industrial processes for removing fine particulate matter because it is easy to fabricate, cost effective, and adaptable to extremely harsh conditions. However, owing to the complex flow field in cyclones, a complete understanding of the detailed mechanisms of particulate removal has not yet been gained. In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed for calculating the collection efficiency and cut off size in cyclones by taking into account the effects of geometrical and flow parameters. The collection efficiency and cut off size values predicted by the theoretical model showed good agreement with experimental measurements for particles with a diameter of 0.5-30μm. It was also revealed that the surface friction, along with the flow and geometrical parameters, has a significant effect on the cyclone performance

  1. Fluxes, dynamics and chemistry of suspended particulate matter in a southeast Alaskan fjord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weighted mean fluxes over the June 1982-October 1983 were 290, 519, 812, 1124 g m-2 yr-1, respectively, determined using sediment traps deployed at 40, 120, 300 and 375 m depth in the 380 m water column. The long-term sedimentation rate was estimated at average 589 g m-2 yr-1 from sediment 210Pb profiles. Substantial SPM input to mid-depths (below 100 m) from the side arms was noted. Thus, the flux measured at 120 m depth was designated as the primary flux of the SPM to the basin. The sediment focusing resulting from the V shaped basin does not appear to be important. Using particulate Al as a tracer, resuspension rate was estimated at some 30-80% of the vertical flux below 280 m depth. Based on the SPM dynamics, the non-conservative behavior of particulate biogenic matter, Mn and Fe was investigated using a primary-resuspended-altered flux model

  2. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  3. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  4. Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particle Pollution. Video PSAs EPA's Burn Wise program released two ... announcements (PSAs) to help the public reduce PM pollution from wood smoke. Your Air Quality Good Moderate ...

  5. Characterization and source identification of trace elements in airborne particulates at urban and suburban atmospheres of Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Akbar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Taghipour, Hasan; Rafee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Zahra; Faridi, Sasan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of particulate matter (PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP)) and their elemental constituents were measured to identify the major sources of elements in urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume samplers. Concentrations of 31 elements in aerosols and crustal soil were determined by ICPMS. The most abundant detected metals in the urban sampling sites were Al (217.5-4019.9 ng m(-3)), Fe (272.5-7658.0 ng m(-3)), Pt (4.7-1994.4 ng m(-3)), and P (13.6-2054.8 ng m(-3) (for TSP and Al (217.6-3687.3 ng m(-3)), Fe (197.1-3724.9 ng m(-3)), Pt (65.9-2054.5 ng m(-3)), and P (11.0-756.6 ng m(-3)( for PM10. In the suburban sampling site, the most abundant detected metals were Al (2083.0-9664.0 ng m(-3)), Fe (360.0-7221.5 ng m(-3)), P (229.4-870.5 ng m(-3)), and Ti (137.3-849.7 ng m(-3)) for TSP and Al (218.5-4179.6 ng m(-3)), Fe (106.3-2005.1 ng m(-3)), P (251.9-908.4 ng m(-3)), and Ba (10.6-584.9 ng m(-3)) for PM10. For the crustal soil, the most abundant detected elements included Al (60,088-60,694 ppm), Fe (19,886-20,474 ppm), Ti (894-3481 ppm), and Si (365-4246 ppm). Key emission sources were identified, and the concentrations contributed from individual sources were estimated. Enrichment factor (EF) explaining a preponderance of the variance in the data was applied to the datasets. EF calculations revealed that non-crustal trace elements were more enriched in the urban than suburban sampling sites. Results of the factor analysis on the elements showed that emissions from road traffic (involving oil and fuel combustions by vehicles, platinum group elements from vehicle exhaust, and resuspension of particulate matter from polluted soil) and construction dust from nearby construction sites and electricity generation plant were the major contributors of anthropogenic metals at ambient atmosphere in Tabriz. Results of this study elucidated the need for

  6. Biogeochemical consequences of vertical and lateral transport of particulate organic matter in the southern North Sea: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Guitton, M.; Soetaert, K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical and lateral transports are of importance in continental shelf systems such as the North Sea andplay a major role in the processing of organic matter. We investigated the biogeochemical consequencesof these transports on particulate organic matter at the molecular level in the southern North

  7. Capture of air particulate matter and gaseous Hg0 by ionic liquids analyzed by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been extensively employed to study the elements associated to air particulate matter (Pm). However, the atmosphere is a very complex system and inorganic pollutants may be also in gaseous phases. Aerosol monitoring does not allow the determination of all the volatile inorganic compounds, since they are not retained in the filters, or if they are trapped, the analysis under vacuum results in a partial or total loss of them. In order to extend the applications of PIXE there is a need to develop new methods to simultaneously capture particulate matter and volatile substances. Ionic liquids (Il) result from combinations of organic cations and anions that may be liquid at room temperature. The physicochemical characteristics of Il s allow them to absorb atmospheric trace metals present in solid and gaseous phases, a task normally performed with independent sampling methods. In this work we explored this capability of Il s as monitors of chemical species which can be found in the gas phase and as particulate matter. The tested Il s included 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium-Hexafluorophosphate (BMIM) (PF6) for Pm and Hg capture; and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (BMIM) (Scn) only for Hg capture. Elemental analysis of both experiments was performed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Changes in the molecular structure on BMIM PF6 due to the Hg binding were followed by infrared spectroscopy. (BMIM( (PF6) proved to be successful as passive collector of Pm. However when both were used for Hg capture, (BMIM) (Scn) showed better selectivity. These preliminary results showed the potential of Il s for simultaneous uptake of Pm and volatile inorganic compounds. (Author)

  8. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATION AND EMISSION FACTOR IN THREE DIFFERENT LAYING HEN HOUSING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 concentration in three different laying hens houses (traditional battery cages with aerated open manure storage, aviary system and vertical tiered cages with manure belts with forced air drying and to evaluate particulate matter emission into atmosphere during one year of observation. Internal and external temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate, PM10 concentration have been continuously monitored in order to evaluate particulate matter concentration changes during the day and the season and to define PM10 emission factors. PM10 concentration was corrected by gravimetric technique to lower measurements error. In the aviary system house, TSP and fine particulate matter (particles smaller than 2.5 micron concentration was measured. Average yearly PM10 concentration was remarkably higher in the aviary system house with 0.215 mg m-3 vs 108 mg m-3 for the ventilated belt house and vs 0.094 mg m-3 for the traditional battery cages house. In the Aviary system housing, TSP concentration was 0.444 mg m-3 and PM2.5 was 0.032 mg m-3, highlighting the existence of a severe working environment for men and animals. Recorded values for PM10 emission were 0.433 mg h-1 hen-1 for battery cages housing type, 0.081 mg h-1 hen-1 for ventilated belt cages house, values lower than those available in literature, while the aviary system housing type showed the highest PM10 emission (1.230 mg h-1 hen-1 with appreciable peaks during the morning, together with the increased animal activity and daily farmer operations, as feed administration, cleaning and droppings removal.

  9. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources. PMID:22797225

  10. Composition of particulate organic matter sampled in the troposphere over Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Voronetskaya, Natalya G.; Pevneva, Galina S.; Golovko, Anatoly K.; Kozlov, Alexander S.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present some results of the analysis of organic compounds contained in the particulate matter sampled in the Siberian air shed during monthly research flights in 2012-2013. Aerosol sampling was performed in the tropospheric layer from 500 to 7000 m over the Karakan pine forest located on the east bank of the Novosibirsk Reservoir (River Ob). The Optik TU-134 aircraft laboratory was used as a research platform for in-situ measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and aerosols, as well as a particulate matter collection on PTFE filters. Analysis of the particulate organic matter sampled in the Siberian air shed in 2012-2013 allowed us to draw the following conclusions: the total content of n-alkanes increases in the spring and decreases in the winter. the length of the n-alkane homologous series had no seasonal dependence. maximum in the molecular weight distribution of n-alkanes varies depending on the season; compounds with C17, C22 and C25 chains dominated in winter and spring 2012, whereas in summer - C17 ones; in 2013 compounds with C17 chains dominated in winter, C18-C20 - in spring, and C21 and C23 - in summer. Carbon preference index (CPI) value for a given chain length of the homologous series (on the average from C12 to C28) did not reflect the contribution of sources of n-alkanes in the atmosphere. This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  11. Particulate-matter content of 11 cephalosporin injections: conformance with USP limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, D A; Taylor, A J

    1987-05-01

    The particulate-matter content of 11 dry-powder cephalosporin injections was determined using a modified version of the official United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) method for particulate matter in small-volume injections (SVIs). Ten vials of each cephalosporin product were each constituted with 10 mL of Water for Injections BP that had been filtered through a 0.22-micron membrane. The pooled contents of the 10 vials for each product were allowed to stand under reduced pressure to ensure removal of gas bubbles. Particulate-matter content was determined using a HIAC/Royco particle counter on six 10-mL samples obtained from the pooled solutions for each product. All solution preparation and particle counting was performed in a horizontal-laminar-airflow hood. Modifications of the USP method used in this study included the use of six rather than two samples from each pooled solution, the addition of diluent to the injections through the rubber closure with a needle instead of into the open container, and changes in the degassing method. Particle counts for all products examined were lower than USP limits for SVIs. All but two products contained less than 15% of USP limits for particles greater than or equal to 10 microns in effective diameter and particles greater than or equal to 25 microns in effective diameter. The standard USP method for degassing (standing for two minutes) was inadequate. Application of reduced pressure for up to 10 minutes was necessary for thorough degassing of products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3605122

  12. Airborne particulate endocrine disrupting compounds in China: Compositions, size distributions and seasonal variations of phthalate esters and bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Gehui

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and ubiquitously occur in the environment. In the past decade we have characterized atmospheric organic aerosols from various environments (e.g., urban, rural, mountain and marine) of East Asia on a molecular level, but not investigated EDCs in the samples. In the current study we re-analyzed our database for concentrations, compositions and size distributions of phthalates and BPA and compared with those in the literature to improve the understanding on air pollution status in China. Our results showed that airborne particulate phthalates and BPA are 63-1162 ng m- 3 and 1.0-20 ng m- 3 in the urban regions in China, respectively, being one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the developed countries. Among the detected phthalates in Chinese urban areas, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) is the predominant congener, contributing to 23-79% (ave. 53 ± 15%) of the total phthalates. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Shanghai and Xi'an (two mega-cities in China) in 2009 were 3-84% lower than those in 2003, probably indicating a positive effect of the government's air pollution control in the recent years. Phthalates are higher in summer than in winter, because they are not chemically bonded to the polymeric matrix and more easily evaporate into the air under higher temperature conditions. Based on the size distribution observation, we found that diisobutyl and dibutyl phthalates mainly exist in coarse particles because of high volatilities, in contrast to BEHP and BPA, which are dominant in fine particles due to less volatility. Our results also indicate that BPA is mostly derived from the open burning of solid waste while phthalates are derived from both direct evaporation from the matrix and solid waste combustion.

  13. Monitoring Automotive Particulate Matter Emissions with LiDAR: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Mazzoleni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Automotive particulate matter (PM causes deleterious effects on health and visibility. Physical and chemical properties of PM also influence climate change. Roadside remote sensing of automotive emissions is a valuable option for assessing the contribution of individual vehicles to the total PM burden. LiDAR represents a unique approach that allows measuring PM emissions from in-use vehicles with high sensitivity. This publication reviews vehicle emission remote sensing measurements using ultraviolet LiDAR and transmissometer systems. The paper discusses the measurement theory and documents examples of how these techniques provide a unique perspective for exhaust emissions of individual and groups of vehicles.

  14. Processes and modeling of hydrolysis of particulate organic matter in aerobic wastewater tratment - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Kommedal, Roald; Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    substrates and mixed populations. Most mathematical models use a simple one-step process to describe hydrolysis. In this article, mechanisms of hydrolysis and mathematical models to describe these processes in wastewater treatment processes are reviewed. Experimental techniques to determine mechanisms......Carbon cycling and the availability of organic carbon for nutrient removal processes are in most wastewater treatment systems restricted by the rate of hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable (particulate) organic matter. To date, the mechanisms of hydrolysis are not well understood for complex...

  15. Saharan Dust and Associations between Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality in Rome, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Mallone, Sandra; Stafoggia, Massimo; Faustini, Annunziata; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marconi, Achille; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of Saharan-Sahel dust over Euro-Mediterranean areas frequently induce exceedances of the Europen Union's 24-hr standard of 50 μg/m3 for particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ than 10 μm (PM10). Objectives: We evaluated the effect of Saharan dust on the association between different PM fractions and daily mortality in Rome, Italy. Methods: In a study of 80,423 adult residents who died in Rome between 2001 and 2004, we performed a time-series analysis to explo...

  16. Validation of the determination of Pb, Cd, As, and Ni in particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Determination of metals in atmospheric aerosols is important because of their toxic effects on human health. Analysis of Pb, Cd, As, and Ni in the PM10 fraction of suspended particulate matter was carried out by ICPMS. Digestion of samples was performed in a closed vessel microwave digestion system at 220 oC using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Accurate results can be obtained only by application of a validated method. In this contribution, results of several validation performance characteristic (e.g. method detection limit, recovery rate, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, homogeneity) will be presented. (author)

  17. Analysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter in Madrid urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured in the air particulate matter during six months, from January to June of 1987, in an urban area of Madrid. The hydrocarbons were collected on glass fiber filters by high volumen sampling. The extraction was carried out by Sohxlet and ultrasonic techniques. The extracts were clean-up on silicagel fractionation and the chromatographic analysis was performed by capillary column gas chromatographic. Final results are discussed as well as the immission values related to the possible emission sources. (Author)

  18. Exposures to Particulate Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Oxidative Stress in Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Kwangsik; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution is known to contribute to respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the main mechanisms for these effects on health. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in schoolchildren. Methods The study population co...

  19. Particulate matter in the indoor environment of museums in the megacity of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavicchioli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollutants can have serious impacts on the preservation of São Paulo's tangible cultural heritage. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a monitoring campaign focussed on particulate matter (PM that was conducted in three of the most important museums of the São Paulo megacity (Brazil: the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE-USP, the Museu Paulista (MP-USP, and the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo (PE. These museums exhibit indoor PM and black carbon (BC concentrations consistent with their urban locations and their specific methods for managing the indoor environment.

  20. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Subchronic Inhalation Particulate Matter 10 Coal Dust on Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Bambang; Darsuni, Asnawati; Muttaqien, Fauzan; Widodo, M. Aris

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was have to known an effect of inhaled particulate matter 10 (PM10) of coal dust on lipid profile, hematopoetic stem cells (HSC) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in rats. A total of 32 Wistar male rats, were randomly divided into four groups of 8 rats each, including one control group and three groups for inhaled coal dust (concentration 6.25 mg/m3; 12.5 mg/m3; and 25 mg/m3). The exposure to coal dust exposure was conducted using equipment that was designed by and av...

  1. Formation of particulate matter monitoring during combustion of wood pellete with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacka, Matej; Holubčík, Michal; Vician, Peter; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Application additives into the material for the production of wood pellets achieve an improvement in some properties such as pellets ash flow temperature and abrasion resistance. Additives their properties influence the course of combustion, and have an impact on the results of issuance. The experiment were selected additives corn starch and dolomite. Wood pellets were produced in the pelleting press and pelletizing with the additives. Selected samples were tested for the production of particulate matter (PM) during their direct burn. The paper analyzing a process of producing wood pellets and his effect on the final properties.

  2. Seasonal variation of the metal composition in particulate matter (PM) in Graz determined with ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Graz, the 2nd biggest city of Austria, is not only famous for its cultural heritage but is also well known as one of the most heavily air-polluted cities of Austria. Samples of particulate matter (PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10), collected in Graz over a one year period, were analyzed for 36 metals by ICPMS following microwave-assisted acid digestion. Accumulation of PM in the city (Graz is located in a basin) and additional emissions (e.g. domestic combustion) during winter caused not only higher PM concentrations but also marked changes in the PM metal composition. (author)

  3. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiulin Xiong; Wenji Zhao; Zhaoning Gong; Wenhui Zhao; Tao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spat...

  4. Evaluation of total suspended particulate matter in some urban and industrial cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental studies are very important as the living beings depend greatly on the conditions of the environment. Air is an important component of the environment, which greatly affects the health of humans, animals and plants. Environmental problems in Pakistan are growing with the rise in total sectorial growth in population, economy and industrialization. In connection with atmospheric pollution, measurement of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Wah Cantt. and Khanispur (background area) has been carried out and compared to that of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Standards. (author)

  5. The Spatial Variation of Dust Particulate Matter Concentrations during Two Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova; Agnes Ösp Magnusdottir; Haraldur Olafsson; Olafur Arnalds

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from ...

  6. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul A; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program to provide key stakeholders (government and private sector) with significantly improved information needed to develop effective and efficient strategies for reducing PM on urban and regional scales. All Supersites projects developed and evaluated methods and instruments, and significant advances have been made and applied within these programs to yield new insights to our understanding of PM accumulation in air as well as improved source-receptor relationships. The tested methods include a variety of continuous and semicontinuous instruments typically with a time resolution of an hour or less. These methods often overcome many of the limitations associated with measuring atmospheric PM mass concentrations by daily filter-based methods (e.g., potential positive or negative sampling artifacts). Semicontinuous coarse and ultrafine mass measurement methods also were developed and evaluated. Other semicontinuous monitors tested measured the major components of PM such as nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon, trace elements, and water content of the aerosol as well as methods for other physical properties of PM, such as number concentration, size distribution, and particle density. Particle mass spectrometers, although unlikely to be used in national routine monitoring networks in the foreseeable future because of their complex technical requirements and cost, are mentioned here because of the wealth of new information they provide on the size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles on a near continuous basis. Particle mass spectrometers likely represent the greatest advancement in PM measurement technology during the last decade. The improvements in time resolution achieved by the reported semicontinuous methods have proven to be especially useful in characterizing ambient PM, and are becoming essential in allowing scientists to

  7. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  8. Airborne particulates. European directives and standardization; Matieres particulaires dans l`air ambiant directives europeennes et normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdret, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 59 - Douai (France)

    1996-12-31

    The development of future European directives concerning atmospheric dusts and particulates, organization of the in-charge committee, measurement requirements and limit value determination processes are presented. Various measuring methods and instruments used for particulate and aerosol measurements are reviewed

  9. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination

  10. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  11. Radionuclides in water and suspended particulate matter from the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing plants at Sellafield and La Hague are primarily the sources of artificial radionuclides in the North Sea. Due the prevailing transport of water masses, the contamination of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) with Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, Sb-125, and Ru-106 constitutes a characteristic pattern depending on the source of contamination. Th-234 gives the highest activity of natural radionuclides in suspended matter. Its activity depends mainly on the suspension load. Resuspension processes and biological activity are responsible for the specific activities in SPM of the North Sea. SPM was collected from several cubic meters of seawater by means of a continuous flow centrifuge. Results from several cruises to the North Sea are presented. (Author)

  12. The distribution features of the airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) ingredients and source analysis in Urumqi%乌鲁木齐市大气细颗粒物(PM2.5)污染成分特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玛依热·热夏提; 晓开提·依不拉音; 康宏; 徐涛; 纪元

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析研究乌鲁木齐市2014-2015年空气大气细颗粒物(PM2.5)样品中主要的重金属和离子的浓度及分布特征。方法利用智能大流量PM2.5空气颗粒物采样器采集61个大气细颗粒物样品,对其主要的重金属和阴离子浓度的分布特征进行研究分析。结果所采集的样品中 PM2.5超标率高达100%,且采暖期 PM2.5浓度高于非采暖期。成分分析发现 Na、K、Mg、Ca、Pb、Zn、Fe 和 Cu 是 PM2.5中主要的重金属污染物,其中 Na、Mg、Ca、Zn、Fe 5种重金属相对比较固定,且所占比例最高,占总成分的90%以上。非采暖期这5种重金属污染浓度依次为Ca>Fe>Zn>Mg>Na;采暖期为 Ca>Zn>Fe>Na>Mg。PM2.5中的主要阴离子为 F-、Cl-、NO-3和SO2-4。在不同月份检测的细颗粒物阴离子中,不同阴离子所占比例相对比较稳定,且均为 SO2-4>NO-3>Cl->F-。结论乌鲁木齐市大气污染浓度较高,大气中 PM2.5超标严重。污染来源主要与交通尾气排放和含硫燃煤的燃烧有关,应加强大气中PM2.5污染的治理。%Objective To investigate the space distribution features of major heavy metals and ions as well as their concentration in atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 )by collecting samples of atmospheric fine parti-cles (PM2.5 )in Urumqi from 2014 to 2015.Methods 63 atmospheric fine particle samples were collected by using TH-1000CII type intelligent flow PM2.5 particulate air sampler.Results Firstly,among the sam-ples of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 ),the over standard rate reaches 100%.Secondly,the concentra-tions of the atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 )was higher in heating period than that in non-heating period. Thirdly,the results showed that Na,K,Mg,Ca,Pb,Zn,Fe and Cu are the main pollution elements of PM2.5 .Among those mental pollutants,Na,Mg,Ca,Zn and Fe were relatively fixed and they had the highest proportion

  13. Life cycle impact assessment modeling for particulate matter: A new approach based on physico-chemical particle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Dominic A

    2015-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) causes severe damage to human health globally. Airborne PM is a mixture of solid and liquid droplets suspended in air. It consists of organic and inorganic components, and the particles of concern range in size from a few nanometers to approximately 10μm. The complexity of PM is considered to be the reason for the poor understanding of PM and may also be the reason why PM in environmental impact assessment is poorly defined. Currently, life cycle impact assessment is unable to differentiate highly toxic soot particles from relatively harmless sea salt. The aim of this article is to present a new impact assessment for PM where the impact of PM is modeled based on particle physico-chemical properties. With the new method, 2781 characterization factors that account for particle mass, particle number concentration, particle size, chemical composition and solubility were calculated. Because particle sizes vary over four orders of magnitudes, a sound assessment of PM requires that the exposure model includes deposition of particles in the lungs and that the fate model includes coagulation as a removal mechanism for ultrafine particles. The effects model combines effects from particle size, solubility and chemical composition. The first results from case studies suggest that PM that stems from emissions generally assumed to be highly toxic (e.g. biomass combustion and fossil fuel combustion) might lead to results that are similar compared with an assessment of PM using established methods. However, if harmless PM emissions are emitted, established methods enormously overestimate the damage. The new impact assessment allows a high resolution of the damage allocatable to different size fractions or chemical components. This feature supports a more efficient optimization of processes and products when combating air pollution. PMID:26001495

  14. Feasibility of analyzing fine particulate matter in air using solid-phase extraction membranes and dynamic subcritical water extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollbäck, Johanna; Bigatá, María Blasco; Crescenzi, Carlo; Ström, Johan

    2008-05-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of using Empore solid-phase extraction (SPE) membranes as an alternative to conventional techniques for sampling fine airborne particulate matter (PM), including nanoparticles, utilizing a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a condensation particle counter to evaluate their efficiency for trapping fine particles in the 10-800 nm size range. The results demonstrate that the membranes can efficiently trap these particles and can then be conveniently packed into an extraction cell and extracted under matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) conditions. The potential utility of sampling PM using Empore membranes followed by dynamic subcritical water extraction (DSWE) for fast, efficient, class-selective extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with the particles, prior to changing the solvent and analysis by GC/MS, was then explored. The performance of the method was tested using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-certified "urban dust" reference material (SRM 1649a) and real samples collected at a site in central Rome with heavy road traffic. The method appears to provide comparable extraction efficiency to that of conventional techniques and with using GC/MS, detection limits ranged in the few picograms per cubic meter level. Sampling PM by Empore membranes may reduce the risks of losses of semivolatile compounds, while allowing relatively high sampling flow rates and safe sample storage. Moreover, the combination of MSPD with DSWE permits specific fractions of the PM components to be eluted, thereby generating clean extracts and reducing both analysis time and sample manipulation. PMID:18393539

  15. Assessing deposition of airborne particulates and gases in the Selkirk area using lichens growing on tree trunks : non-technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent study was conducted to address the public concern regarding airborne emissions from Manitoba Hydro's coal-fired electricity generating station located in the Selkirk area. This document is a non-technical summary of the report issued by Ecostem Ltd. Since there are no air quality monitoring stations in the study area which covers more than 1,000 square km, Ecostem used lichens as biological indicators of historical deposition of airborne dust and gases. The sources of airborne dust and gases include urban centres, agriculture, pesticides, fertilizers, waste burning, vehicle use and manufacturing. Lichens have been commonly used as indicators since 1866. They provide useful information because they are long-lived, are not mobile, acquire most of their nutrients from the atmosphere, retain the airborne deposition they initially trap, and they can accumulate airborne particles year round. It is possible to obtain a record of the chemicals that have been present in the air by simply analyzing the lichen tissue. This study used the concentrations of various chemical elements in lichen tissue and the distribution and abundance of lichen species to see if airborne particulates were substantially elevated in the Selkirk area and if so, to determine if the coal-fired generating station was the apparent source of the pollution. A total of 62 stations and lichens on more than 400 trees were sampled. Sulphur, a fingerprint for gaseous emissions from the generating station, had tissue concentrations that were 1.32 times higher. Statistical analysis suggests that barium, boron and strontium were the clearest fingerprint elements for generating station emissions. Tissue concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, tin, vanadium and zinc were examined further because they are considered to be toxic. It was noted that a conclusion regarding human health cannot be made

  16. Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu, Teófilo

    2010-05-01

    Particulate air pollutants from industrial emissions and natural resource exploitation represent an important contribution to soil contamination. These atmospheric particles, usually settleable particulate matter form (which settle by gravity) are deposited on soil through both dry and wet. The most direct consequences on soil of air pollutants are acidification and salinization, not to mention the pollution that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of air pollution in soil composition. For this purpose, has been conducted a study of the composition of heavy metals in the settleable particulate matter in two locations (Almazora and Vila-real) with high industrial density (mainly ceramic companies) located in the ceramic cluster of Castellón (Spain). Settleable air particles samples were collected with a PS Standard Britannic captor (MCV-PS2) for monthly periods between January 2007 and December 2009. We analyzed the following elements: Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Sb and Bi which are highly toxic and have the property of accumulating in living organisms. It has been determined the concentration of heavy metals in the soluble fraction of settleable air particles by ICP-MS. The annual variation of the results obtained in both populations shows a decline over the study period the concentrations of heavy metals analyzed. This fact is associated with the steady implementation of corrective measures in the main industrial sector in the area based on the treatment of mineral raw materials. Moreover, this decline is, in turn, a lower intake of heavy metals to the soil. REFERENCES Gómez E.T.; Sanfeliu T.; Rius J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Evolution, sources and distribution of mineral particles and amorphous phase of atmospheric aerosol in an industrial and Mediterranean coastal area" Water, air and Soil Pollution 167:311-330 Moral R., Gilkes R.J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Distribution of heavy

  17. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  18. Particulate Matter deposition on Quercus ilex leaves in an industrial city of central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have focused on urban trees to understand their mitigation capacity of air pollution. In this study particulate matter (PM) deposition on Quercus ilex leaves was quantitatively analyzed in four districts of the City of Terni (Italy) for three periods of the year. Fine (between 0.2 and 2.5 μm) and Large (between 2.5 and 10 μm) PM fractions were analyzed. Mean PM deposition value on Quercus ilex leaves was 20.6 μg cm−2. Variations in PM deposition correlated with distance to main roads and downwind position relatively to industrial area. Epicuticular waxes were measured and related to accumulated PM. For Fine PM deposited in waxes we observed a higher value (40% of total Fine PM) than Large PM (4% of total Large PM). Results from this study allow to increase our understanding about air pollution interactions with urban vegetation and could be hopefully taken into account when guidelines for local urban green management are realized. - Highlights: • A quantitative analysis of Particulate Matter deposition on urban Quercus ilex leaves was implemented. • Deposition data were correlated with pollutants sources such as roads and local steel factory, and with epicuticular waxes. • Results provide new insight about the capacity of trees in removing pollutants in urban environment. - This paper is providing useful information on PM deposition on urban vegetation

  19. Characterisation of air particulate matter in Klang Valley by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter is known to affect human health, impairs visibility and can cause climate change. Study on air particulate matter in term of particle size and chemical contents is very important to indicate the quality of air in a sampling area. Information on concentration of important constituents in air particles can be used to identify some of emission sources which contribute to the pollution problem. The data collected may also be, used as a basis to design a strategy in order to overcome the air pollution problem in the area. The study involved sampling of air dust at two stations, one in Bangi and the other in Kuala Lumpur using Gent Stack Sampler units. Each sampler capable of collecting air particle sizes smaller than 2.5 micron (PM 2.5) and between 2.5 - O micron on two different filters simultaneously. The filters were measured for their mass, elemental carbon and elemental concentrations using analytical equipment or techniques including reflectometer and Neutron Activation Analysis. The results of analysis on samples collected in 1997-1998 are discussed. (author)

  20. Spatial Interpolation of Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations Using the Shortest Wind-Field Path Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

    2014-01-01

    Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health. PMID:24798197