WorldWideScience

Sample records for airborne occupational exposure

  1. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  2. Occupational exposure to beryllium in French enterprises: a survey of airborne exposure and surface levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond; Catani, Jacques; Créau, Yvon; Frocaut, Anne-Marie; Good, Andrée; Goutet, Pierre; Hou, Alain; Leray, Fabrice; André-Lesage, Marie-Ange; Soyez, Alain

    2009-06-01

    An assessment survey of occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) was conducted in France between late 2004 and the end of 2006. Exposure estimates were based on the analytical results of samples collected from workplace air and from work surfaces in 95 facilities belonging to 37 sectors of activity. The results of this study indicated airborne Be concentrations in excess of the occupational exposure limit value of 2 microg m(-3) recommended in France. Metallurgy and electronic component manufacturing represented the activities and occupations where workers had the highest arithmetic mean exposures to Be. Surface contamination levels were also high and frequently exceeded thresholds recommended by different bodies. These results should prompt the development of prevention programmes that include Be substitution, process control and surface decontamination, in conjunction with suitable medical surveillance.

  3. Occupational airborne exposure of the general population of a Norwegian county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, P; Baste, V; Hanoa, R; Gulsvik, A

    1992-02-01

    Occupational airborne exposure was examined for a stratified sample (N = 1275) of the general population aged 18-73 years in Hordaland County, Norway. The subjects identified all jobs of more than six months since leaving school and stated whether they had been occupationally exposed to specific agents and work processes potentially harmful to the lungs. The prevalence in the population ever having been exposed was 18% for asbestos, 9% for quartz, 5% for aluminum dust, 6% for wood dust, 12% for metal gases, 12% for welding, 9% for soldering, and 1% for hairdressing. According to occupational title (last job), 3% of the population had held a job with a high degree of airborne exposure, 26% a job with moderate exposure, and 70% a job with no airborne exposure. During their worklife both the men and the women tended to leave polluted jobs more often than unpolluted jobs. Occupational exposure to airborne pollutants potentially harmful to the lungs is widespread in this Norwegian general population.

  4. Occupational exposure to lead--granulometric distribution of airborne lead in relation to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, G; Masci, O; Altieri, A; Castellino, N

    1999-07-01

    The amount of airborne lead absorbed by the body during occupational exposure depends not only on lead concentration in workplace air, but also on the granulometric distribution of the aerosol. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) set the lead Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) at 50 micrograms/m3 on the basis of Bernard's model and a number of assumptions, including assumption "C", which predicts that the first 12.5 micrograms/m3 are made up of fine particles (aerodynamic diameter 1 micron. Occupational exposure to airborne lead at a concentration of 50 micrograms/m3 and a granulometric distribution calculated according to the above mentioned assumption, leads, in the model, to a mean blood level of 40 micrograms/dl. In the present study, we tested the validity of assumption "C" in the environmental air of a factory that manufactured crystal glassware containing 24% lead oxide. An 8-stage impactor was used to measure the particle size of airborne dust collected from personal and area samplings. Results indicate that, on the whole, assumption "C" cannot be considered valid in the work environment investigated in this study. As a result, lead absorption levels in exposed workers may be noticeably different from those predicted by the OSHA model. We therefore suggest that in order to make a correct evaluation of the risk of occupational exposure to lead, it is essential to integrate total airborne lead concentration with a measurement of the granulometric distribution of the aerosol.

  5. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational exposure of phosphate mine workers: airborne radioactivity measurements and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.; Hussein, M.A.; Hussein, Mohamed I.

    2004-01-01

    Under the Egyptian program for radiation safety and control, airborne radioactivity measurements and radiological dose assessment were conducted in some phosphate and uranium mines. Abu-Tartor mine is one of the biggest underground phosphate mines in Egypt. Airborne radioactivity, radon ( 222 Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progenies) and thoron ( 220 Rn), were measured in selected locations along the mine. The environmental gamma and workers dose equivalent rate (mSv/y) were measured inside and outside the mine using thermo-luminescence dosimeters (TLD). The results were presented and discussed. The calculated annual effective dose due to airborne radioactivity is the main source of occupational exposure and exceeding the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60 inside the mine tunnels. A number of recommendations are suggested to control the occupational exposures

  7. Occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in an aviation base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Bernabei, Manuele; Avino, Pasquale; Stabile, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in a high performance jet engine airport was investigated. Three spatial scales were considered: i) a downwind receptor site, ii) close to the airstrip, iii) personal monitoring. Particle number, surface area, mass concentrations and distributions were measured as well as inorganic and organic fractions, ionic fractions and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Particle number distribution measured at a receptor site presents a mode of 80 nm and an average total concentration of 6.5 × 10 3 part. cm −3 ; the chemical analysis shows that all the elements may be attributed to long-range transport from the sea. Particle number concentrations in the proximity of the airstrip show short term peaks during the working day mainly related to takeoff, landing and pre-flight operations of jet engines. Personal exposure of workers highlights a median number concentration of 2.5 × 10 4 part. cm −3 and 1.7 × 10 4 part. cm −3 for crew chief and hangar operator. - Highlights: ► Air quality measures were performed at different spatial scales in an aviation base. ► Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons was estimated. ► Particles at downwind receptor site show a marine origin typical of a coastal site. ► Main exposure peaks are related to pre-flight operations of jet engine aircrafts. ► Crew chief are exposed to highest concentrations even if these were not worrisome. - A negligible impact of a high performance jet engine airport, in terms of airborne particles and other pollutants, was measured through an experimental campaign at three spatial scales.

  8. Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  9. Airborne isocyanate exposures in the collision repair industry and a comparison to occupational exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ceballos, Diana M; Weiland, Elisa C; Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Trelles Gaines, Linda G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2012-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m(3) for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m(3) for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UK-HSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OR-OSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  10. A case example of asphyxia due to occupational exposure to airborne chemicals and review of workplace fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Meredith H; Schandl, Cynthia A

    2015-03-01

    Although worker injury and fatalities have decreased since adoption of the Occupational Safety and Health Act in 1970, it remains an important safety issue. This article describes a 27-year-old white male who died from occupational exposure to airborne chemicals. Several trends in the last several decades, both in the types of injuries and the occupations associated with fatalities, are noted. Additionally, individual risk factors such as age, gender, chronic disease, smoking, and alcohol and drug use are implicated in worker health and safety. The role of the forensic pathologist in the investigation of workplace deaths is highlighted, in addition to the future of occupational safety and current improvements brought about by such incidents. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Airborne toluene removal for minimizing occupational health exposure by means of a trickle-bed biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Viotti, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the experimental results on a biotrickling pilot plant, with a water scrubber as pre-treatment, finalized to the treatment of an airborne toluene stream in a working place. The air stream was characterized by a very high variability of the inlet concentrations of toluene (range: 4.35-68.20 mg Nm(-3)) with an average concentrations of 16.41 mg Nm(-3). The pilot plant has proved its effectiveness in toluene removal, along a 90-day experimentation period, in steady-state conditions. The scrubbing pre-treatment has achieved an average removal efficiency of 69.9 %, but in particular it has proven its suitability in the rough removal of the toluene peak concentrations, allowing a great stability to the following biological process. The biotrickling stage has achieved an additional average removal efficiency of 75.6 %, confirming the good biodegradability of toluene. The biofilm observation by a scanning confocal laser microscope has evidenced a biofilm thickness of 650 μm fully penetrated by toluene degrading bacteria. Among the micro-population Pseudomonas putida resulted the dominant specie. This bacterium can therefore be considered the responsible for most of the toluene degradation. The whole experimented process has determined an average 92.7 % for toluene removal efficiency. This result meets the most stringent limits and recommendations for occupational safety, given by authoritative organizations in the USA and EU; it also meets the odorous threshold concentration of 11.1 mg Nm(-3).

  12. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Goncalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-01-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact

  13. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by means of airborne particulate matter and biomonitors using k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A. de B.C.; Pereira Maia, E.C.; Filho, S.S.; Albinati, C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to assess the elemental concentration level in a galvanizing industry and alert for the need to assess the outcome of a long-term exposure, scalp hair and toenail samples were used as bioindicators and the industry environment was evaluated through airborne particulate matter. The elemental concentration results have pointed out a high exposure to pollutant at workplaces and a high elemental concentration in biomonitors suggesting endogenous contamination. The majority of the elements determined in airborne particulate matter were also determined in hair and toenail samples. The results evidence the efficiency of these matrixes as biomonitors and the importance to carry out the airborne particulate matter sampling in parallel to these biomonitors mainly in occupational epidemiological studies. (author)

  14. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by Means of airborne particulate matter and bio monitors using Nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B. C.; Maia, Elene C. P.; Albinati, Claudia; Filho, Serafim S.

    2001-01-01

    To make an occupational diagnosis is complex because of the difficulty to identify and characterise the expositions. Physicians do not usually have access to the quantity of raw material managed by the worker, dates, period of exposure to the substance. Besides this the onset of occupational diseases is similar to other chronic diseases. Then, this project aimed at assessing metal levels in a galvanising industry by means of biomonitors, scalp hair and toenails donated by workers, and particulate matter collected on air filter. The analysis of the samples was carried out by k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis, k0-INAA. The project was conducted together with the physicians of the Secretariat Municipal de Saude (Municipal Department of Health) and it was inserted in a Worker's Health Awareness Program. Belo Horizonte and surrounding areas are an important industrial centre, concentrating many industries in several areas. Only in Belo Horizonte there are more than 20 galvanising industries ranging from home factories to well equipped ones. This industry was chosen as Object of this project because it is responsible for the majority of patients who look for medical assistance because of metal contamination. Stationary air sampling was carried out in order to evaluate the level of elemental concentration in the indoor environment of the plant. Comparative Group sampling was carried out the same way as the Work Group for scalp hair and toenails. The irradiations were performed in the reactor TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 in the CDTN. Elemental concentration results determined in the samples from non-exposed people were compared to values in the literature and there were no significant differences between the values. The airborne particulate matter results showed the high level of pollutants which the workers are exposed to inside the galvanising factory. The results obtained confirmed the medical suspicions of workers' contamination and the medical recommendations aimed

  15. Airborne Nanostructured Particles and Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Kuempel, Eileen D.

    2005-12-01

    Nanotechnology is leading to the development in many field, of new materials and devices in many fields that demonstrate nanostructure-dependent properties. However, concern has been expressed that these same properties may present unique challenges to addressing potential health impact. Airborne particles associated with engineered nanomaterials are of particular concern, as they can readily enter the body through inhalation. Research into the potential occupational health risks associated with inhaling engineered nanostructured particles is just beginning. However, there is a large body of data on occupational and environmental aerosols, which is applicable to developing an initial assessment of potential risk and risk reduction strategies. Epidemiological and pathological studies of occupational and environmental exposures to airborne particles and fibers provide information on the aerosol-related lung diseases and conditions that have been observed in humans. Toxicological studies provide information on the specific disease mechanisms, dose-response relationships, and the particle characteristics that influence toxicity, including the size, surface area, chemistry or reactivity, solubility, and shape. Potential health risk will depend on the magnitude and nature of exposures to airborne nanostructured particles, and on the release, dispersion, transformation and control of materials in the workplace. Aerosol control methods have not been well-characterized for nanometer diameter particles, although theory and limited experimental data indicate that conventional ventilation, engineering control and filtration approaches should be applicable in many situations. Current information supports the development of preliminary guiding principles on working with engineered nanomaterials. However critical research questions remain to be answered before the potential health risk of airborne nanostructured particles in the workplace can be fully addressed.

  16. Occupational Airborne Contact Dermatitis From Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoven, Joel G; Yu, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Few published reports have described occupational contact dermatitis from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure in the literature. We present an additional case of a 58-year-old male pharmaceutical worker with an occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis to PPIs confirmed by patch testing. This is a novel report of workplace exposure to dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole PPIs with resultant clinical contact allergy and relevant positive patch test results to these 2 agents. A literature review of all previously reported cases of occupational contact dermatitis to PPI is summarized. The case also emphasizes the importance of even minute exposures when considering workplace accommodation.

  17. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  18. A new approach to assess occupational exposure to airborne fungal contamination and mycotoxins of forklift drivers in waste sorting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; de Oliveira, Ana Cebola; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Quintal-Gomes, Anita; Twarużek, Magdalena; Kosicki, Robert; Soszczyńska, Ewelina; Viegas, Susana

    2017-11-01

    The waste management industry is an important employer, and exposure of waste-handling workers to microorganisms is considered an occupational health problem. Besides fungal contamination, it is important to consider the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in this setting. Forklifts with closed cabinet and air conditioner are commonly used in waste industry to transport waste and other products within the facilities, possibly increasing the risk of exposure under certain conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal contamination and mycotoxin levels in filters from the air conditioning system of forklift cabinets, as an indicator to assess occupational exposure of the drivers working in a waste sorting facility. Cytotoxicity was also assessed to understand and characterize the toxicity of the complex mixtures as present in the forklift filters. Aqueous extracts of filters from 11 vehicles were streaked onto 2% malt extract agar (MEA) with chloramphenicol (0.05 g/L) media, and in dichloran glycerol (DG18) agar-based media for morphological identification of the mycobiota. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of genes from Aspergillus sections Fumigati, Flavi, Circumdati, and Versicolores was also performed. Mycotoxins were analyzed using LC-MS/MS system. Cytotoxicity of filter extracts was analyzed by using a MTT cell culture test. Aspergillus species were found most frequently, namely Aspergillus sections Circumdati (MEA 48%; DG18 41%) and Nigri (MEA 32%; DG18 17.3%). By qPCR, only Aspergillus section Fumigati species were found, but positive results were obtained for all assessed filters. No mycotoxins were detected in aqueous filter extracts, but most extracts were highly cytotoxic (n = 6) or medium cytotoxic (n = 4). Although filter service life and cytotoxicity were not clearly correlated, the results suggest that observing air conditioner filter replacement frequency may be a critical aspect to avoid worker's exposure. Further research is

  19. Occupational exposures. Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex focuses on significant changes in the pattern of occupational exposure which have appeared since the 1972 and 1962 reports, and presents information on trends or particular causes of high exposures. A further objective is to clarify the reasons for which the Committee requires data on occupational exposure, and to suggest areas in which better data collection or analysis may be performed. Data are also reviewed on accidents involving the exposure of workers to substantial radiation doses.

  20. Radiation protection: occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The basis of the occupational exposure limit of 50 mSv recommended by the ICRP is questioned. New dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the fact that the dose-response curve may be non-linear and that the relative risk model may be applicable, are some of the arguments advanced to support a reduction in the occupational exposure dose limits. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  1. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 and PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohddin, S A; Aminuddin, N M

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m 3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m 3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m 3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM 2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended

  2. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  3. Occupational exposure to pesticides and endotoxin and Parkinson disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C. G.; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M. G.; van Laar, Teus; Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previous research has indicated that occupational exposure to pesticides and possibly airborne endotoxin may increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the associations of PD with occupational exposure to pesticides, specifically to the functional subclasses

  4. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of occupational exposure is presented. Concepts and quantities used for radiation protection are explained as well as the ICRP system of dose limitation. The risks correlated to the limits are discussed. However, the actual exposure are often much lower than the limits and the average risk in radiation work is comparable with the average risk in other safe occupations. Actual exposures in various occupations are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  6. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  7. The effects of temperature and pressure on airborne exposure concentrations when performing compliance evaluations using ACGIH TLVs and OSHA PELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, D J; Lillquist, D R

    2001-04-01

    Occupational hygienists perform air sampling to characterize airborne contaminant emissions, assess occupational exposures, and establish allowable workplace airborne exposure concentrations. To perform these air sampling applications, occupational hygienists often compare an airborne exposure concentration to a corresponding American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) or an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL). To perform such comparisons, one must understand the physiological assumptions used to establish these occupational exposure limits, the relationship between a workplace airborne exposure concentration and its associated TLV or PEL, and the effect of temperature and pressure on the performance of an accurate compliance evaluation. This article illustrates the correct procedure for performing compliance evaluations using airborne exposure concentrations expressed in both parts per million and milligrams per cubic meter. In so doing, a brief discussion is given on the physiological assumptions used to establish TLVs and PELs. It is further shown how an accurate compliance evaluation is fundamentally based on comparison of a measured work site exposure dose (derived from the sampling site exposure concentration estimate) to an estimated acceptable exposure dose (derived from the occupational exposure limit concentration). In addition, this article correctly illustrates the effect that atmospheric temperature and pressure have on airborne exposure concentrations and the eventual performance of a compliance evaluation. This article also reveals that under fairly moderate conditions of temperature and pressure, 30 degrees C and 670 torr, a misunderstanding of how varying atmospheric conditions affect concentration values can lead to a 15 percent error in assessing compliance.

  8. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  9. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. 57... Underground § 57.5001 Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. Except as permitted by § 57.5005— (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the exposure to airborne contaminants shall not exceed, on the basis of...

  10. Occupational risk and lifetime exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Any lowering of annual radiation limits for occupational exposure should be based on industry experience with lifetime doses and not on a worst case career exposure of 47 years. Two decades of experience show a lifetime accumulation of less than 1.5 rem for workers with measurable exposure. This is 5% of the normal lifetime exposure of Americans to natural and medical radiation. Any epidemiology of the US nuclear power workforce's two decade long exposure would have to focus on excess leukemia. Application of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer mortality shows that too few leukemias would be expressed to permit a feasible epidemiology. Ionizing radiation appears to be a mild carcinogen as compared to physical and chemical agents presented in the occupational environment. A realistic factor in determining any change in occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation should take into account the past performance of the licensee and potential health effects applicable to the workplace. Specifically, the lifetime exposure data for workers at nuclear power plants and naval shipyards should be considered. The nuclear industry and the US Navy have detailed data on the annual exposure of workers with a combined collective exposure approaching 1 million worker-rem. The lifetime dose for naval personnel and shipyard workers averages 1.1 rem J 1990. Shipyard workers have an annual dose of 0.28 rem per work-year and a mean exposure time of 4.4 years. The data apply to workers with measurable dose

  11. Assessment of airborne bacteria in selected occupational environments in Quezon City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Rhoshela Vi C; Garcia, Bea Clarise B; Vital, Pierangeli G

    2017-05-04

    Exposure to bioaerosols has been associated with health deterioration among workers in several occupational environments. This highlights the need to study the microbiological quality of air of workplaces as no such study has been conducted yet in the Philippines. To detect and characterize the culturable mesophilic airborne bacteria in selected occupational environments we used passive sedimentation technique. It was observed that the number of colony-forming units was highest in junk shop, followed by the light railway transit station and last the office. By contrast, the bacterial composition was similar in all sites: Gram-positive cocci > Gram-positive bacilli > Gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus spp. were also detected in all sites. These findings suggest that the presence of airborne bacteria may be a potential health hazard in urban occupational environments in the Philippines.

  12. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  13. Occupational dermatoses from colophony exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Aleš Christian Mihelač; Marjan Bilban

    2015-01-01

    Colophony is a resin, obtained from pine trees. It has many applications in industry as well as in products for everyday life and exposure is virtually impossible to avoid. In article, we concentrate on occupational exposure, which is frequent in workers in electronics, furniture and paper industry, production of adhesives, plastics, printing ink and synthetic rubber as well as in everyone, daily in contact with products, which contain colophony, or pine wood, like carpenters and woodworkers....

  14. Occupational exposure in hemodynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Amanda J.; Fernandes, Ivani M.; Silva, Paula P. Nou; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper has an objective to perform a radiometric survey at a hemodynamic service. Besides, it was intended to evaluate the effective dose of health professionals and to provide data which can contribute with minimization of exposures during the realization of hemodynamic procedure. The radiometric survey was realized in the real environment of work simulating the conditions of a hemodynamic study with a ionization chamber

  15. Exposure of health care workers and occupants to coughed airborne pathogens in a double-bed hospital patient room with overhead mixing ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho D.; Melikov, Arsen K.; Brand, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of a doctor and a second patient was studied in a simulated two-bed hospital isolation room. The room was ventilated at three air change rates (3h-1, 6h-1, and 12h-1) by mixing air distribution keeping at 22C (71.6F). The effect of the distance between the doctor and the coughing...

  16. Does airborne nickel exposure induce nickel sensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Eugen; Ranft, Ulrich; Eberwein, Georg; Gladtke, Dieter; Sugiri, Dorothee; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Schäfer, Torsten; Begerow, Jutta; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Krämer, Ursula; Wilhelm, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.

  17. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. 56... Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5001 Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. Except as... contaminants shall not exceed, on the basis of a time weighted average, the threshold limit values adopted by...

  18. Occupational radiation exposure in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.; Cabanekova, H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently are 2 nuclear power plants in operation in the Slovak republic. Apart from nuclear facilities there are 450 licensed undertakings with monitored workers. The majority of the licensed undertakings are active in health care. In Slovak republic are five dosimetry services performing assessments on personal doses due to external exposure and two dosimetry services are approved to carry out monitoring of internal exposure. Dosemeters used for the monitoring of external individual exposure include: personal whole-body film dosemeters, thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSL) for measurements of beta and gamma radiation; TLD for measurements of neutron radiation and TLD for extremities. The measured operational dose quantities are Hp(10), Hp(3) and Hp(0.07). Approved dosimetry service reports the measured dose data to the employers and to the Central register of occupational doses (CROD). Annually are monitored about 12500 - 16200 active workers. Average effective doses per one monitored worker are presented. (author)

  19. Occupational dermatoses from colophony exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Christian Mihelač

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colophony is a resin, obtained from pine trees. It has many applications in industry as well as in products for everyday life and exposure is virtually impossible to avoid. In article, we concentrate on occupational exposure, which is frequent in workers in electronics, furniture and paper industry, production of adhesives, plastics, printing ink and synthetic rubber as well as in everyone, daily in contact with products, which contain colophony, or pine wood, like carpenters and woodworkers. Main allergens are oxidation products of abietic-type acids, but cross-reactivity with fragrances, wood resins, Balsam of Peru, wood tar and oil of turpentine is also possible. Exposure to colophony manifests itself on skin in allergic patients mainly as allergic contact dermatitis. The diagnosis is based on history of exposure, clinical presentation and epicutaneous testing. Although the only effective treatment is complete avoidance of exposure, it is difficult to avoid colophony. Consequently, prophylaxis is essential and concentrates on safe working practices, personal hygiene and protection.

  20. Initial occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forni, A.; Cambiaghi, G.; Secchi, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    Serial chromosome and biochemical studies were carried out in 11 subjects before and during initial occupational exposure to moderate quantities of lead fumes in a storage battery plant. The rate of abnormal metaphases, mostly with chromatid and one-break chromosome aberrations, was approximately doubled after one month of work; it further increased after two months of work; remained in this range up to seven months of exposure; and then tended to decrease somewhat. Blood lead levels increased progressively in the first few months, then reached a steady state. Urinary lead and coproporphyrin levels increased sharply after one month of work, while urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) levels increased moderately. The ALA dehydratase (ALAD) activity of red blood cells (RBCs) was reduced to almost 50 percent of the initial values after one month, decreased further in subsequent months, and remained decreased through the remainder of the study.

  1. Occupational exposure in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.J.; Lee, K.Y.; Cha, S.H.; Kang, Y.K.; Kim, H.J.; Oh, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to survey of radiation safety control and to measure occupational radiation exposure dose of staff in interventional radiology in Korea. Interventioanl radiology requires the operator and assisting personnel to remain close to the patient, and thus close to primary beams of radiation. Therefore exposure doses of these personnel are significant from a radiological protection point of view. We surveyed the status of radiation safety on interventional radiology of 72 hospitals. The result were that 119 radiation equipments are using in interventional radiology and 744 staffs are composed of 307 radiologists, 116 residents of radiology, 5 general physicians, 171 radiologic technologists and 145 nurses. 81.4% and 20.2 % of operating physicians are using neck collar protector and goggle respectively. The average radiation dose was measured 0.46±0.15 mSv/10 hours fluoroscopy inside examination room in radiation protection facilities. Occupational radiation exposure data on the staff were assessed in interventional radiology procedures from 8 interventional radiology equipments of 6 university hospitals. The dose measurements were made by placing a thermoluminesent dosimeter(TLD) on various body surface of operation and assistant staff during actual interventional radiology. The measured points were the corner of the eyes, neck(on the thyroid) , wrists, chest(outside and inside of the protector), and back. Average radiation equivalent dose of the corner of left eye and left wrist of operating physicians were 1.19 mSv(0.11∼4.13 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy and 4.32 mSv(0.16∼11.0 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy respectively. Average exposure dose may vary depending on the type of procedure, personal skills and the quality of equipment. These results will be contributed to prepare the guide line in interventional radiology in Korea

  2. Respiratory health effects of exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Azadèh; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2018-02-08

    Elevated endotoxin levels have been measured in ambient air around livestock farms, which is a cause of concern for neighbouring residents. There is clear evidence that occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne endotoxin causes respiratory inflammation, respiratory symptoms and lung function decline. However, health effects of exposure to low levels of endotoxin are less well described. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize published associations between exposure to relatively low levels of airborne endotoxin and respiratory health endpoints. Studies investigating respiratory effects of measured or modelled exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin (average effects of exposure to low levels of endotoxin on respiratory symptoms and lung function. However, considerable heterogeneity existed in the outcomes of the included studies and no overall estimate could be provided by meta-analysis to quantify the possible relationship. Instead, a best evidence synthesis was performed among studies examining the exposure-response relationship between endotoxin and respiratory outcomes. Significant exposure-response relationships between endotoxin and symptoms and FEV 1 were shown in several studies, with no conflicting findings in the studies included in the best evidence synthesis. Significantly different effects of endotoxin exposure were also seen in vulnerable subgroups (atopics and patients with broncho-obstructive disease) and smokers. Respiratory health effects of exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin (health effects, especially in vulnerable subgroups of the population.

  3. Trends in occupational exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection were agreed in 1990. A major component was the revision of its recommended dose limits, prompted by the revised risk factors relating to exposure to ionising radiation that became available in the second half of the 1980s. But other changes were introduced which necessitated development. In particular a Task Group has been developing guidance on the implementation of the recommendations relating to the protection of workers. This guidance is intended to replace that given in Publication 35. The proposed guidance will be considered by ICRP at its meeting in Paris in November 1996. A guide on occupational radiation protection is also being prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The intention is to develop the principles given in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, account being taken of the work of the ICRP Task Group. Members States of the European Communities are obliged to comply with the requirements of a Directive dealing with the basic standards for radiation protection. This Directive has recently been revised in the light of the ICRP recommendations. This paper will discuss these developments and their possible impact on the control of occupational exposure in the UK. (author)

  4. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Hollins, Dana M; Devlin, Kathryn D; Donovan, Ellen P; Dopart, Pamela J; Scott, Paul K; Perez, Angela L

    2014-08-01

    Exposures to airborne asbestos during the removal and installation of internal gaskets and packing associated with a valve overhaul were characterized and compared to published data according to different variables (e.g., product, equipment, task, tool, setting, duration). Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected during twelve events simulating gasket and packing replacement, clean-up and clothing handling. These samples were analyzed using PCM and TEM methods and PCM-equivalent (PCME) airborne asbestos concentrations were calculated. A meta-analysis was performed to compare these data with airborne asbestos concentrations measured in other studies involving gaskets and packing. Short-term mechanic and assistant airborne asbestos concentrations during valve work averaged 0.013f/cc and 0.008f/cc (PCME), respectively. Area samples averaged 0.008f/cc, 0.005f/cc, and 0.003f/cc (PCME) for center, bystander, and remote background, respectively. Assuming a tradesman conservatively performs 1-3 gasket and/or packing replacements daily, an average 8-h TWA was estimated to be 0.002-0.010f/cc (PCME). Combining these results in a meta-analysis of the published exposure data showed that the majority of airborne asbestos exposures during work with gaskets and packing fall within a consistent and low range. Significant differences in airborne concentrations were observed between power versus manual tools and removal versus installation tasks. Airborne asbestos concentrations resulting from gasket and packing work during a valve overhaul are consistent with historical exposure data on replacement of asbestos-containing gasket and packing materials involving multiple variables and, in nearly all plausible scenarios, result in average airborne asbestos concentrations below contemporaneous occupational exposure limits for asbestos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Airborne exposure to laboratory animal allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J Mason

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to laboratory animal allergens remains a significant cause of IgE-mediated occupational allergy and asthma. Since 2005, we have measured the major mouse and rat allergens (mus m 1 and rat n 1 collected on filters from air sampling in a range of UK and non-UK animal facilities. Supplied core data allowed us to construct an anonymized database of atmospheric results in ng m–3 containing 3080 mouse and 1392 rat analyses. Roughly twice as many static samples compared to personal samples had been sent for analysis. The medians (90th percentiles for the mouse and rat allergens employing personal atmospheric sampling were 2.6 (60.6 and 0.4 (12.4 ng m–3 respectively; for static samples the equivalent values were 0.2 (3.7 and 0.1 (1.4 ng m–3. Where unequivocal sample descriptors were provided with samples, results were categorised to activities/areas. Medians and 90th percentiles in these categories suggest that staff undertaking cleaning out, dumping of soiled bedding and cleaning cages can still have very substantial potential exposures in some facilities. The move to filtered cages appears to reduce general exposure, but filter changing and/or cleaning can lead to high exposures. In some facilities, animal receipt can cause significant exposures, as well as activities such as bleeding, culling and dosing; all activities involving the handling of animals outside of cages. We believe that the data presented may help those using air measurements in such facilities to improve their control of exposure to such aeroallergens, and thus reduce the risk of both sensitisation and subsequent allergic health problems, including the development of allergic asthma.

  6. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Although crystalline silica has been recognized as a health hazard for many years, it is still encountered in many work environments. Numerous studies have revealed an association between exposure to respirable crystalline silica and the development of silicosis and other lung diseases including lung cancer. Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica at a total of 40 work sites across 13 industries. Total airborne respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica concentrations were quite variable, but there was a potential to exceed the Alberta Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) of 0.025 mg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica at many of the work sites evaluated. The industries with the highest potentials for overexposure occurred in sand and mineral processing (GM 0.090 mg/m(3)), followed by new commercial building construction (GM 0.055 mg/m(3)), aggregate mining and crushing (GM 0.048 mg/m(3)), abrasive blasting (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)), and demolition (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)). For worker occupations, geometric mean exposure ranged from 0.105 mg/m(3) (brick layer/mason/concrete cutting) to 0.008 mg/m(3) (dispatcher/shipping, administration). Potential for GM exposure exceeding the OEL was identified in a number of occupations where it was not expected, such as electricians, carpenters and painters. These exposures were generally related to the specific task the worker was doing, or arose from incidental exposure from other activities at the work site. The results indicate that where there is a potential for activities producing airborne respirable crystalline silica, it is critical that the employer include all worker occupations at the work site in their hazard assessment. There appears to be a relationship between airborne total respirable dust concentration and total respirable dust concentrations, but further study is require to fully characterize this relationship. If this relationship holds true

  7. Optimization of airborne endotoxin exposure assessment: Effects of filter type, transport conditions, extraction solutions, and storage of samples and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Thorne, P.S.; Wouters, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Endotoxin exposure occurs in homes and occupational environments and is known to cause adverse health effects. In order to compare results from different studies and establish standards, airborne endotoxin exposures should be assessed using standardized methods. Although the European Committee for

  8. Radiation hormesis at occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharieva, E.; Georgieva, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of our work was to find appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals to prove radiation hormesis. Blood samples were taken from a group of irradiated persons, and from a control group. For each worker we estimated a parameter arbitrarily called by us 'mean annual dose' as a quotient of cumulated dose and length of service. DNA repair synthesis in leucocytes before and after in vitro exposure to a challenge dose of 2.0 Gy gamma rays was determined by the level of incorporation of radioactively labeled nucleotides, level of DNA damage in lymphocytes was analyzed by single cell gel electrophoresis and level of lipid peroxidation processes was evaluated by malonedialdehyde concentration in blood plasma. A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage in persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/y was found, compared to the control group. The highest repair capacity after a challenging dose of 2.0 Gy gamma rays as well as a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress determined in the blood plasma was evaluated for persons from the same group. The present investigation of occupationally exposed workers showed that annual doses no higher than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase cellular resistance and decrease oxidative stress

  9. Occupational radiation exposures in Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplanis, Prodromos A; Christofides, Stelios [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital, 1450 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1999-12-31

    For the first time ever the occupational radiation exposure data of all the radiation workers of Cyprus, as obtained by the personnel monitoring service of the Dosimetry Laboratory of the Medical Physics Department of the Ministry of Health, is published and compared with that of other countries. The presented data shows a systematic trend of improvement both with regards to the methodology of monitoring and data recording. The efforts of the past few years in educating and training the users of ionising radiation with regards to the importance of the personnel monitoring service and the hazards of ionising radiation, has paid off and this is evident from the doses recorded in the past three years which are compared favourably with those of other countries, as given by the UNSCEAR 1993 report. The introduction of extremity monitoring, promises even better improvement in the methodology of monitoring the doses received by personnel working in Interventional Radiology, as well as other groups whose hands, unavoidably, come close to radiation sources. (authors) 3 refs., 12 tabs.

  10. [Nanosilver--Occupational exposure limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings), textiles (sport clothes, socks), plastics and building materials (paints). Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration--the time-weighted average) for silver--a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic--inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3) does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Nanosilver – Occupational exposure limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings, textiles (sport clothes, socks, plastics and building materials (paints. Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration – the time-weighted average for silver – a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic – inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3 does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects. Med Pr 2015;66(3:429–442

  12. Airborne seafood allergens as a cause of occupational allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Andreas L; Jeebhay, Mohamed F

    2013-06-01

    Occupational allergy and asthma is a serious adverse health outcome affecting seafood-processing workers. Allergic reactions are directed to two major seafood groups: fish and shellfish, with the latter group comprising crustaceans and molluscs. Several allergenic proteins have been identified in these different groups, but few have been characterised on a molecular level. Parvalbumin appears to be the major fish allergen, while tropomyosin the major crustacean allergen. Other IgE-binding proteins have also been identified in molluscs and other seafood-associated agents (e.g. Anisakis sp), although their molecular nature has not been characterised. Aerosolised allergens can be identified and quantified using immunological and chemical approaches, detecting levels as low as 10 ng/m(3). This contemporary review discusses interesting and recent findings in the area of occupational seafood allergy including high-risk occupations, environmental risk factors for airborne exposures, major and minor allergens implicated and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing occupational allergy and asthma associated with seafood processing.

  13. Dose level of occupational exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, L.; Ju, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the dose level of Chinese occupational exposures during 1986-2000. Data on occupational exposures from the main categories in nuclear fuel cycle (uranium enrichment and conversion, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, waste management and research activity, except for uranium mining and milling because of the lack of data), medical uses of radiation (diagnostic radiation, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and industrial uses of radiation (industrial radiography and radioisotope production) are presented and summarised in detail. These are the main components of occupational exposures in China. In general, the average annual effective doses show a steady decreasing trend over periods: from 2.16 to 1.16 mSv in medical uses of radiation during 1990-2000; from 1.92 to 1.18 mSv in industrial radiography during 1990-2000; from 8.79 to 2.05 mSv in radioisotope production during the period 1980-2000. Almost all the average annual effective doses in discussed occupations were lower than 5 mSv in recent years (except for well-logging: 6.86 mSv in 1999) and no monitored workers were found to have received the occupational exposure exceeding 50 mSv in a single year or 100 mSv in a five-year period. So the Chinese protection status of occupation exposure has been improved in recent years. However, the average annual effective doses in some occupations, such as diagnostic radiology and coal mining, were still much higher than that of the whole world. There are still needs for further improvement and careful monitoring of occupational exposure to protect every worker from excessive occupational exposure, especially for the workers who were neglected before. (authors)

  14. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  15. Anxiety affecting parkinsonian outcome and motor efficiency in adults of an Ohio community with environmental airborne manganese exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient and neurotoxicant sometimes associated with mood, motor and neurological effects. Reports of health effects from occupational exposure to Mn are well known, but the reported links to environmental airborne Mn (Mn-Air) are less conclusive. Marietta, OH...

  16. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  17. Information System on Occupational Exposure: Future Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Yves Gagnon; Waturu Mizumachi; Brian Ahier; Ted Lazo; Khammar Mrabit

    2006-01-01

    In response to pressures from deregulation and from ageing of the global nuclear power plant fleet, radiation protection personnel have found that occupational exposures are best managed through proper job planning, implementation and review to ensure that exposures are 'as low as reasonably achievable'(ALARA). A prerequisite for applying the principle of optimisation to occupational radiation protection is the timely exchange of data and information on dose reduction methods. To facilitate this global approach to work management, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (Nea) launched the Information System on Occupational Exposure (I.S.O.E.) in 1992. The objective of I.S.O.E. is to provide a forum for radiation protection experts from both utilities and national regulatory authorities to discuss, promote and coordinate international cooperative undertakings for the radiological protection of workers at nuclear power plants.The I.S.O.E. programme offers a variety of products in the occupational exposure area, such as: the world largest database on occupational exposure from nuclear power plants, a yearly analysis of dose trends and an overview of current developments, through I.S.O.E. Annual Reports, detailed studies, analyses, and information on current issues in operational radiation protection, through I.S.O.E. Information Sheets, a system for rapid communication of radiation protection-related information, such as effective dose reduction approaches and implementation of work management principles. A forum for discussing occupational exposure management issues through I.S.O.E. workshops, symposia and newsletters. (N.C.)

  18. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibanez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesus; Alguacil, Juan; Hera, Manuela Garcia de la; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  19. Occupational radiation exposures in canada-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1984-08-01

    This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. The format has been changed to provide more detailed information regarding the various occupations. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  20. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    1981-08-01

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  1. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  2. [Occupational noise exposure and work accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify whether occupational noise exposure is a significant risk factor for work accidents in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. This hospital-based case-control study included 600 workers aged 15-60 who suffered typical occupational accidents between May and October 2004 and were seen at the Piracicaba Orthopedics and Trauma Center. The control group comprised 822 workers, aged 15-60, who were also seen at the Center, and either had a non-occupational accident or were accompanying someone who had suffered an accident. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted with work accident as an independent variable, controlled by covariables of interest such as noise exposure. The risk of having a work accident was about twice as high among workers exposed to noise, after controlling for several covariables. Occupational noise exposure not only affected auditory health status but was also a risk factor for work accidents.

  3. Airborne exposure and soil levels associated with lead abatement of a steel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, John H

    2002-02-01

    This study reports on airborne exposure levels and soil concentrations of lead in regard to abatement of a steel structure (water tank). The tank was de-leaded by abrasive sand blasting. The ball of the tank had a lead surface level that exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) definition of lead-based paint (LBP) (0.5% lead), but paint on stem and base was below this criterion. Personal and area airborne samples were collected during different activities of lead abatement of the tank. Summary results suggest during abrasive blasting of ball and stem/base personal exposure levels, as reported with arithmetic and geometric means, exceed the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (50 microg/m3). Highest personal exposure (occupational exposure) was associated with blasting of ball. Distribution of airborne and soil samples suggest non-normality and is best represented by a logarithmic form. Geometric standard deviations for air and soil lead support a non-normal distribution. Outlying values were found for personal and area air samples. Exposure levels associated with blasting stem/base section of tank support OSHA's policy requiring air monitoring of work at levels below the criterion established by EPA in identifying LBP. Area samples were statistically lower than personal samples associated with blasting ball and stem/base of tank. Exposure data suggest that workers performing abatement on steel structures have elevated lead exposure from surface lead. Respirator protection requirements are discussed. Soil lead concentration was suggested to decrease as distance increased from tank. Soil lead is suggested to be a result of deposition from LBP on tank surface. Minimal efforts were required to reduce average lead soil levels below EPA's upper acceptable criterion (1200 ppm Pb).

  4. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-20

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  5. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1 measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E and mechanical (Building L ventilation; (2 compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3 evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m3 than in Building L (37 µg/m3; I/O was higher in Building E (1.3–2.0 than in Building L (0.5–0.8 for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation are important factors affecting residents’ exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  6. Occupational Asthma after Withdrawal from the Occupational Allergen Exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáčková, P.; Pelclová, D.; Lebedová, J.; Marečková, H.; Brabec, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2006), s. 629-638 ISSN 0019-8366 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : occupational asthma * allergen exposure withdrawal Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2006 http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/indhealth_44_4_629.pdf

  7. Non-occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of non-occupational exposure is presented. The special problems in connection with assessments of collective doses (time, geographical extension, cut-off, uncertainties) are discussed. Examples of methods and principles for monitoring and dose assessments used for various sources of radiation are given and data on public exposure are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M.; Olsen, Jorn; Johansen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the association between occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. SUBJECTS and METHODS: A European multicenter case-control study including seven rare cases (one being MF) was conducted between 1995 and 1997. From the 118...... accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were definite cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational experiences was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure...

  9. Optimisation of occupational exposures during site remediation at WISMUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, P.; Wolf, F.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1991 the national corporation WISMUT GmbH has been charged with the rehabilitation of the sites of former Uranium mining and milling in East Germany. Since decommissioning and site remediation are carried out at places with enhanced dose rates and high concentrations of airborne radioactivity (Rn-222, long-lived alpha emitters), a large part of the employees is classified as occupationally exposed radiation workers. Thus, in 2002, 1,073 workers were engaged with relevant works in radiation protection areas aboveground (radiation exposed workers of category B; mean effective dose: 0.3 mSv; maximum dose: 2.2 mSv), and 514 workers still prepared by underground activities the flooding of the Uranium mines (category A; mean effective dose: 0.9 mSv; maximum effective dose: 4.9 mSv). The paper presents the measures taken by WISMUT to optimise the occupational exposure. The need for implementing appropriate ALARA methods in the field of occupational exposure is last but not least caused by the fact that for a number of employees the integral exposure over the total working life time has exceeded already the 400 mSv figure. (orig.)

  10. Occupational Exposures and Chronic Airflow Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dimich-Ward

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent literature was reviewed to evaluate whether chronic airflow limitation is associated with occupational exposures to dusts. Only those studies that controlled for the effects of smoking were included. There is compelling evidence that exposure to inorganic dusts, such as from coal and hardrock mining or asbestos, are associated with the development of chronic airflow limitation, independently of pneumoconiosis. Nonsmoking gold miners are particularly at high risk of airflow obstruction and emphysema. Findings from studies of organic dusts, such as exposures to wood, cotton, grain or other agricultural dusts, or to mixed dust exposures, were less consistent but tended to show positive dose-response associations. In the majority of studies, no statistical interaction was shown between dust exposures and smoking; however, the effects of the dust exposures were often more pronounced. An occupational history should be considered, in addition to a smoking history, as an integral part of an investigation of chronic airflow limitation in a patient.

  11. Experiences from occupational exposure limits set on aerosols containing allergenic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar; Larsen, Søren; Hansen, Jitka S

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. ...... is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases.......Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies...... for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used...

  12. Quantitative assessment of airborne exposures generated during common cleaning tasks: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Melissa J

    2010-11-01

    during mirror cleaning. Conclusions Our results indicate that airborne exposures from short-term cleaning tasks can remain in the air even after tasks' cessation, suggesting potential exposures to anyone entering the room shortly after cleaning. Additionally, 2-BE concentrations from cleaning could approach occupational exposure limits and warrant further investigation. Measurement methods applied in this study can be useful for workplace assessment of airborne exposures during cleaning, if the limitations identified here are addressed.

  13. 30 CFR 57.5005 - Control of exposure to airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of exposure to airborne contaminants... Underground § 57.5005 Control of exposure to airborne contaminants. Control of employee exposure to harmful airborne contaminants shall be, insofar as feasible, by prevention of contamination, removal by exhaust...

  14. 30 CFR 56.5005 - Control of exposure to airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of exposure to airborne contaminants... Air Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5005 Control of exposure to airborne contaminants. Control of employee exposure to harmful airborne contaminants shall be, insofar as feasible, by prevention...

  15. Cost benefit analysis for occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruthers, G.F.; Rodgers, R.C.; Donohue, J.P.; Swartz, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of system design, many decisions must be made concerning different aspects of that particular system. The design of systems and components in a nuclear power plant has the added faction of occupational exposure experienced as a result of that design. This paper will deal with the different methods available to factor occupational exposure into design decisions. The ultimate goal is to have exposures related to the design 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' or ALARA. To do this an analysis should be performed to show that the cost of reducing exposures any further cannot be justified in a cost-benefit analysis. In this paper examples will be given that will show that it is possible to change to a design which would increase occupational exposure somewhat but would increase the benefit over the cost of the extra exposure received. It will also be shown that some changes in design or additional equipment could be justified due to a reduction in exposure while some changes could not be justified on a reduction in exposure aspect alone but are justified on a time saving aspect such as during a refueling outage. (author)

  16. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e......) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors...

  17. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded

  18. An evaluation of airborne nickel, zinc, and lead exposure at hot dip galvanizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D K; Shaw, D S

    1991-12-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at three hot dip galvanizing plants to determine occupational exposure to nickel, zinc, and lead. All three plants employed the "dry process" and used 2% nickel, by weight, in their zinc baths. A total of 32 personal and area air samples were taken. The air samples were analyzed for nickel, zinc, and lead. Some samples were also analyzed for various species of nickel (i.e., metallic, soluble, and oxidic). The airborne concentrations observed for nickel and its three species, zinc, and lead at the three plants were all well below the current and proposed threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  19. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besar, Idris [PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings.

  20. Biomonitoring of Occupational Exposure to Arylonitrile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Binková, Blanka; Chvátalová, Irena; Rössner st., Pavel; Rössner ml., Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 32 (2001), s. - ISSN 0893-6692. [EMS. 16.03.2001-21.03.2001, San Diego] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : biomonitoring * occupational exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  1. Valuing the radiation detriment of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, J.D.; Crick, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The implications of changes in the radiation risk estimates on the valuation of radiation detriment for use in cost-benefit analysis are being considered at the National Radiological Protection Board. This paper discusses the pertinent factors that are currently being considered for further investigation. An example of relevance to occupational exposure is detailed. (author)

  2. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings. (author)

  3. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides With Occupational Sun Exposure Increases the Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Segatto M, Marjorie; Hohmann, Clarissa; Miligi, Lucia; Bakos, Lucio; Bonamigo, Renan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and cutaneous melanoma, controlling for all possible confounders. A pooled analysis of two case-control studies was conducted in two different geographic areas (Italy and Brazil). Detailed pesticides exposure histories were obtained. Ever use of any pesticide was associated with a high risk of cutaneous melanoma (odds ratio 2.58; 95% confidence interval 1.18-5.65) in particular exposure to herbicides (glyphosate) and fungicides (mancozeb, maneb), after controlling for confounding factors. When subjects were exposed to both pesticides and occupational sun exposure, the risk increased even more (odds ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 1.29-17.0). The study suggests an augmented risk of cutaneous melanoma among subjects with exposure to pesticides, in particular among those exposed to occupational sun exposure.

  4. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  5. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, S; Yamada, N; Sakurai, K [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed.

  6. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Shoji; Yamada, Norimasa; Sakurai, Koh

    1975-01-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed. (author)

  7. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargbo, A.A

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  11. Design features to reduce occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.A.; DiSabatino, A.A. Jr.; Vanasse, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the design principles which are important considerations in the evolution of a nuclear power plant design to ensure that occupational radiation exposures can be minimized are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the design features affecting the basic layout and equipment locations within the plant. Examples are provided showing how these design objectives are realized in the Stone and Webster Reference Nuclear Power Plant Design, with particular emphasis on the Annulus Building portion of the reference plant. Design features which are useful in reducing occupational exposure during normal operation are discussed initially, followed by those that chiefly affect exposures during maintenance activity. Finally, those provisions in the design which assist in preventing the spread of radioactive contamination are presented

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  14. Eighth annual occupational radiation exposure report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1976-10-01

    This is a report by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the operation of the Commission's centralized repository of personnel occupational radiation exposure information. Annual reports were received from 387 covered licensees indicating that some 78,713 individuals, having an average exposure of 0.36 rems, were monitored for exposure to radiation during 1975 and that 21,601 individuals terminated their employment or work assignment with covered licensees in 1975. The number of personnel overexposures reported in 1975 decreased from previous years. The most significant overexposures which occurred in 1975 are summarized

  15. Radiation hormesis at occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Zaharieva, E.; Acheva, A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: The idea in favour of the auspicious effect of low dose ionizing radiation in biological systems exists for years and serves as basis of the radiation hormesis hypothesis. The results in support of this phenomenon are not accepted as reliable by ICRP. The available epidemiological data could only suppose the presence of hormetic effect because of statistics limitations and relatively high spontaneous rate of the examined effects. The present work was aimed at finding appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals and/or population to prove radiation hormesis. Methods: Blood samples were taken from more than 400 NPP workers, divided in two groups: from the 'strict regimen' area (exposed) and from the administration staff (control). Two levels of evaluation were used: 1) molecular - spontaneous and induced DNA repair by UDS, protein synthesis evaluated radio-metrically, DNA damage by SCGE - all of them in white blood cells, concentration of malonedialdehyde in blood serum; and 2) cellular - the Ly-subsets by flow cytometry, using a FacScan analyzer and immunofluorescent stained mouse monoclonal antibodies. Results: A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage was found in persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/a, compared to the control group. The highest repair capacity after a challenging dose of 2,0 Gy gamma rays as well as a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress was evaluated for persons from the same group. At doses below 200 mSv statistically different decrease of the index of CD3+4+, CD4+25+, CD4+62L+ lymphocyte populations and CD4/CD8 cell ratio was established, and increased levels of NK cells, CD57+8+ , CD8+28+ and CD8+38 were recorded. Conclusion: The present investigation showed that annual doses lower than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase

  16. Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P. A.; Murashov, V.; Zumwalde, R.; Kuempel, E. D.; Geraci, C. L.

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials limits the number of specific OELs that are likely to be developed in the near future, but OELs could be developed more expeditiously for nanomaterials by applying dose-response data generated from animal studies for specific nanoparticles across categories of nanomaterials with similar properties and modes of action. This article reviews the history, context, and approaches for developing OELs for particles in general and nanoparticles in particular. Examples of approaches for developing OELs for titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are presented and interim OELs from various organizations for some nanomaterials are discussed. When adequate dose-response data are available in animals or humans, quantitative risk assessment methods can provide estimates of adverse health risk of nanomaterials in workers and, in conjunction with workplace exposure and control data, provide a basis for determining appropriate exposure limits. In the absence of adequate quantitative data, qualitative approaches to hazard assessment, exposure control, and safe work practices are prudent measures to reduce hazards in workers.

  17. Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Murashov, V.; Zumwalde, R.; Kuempel, E. D.; Geraci, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials limits the number of specific OELs that are likely to be developed in the near future, but OELs could be developed more expeditiously for nanomaterials by applying dose-response data generated from animal studies for specific nanoparticles across categories of nanomaterials with similar properties and modes of action. This article reviews the history, context, and approaches for developing OELs for particles in general and nanoparticles in particular. Examples of approaches for developing OELs for titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are presented and interim OELs from various organizations for some nanomaterials are discussed. When adequate dose-response data are available in animals or humans, quantitative risk assessment methods can provide estimates of adverse health risk of nanomaterials in workers and, in conjunction with workplace exposure and control data, provide a basis for determining appropriate exposure limits. In the absence of adequate quantitative data, qualitative approaches to hazard assessment, exposure control, and safe work practices are prudent measures to reduce hazards in workers.

  18. Reducing occupational radiation exposures at LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattanzi, D.; Neri, C.; Papa, C.; Paribelli, S.

    1980-01-01

    The occupational radiation doses received by nuclear power plant personnel during a period of several years of operation are briefly reviewed. Comparisons are made between the data for BWRs and PWRs in order to identify the more ''critical'' reactor type, from a radiological poin; of view. Attention is also devoted to GCRs. Furthermore the areas which contribute most to personnel doses are considered and briefly reviewed. The main steps to be taken in order to reduce occupational radiation exposures at LWRs are discussed. (H.K.)

  19. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  20. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, J.B.C.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  1. Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jørn; Villeneuve, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  2. Effects of occupational lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers.

  3. Occupational exposure and ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nhu D; Leung, Andy; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Gallagher, Richard P; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Demers, Paul A; Cook, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little work has been done concerning occupational risk factors in ovarian cancer. Although studies conducted in occupational settings have reported positive associations, their usefulness is generally limited by the lack of information on important confounders. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed risk for developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) associated with occupational exposure while accounting for important confounders. Participants were identified through provincial population-based registries. Lifetime occupational history and information on potential confounding factors were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test were used to assess EOC risk with each occupation (or industry), relative to all other occupations (or industries), adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy, parity, age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, family history of breast and ovarian cancer in mother and sister(s), tubal ligation, partial oophorectomy, and hysterectomy. Occupations and industries were coded according to the Canadian Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Significant excess risk was observed for several groups of teaching occupations, including SOC 27, teaching and related (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15-2.81) and SOC 279, other teaching and related (adjusted OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.35-8.49). Significant excess was also seen for a four-digit occupational group SOC 4131, bookkeepers and accounting clerks (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.30-6.80). Industrial sub-groups showing significant excess risk included SIC 65, other retail stores (adjusted OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.16-4.38); SIC 85, educational service (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.13); and SIC 863, non-institutional health services (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.13-6.52). Our study found

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ''As Low As Reasonably Achievable'' (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources

  6. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes those records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to have resumed after an interruption during 1979 to 1980. A brief summary of extremity dose data is also included

  7. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    1980-12-01

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978

  8. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-01-01

    logistic regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Increased risks were observed for trichloroethylene (HR 1.23, 95% 95% CI 1.12-1.40), toluene (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.38), benzene (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31), aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (HR 1...... of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, benzene and toluene and the risk of bladder cancer....

  9. Monitor for detecting and assessing exposure to airborne nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Johan; Voetz, Matthias; Kiesling, Heinz-Juergen

    2010-01-01

    An important safety aspect of the workplace environment concerns the severity of its air pollution with nanoparticles (NP; <100 nm) and ultrafine particles (UFP; <300 nm). Depending on their size and chemical nature, exposure to these particles through inhalation can be hazardous because of their intrinsic ability to deposit in the deep lung regions and the possibility to subsequently pass into the blood stream. Recommended safety measures in the nanomaterials industry are pragmatic, aiming at exposure minimization in general, and advocating continuous control by monitoring both the workplace air pollution level and the personal exposure to airborne NPs. This article describes the design and operation of the Aerasense NP monitor that enables intelligence gathering in particular with respect to airborne particles in the 10-300 nm size range. The NP monitor provides real time information about their number concentration, average size, and surface areas per unit volume of inhaled air that deposit in the various compartments of the respiratory tract. The monitor's functionality relies on electrical charging of airborne particles and subsequent measurements of the total particle charge concentration under various conditions. Information obtained with the NP monitor in a typical workplace environment has been compared with simultaneously recorded data from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) capable of measuring the particle size distribution in the 11-1086 nm size range. When the toxicological properties of the engineered and/or released particles in the workplace are known, personal exposure monitoring allows a risk assessment to be made for a worker during each workday, when the workplace-produced particles can be distinguished from other (ambient) particles.

  10. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Gu, Jun-Ming; Huang, Yun; Duan, Yan-Ying; Huang, Rui-Xue; Hu, Jian-An

    2016-03-16

    Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China's existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between occupational cumulative lead exposure and lead poisoning, abnormal blood lead, urinary lead and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) were analyzed and the benchmark dose lower bound confidence limits (BMDLs) were calculated. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between cumulative lead dust and lead fumes exposures and workplace seniority, blood lead, urinary lead and ZPP values. A dose-response relationship was observed between cumulative lead dust or lead fumes exposure and lead poisoning (p lead dust and fumes doses were 0.68 mg-year/m³ and 0.30 mg-year/m³ for lead poisoning, respectively. The BMDLs of workplace airborne lead concentrations associated with lead poisoning were 0.02 mg/m³ and 0.01 mg/m³ for occupational exposure lead dust and lead fume, respectively. In conclusion, BMDLs for airborne lead were lower than occupational exposure limits, suggesting that the occupational lead exposure limits need re-examination and adjustment. Occupational cumulative exposure limits (OCELs) should be established to better prevent occupational lead poisoning.

  11. Occupational exposure of aldehydes resulting from the storage of wood pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Rossner, Alan; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-06-01

    An exposure assessment was conducted to investigate the potential for harmful concentrations of airborne short chain aldehydes emitted from recently stored wood pellets. Wood pellets can emit a number of airborne aldehydes include acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, and hexanal. Exposure limits have been set for these compounds since they can result in significant irritation of the upper respiratory system at elevated concentrations. Formaldehyde is a recognized human carcinogen and acetaldehyde is an animal carcinogen. Thus, air sampling was performed in a wood pellet warehouse at a pellet mill, two residential homes with bulk wood pellet storage bins, and in controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the risk to occupants. Using NIOSH method 2539, sampling was conducted in five locations in the warehouse from April-June 2016 when it contained varying quantities of bagged pellets as well as two homes with ten ton bulk storage bins. The aldehyde concentrations were found to increase with the amount of stored pellets. Airborne concentrations of formaldehyde were as high as 0.45 ppm in the warehouse exceeding the NIOSH REL-C, and ACGIH TLV-C occupational exposure limits (OELs). The concentrations of aldehydes measured in the residential bins were also elevated indicating emissions may raise indoor air quality concerns for occupants. While individual exposures are of concern the combined irritant effect of all the aldehydes is a further raise the concerns for building occupants. To minimize exposure and the risk of adverse health effects to a building's occupants in storage areas with large quantities of pellets, adequate ventilation must be designed into storage areas.

  12. Management of occupational exposure at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitu, C.; Popescu, I.; Simionov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text. Ionising radiations represent a particular risk associated with nuclear power plant operation. An effective and efficient radiation protection program must: - prevent the detriment of health due to deterministic effects; - keep all the exposures as low as reasonably achievable in order to limit the detriment of health due to stochastic effects. - provide safety and health conditions as good as other safe industries. Radiation protection of occupationally exposed workers is part of Health and Safety of Work Program. Effective dose limits, as recommended by ICRP and required by CNCAN regulations are reasonably low in order to avoid deterministic effects and to limit the probability of stochastic effects to an acceptable level. The health status of CNE Cernavoda employees is appropriately surveyed. There were not recorded cases of occupational diseases and / or other indicators of relevant biological effects in order to establish the specific response of the human body to the occupational illness risk factors. Starting since 2002 cytogenesis blood analysis for occupationally exposed individuals have been performed at the beginning of their employment and periodically for those working for more than five years in the plant. A number of up to 1900 employees have been investigated with no indication of genetic modifications. (authors)

  13. European studies on occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Frasch, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ESOREX project was initiated by the European Commission in 1997. The objectives of this European study are: to provide the European Commission and the national competent radiation protection authorities with reliable information on how personal radiation monitoring, reporting and recording of dosimetric results is organized in European countries; to collect reliable and directly comparable data on individual and collective radiation exposure in all occupational sectors where radiation workers are employed. The information about the monitoring of occupational radiation exposure, the levels of individual personal doses of workers in the different work sectors, the changes and trends of these doses over a period of several years and the international comparison of these data are useful information for many stakeholders. The survey consists of two parts. Part I surveys how radiation protection monitoring, recording and reporting is arranged within each of the 30 European countries. Part II collects doses from occupational exposure of classified workers in the participating countries. For each country, information is provided on the number of workers in defined work categories and how annual individual personal doses are distributed. The summary and the conclusions provide tentative recommendations for harmonizing modifications of some of the national monitoring, reporting and recording arrangements. In all ESOREX studies a beneficial, effective and extensive information base about thirty European states has been created. The studies resulted in country reports describing the legislative, administrative, organizational and technical aspects of the national dose monitoring and recording systems for occupationally radiation exposed workers. These reports are standardized, i.e. they have as far as possible an internationally comparable structure. The dose distributions of the radiation workers and the annual average and collective doses in the various work

  14. Monitoring and control of occupational radiation exposure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure is the most prominent example for the prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation characterized by low doses and dose rates. In this paper the occupational exposure in Switzerland is presented and the regulatory control of this exposure in the framework of the new radiation protection regulations is discussed. (author)

  15. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-01

    The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m(3), 15.4 μg/m(3), 14.0 μg/m(3), 247.6 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 219.2 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated occupational radiation exposure information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    The integrated (Occupational Radiation Exposure) data base information system has many advantages. Radiation exposure information is available to operating management in a more timely manner and in a more flexible mode. The ORE system has permitted the integration of scattered files and data to be stored in a more cost-effective method that permits easy and simultaneous access by a variety of users with different data needs. The external storage needs of the radiation exposure source documents are several orders of magnitude less through the use of the computer assisted retrieval techniques employed in the ORE system. Groundwork is being layed to automate the historical files, which are maintained to help describe the radiation protection programs and policies at any one point in time. The file unit will be microfilmed for topical indexing on the ORE data base

  17. Occupational radiation exposure. Twelfth annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.; McDonald, S.; Richardson, E.

    1982-08-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that is maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Radiation Exposure Information and Reports System (REIRS). This report is usually published on an annual basis and is available at all NRC public document rooms. The bulk of the information contained in the report was extracted from annual statistical reports submitted by all NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.407. Four categories of licensees - operating nuclear power reactors, fuel fabricators and reprocessors, industrial radiographers, and manufacturers and distributors of specified quantities of byproduct materials - also submit personal identification and exposure information for terminating employees pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408, and some analysis of this data is also presented in this report

  18. Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an asbestos cement sheet manufacturing industry in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Davood; Kakooei, Hossein; Marioryad, Hossein; Mehrdad, Ramin; Golhosseini, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 tons of Chrysotile asbestos per year and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, airborne asbestos concentrations during AC sheet manufacturing were measured. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Airborne total fiber concentrations of 45 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy. The results have highlighted that 15.5% of samples exceed the threshold limit value (TLV) established the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, which is 0.1 fiber per milliliter (f/ml). Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.16 ± 0.03 f/ml. The geometrical mean was 0.05 ± 1.36 f/ml, which is considerably lower than the TLV. SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of Chrysotile (55.89%) and amphiboles (44.11%). We conclude that the industrial consumption of imported Chrysotile asbestos is responsible for the high airborne amphibole asbestos levels in the AC sheet industry. More research is needed to improve characterization of occupational exposures by fiber size and concentration in a variety of industries.

  19. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    This 1978 report is the first in a series of annual reports on occupational radiation exposures in Canada. The data are derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of overexposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1978 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may have changed. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increasd over the corresponding values for 1977

  20. Preschool Personnel Exposure to Occupational Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaļužnaja Darja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased noise, which is also below the occupational exposure values and is “hearing safe” noise, affects the exposed person’s health as a non-specific stressor. Increased noise level also creates an environment for additional vocal apparatus load. The objective of this study was to determine preschool personnel occupational noise and its relationship with subjective health complaints. Data were obtained with survey assistance through subjective answers of respondents about health complaints and noise exposure among Rīga preschool personnel. Objective noise measurements were made to assess real noise levels in the preschool environment. Data from 155 respondents and objective measurements of 37 preschool classrooms were obtained. The results showed that the average 8-h noise exposure among Rīga preschool educational institutions was 70 dB(A, which did not exceed the Latvian work environment noise limits, but exceeded the 35–40 dB(A noise limit in the educational environment guidelines recommended by the WHO. The survey results showed that loud noise is one of the most important workplace environmental factors (~70% of respondents feel a necessity to increase voice because of noise. A constant feeling of fatigue, headache, irritable feeling, and a desire to isolate oneself from others more often occurred in respondents exposed to increased noise, compared with those who noted that they were not exposed to increased noise. In general, loud noise was associated with increased subjective health complaints in preschool education institution personnel.

  1. History of occupational exposure to natural radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.

    1993-01-01

    From pre-historic times miners represented the group which received, inadvertently, occupational exposure to natural radionuclides. At the end of the 19th century scientists researching the newly found radiation called ''radioactivity'' became exposed frequently to uranium, thorium and their decay chains, still hardly aware of the potential risks associated with their work. In the first half of the 20th century some employees in the radium industry received high doses in the course of their professional duties as chemists, maintenance workers, or radium dial painters; many of them lacked adequate information on radiation protection. After World War II the increased international demand for uranium in the military and civilian sector caused overexposures of several thousands of miners (volunteers, prisoners), mostly due to the inhalation of elevated levels of radon and its decay products. By comparison on an international scale a relatively small number of workers was exposed to increased levels of thorium and its decay products in the thorium and rare-earth extraction industry. Health effects due to these past exposures range from relatively weak associations to statistically significant excesses for a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory diseases or cancer of the bone, lung or pancreas. An assessment of today industrial exposure situations indicates a wide range of occupations exposed to partly significant levels of natural radionuclides. 36 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  2. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  3. Use of dose constraints for occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaijage, Tunu

    2015-02-01

    The use of dose constraints for occupational exposure was reviewed in this project. The role of dose constraints as used in optimization of protection of workers was described. Different issues to be considered in application of the concept and challenges associated with their implementation were also discussed. The situation where dose constraints could be misinterpreted to dose limits is also explained as the two are clearly differentiated by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103. Moreover, recommendations to all parties responsible for protection and safety of workers were discussed. (au)

  4. Characterizing exposures to airborne metals and nanoparticle emissions in a refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela L; Hintz, Patrick; Habjan, Matt

    2010-07-01

    An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. Two areas within the refinery were characterized: a furnace room and an electro-refining area. In line with standard survey practices, both personal and area air filter samples were collected on 37-mm filters and analyzed for metals by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition to the standard sampling, measurements were conducted using other tools, designed to provide enhanced characterization of the workplace aerosols. The number concentration and number-weighted particle size distribution of airborne particles were measured with a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). Custom-designed software was used to correlate particle concentration data with spatial location data to generate contour maps of particle number concentrations in the work areas. Short-term samples were collected in areas of localized high concentrations and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine particle morphology and elemental chemistry. Analysis of filter samples indicated that all of the workers were exposed to levels of silver above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 0.01 mg m(-3) even though the localized ventilation was functioning. Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. Spatial mapping revealed localized elevated particle concentrations near the furnaces and plumes of particles rising into the stairwells and traveling to the upper work areas. Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. Results of

  5. Occupational exposure to benzene in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Lee, Jeong-Oh; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2005-05-30

    Benzene has been used in various industries as glues or solvents in Korea. Since 1981, a preparation containing more than 1% benzene is not allowed to be manufactured, used or dealt with in the workplace, except in laboratories and in those situations benzene must be used in a completely sealed process as specified in Industrial Safety and Health Act (ISHA). Claims for compensation of hematopoietic diseases related to benzene have been rising even though the work environment has been improved. This study was conducted to assess the status of benzene exposure in different industries in Korea. We reviewed the claimed cases investigated by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) between 1992 and 2000. The Survey of National Work Environment Status in 1998 was analyzed to assume the number of workers and factories exposed to benzene. In 2000, six factories were investigated to evaluate benzene exposure. Personal air monitoring was performed in 61 workers and urine samples were collected from 57 workers to measure trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Hematologic examination has performed. Thirty-four cases of hematopoietic diseases were investigated by KOSHA including eight cases of myelodysplastic syndrome and eight cases of acute myelocytic leukemia. Eight cases were accepted as related to benzene exposure. The number of workers possibly exposed to benzene can be estimated to be 196,182 workers from 6219 factories based on the database. The geometric mean of benzene in air was 0.094 (0.005-5.311) ppm. Seven samples were higher than 1 ppm but they did not go over the 10 ppm occupational exposure limit (OEL) value in Korea. The geometric mean of trans,trans-muconic acid in urine was 0.966 (0.24-2.74) mg/g creatinine. The benzene exposure level was low except in a factory where benzene was used to polymerize other chemicals. The ambient benzene from 0.1 to 1 ppm was significantly correlated with urine t,t-MA concentration (r=0.733, p<0.01). Hematologic

  6. Airborne spread of expiratory droplet nuclei between the occupants of indoor environments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Z T; Melikov, A K

    2018-07-01

    This article reviews past studies of airborne transmission between occupants in indoor environments, focusing on the spread of expiratory droplet nuclei from mouth/nose to mouth/nose for non-specific diseases. Special attention is paid to summarizing what is known about the influential factors, the inappropriate simplifications of the thermofluid boundary conditions of thermal manikins, the challenges facing the available experimental techniques, and the limitations of available evaluation methods. Secondary issues are highlighted, and some new ways to improve our understanding of airborne transmission indoors are provided. The characteristics of airborne spread of expiratory droplet nuclei between occupants, which are influenced correlatively by both environmental and personal factors, were widely revealed under steady-state conditions. Owing to the different boundary conditions used, some inconsistent findings on specific influential factors have been published. The available instrumentation was too slow to provide accurate concentration profiles for time-dependent evaluations of events with obvious time characteristics, while computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies were mainly performed in the framework of inherently steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modeling. Future research needs in 3 areas are identified: the importance of the direction of indoor airflow patterns, the dynamics of airborne transmission, and the application of CFD simulations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Controlling occupational radiation exposure. Alternatives to regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.; Squitieri, R.; Wildman, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    The principal strategy adopted for the control of occupational radiation exposure has been the establishment of standards expressed as maximum permissible exposures. The use of such standards is subject to a number of defects, among which is the neglect of the economic impact of imposing such standards. Furthermore, such standards carry the implication of a threshold for radiation effects, a concept now widely challenged. Lastly, the use of standards makes it impossible to evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory agency or to compare its performance with other similar agencies. An alternative to the use of standards, i.e. cost-benefit analysis, is discussed. The advantages of this technique meet many of the objections to the use of standards alone and allow health and safety resources to be allocated in a manner most likely to save the most lives. The greatest disadvantage of cost-benefit analysis has been the difficulty in evaluating the benefit side of the equation. Although the risks of radiation exposure are not known with precision, they are nevertheless well understood. Therefore, the application of cost-benefit analysis to occupational radiation exposure is rational. There are a number of barriers to reform in the use of standards and the adoption of cost-benefit analysis. These attitudinal and institutional constraints are discussed. The nature of private or market systems of control are discussed, i.e. the use of liability and insurance mechanisms. These also have shortcomings that require further development but are seen as potentially more efficient for both employer and employee than is the use of regulatory standards. (author)

  8. Environmental and occupational exposures in immigrant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamranond, Pracha P; Hu, Howard

    2008-09-23

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  9. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracha P. Eamranond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  10. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podonsky, Glenn S. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  11. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A M; Teo, R K

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  12. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.M.; Teo, R.K.

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  13. Occupational exposure to pesticides and endotoxin and Parkinson disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that occupational exposure to pesticides and possibly airborne endotoxin may increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the associations of PD with occupational exposure to pesticides, specifically to the functional subclasses insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and to airborne endotoxin. In addition we evaluated specific pesticides (active ingredients) previously associated with PD. We used data from a hospital-based case-control study, including 444 patients with PD and 876 age and sex matched controls. Exposures to pesticides from application and re-entry work were estimated with the ALOHA+job-exposure matrix and with an exposure algorithm based on self-reported information on pesticide use. To assess exposure to specific active ingredients a crop-exposure matrix was developed. Endotoxin exposure was estimated with the DOM job-exposure matrix. The results showed almost no significant associations. However, ORs were elevated in the higher exposure categories for pesticides in general, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and below unity for endotoxin exposure. The analyses on specific active ingredients showed a significant association of PD risk with the fungicide benomyl. This study did not provide evidence for a relation between pesticide exposure and PD. However, the consistently elevated ORs in the higher exposure categories suggest that a positive association may exist. The possible association with the active ingredient benomyl requires follow-up in other studies. This study did not provide support for a possible association between endotoxin exposure and PD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m 3 , 15.4 μg/m 3 , 14.0 μg/m 3 , 247.6 μg/m 3 , respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m 3 , 9.0 μg/m 3 , 9.0 μg/m 3 , 219.2 μg/m 3 , respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures

  15. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, François, E-mail: francois.zimmermann@inrs.fr; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m{sup 3}, 15.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 14.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 247.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 219.2 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures.

  16. Radiation exposure in medicare-occupational and medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozumi, Kunihiko

    2012-01-01

    Recent cases of the occupational and medical exposures are discussed in relation to the justification of practice, optimization of protection and effort to reduce the dose. Instances of the occupational exposure in doctors and nurses like 26.5 mSv/15 mo and 53.9 mSv/y, and of skin cancer were reported in newspapers of 1999-2004, which might have had been prevented by their self evaluation of daily and monthly exposed dose. For reasonably lowering the occupational dose and number of exposed stuff in the present law, the prior radiation protection measures are to be taken in consideration of social/economical factors to conduct beneficial radiation medicare without restriction of practice under safest conditions, protecting personal determinative hazard and preventing stochastic effect. Medical stuff must be equipped with personal dosimeter. Further, recent media also commented such cases as unwished abortions after careless X-CT of pregnant women, and risk of increased cancer prevalence (3.2% in Japan) due to medical exposure, etc (200-2010). The prevalence is calculated on the linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis and is probably overestimated, possibly causing patient's fear. There has been a history of proposal by IAEA (1996) of the guidance levels of the ordinary roentgenography and in vivo nuclear medical test, and introduction of the concept of dose constraint by ICRP (Pub. 60). The incident dose rate to the patient under fluoroscopy defined by Japan Medical Service Law (2001) is, as an air-kerma rate, 15,600 residents for their contamination as well as remains, and measured the ambient dose rate of cities nearby. (T.T.)

  17. Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, A. D.; Sadhra, S.

    2004-01-01

    There is currently no OEL for diesel fumes in the UK. This study reports parallel measurements of airborne levels of diesel fume pollutants in nine distribution depots where diesel powered fork-lift trucks (FLTs) were in use. Correlations between individual pollutants are assessed as well as their spatial distribution. Samples were collected on board FLTs and at background positions at nine distribution depots. Substances measured and the range of exposures by site were: respirable dust (n = 76) GM ≤ 80-179 μg/m 3 ; elemental carbon (n = 79) GM = 7-55 μg/m 3 ; organic carbon (n = 79) GM 11-69 μg/m 3 ; ultrafine particles (n = 17) range = 58-231 x 10 3 particles/cm 3 ; selected particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (n - 14) range = 6-37 ng/m 3 . In addition, a tracer method based on ultrafine particle measurements was used to estimate the spatial distribution of total carbon and PAHs at the sites monitored. The spatial distribution was found to be reasonably uniform. Major diesel fume aerosol components were, in general, well correlated (r = 0.62-0.97). CO 2 measurements were also made and found to be below the HSE guideline of 1000 p.p.m., with most levels below 600 p.p.m. (Author)

  18. Occupational exposure to natural radiation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The mining, milling and processing of uranium and thorium bearing minerals may result in radiation doses to workers. A preliminary survey pilot program, that included six mines in Brazil (two coal mines, one niobium mine, one nickel mine, one gold mine and one phosphate mine), was launched in order to determine the need to control the radioactive exposure of the mine-workers. Our survey consisted of the collection and analysis of urine samples, complemented by feces and air samples. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and polonium were measured in these samples and compared to background data from family members of the workers living in the same dwelling and from residents from the general population of Rio de Janeiro. The results from the coal mines indicated that the inhalation of radon progeny may be a source of occupational exposure. The workers from the nickel, gold and phosphate mines that were visited do not require a program to control internal radiological doses. The niobium mine results showed that in some areas of the industry exposure to thorium and uranium might occur. (author)

  19. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts’ exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1–4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. Spearman correlation (rs) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately-high (weighted kappa range=0.60–0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (rs= -0.37–0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47–78%) than airborne measurements (16–50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately-high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies. PMID:24736099

  20. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-11-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts' exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1-4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. The Spearman correlation (r(s)) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately high (weighted kappa range=0.60-0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (r(s)=-0.37-0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47-78%) than airborne measurements (16-50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies.

  1. Occupational radiation exposure in Korea: 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Je Ho; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Lee, Jai Ki

    2005-01-01

    Dose distribution of Korean radiation workers classified by occupational categories was analyzed. Statistics of the Occupational Radiation Exposure(ORE) in 2002 of the radiation workers in diagnostic and dental radiology were obtained from the Korea Food and Drug Agency(KFDA) who maintains the database for individual radiation dose records. Corresponding statistics for the rest of radiation workers were obtained by processing the individual annual doses provided by the Korea RadioIsotope Association(KRIA) after deletion of individual information. The ORE distribution was classified in term of 28 occupational categories, annual individual dose levels, age groups and gender of 52733 radiation workers as of the year of 2002. The total collective dose was 66.4 man-Sv and resulting average individual ORE was 1.26 mSv. Around 80% of the workers were exposed to minimal doses less than 1.2 mSv. However, it appeared that the recorded doses exceeded 20 mSv for 43 workers in the industrial radiography and for 147 workers in the field of radiology. Particularly, recorded doses of 23 workers in radiology exceeded the annual dose limits of 50 mSv, which is extraordinary when the working environment is considered. It is uncertain whether those doses are real or caused by careless placing of dosimeters in the imaging rooms while the X-ray units are in operation. No one in the workforce of 16 operating nuclear power plant units was exposed over 20 mSv in 2002. Number of workers was the largest in their 30's of age and the mean individual dose was the highest in their 20's. Women were around 20% of the radiation workers and their average dose was around one half of that of man workers

  2. Monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Marcos, R.; Siffel, C.; Piperakis, S.

    2000-01-01

    Number of pesticides applied is constantly increasing, and although in general they are beneficial they may create a genotoxic hazard to environment and human health too. The aim of study performed in four countries (Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain) was to assess potential genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to pesticides. Interviews were performed and biological samples were taken from 426 donors, 50% unexposed and 50% donors occupationally exposed to genotoxic agrochemical. In this paper is presented comparison of results from studies on the influence of occupational exposure on individual susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage by UV and DNA damage repair efficiency. Levels of the DNA damage induced in vivo and by various treatments in vitro were assessed by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) also known as a Comet assay. Susceptibility to UVC and repair capacities of lymphocytes of all unexposed and exposed to pesticides people from four countries was compared. A Hungarian subgroup of donors consisted of unexposed exposed and highly exposed persons. All groups of donors were at the similar age, sex and occupation. In general, all donors were free of major health problems. Lymphocytes, from collected in various countries whole blood samples were isolated and frozen, and then were transported to Poland in a dry ice for farther DNA damage analysis. In defrosted lymphocytes viability and presence of DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes from Hungarian group expressed significantly lower viability of lymphocytes and very high damage (∼ 30 times higher than in other groups) detected either in untreated or treated lymphocytes. Results from all other groups of samples except Hungarian group did not show statistically significant differences between levels of DNA damages detected in defrosted lymphocytes from reference and exposed to pesticides subgroups. Statistically significant difference between the whole investigated groups from

  3. [Tetrabromobisphenol A - Toxicity, environmental and occupational exposures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosiewicz, Monika; Bukowska, Bożena

    2017-02-28

    Brominated flame retardants (BFR), including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) represents 25% of the global market of flame retardants. Among them, TBBPA is used on the largest scale (approx. 60%) because of its firebreak properties and widespread occurrence in every day products such as furniture, upholstery, adhesives and electronic equipment. A broad application of TBBPA can contribute to environmental pollution. Tetrabromobisphenol A has been determined in soil, water, river sediments and the atmosphere. Tetrabromobisphenol A is characterized by a high value of coefficient n-octanol/water (log P = 4.5), low acidity, and it may exist in undissociated or dissociated form. Due to the high hydrophobicity, TBBPA may accumulate in living organisms, including humans at different food chain levels. The occurrence of TBBPA in humans, e.g., in blood, fat tissue and mother milk, has been reported. Tetrabromobisphenol A is classified as hazard statements (H) H400/H410, which means that it is toxic to aquatic biota, causing long-term changes in these organisms. Up to now, only a few studies have been conducted to assess potential toxicity of high doses of TBBPA to mammals. Although many people are occupationally exposed to TBBPA during production or processing of this substance in their workplaces, there are only a few studies that have assessed the real hazard associated with TBPPA exposure. The aim of the study was to discuss the latest literature (mainly from the years 2010-2016) referring to the presence of TBBPA in the environment and its effects to living organisms. Data concerning occupational exposure to TBBPA were also presented. Med Pr 2017;68(1):121-134. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls...

  5. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc.

  6. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station.

  7. Development of acute exposure guideline levels for airborne exposures to hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Bakshi, Kulbir; Garrett, Roger; Falke, Ernest; Rusch, George; Gaylor, David

    2004-04-01

    Hazardous substances can be released into the atmosphere due to industrial and transportation accidents, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and terrorists, thereby exposing workers and the nearby public to potential adverse health effects. Various enforceable guidelines have been set by regulatory agencies for worker and ambient air quality. However, these exposure levels generally are not applicable to rare lifetime acute exposures, which possibly could occur at high concentrations. Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) provide estimates of concentrations for airborne exposures for an array of short durations that possibly could cause mild (AEGL-1), severe, irreversible, potentially disabling adverse health effects (AEGL-2), or life threatening effects (AEGL-3). These levels can be useful for emergency responders and planners in reducing or eliminating potential risks to the public. Procedures and methodologies for deriving AEGLs are reviewed in this paper that have been developed in the United States, with direct input from international representatives of OECD member-countries, by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guidelines for Hazardous Substances and reviewed by the National Research Council. Techniques are discussed for the extrapolation of effects across different exposure durations. AEGLs provide a viable approach for assisting in the prevention, planning, and response to acute airborne exposures to toxic agents.

  8. Characterization of airborne BTEX exposures during use of lawnmowers and trimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avens, Heather J; Maskrey, Joshua R; Insley, Allison L; Unice, Kenneth M; Reid, Rachel C D; Sahmel, Jennifer

    2018-02-08

    Few studies have evaluated airborne exposures to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during operation of two-stroke and four-stroke small engines, such as those in lawn maintenance equipment. Full-shift, 8-hour personal samples were collected during a simulation study to characterize yard maintenance activities including mowing, trimming, and fueling. Short-term, 15-minute personal samples were collected to separately evaluate mowing and trimming exposures. Mean 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) BTEX concentrations were 2.3, 5.8, 0.91, and 4.6 ppb, respectively (n = 2). Mean 15-minute TWA BTEX concentrations were 1.6, 1.8, 0.22, and 1.3 ppb, respectively, during mowing and 1.2, 3.6, 0.68, and 3.3 ppb, respectively, during trimming (n = 3 per task). Measured BTEX concentrations during fueling were 20-110, 61-310, 8-41, and 40-203 ppb, respectively (n = 2, duration 2-3 minutes). These exposure concentrations were well below applicable US occupational exposure limits.

  9. Dosimetry for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; McAulay, I.R.; Schrewe, U.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, aircraft structure, etc. This has been recognised for some time and estimates of the exposure of aircraft crew have been made previously and included in, for example, UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) publications. The recent increased interest has been brought about by several factors - the consideration that the relative biological effectiveness of the neutron component was being underestimated; the trend towards higher cruising altitudes for subsonic commercial aircraft and business jet aircraft; and most importantly, the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 60, and the revision of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS). In 1992, the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) established a Working Group to consider the exposure to cosmic radiation of aircraft crew, and the scientific and technical problems associated with radiation protection dosimetry for this occupational group. The Working Group was composed of fifteen scientists (plus a corresponding member) involved in this field of study and with knowledge of radiation measurement at aviation altitudes. This paper is based on the findings of this Working Group. (author)

  10. Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure in Nigerians. JI Anetor, SA Yaqub, GO Anetor, AC Nsonwu, FAA Adeniyi, S Fukushima. Abstract. Exposure to single chemicals and associated disorders in occupational environments has received significant attention. Understanding these events holds ...

  11. Trends in occupational exposure within the UK civil nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    The UK civil nuclear industry was established in the 1950s and workers in the industry have received occupational radiation exposures since that time. Data on occupational exposures over this period show a reduction in annual doses. This trend was initiated by more restrictive statutory dose limitation requirements, and was achieved by greater emphasis on radiation protection methods. (Author)

  12. Occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Zara A; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent L

    2013-01-01

    Noise may increase the risk of hypertension, but findings are inconsistent with respect to both community and occupational noise exposure. We used a large sample of noise-exposed industrial trades to analyze the association of occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension....

  13. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C.; Tilly Junior, Joao G.

    2014-01-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  14. Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

    2015-01-01

    A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 µg m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 µg m(-3). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. Risks to the offspring from parental occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.F.; Schottenfeld, D.

    1979-01-01

    Risks to the offspring of workers with occupational chemical exposures may derive from mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of industrial agents to which the parents are exposed. Evidence for impaired pregnancies and hazards to the offspring of working populations with chemical exposures is, however, very limited. Evidence is reviewed for hazards to the offspring resulting from parental occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, benzene, chloroprene, radiation and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Other environmental and behavioral factors with major effects on pregnancy outcome are considered. These include smoking, alcohol, and drug exposures. An approach to surveillance for chromosomal abnormalities in offspring of occupationally exposed parents is outlined

  16. [Occupational exposure to nanoparticles. Assessment of workplace exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the most popular branch of science. It is a technology that enables designing, manufacturing and application of materials and structures of very small dimensions, and its products are applied in almost every field of life. Nanoparticles are the structures having one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. They are used in precise mechanics, electronics, optics, medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and many other spheres. Due to their very small size, nanostructures have completely different and specific properties, unknown for the bulk of materials. Fast-growing nanotechnology provides a wide spectrum of applications, but it also brings about new and unknown danger to human health. Nanotechnology is the branch that has developed rather recently, and much information about health risk and its influence on the environment is beyond our knowledge. Nanoparticles, released in many technological processes, as well as manufactured nanoparticles can induce occupational hazards to workers. The lack of regulations and standards, compulsory in the manufacture and use ofnanoparticles is a fundamental problem faced in the evaluation of exposure. Another problem is the choice of proper measurement equipment for surveying of very small particles - their number, mass and surface area in the workpost air. In this article, the possibility and scope of exposure assessment is discussed and a brief specification of available instrumentation for counting and assessing the parameters essential for classifying the exposure to nanoparticles is presented.

  17. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Wu; Jun-Ming Gu; Yun Huang; Yan-Ying Duan; Rui-Xue Huang; Jian-An Hu

    2016-01-01

    Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China’s existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between o...

  18. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  19. Assessment of occupational exposure to gaseous peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugheri, Stefano; Bonari, Alessandro; Pompilio, Ilenia; Colpo, Marco; Montalti, Manfredi; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2018-02-07

    In order to assess short-term exposure to peracetic acid (PAA) in disinfection processes, the Authors compared 4 industrial hygiene monitoring methods to evaluate their proficiency in measuring airborne PAA concentrations. An active sampling by basic silica gel impregnated with methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide (MTSO), a passive solid phase micro-extraction technique using methyl p-tolyl sulfide (MTS) as on-fiber derivatization reagent, an electrochemical direct-reading PAA monitor, and a novel visual test strip PAA detector doped with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonate were evaluated and tested over the range of 0.06-16 mg/m3, using dynamically generated PAA air concentrations. The linear regression analysis of linearity and accuracy showed that the 4 methods were suitable for PAA monitoring. Peracetic acid monitoring in several use applications showed that the PAA concentration (1.8 mg/m3) was immediately dangerous to life or health as proposed by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, and was frequently exceeded in wastewater treatment (up to 7.33 mg/m3), and sometimes during food and beverage processes and hospital high-level disinfection operations (up to 6.8 mg/m3). The methods were suitable for the quick assessment of acute exposure in PAA environmental monitoring and can assist in improving safety and air quality in the workplace where this disinfectant is used. These monitoring methods allowed the evaluation of changes to work out practices to reduce PAA vapor concentrations during the operations when workers are potentially overexposed to this strong antioxidant agent. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Exposure Estimation and Interpretation of Occupational Risk: Enhanced Information for the Occupational Risk Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Martha; McKernan, Lauralynn; Maier, Andrew; Jayjock, Michael; Schaeffer, Val; Brosseau, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this article is to describe, define, and analyze the components of the risk characterization process for occupational exposures. Current methods are described for the probabilistic characterization of exposure, including newer techniques that have increasing applications for assessing data from occupational exposure scenarios. In addition, since the probability of health effects reflects variability in the exposure estimate as well as the dose-response curve—the integrated considerations of variability surrounding both components of the risk characterization provide greater information to the occupational hygienist. Probabilistic tools provide a more informed view of exposure as compared to use of discrete point estimates for these inputs to the risk characterization process. Active use of such tools for exposure and risk assessment will lead to a scientifically supported worker health protection program. Understanding the bases for an occupational risk assessment, focusing on important sources of variability and uncertainty enables characterizing occupational risk in terms of a probability, rather than a binary decision of acceptable risk or unacceptable risk. A critical review of existing methods highlights several conclusions: (1) exposure estimates and the dose-response are impacted by both variability and uncertainty and a well-developed risk characterization reflects and communicates this consideration; (2) occupational risk is probabilistic in nature and most accurately considered as a distribution, not a point estimate; and (3) occupational hygienists have a variety of tools available to incorporate concepts of risk characterization into occupational health and practice. PMID:26302336

  1. Exposure to airborne ultrafine particles from cooking in Portuguese homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordado, J C; Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C

    2012-10-01

    Cooking was found to be a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols from gas combustion in stoves. Therefore, this study consisted of the determination of the alveolar deposited surface area due to aerosols resulting from common domestic cooking activities (boiling fish, vegetables, or pasta, and frying hamburgers and eggs). The concentration of ultrafine particles during the cooking events significantly increased from a baseline of 42.7 microm2/cm3 (increased to 72.9 microm2/cm3 due to gas burning) to a maximum of 890.3 microm2/cm3 measured during fish boiling in water and a maximum of 4500 microm2/cm3 during meat frying. This clearly shows that a domestic activity such as cooking can lead to exposures as high as those of occupational exposure activities. The approach of this study considers the determination of alveolar deposited surface area of aerosols generated from cooking activities, namely, typical Portuguese dishes. This type of measurement has not been done so far, in spite of the recognition that cooking activity is a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols. The results have shown that the levels of generated aerosols surpass the outdoor concentrations in a major European town, which calls for further determinations, contributing to a better assessment of exposure of individuals to domestic activities such as this one.

  2. Occupational and environmental exposures to radon: A perspective for mitigators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, D.C.; Messing, M.; Saum, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares normal environmental and occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products for the occupational group, including radon mitigators and diagnosticians. Occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products and the associated high incidence of radiation-induced lung cancer form the basis for current concern for limiting exposures to radon. While it is now known that radon is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and estimates exist as to what this means in terms of cancer risk to the general population, similar estimates are not available for radon mitigators and diagnosticians

  3. Health and safety implications of occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebounova, Larissa V; Morgan, Hallie; Grassian, Vicki H; Brenner, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth and commercialization of nanotechnology are currently outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. As the production and use of nanomaterials increase, so does the possibility that there will be exposure of workers and the public to these materials. This review provides a summary of current research and regulatory efforts related to occupational exposure and medical surveillance for the nanotechnology workforce, focusing on the most prevalent industrial nanomaterials currently moving through the research, development, and manufacturing pipelines. Their applications and usage precedes a discussion of occupational health and safety efforts, including exposure assessment, occupational health surveillance, and regulatory considerations for these nanomaterials. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Toxic nephropathy secondary to occupational exposure to metallic mercury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitzuk, Ana; Greco, Vanina; Caputo, Daniel; Alvarez, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Toxic nephrophaties secondary to occupational exposure to metals have been widely studied, including membranous nephropathy by mercury, which is rare. Occupational poisoning by mercury is frequent, neurological symptoms are the main form of clinical presentation. Secondary renal involvement in chronic exposure to metallic mercury can cause glomerular disease by deposit of immune-complexes. Membranous glomerulopathy and minimal change disease are the most frequently reported forms. Here we describe the case of a patient with occupational exposure to metallic mercury, where nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis responded favorably to both chelation and immunosuppressive therapy.

  5. Modeled exposure assessment via inhalation and dermal pathways to airborne semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shanshan; Zhao, Bin

    2014-05-20

    Exposure to airborne semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in indoor and outdoor environments of humans may lead to adverse health risks. Thus, we established a model to evaluate exposure to airborne SVOCs. In this model, SVOCs phase-specific concentrations were estimated by a kinetic partition model accounting for particle dynamics. The exposure pathways to airborne SVOCs included inhalation exposure to gas- and particle-phases, dermal exposure by direct gas-to-skin pathway and dermal exposure by direct particle deposition. Exposures of defined "reference people" to two typical classifications of SVOCs, one generated from both indoor and outdoor sources, represented by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the other generated mainly from only indoor sources, represented by di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), were analyzed as an example application of the model. For PAHs with higher volatility, inhalation exposure to gas-phase, ranging from 6.03 to 16.4 ng/kg/d, accounted for the most of the exposure to the airborne phases. For PAHs with lower volatility, inhalation exposure to particle-phase, ranging from 1.48 to 1.53 ng/kg/d, was the most important exposure pathway. As for DEHP, dermal exposure via direct gas-to-skin pathway was 460 ng/kg/d, which was the most striking exposure pathway when the barrier effect of clothing was neglected.

  6. Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baytown, TX (1978-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Ken M; Burns, Amanda M; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Booher, Lindsay E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    Although occupational benzene exposure of refinery workers has been studied for decades, no extensive analysis of historical industrial hygiene data has been performed focusing on airborne concentrations at specific refineries and tasks. This study characterizes benzene exposures at the ExxonMobil Baytown, TX, refinery from 1978 to 2006 to understand the variability in workers' exposures over time and during different job tasks. Exposures were grouped by operational status, job title, and tasks. More than 9000 industrial hygiene air samples were evaluated; approximately 4000 non-task (> 3 h) and 1000 task-related (work areas, and 16 task bins (when applicable). Process technicians were sampled most frequently, resulting in the following mean benzene concentrations by area: hydrofiner (n=245, mean=1.3 p.p.m.), oil movements (n=286, mean=0.23 p.p.m.), reformer (n=575, mean=0.10 p.p.m.), tank farm (n=9, mean=0.65 p.p.m.), waste treatment (n=446, mean=0.13 p.p.m.), and other areas (n=460, mean=0.062 p.p.m.). The most frequently sampled task was sample collection (n=218, mean=0.40 p.p.m.). Job title and area did not significantly impact task-related exposures. Airborne concentrations were significantly lower after 1990 than before 1990. Results of this task-focused study may be useful when analyzing benzene exposures at other refineries.

  7. Advanced REACH tool: A Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNally, K.; Warren, N.; Fransman, W.; Entink, R.K.; Schinkel, J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Kromhout, H.; Schneider, T.; Tielemans, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate

  8. Occupational exposures among healthcare workers: A teaching hospital sample

    OpenAIRE

    Derya Öztürk Engin; Asuman İnan; Nurgül Ceran; Zeynel Abiddin Demir; Özgür Dağli; Emin Karagül; Seyfi Özyürek

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for occupational injury associated with contaminated blood and body fluids. This study aims to examine the frequency and type of occupational injuries and to determine best practices after exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Haydarpaşa Teaching Hospital in December 2010. The questionnaires were completed by healthcare workers with face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was evaluated occupational injuries in the ho...

  9. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    concentration and the statistically relevant limits of quantification (LOQ), which are routinely applied. The PCM fibre concentrations were all below the LOQ but analytical TEM showed that few of the fibres counted in the background samples were asbestos. The background TEM asbestos concentrations for the individual samples analysed from all three schools were at or below the AS, with a pooled average below the LOQ (schools, there was no significant increase in the airborne amosite concentration in the classrooms during simulated disturbance conditions. At the third school, four of the five classrooms sampled gave measurable concentrations of amosite by TEM during simulated disturbance conditions. The highest concentration of amosite fibres countable by PCM was 0.0043 f ml(-1) with a pooled average of 0.0019 f ml(-1). The air sampling strategy was effective and worked well and the results provide further important evidence to inform the sampling and management of asbestos in schools. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  10. Occupational exposure to 99mTc and 131I in a radiopharmacy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Bruna P.; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de; Souza, Wanderson; Santos, Maristela; Medeiras, Geiza; Conceicao, Cirilo S.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has about 310 nuclear medicine services and 90% of these services use Molybdenum/Technetium generators to prepare several radiopharmaceuticals to diagnostics; about 70% use also 131 I for diagnosis and therapy. These radionuclides are associated to compounds in liquid form and during the manipulation to prepare and administer the patient dose some radioactive airborne particle can be generated. As consequence the workers can be exposed to airborne particles in the respirable fraction containing 99m Tc and 131 I. The aim of this study is develop a simple and rapid method to verify if the exhaust systems installed in the SMN are efficient in preventing the inhalation of radionuclides airborne particles by workers. In order to estimate the occupational exposure a nuclear medicine service was selected and aerosol samples were collected using personal air sampler with a cyclone. The samples were analyzed using a germanium detector system and the 99m Tc and 131 I average concentrations were obtained as 16,6 ± 14,34 mBq/m 3 and 0.72 ± 0.36 mBq/m 3 , respectively. It was not observed a correlation among air concentration and total activity processed in laboratory. These results show that the worker inhales airborne particles containing 99m Tc and 131 I. (author)

  11. Occupational exposure to {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I in a radiopharmacy room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Bruna P.; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de; Souza, Wanderson; Santos, Maristela; Medeiras, Geiza; Conceicao, Cirilo S. [Universidade do Estado, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Modelagem Computacional], e-mail: brunapvalle@gmail.com, e-mail: kenya@ird.gov.br, e-mail: lidia@ird.gov.br, e-mail: wander@ird.gov.br, e-mail: mstela@ird.gov.br; Abrantes, Marcio Borges de [Centro de Medicina Nuclear Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: marcioabrantes@pop.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Brazil has about 310 nuclear medicine services and 90% of these services use Molybdenum/Technetium generators to prepare several radiopharmaceuticals to diagnostics; about 70% use also {sup 131}I for diagnosis and therapy. These radionuclides are associated to compounds in liquid form and during the manipulation to prepare and administer the patient dose some radioactive airborne particle can be generated. As consequence the workers can be exposed to airborne particles in the respirable fraction containing {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. The aim of this study is develop a simple and rapid method to verify if the exhaust systems installed in the SMN are efficient in preventing the inhalation of radionuclides airborne particles by workers. In order to estimate the occupational exposure a nuclear medicine service was selected and aerosol samples were collected using personal air sampler with a cyclone. The samples were analyzed using a germanium detector system and the {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I average concentrations were obtained as 16,6 {+-} 14,34 mBq/m{sup 3} and 0.72 {+-} 0.36 mBq/m{sup 3}, respectively. It was not observed a correlation among air concentration and total activity processed in laboratory. These results show that the worker inhales airborne particles containing {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. (author)

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE's performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace

  14. Assessment of the occupational exposure of the INOR personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Zulueta, R.; Cardenas Herrera, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluate the levels of exposure to ionizing radiation and their influence on the health of occupationally exposed workers from the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology during the 1980.1988 period

  15. Evaluation of occupational exposures in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouza, Z.; Petrova, K.

    1996-01-01

    The recent situation in the Czech Republic (CZ) concerning the evaluation and recording of occupational radiation exposures is described. The individual monitoring is based on the interpretation of the personal dosemeters responses and the evaluation of the other special dosimetric methods (measurement of excrete, whole body counting, etc.). The evaluation of occupational radiation exposures is carried out by five approved dosimetric services, which control about 20,000 workers. Record keeping of overexposures is based on two systems, which principles are explained. Based on long time analysis of occupational radiation exposures in CZ it can be present that the average values and trends of individual and collective effective dose equivalents are comparable with those in developed countries. The distributions of the radiation exposures for the important occupational groups of workers are presented. (author)

  16. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  17. Cardiovascular conditions, hearing difficulty, and occupational noise exposure within US industries and occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Ellen; Masterson, Elizabeth A; Themann, Christa L; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational noise exposure, hearing difficulty and cardiovascular conditions within US industries and occupations, and to examine any associations of these outcomes with occupational noise exposure. National Health Interview Survey data from 2014 were examined. Weighted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios of self-reported hearing difficulty, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and coronary heart disease or stroke were estimated by level of occupational noise exposure, industry, and occupation. Twenty-five percent of current workers had a history of occupational noise exposure (14% exposed in the last year), 12% had hearing difficulty, 24% had hypertension, 28% had elevated cholesterol; 58%, 14%, and 9% of these cases can be attributed to occupational noise exposure, respectively. Hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and hearing difficulty are more prevalent among noise-exposed workers. Reducing workplace noise levels is critical. Workplace-based health and wellness programs should also be considered. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Using Satellite and Airborne LiDAR to Model Woodpecker Habitat Occupancy at the Landscape Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Lee A.; Vierling, Kerri T.; Adam, Patrick; Hudak, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) relative to airborne-based LiDAR to model the north Idaho breeding distribution of a forest-dependent ecosystem engineer, the Red-naped sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis). GLAS data occurred within ca. 64 m diameter ellipses spaced a minimum of 172 m apart, and all occupancy analyses were confined to this grain scale. Using a hierarchical approach, we modeled Red-naped sapsucker occupancy as a function of LiDAR metrics derived from both platforms. Occupancy models based on satellite data were weak, possibly because the data within the GLAS ellipse did not fully represent habitat characteristics important for this species. The most important structural variables influencing Red-naped Sapsucker breeding site selection based on airborne LiDAR data included foliage height diversity, the distance between major strata in the canopy vertical profile, and the vegetation density near the ground. These characteristics are consistent with the diversity of foraging activities exhibited by this species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first to examine the utility of satellite-based LiDAR to model animal distributions. The large area of each GLAS ellipse and the non-contiguous nature of GLAS data may pose significant challenges for wildlife distribution modeling; nevertheless these data can provide useful information on ecosystem vertical structure, particularly in areas of gentle terrain. Additional work is thus warranted to utilize LiDAR datasets collected from both airborne and past and future satellite platforms (e.g. GLAS, and the planned IceSAT2

  19. [Occupational risk related to optical radiation exposure in construction workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, F; Modenese, A

    2012-01-01

    Optical Radiation is a relevant occupational risk in construction workers, mainly as a consequence of the exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation (SR). Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in construction workers. The role of occupational physicians in prevention is fundamental.

  20. Risk modification and combined exposures in occupational respiratory allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portengen, Lützen

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the impact of combined exposure to allergens and non-allergenic agents on the development of respiratory allergy in occupational populations. The effect of early life exposure to the farming environment and endotoxin

  1. Addressing airborne pollutant exposure at the source: an example of coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PAHs are analysed 6 HEALTH EFFECTS • Routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact • Symptoms: Dermatitis and bronchitis • Lung, kidney and skin cancer • Target organs: lungs, skin, bladder, kidney 7 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE...

  2. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...

  3. Occupational rdiation exposure and anthropometric indices among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Sun Bi; Moon, Eun Kyeong; Cha, Eun Shill; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Worldwide increase in the prevalence of abnormal anthropometric indices (i.e., body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC)) are associated with increased risk of death and adverse health outcomes which causes great burden in public health. Studies on the association between radiation exposure and altered anthropometric indices reported both positive and negative associations in atomic bomb and childhood cancer survivors. We have initiated a radiologic technologists health study to investigate occupational radiation exposure and their health effects. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association between occupational radiation dose with BMI and WC in radiologic technologists in South Korea. These results explain that occupational radiation exposure can possibly alter BMI and WC. Therefore, further study is required to verify the prospective causal effect of radiation exposure on anthropometric indices.

  4. Evaluation of air-liquid interface exposure systems for in vitro assessment of airborne pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of cells to airborne pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of submerged cells. The published literature, however, describes irreproducible and/or unrealistic experimental conditions using ALI systems. We have compared fi...

  5. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4, 2017 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  6. Problems in evaluating health effects of occupational and environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The assessment of health effects from low-level exposure to radiation is a matter of considerable controversy. Existing standards for exposure are based primarily on estimates of health effects obtained by extrapolation from effects of high-level exposures such as those experienced at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Occupational and environmental exposures provide one source of data for this task. A number of studies of populations exposed in this manner have attracted recent attention. Because of the size of most of the groups and the magnitude of the exposures received, the amount that can be learned from such populations is severely limited. A number of the problems involved in analyzing and interpreting such data are addressed. Many of these problems are illustrated by a current study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to radiation at the Hanford plant

  7. [Hygiene and legal aspects of occupational exposure assessment to cytostatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. The issue of occupational risk assessment of exposure to cytostatics gives raise to numerous concerns. Polish regulations concerning health protection of employees occupationally exposed to cytostatics are not unequivocal, as they are derived from different areas of the law, especially those applying to hazard classification, labeling and preparation of safety data sheets for cytostatics. There are neither binding occupational exposure limits legally set for active compounds of antineoplastic drugs nor methods for monitoring of these substances concentrations in a worker's breathing zone and biological material. This prevents the employer to carry out the correct assessment of occupational exposure, the results of which are the basis for preparing the proper preventive strategy. In this article the consequences of amendments to the European chemical legislation for employers responsible for adequate protection of health and life of employees exposed to cytostatics, were discussed, as well as some legal changes aimed at a better health and life protection of workers exposed to cytostatics in a workplace were proposed. Med Pr 2018;69(1):77-92. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Neurotoxicity in Preclinical Models of Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorus Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Lein, Pamela J.; Pieper, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OPs) compounds are widely used as insecticides, plasticizers, and fuel additives. These compounds potently inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine at neuronal synapses, and acute exposure to high OP levels can cause cholinergic crisis in humans and animals. Evidence further suggests that repeated exposure to lower OP levels insufficient to cause cholinergic crisis, frequently encountered in the occupational setting, also pose serious risks to people. For example, multiple epidemiological studies have identified associations between occupational OP exposure and neurodegenerative disease, psychiatric illness, and sensorimotor deficits. Rigorous scientific investigation of the basic science mechanisms underlying these epidemiological findings requires valid preclinical models in which tightly-regulated exposure paradigms can be correlated with neurotoxicity. Here, we review the experimental models of occupational OP exposure currently used in the field. We found that animal studies simulating occupational OP exposures do indeed show evidence of neurotoxicity, and that utilization of these models is helping illuminate the mechanisms underlying OP-induced neurological sequelae. Still, further work is necessary to evaluate exposure levels, protection methods, and treatment strategies, which taken together could serve to modify guidelines for improving workplace conditions globally. PMID:28149268

  9. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  10. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: alicesante@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  11. Occupational exposure to organic solvents and sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfberg, J; Carter, N; Talbäck, M; Edling, C

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether people with occupational exposure to organic solvents have a higher prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) than the general population and to examine the relationship between snoring and exposure to organic solvents. Consecutive patients, aged 30-64 years, referred during a 3-year period to the sleep laboratory at Avesta Hospital, Sweden, because of suspected OSAS made up the patient groups. Following admission, patients underwent a simplified sleep apnea investigation and were divided into two groups, OSAS (n = 320) and snorers (n = 443). A random sample of 296 men and 289 women aged 30-64 years obtained from a register of all country residents maintained by the county tax authority served as referents (controls). Both patients and referents responded to two questionnaires, including questions about occupation, exposure to organic solvents, and other chemical and physical agents. Men with OSAS or snoring and women with snoring had more often been occupationally exposed to organic solvents than the referents, showing an almost twofold increase in risk for those exposed during whole workdays. For men, the risk of OSAS or snoring increased with increasing exposure. The result indicates that occupational exposure to organic solvents might cause sleep apnea. A new observation is that even snoring could be caused by exposure to organic solvents. It is important to elucidate whether exposure to organic solvents is a cause of OSAS, because such a finding may have important implications for prevention and treatment of sleep disturbances.

  12. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  13. Approaches for the development of occupational exposure limits for man-made mineral fibres (MMMFs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler-Skylakakis, Kyriakoula

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are an essential tool in the control of exposure to hazardous chemical agents, and serve to minimise the occurrence of occupational diseases associated with such exposure. The setting of OELs, together with other associated measures, forms an essential part of the European Community's strategy on health and safety at work, upon which the legislative framework for the protection of workers from risks related to chemical agents is based. The European Commission is assisted by the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) in its work of setting OELs for hazardous chemical agents. The procedure for setting OELs requires information on the toxic mechanisms of an agent that should allow to differentiate between thresholded and non-thresholded mechanisms. In the first case, a no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) can be defined, which can be the basis for a derivation of an OEL. In the latter case, any exposure is correlated with a certain risk. If adequate scientific data are available, SCOEL estimates the risk associated with a series of exposure levels. This can then be used for guidance, when setting OELs at European level. Man-made mineral fibres (MMMFs) are widely used at different worksites. MMMF products can release airborne respirable fibres during their production, use and removal. According to the classification of the EU system, all MMMF fibres are considered to be irritants and are classified for carcinogenicity. EU legislation foresees the use of limit values as one of the provisions for the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens. In the following paper, the research requirements identified by SCOEL for the development of OELs for MMMFs will be presented

  14. Acute hexogen poisoning after occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Glanclaude, J M; Descotes, J

    1996-01-01

    Hexogen (cyclonite, RDX) nitrate explosive is an infrequent cause of poisoning. A 42-year-old man with no prior history of epilepsy experienced grand mal seizures after sieving fine hexogen (RDX) powder for four hours in an ammunition plant. Physical examination was normal on arrival at the emergency room but recurrent seizures occurred six hour after admission. EEG, CT scan and MRI were normal and the patient recovered uneventfully. The available toxicological data on this rare occupational poisoning are reviewed.

  15. Evaluation of diseases associated to occupational exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Ileana Frometa

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective investigation of all cases of radiation workers with diseases and injuries, considered as occupational diseases caused by ionizing radiation is presented. The investigation includes all cases registered in the Institute of Occupational Health over five years period (1990-1995). The incidence of that diseases are studied, as well as the correlation between each type of source, time of exposure and annual average equivalent individual dose

  16. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations

  17. Association betweeen parental occupational exposure and childhood malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Reiko; Miyake, Hirotsugu

    1989-01-01

    The question whether occupational exposure of parents to chemicals, electromagnetism and radiation causes malignant disease in their offspring has gained much interest. The findings to date, however, have been conflicting perhaps due to differences in the methods employed in these studies. A review was made on 16 cause-control epidemiological studies. In 11 studies significant relation was observed between malignant tumor (leukemia, brain tumor and others) and occupational exposure to hydrocarbons, spray paint or other chemicals, ionizing radiation and electromagnetism. Conversely, no association was observed in five studies, in which different populations, different techniques, and different control groups were employed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of occupational exposure of the parents to chemicals and other agents to the development of malignant tumors in their offspring in relation to the employed epidemiological methodology. (author) 57 refs

  18. Impact of climate change on occupational exposure to solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlo; Borra, Massimo; Militello, Andrea; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation. Given the uncertainties regarding the direction of changes in exposure to solar radiation due to climate change, compliance of outdoor workers with protective measures and a proper health surveillance are crucial. At the same time, education and training, along with the promotion of healthier lifestyles, are of paramount importance.

  19. Climate change: the potential impact on occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Maria Pia; Cabella, Renato; Gherardi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the possible influence of global climate change (GCC) on exposure to plant protection products (PPP) in the workplace. The paper has evaluated the main potential relationships between GCC and occupational exposure to pesticides, by highlighting how global warming might affect their future use and by reviewing its possible consequence on workers' exposure. Global warming, influencing the spatial and temporal distribution and proliferation of weeds, the impact of already present insect pests and pathogens and the introduction of new infesting species, could cause a changed use of pesticides in terms of higher amounts, doses and types of products applied, so influencing the human exposure to them during agricultural activities. GCC, in particular heat waves, may also potentially have impact on workers' susceptibility to pesticides absorption. Prevention policies of health in the workplace must be ready to address new risks from occupational exposure to pesticide, presumably different from current risks, since an increased use may be expected.

  20. Designing exposure registries for improved tracking of occupational exposure and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrandale, Victoria H; Bornstein, Stephen; King, Andrew; Takaro, Timothy K; Demers, Paul A

    2016-06-27

    Registries are one strategy for collecting information on occupational exposure and disease in populations. Recently leaders in the Canadian occupational health and safety community have shown an interest in the use of occupational exposure registries. The primary goal of this study was to review a series of Canadian exposure registries to identify their strengths and weaknesses as a tool for tracking occupational exposure and disease in Canada. A secondary goal was to identify the features of an exposure registry needed to specifically contribute to prevention, including the identification of new exposure-disease relationships. A documentary review of five exposure registries from Canada was completed. Strengths and limitations of the registries were compared and key considerations for designing new registries were identified. The goals and structure of the exposure registries varied considerably. Most of the reviewed registries had voluntary registration, which presents challenges for the use of the data for either surveillance or epidemiology. It is recommended that eight key issues be addressed when planning new registries: clear registry goal(s), a definition of exposure, data to be collected (and how it will be used), whether enrolment will be mandatory, as well as ethical, privacy and logistical considerations. When well constructed, an exposure registry can be a valuable tool for surveillance, epidemiology and ultimately the prevention of occupational disease. However, exposure registries also have a number of actual and potential limitations that need to be considered.

  1. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloebel, B.; Muth, H.; Keller, K.D.; Hector, G.; Lehnen, H.

    1982-01-01

    In a large hospital (University Hospital, Homburg/Saar, 2000 beds) the use of radionuclides was determined with the aim of a balance of the radionuclide flow through the clinic and the resulting radiation exposure for the persons involved. (author)

  2. Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

    2006-11-01

    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation.

  3. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  4. Benzene in blood as a biomarker of low level occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnone, F.; Perbellini, L.; Romeo, L.; Cerpelloni, M.; Bianchin, M.; Tonello, A. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, University of Verona, Policlinico Borgo Roma, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    1999-09-01

    The occupational airborne exposure to benzene of 150 workers employed in petrol stations and a refinery plant was assessed using personal sampling pumps. All workers provided blood samples after the end of work and on the following morning before resuming work. Benzene concentrations in the blood of 243 non-occupationally-exposed subjects were also measured. The median occupational benzene exposure for all 150 workers studied was 80 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Overall median blood benzene of all workers was 251 ng/l at the end of the shift, and 174 ng/l the following morning. The benzene concentrations measured in blood collected the following morning proved to be significantly lower than those measured at the end of the shift. Median blood benzene for the 243 'normal' subjects was 128 ng/l, which was significantly lower than that measured in the workers before a new work shift. The median blood benzene concentration was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, both in the general population (210 ng/l vs. 110 ng/l) and in the exposed workers at the end of the shift (476 ng/l vs. 132 ng/l) and the following morning (360 ng/l vs. 99 ng/l). End-of-shift blood benzene correlated significantly with environmental exposure; this correlation was better in the 83 non-smokers than in the 67 smokers. In non-smokers with the median benzene occupational exposure of 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, no difference was found in blood benzene concentration in exposed and non-exposed subjects.

  5. Occupational radiation exposure to norms in a gold mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E. O.; Tetteh, G. K.; Akaho, E. H. K.

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted into the occupational radiation exposure to NORMS from surface and underground mining operations in a gold mine in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. A brief description of the methods and instrumentation is presented. The annual effective dose has been estimated to be 0.26 ± 0.11 mSv for surface mining and 1.83 ± 0.56 mSv for the underground mines using the ICRP dose calculation method. The results obtained are found to be within the allowable limit of 20 mSv per annum for occupational exposure control recommended by the ICRP. (authors)

  6. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (pnettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL

  7. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  8. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational external radiation exposure in the GDR in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 a total of 36,794 occupationally exposed persons were monitored by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, using film badges. The monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 415. In 11 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy and 6 annual exposure values were in the range of 50 to 120 mGy. An attempt has been made to assess the annual collective and annual per caput doses for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups without completely summing up the individual exposure data. (author)

  11. Occupational radiation exposure and mortality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppock, E.; Dobson, D.; Fair, M.

    1992-06-01

    An epidemiological cohort study of some 300,000 Canadians enrolled in the National Dose Registry (NDR) is being undertaken to determine if there is excess cancer or other causes of mortality among those workers who are occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. The results of this study may provide better understanding of the dose-response relationship for low doses of ionizing radiation and aid in the verification of risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality. The Department of National Health and Welfare (DNHW) is responsible for the Registry; this study is being carried out by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices (BRMD) with financial assistance and co-operation of various agencies including Statistics Canada and the Atomic Energy Control Board

  12. Relationtionship between neurological and psychological symptoms and occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Negar Assadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures of workplace may affect employees' health including the nervous and psychological systems. Aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational factors on psychological and neurological systems in workplaces. This is historical cohort study on employees in low and high exposure groups. The study's tool was flexible interview, questionnaire and occupational factors measurement. Sick employees were followed until the end of treatment. Headache was higher in employees with high level of lighting. The relative risk was 1.45 (1.04-2.02. Dizziness was significantly more in the working hours in offices. The risk ratio for dizziness was 2.25 (1.80-2.33. Employees with high exposure to occupational factors were at higher risk for headache and dizziness. There is relationship between loss of concentration and age. The risk ratio was 1.63 (1.13-2.36. The results of this study indicated that people who exposed to occupational and environmental pollutants occupational might be a risk for some psychological and neurological symptoms such as headache and dizziness and impaired concentration would be increased by aging.

  13. Occupational Exposure to HDI: Progress and Challenges in Biomarker Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Flack, Sheila L.; Ball, Louise M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2010-01-01

    1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenge...

  14. Occupational exposure to HIV: a conflict situation for health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakech, E; Achora, S; Berggren, V; Bajunirwe, F

    2011-12-01

    To determine the frequency of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the circumstances and predisposing factors, the high-risk groups, the extent to which exposures are reported and the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) utilized by health-care workers (HCWs) and students in a Ugandan hospital. Occupational exposure to HIV is a low but potential risk of HIV infection to health workers. Self-administered questionnaire was given to 224 participants (including 98 HCWs and 126 students) in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Of the 224 participants surveyed, 19.2% reported having sustained injection needle stick injuries in the previous year, of which 4.46% occurred with HIV-infected blood. Other reported injuries were cannula needle stick injury (0.89%), suture needle stick injuries (3.13%), scalpel cut injuries (0.45%) and muco-cutaneous contamination (10.27%). The most affected groups were nurses-midwives for scalpel injuries and students for stick injuries. The predisposing factors reported included lack of protective devices and recapping of needles. Exposures were under-reported. Uptake of PEP was also low. Occupational exposure to HIV presents a conflict situation for HCWs. It remains a frequent occurrence particularly among student nurses-midwives, despite being avoidable. Its prophylactic treatment is hampered by poor reporting and investigation of exposures, and poor access to PEP. Strict adherence to universal precaution and proper handling of occupational exposure to HIV should be encouraged. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  15. Environmental and occupational exposure to resorcinol in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Simo P; Hartonen, Minna; Ylinen, Katriina; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Tuomi, Tapani; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-03-27

    Resorcinol is a suspected endocrine disruptor that affects thyroid function by inhibiting thyroxin peroxidase. It may also have an impact on iodine uptake. Resorcinol has various uses; for example in the manufacture of rubber products and in wood adhesives, flame retardants, UV stabilizers, and dyes. It is also used in personal care products such as hair colorants, anti-acne preparations, and peels. The aim of this study was to assess both environmental background exposure and occupational exposure to resorcinol in Finland. We investigated occupational exposure in hairdresser work and in the manufacture of tyres, adhesive resins and glue-laminated timber by biomonitoring total resorcinol concentration in urine samples. The biomonitoring results were compared to the urinary levels of occupationally non-exposed volunteers, and to the biomonitoring equivalent (BE), which we estimated on the basis of the EFSA's acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for resorcinol. Almost all the urine samples (99%) of the non-occupationally exposed volunteers contained measurable amounts of resorcinol. The urinary resorcinol data were rather scattered, and the resorcinol concentrations among women (GM 84 μg/l, 95th percentile 2072 μg/l) were clearly higher than the respective concentrations among men (GM 35 μg/l, 95th percentile 587 μg/l). The reason for this difference remains unclear. Although the two highest results exceeded the BE of 4 mg/l calculated on the basis of the EFSA's ADI, the 95th percentile of the occupationally non-exposed volunteers' results remained well below the BE among both males and females. According to the results, hairdressers' exposure to resorcinol was at the same level as that of the reference population of occupationally non-exposed volunteers. All hairdresser's values remained below the BE for resorcinol. The urinary resorcinol levels of the industrial workers were also at the same level as those of the reference population. We observed

  16. [The influence of occupational lead exposure on transmural repolarization dispersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Chlebda, Ewa; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2005-02-01

    The parts of QT interval: time from Q wave to the peak of T wave (QTp) representing the de- and repolarization of subepicardial layer and the time from the peak of T wave to its end (QTp-e) building the transmural dispersion of repolarization enable more exact assessment of repolarization period of the heart muscle. Occupational exposure to lead influences the electrophysiologic properties of the heart. The aim of our study was to assess the QTp and QTp-e interval in workers occupationally exposed to lead. The study was carried out in 22 copper smelters aged 41.8 +/- 8.7 years, occupationally exposed to lead. The control group consisted of 14 healthy men. In all studied subjects blood lead concentration (Pb) and the concentration of free protoporphyrins in erytrocytes were assessed. 24-hour ECG holter monitoring was done to study rhythm disturbances and the duration in lead CM5 of QT interval, QTp interval, RR interval preceding the assessed QT interval (pRR) during sleep, rest during the awake state and moderate daily activity. The QTp-e interval is the difference between the duration of QT and QTp interval. The duration of QTp and QTp-e in occupationally exposed workers and healthy persons did not differ significantly. These parameters were significantly lower in both groups during moderately physical activity comparing to the values during sleep. The QTp-e/ QTp ratio in occupationally exposed workers during night hours was significantly lower than during daily activity what was not the case in control persons. Occupational exposure to lead do not change significantly the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Occupational exposure to lead diminishes the QTp-e/QTp ratio during the night.

  17. Studies of the occupational exposure of Malaysian plantation workers to paraquat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, G; Woollen, B H

    1982-02-01

    Studies carried out on the occupational exposure to paraquat of plantation workers in Malaysia comprised quantitative estimates of dermal and respiratory exposure of knapsack spray operators, carriers, and rubber tappers operating under their normal working conditions. Spray operators have been shown to be dermally exposed to paraquat by walking through recently sprayed vegetation and into their own spray, regular adjustment and unblocking of spray nozzles and leakage, and overfilling of knapsack spray tanks. Carriers also received measurable dermal exposure from walking through recently sprayed vegetation and accidental spillage when carrying and loading. The infrequent and negligible dermal exposure of tappers resulted from walking through recently sprayed vegetation. Determinations of the total airborne paraquat concentrations in the breathing zone show that spray operators and carriers are exposed to an order of 1% or less of the current TLV for respirable paraquat. No paraquat was detected in the breathing zones of tappers working in simultaneously sprayed blocks. The calculated ranges of dermal and respiratory exposures, when compared with published data on both the exposure to, and the toxicity of, paraquat, indicate that there should be no toxicological risk to any of the three groups studied as a result of using paraquat.

  18. Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinette, C.D.; Silverman, C.; Jablon, S.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 20,000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up

  19. Occupational exposure to solvents and acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to assess the relation between occupational exposure to solvents and the risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Altogether, this study comprises 15 332 incident cases of AML diagnosed in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Iceland from 1961-2005 and 76...

  20. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Bencko, V.; Pápayová, A.; Šaligová, D.; Tejral, J.; Borská, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2001), s. 171-175 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : occupational exposure * stainless steel construction industry * instrumental neutron activation analysis Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

  1. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. METHODS: Non-targeted metabolomics

  2. Renal cell carcinoma and occupational exposure to chemicals in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.; Mao, Y.; White, K. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Population & Public Health Branch

    2002-05-01

    This study assesses the effect of occupational exposure to specific chemicals on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in people in Canada. Mailed questionnaires were used to obtain data on 1279 (691 male and 588 female) newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma cases and 5370 population controls in eight Canadian provinces, between 1994 and 1997. Data were collected on socio-economic status, smoking habit, alcohol use, diet, residential and occupational histories, and years of exposure to any of 17 chemicals. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using unconditional logistic regression. The study found an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in males only, which was associated with occupational exposure to benzene; benzidine; coal tar, soot, pitch, creosote or asphalt; herbicides; mineral, cutting or lubricating oil; mustard gas; pesticides; and vinyl chloride. Very few females were exposed to specific chemicals in this study; further research is needed to clarify the association between occupational exposure to chemicals and renal cell carcinoma in females.

  3. Effect of occupational exposure to local powdered tobacco (snuff) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of occupational exposure to local powdered tobacco (snuff) on pulmonary function was studied. Snuff industry workers in Onitsha and Enugu markets were studied and compared with age-, weight-, and height-matched control not exposed to any known air pollutant. The pulmonary indices studied include; forced ...

  4. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  5. Disorders induced by direct occupational exposure to noise: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Domingo-Pueyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed, ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information, Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years,” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.

  6. Evaluation of illnesses associated with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, I.

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study by the Institute of Occupational Medicine is presented of all cases of pathological indications of ionizing radiation exposure during the period 1990-1995. It describes the incidence of theses diseases and their relationship with other factors. It has shown the predominance of pathologies of the haemolymphopoietic system in individuals who work in radiological diagnostics

  7. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields in antenna towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanko, T.; Hietanen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of workers to radiofrequency fields was assessed in two medium-sized antenna towers. Towers had transmitting antennas from different networks, e.g. mobile phone networks, radio and digital TV sub-stations and amateur radio. The levels of radiofrequency fields were measured close to the ladders of the towers. All measured values were below ICNIRP occupational reference levels. (authors)

  8. Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison of a COPD-specific job exposure matrix and expert-evaluated occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila

    2017-03-01

    To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen's κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19-0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Occupational and environmental exposures and cancers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Dana; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a decline in cancers attributable to environmental and occupational carcinogens of asbestos, arsenic, and indoor and outdoor air pollution in high-income countries. For low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), however, these exposures are likely to increase as industrialization expands and populations grow. The aim of this study was to review the evidence on the cancer risks and burdens of selected environmental and occupational exposures in less-developed economies. A causal association has been established between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma and lung cancer. For arsenic exposure, there is strong evidence of bladder, skin, lung, liver, and kidney cancer effects. Women are at the highest risk for lung cancer due to indoor air pollution exposure; however, the carcinogenic effect on the risk for cancer in children has not been studied in these countries. Cancer risks associated with ambient air pollution remain the least studied in LMICs, although reported exposures are higher than World Health Organization, European, and US standards. Although some associations between lung cancer and ambient air pollutants have been reported, studies in LMICs are weak or subject to exposure misclassification. For pulmonary cancers, tobacco smoking and respiratory diseases have a positive synergistic effect on cancer risks. A precise quantification of the burden of human cancer attributable to environmental and occupational exposures in LMICs is uncertain. Although the prevalence of carcinogenic exposures has been reported to be high in many such countries, the effects of the exposures have not been studied due to varying country-specific limitations, some of which include lack of resources and government support. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Raman spectroscopic identification of size-selected airborne particles for quantitative exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, Brian; Gorbunov, Boris; Price, Mark C; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the quantification of chemically distinguished airborne particulate matter, required for health risk assessment. Rather than simply detecting chemical compounds in a sample, we demonstrate an approach for the quantification of exposure to airborne particles and nanomaterials. In line with increasing concerns over the proliferation of engineered particles we consider detection of synthetically produced ZnO crystals. A multi-stage approach is presented whereby the particles are first aerodynamically size segregated from a lab-generated single component aerosol in an impaction sampler. These size fractionated samples are subsequently analysed by Raman spectroscopy. Imaging analysis is applied to Raman spatial maps to provide chemically specific quantification of airborne exposure against background which is critical for health risk evaluation of exposure to airborne particles. Here we present a first proof-of-concept study of the methodology utilising particles in the 2–4 μm aerodynamic diameter range to allow for validation of the approach by comparison to optical microscopy. The results show that the combination of these techniques provides independent size and chemical discrimination of particles. Thereby a method is provided to allow quantitative and chemically distinguished measurements of aerosol concentrations separated into exposure relevant size fractions. (paper)

  11. Overview of UNSCEAR re-evaluation of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Dunstana

    2008-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has re-evaluated the levels of occupational radiation exposure for two broad categories of sources: natural sources of radiation and man-made source of radiation. The latter one includes the practices from the nuclear fuel cycle, medical uses of radiation, industrial uses, military activities, and miscellaneous sources. The evaluation has been performed based on the data provided in response to the UNSCEAR Survey of Occupational Radiation Exposures and also data from the literature. In general, the reporting of exposures arising in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle is more complete than that of exposures arising from other uses of radiation. The figure for occupational exposure, for the periods 1995-1999 and 2000-2002, has changed compared to the estimates in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The collective effective dose resulting from exposures to natural sources (in excess of average levels of natural background) is estimated to be about 37 260 man Sv, about 3 times higher than the value estimated in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The worldwide average annual collective effective dose for the workers involved in the use of man-made sources of radiation is around 4 730 man Sv, about 2 times higher than the value estimated in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The medical uses of radiation contributes with about 75% of the collective effective dose; nuclear fuel cycles contributes with about 17% and industrial uses, military activities and all other categories of worker contribute with about 8% of the collective dose for man-made sources of radiation. In general the levels of occupational exposure have decreased: the average effective doses are decreasing over time for all practices, the collective effective doses have fallen for most of the practices; except for medical uses which is now estimated based on more realistic data of number of monitored workers. (author)

  12. Environmental and occupational exposures as a cause of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, G U S; Fernando, D M S; Wijerathna, S; Bandara, N

    2015-06-01

    To determine the association between environmental and occupational exposures, semen parameters and lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels in seminal plasma of men investigated for infertility. Data were collected from 300 men investigated for infertility using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Seminal fluid analysis and classification was done according to WHO guidelines. Positive exposure was defined as environmental or occupational exposure to agro or industrial chemicals, heavy metals and living in areas within 50 m of potential sources of pollution for three months or more. Seminal plasma lead and cadmium levels were estimated by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion with nitric acid. The means of sperm parameters, Pb and Cd concentrations between exposed and non exposed groups were compared using t-test. Mean age was 34.8 (95% CI 34.2-35.4) years BMI was 24.3 (95% CI 23.8-24.7) kg/m2 and duration of the infertility was 45.7 (41.7-49.6) months. In this study, 54.6% were exposed to toxins through environmental or occupational sources. All sperm parameters were lower in the exposed group when compared to the non exposed. Lead and cadmium were detected in 38.3% and 23% of men respectively. The distance from the source of possible environmental or occupational exposure was negatively correlated to seminal plasma Pb (r=0.06, p>0.05) and Cd (r=0.26, pEnvironmental and occupational exposures were associated with reduced sperm count motility, viability, normal forms and detectable levels of lead and cadmium in seminal plasma.

  13. Occupational exposure of nuclear medicine personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, M.

    1982-01-01

    The results are given of measurements of the radiation burden of personnel in departments of nuclear medicine in the years 1979 to 1981 using film dosemeters and ring thermoluminescence dosemeters evaluated by the national personnel dosemeter service. The relations are examined of the exposure of hands and the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and especially their use for examinations. Certain organizational measures are indicated for reducina radiation burden in a laboratory for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. The results of measurements and evaluations of radiation burden of personnel of nuclear medicine departments are confronted with conclusions published in the literature. (author)

  14. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: ECunderground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies.

  15. Modelling of occupational exposure to inhalable nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Pesch, Beate; Koppisch, Dorothea; Van Gelder, Rainer; Pitzke, Katrin; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stamm, Roger; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m 3 and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m 3 . We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials. Welding with consumable electrodes of high Ni content (>30%) was associated with 10-fold higher concentrations compared with those with a low content (exposure levels (GMs ≥20 μg/m 3 ) were observed in gas metal and shielded metal arc welders using welding materials with high Ni content, in metal sprayers, grinders and forging-press operators, and in the manufacture of batteries and accumulators. The exposure profiles are useful for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies as well as in industrial hygiene. Therefore, we recommend to collect additional exposure-specific information in addition to the job title in community-based studies when estimating the health risks of Ni exposure.

  16. Occupational exposure of NRM spectrometrists to static and radiofrequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlana, Tania; Ubeda, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Occupational exposure to static and radiofrequency fields emitted by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers was assessed through systematic field metering during operation of 19 devices in nine research centers. Whereas no measurable levels of radiofrequency radiation were registered outside the spectrometers, significant exposure to static field was detected, with maximum values recorded at the user s hand (B = 683.00 mT) and head thorax (B = 135.70 mT) during spectrometer manipulation. All values were well below the exposure limits set by the European standard for workers protection against the effects of acute field exposure only. As for potential effects of chronic exposure, waiting for more complete knowledge, adoption of technical and operational strategies for exposure minimizing is advisable. In this respect, the data revealed that compared with standard magnetic shielding, ultra-shield technology allows a 20-65-fold reduction of the field strength received by the operator. (authors)

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of silica has long been known to cause silicosis This paper evaluates the evidence for an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in occupations and industries in which exposure to crystalline silica is the primary exposure, with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests consistently elevated risks of developing COPD associated with silica exposure in several occupations, including the construction industry; tunneling; cement industry; brick manufacturing; pottery and ceramic work; silica sand, granite and diatomaceous earth industries; gold mining; and iron and steel founding, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders like smoking. Average dust levels vary from about 0.5 mg.m3 to over 10 mg.m3 and average silica levels from 0.04 to over 5 mg.m3, often well above occupational standards. Factors influencing the variation from industry to industry in risks associated with exposure to silica-containing dusts include (a) the presence of other minerals in the dust, particularly when associated with clay minerals; (b) the size of the particles and percentage of quartz; (c) the physicochemical characteristics, such as whether the dust is freshly fractured. Longitudinal studies suggest that loss of lung function occurs with exposure to silica dust at concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 mg.m3, and that the effect of cumulative silica dust exposure on airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Nevertheless, a disabling loss of lung function in the absence of silicosis would not occur until between 30 and 40 years exposure.

  18. Occupational Exposure of Petroleum Depot Workers to BTEX Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezazadeh Azari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX are the most important toxic volatile compounds in the air and could be easily absorbed through the respiratory tract. In recent years, the risk of exposure to BTEX compounds, especially benzene as a carcinogen, has been considered in petroleum depot stations. Objective: To assess the occupational exposure of petroleum depot workers in Iran to BTEX compounds. Methods: After completing a questionnaire and assessing occupational exposure to BTEX compounds, 78 (46 exposed and 32 non-exposed depot workers were randomly selected to participate in this study. Air sampling and analysis of BTEX was conducted according to the NIOSH method No. 1501. Analysis of urinary hippuric acid, as an indicator of toluene exposure, was carried out according to NIOSH method No. 8300. Personal monitoring of the high exposure group to BTEX compounds was repeated to verify the results obtained in the first phase of the monitoring. Results: Among the 9 operating groups studied, occupational exposure to benzene and toluene was higher in quality control and gasoline loading operators—the median exposure ranged from 0.16 to 1.63 ppm for benzene and 0.2 to 2.72 ppm for toluene. Median exposure of other group members to BTEX compounds was below the detection limit of analytical method (0.07, 0.06, 0.05, and 0.05 ppm, respectively. The level of toluene exposure measured showed correlation with neither post-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.128, p=0.982 nor with the difference between post- and pre-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.089, p=0.847 in depot operational workers. Conclusion: Gasoline loading operators are exposed to a relatively high level of benzene.

  19. Surveillance of Washington OSHA exposure data to identify uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Adams, Darrin

    2010-07-01

    Chemical substance exposure data from the Washington State Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program were reviewed to determine if inspections conducted as a result of a report of a hazard from a complainant or referent may alert the agency to uncharacterized or emerging health hazards. Exposure and other electronically stored data from 6890 health inspection reports conducted between April 2003 and August 2008 were extracted from agency records. A total of 515 (7%) inspections with one or more personal airborne chemical substance samples were identified for further study. Inspections by report of a hazard and by targeting were compared for the following: number of inspections, number and percentage of inspections with workers exposed to substances above an agency's permissible exposure limit, types of industries inspected, and number and type of chemical substances assessed. Report of a hazard inspections documented work sites with worker overexposure at the same rate as agency targeted inspections (approximately 35% of the time), suggesting that complainants and referents are a credible pool of observers capable of directing the agency to airborne chemical substance hazards. Report of a hazard inspections were associated with significantly broader distribution of industries as well as a greater variety of chemical substance exposures than were targeted inspections. Narrative text that described business type and processes inspected was more useful than NAICS codes alone and critical in identifying processes and industries that may be associated with new hazards. Finally, previously identified emerging hazards were found among the report of a hazard data. These findings indicate that surveillance of OSHA inspection data can be a valid tool to identify uncharacterized and emerging health hazards. Additional research is needed to develop criteria for objective review and prioritization of the data for intervention. Federal OSHA and other state

  20. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Proposed man-rem reference values of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents a proposal of referent collective dose (man-rem) values for occupational exposure related to operation of French pressurized water reactors. These values, permitting adequate choice of protection both at design and operation level, are dependent on the level of annual individual doses. The man-rem value, originating from annual individual doses less than 0.5 rem are estimated to 1 kf. The proposed value is 20 kf for annual individual exposures between 0.5 and 3 rem, and 90 kf for annual individual exposures between 3 and 5 rem. (author) [fr

  2. National registry of workers occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, P.G. da; Mota, H.C.; Alegre, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission started in 1987 a nationwide program in order to collect and maintain the radiation exposure records of the Brazilian workers. This data base consists of several files including: workers - personal data; institutions - section or department where the workers perform their activities; and annual doses - annual integrated doses and any relevant information regarding their exposures. The data base structure is introduced in the present work where its objectives are discussed taking into account the magnitude of the program as well as the difficulties of maintaining and the long term perspectives of a nationwide register of radiation occupational exposures. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig

  3. Occupational radiation exposure in the GDR in 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, W.; Larssen, A.; Rothe, W.

    1977-01-01

    In 1973 a total of 36,481 occupationally exposed persons were monitored by the central film badge service of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. The monthly over-exposure (more than 0,4 rad) totalled 610. In 37 cases the quarterly dose (3 rad) was exceeded during one month and 29 of these records could be assessed as real over-exposures. Most of the over-exposure could be attributed to an insufficient application of safety regulations. The results were analysed according to type of institution as well as sex of employees. (author)

  4. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to formaldehyde, to identify the main circumstances of exposure and to describe the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. The analysis used data from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey, which investigated the current prevalence and exposure circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including formaldehyde, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. Of the 4993 included respondents, 124 (2.5%) were identified as probably being exposed to formaldehyde in the course of their work [extrapolated to 2.6% of the Australian working population-265 000 (95% confidence interval 221 000-316 000) workers]. Most (87.1%) were male. About half worked in technical and trades occupations. In terms of industry, about half worked in the construction industry. The main circumstances of exposure were working with particle board or plywood typically through carpentry work, building maintenance, or sanding prior to painting; with the more common of other exposures circumstances being firefighters involved in fighting fires, fire overhaul, and clean-up or back-burning; and health workers using formaldehyde when sterilizing equipment or in a pathology laboratory setting. The use of control measures was inconsistent. Workers are exposed to formaldehyde in many different occupational circumstances. Information on the exposure circumstances can be used to support decisions on appropriate priorities for intervention and control of occupational exposure to formaldehyde, and estimates of burden of cancer arising from occupational exposure to formaldehyde

  5. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  6. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E.; Pedrazzi, G.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ( 57 Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ( 3 H, 14 C, 32 P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  7. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E. [Parma Univ., Health Physics (Italy); Pedrazzi, G. [Parma Univ., Dept. of Public Health (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ({sup 57}Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 32}P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  8. Occupational exposure in a commercial nuclear pharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Ruiz, A.; Baro, J.; Piera, C.; Ramirez de Arellano, I.

    2002-01-01

    Central Radiopharmacy Services (CRS) prepare radiopharmaceuticals in individual dispensed activity (IDA) and deliver them to different Nuclear Medicine Services. CADISA is a CRS which approximately produces 100,000 IDA per year. The ALARA principle was first present during the facility design. The distribution, shielding and dimensions of the different areas were chosen to provide ergonomic and well protected working places. This design together with good laboratory practices and personal training have led to a reasonably low collective dose due to external exposure. During the first working year, 1996, the collective dose per IDA was 0.45 μSv-man. In the following years, due to some design improvement and mainly to the skill of personnel, this indicator has hand an asymptotical reduction. In 2001 its value has been of 0.18μSv-man/IDA. (Author)

  9. Assessment of the effectiveness of ventilation types for reducing the occupational exposure to bioaerosols in health care staffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Jafari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Hospital indoor air contains a wide range of airborne pathogenic bioaerosols which have a significant impact on health care staff’ health and welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ventilation system types on occupational exposure of the health care staffs to airborne bioaerosols in the isolation room based on the patient bed arrangements and the standing locations of the health care staff. Methods: Personal exposures were measured based on five given types of ventilation system, 2 patient bed arrangements (at a corner and in the middle of the room, and two different standing locations for the health care staff (standing close to the patient’s bed, and down a side section of the bed. For personal sampling, filtration method recommended by th e American conference of governmental industrial hygienists(ACGIH was used. Result: The highest exposure to airborne bioaerosols was observed when the ventilation system was switched off. There were significant decreases in the bioaerosols concentration after using all types of ventilation system (P value 0.05. Conclusions : The most effective ventilation system for decreasing health care staff’ exposures in the isolation room was associated with supplying of air from a circular grill located on the northern wall and exhausting it through a linear slot located on the southern wall (type 1 with the ventilation rate of 12 air changes per hour.

  10. OCCUPATIONAL LEAD EXPOSURE AND COGNITION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinka Nestorova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neurotoxicity of lead is a major problem in all countries around the world. Long-term exposure to lead in the environment has recently become of interest as a possible risk factor for cognitive impairment in workers exposed to lead. The consequences for the brain after cessation of the exposure are also subject to research. The aims of our study were: to investigate and analyze cognitive impairment in workers in professional contact with lead. For the purpose of the study, a total of 72 workers in chronic professional contact with lead aerosols were examined. The investigated men (n = 72 were aged 39.4 ± 10.4 (19 - 58 years with an average duration of service of 13.0 ± 8.7 (1 - 33 years and mean lead concentration in blood of 43.4 ± 9.0 μg / dl. The screening set included a subjective cognitive impairment survey, a depression scale, a set of cognitive tests (MMSE, IST, DRT, CDT, and a scale for activities of daily living (4-IADL Score. With the increase of lead levels in the blood, a statistically reliable trend is observed for decrease of MMSE, IST and CDT scores. Eleven of the screened individuals (15.28% achieved a score of <7 which determines them as positively screened according to DRT. Possible mild cognitive impairment manifesting with disturbance of construction praxis, planning, short-term memory and concentration could probably be attributed to the toxic effects of lead and has a potential to be a subclinical marker.

  11. Occupational exposure during remediation works at a uranium tailings pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiúza, António

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess by different approaches the occupational exposure during the remediation of a tailings dam in an abandoned uranium mining site, with an area of about 13.3 ha and an estimated volume of 1.39 million m³. A hypothetical scenario was created in which the workers involved in the remediation activities were exposed to radiation through both internal and external pathways. It was intended to assess quantitatively the potential exposure of the workforce involved in the remediation works, focussing particularly on the inhalation of radon and on the gamma irradiation from the contaminated soil. Different methodologies were considered based on a deterministic and a probabilistic approach for dose assessment and risk assessment, respectively. The deterministic approach typically employs a highly "conservative" single value for each input parameter. The probabilistic approach employs sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of input parameters using probabilistic distributions of the sensitive parameters. The results indicate that annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure (worst scenario case created) may reach a significant fraction of occupational radiation protection limits. This is also stressed by the values obtained for the occupational risk estimated by Monte Carlo methodology using probabilistic distributions for the input parameters. The results also showed that the pathway with the highest dose does not necessarily correspond to the pathway with the highest risk. Nevertheless, it is well known that probabilistic analysis generally produces more realistic results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene-environment interaction and biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Ari

    2005-01-01

    Biological monitoring methods and biological limit values applied in occupational and environmental medicine have been traditionally developed on the assumption that individuals do not differ significantly in their biotransformation capacities. It has become clear, however, that this is not the case, but wide inter-individual differences exist in the metabolism of chemicals. Integration of the data on individual metabolic capacity in biological monitoring studies is therefore anticipated to represent a significant refinement of the currently used methods. We have recently conducted several biological monitoring studies on occupationally exposed subjects, which have included the determination of the workers' genotypes for the metabolic genes of potential importance for a given chemical exposure. The exposure levels have been measured by urine metabolites, adducts in blood macromolecules, and cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes. Our studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic genes may indeed be important modifiers of individual biological monitoring results of, e.g., carbon disulphide and styrene. The information is anticipated to be useful in insuring that the workplace is safe for everyone, including the most sensitive individuals. This knowledge could also be useful to occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, and regulatory bodies in charge of defining acceptable exposure limits for environmental and/or occupational pollutants

  13. Occupational exposure in radiodiagnostics in Cuba from 1991 to 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, D.G.; Guevara, C.R.; Larrinaga, E.F.; Calzado, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the study of occupational exposure in radiodiagnostics during the period 1991-1994 is presented. This period follows the last report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Study of Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The study has been done according to the recommendations of UNSCEAR. A sharp reduction has been observed in a number of workers exposed to measurable levels after 1991. The repercussions on these results of the new allowable dose limit for the occupational exposition is discussed

  14. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  15. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-01

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  16. Occupational exposure and mortality in the German uranium miner cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnelzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Grosche, B.; Sogl, M.; Tschense, A.; Walsh, L.; Kreuzer, M.

    2014-01-01

    The German uranium miners cohort study comprises 58,982 men employed in the GDR by the Wismut company for at least six months between 1946 and 1989. Particularly in the early years, miners were exposed to high levels of radon, silica and other harmful substances. The aim of the cohort study is to investigate the health effects of occupational exposures. The cohort was established in 1998 with mortality follow-ups every five years, i.e. vital status and cause of death are ascertained. Annual exposures to radon progeny, external gamma-radiation, long-lived radionuclides, fine dust, silica and arsenic dust were individually assessed by means of a comprehensive job-exposure matrix. For data analyses Poisson regression models were used. By end of 2008, 25,438 (43 %) cohort members were deceased with known cause of death in 94 %. In total 7,780 cancer mortalities were observed, including 3,500 from lung cancer. Lung cancer mortality is twice as high as in the general population largely due to occupational radon progeny and silica exposure. Also 975 silicosis deaths were observed and there is some evidence for a relationship between radon progeny exposure and cancers of the extra-thoracic airways. Circulatory diseases and non-malignant diseases of the airways were also investigated, but no relationship to occupational exposure was found. Up to now health effects of uranium mining in the Wismut cohort primarily manifest themselves as increases in lung cancer and silicosis mortality due to high radon progeny and silica exposure. With increasing duration of follow-up, further findings regarding more rare causes of death and levels of exposure relevant today are expected.

  17. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, Anthony Kiti

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This project is based on studies of radiation doses received by radiation workers from sample of radiation facilities in Nairobi, Kenya, using TLD badges. Radiation doses received by workers during performance of a few types of radiological exposures and application of sealed and unsealed radionuclides have been measured at a number of x ray departments (diagnostic radiology), radiotherapy and nuclear medicine and training and research. Radiation dose measurements were based on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) techniques, using the laboratory facilities of the National Radiation Protection Laboratory (NRPL) at KNH, in Nairobi, Kenya. Evaluation of doses from TLD badges exposed to X-rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Nuclear medicine recorded the highest dose as compared to Radiotherapy, Training and research and Diagnostic radiology. Age and gender have no relation with dose absorption. Yearly average dose seems to have been reducing from 2002 to 2005, representing an improvement in radiation protection. Overall, the results show that radiation workers in Kenya are working under safe environments since the doses received are within acceptable limits of radiation protection. The data presented in this research provides a database, which should serve as a useful reference for comparison with similar studies in the future. (author)

  18. Testicular germ cell tumours and parental occupational exposure to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Cornet, Charlotte; Fervers, Béatrice; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A potential impact of exposure to endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, during intrauterine life, has been hypothesised in testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) aetiology, but exposure assessment is challenging. This large-scale registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate...... controls per case were randomly selected from the general national populations, matched on year of birth. Information on parental occupation was collected through censuses or Pension Fund information and converted into a pesticide exposure index based on the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix. RESULTS......: A total of 9569 cases and 32 028 controls were included. No overall associations were found for either maternal or paternal exposures and TGCT risk in their sons, with ORs of 0.83 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.23) and of 1.03 (0.92 to 1.14), respectively. Country-specific estimates and stratification by birth cohorts...

  19. Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T. G.; Allen, S. G.; Blackwell, R. P.; Litchfield, I.; Mann, S. M.; Pope, J. M.; Van Tongeren, M. J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of personal monitors for the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation in potential future epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations has been investigated. Data loggers have been developed for use with a commercially available personal monitor and these allowed personal exposure records consisting of time-tagged measurements of electric and magnetic field strength to be accrued over extended periods of the working day. The instrumentation was worn by workers carrying out tasks representative of some of their typical daily activities at a variety of radio sites. The results indicated significant differences in the exposures of workers in various RF environments. A number of measures of exposure have been examined with a view to assessing possible exposure metrics for epidemiological studies. There was generally a good correlation between a given measure of electric field strength and the same measure of magnetic field strength. (authors)

  20. Occupational Blood Exposure among Health Care Personnel and Hospital Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajjaji Darouiche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood and body fluid Exposure is a major occupational safety problems for health care workers. Therefore, we conducted a descriptive and retrospective study to identify the characteristics of blood exposure accidents in health care settings which lasted five years (2005-2009 at the two university hospitals of Sfax. We have 593 blood exposure accidents in health care settings 152 (25.6% health personnel and 441 (74.4% trainees' doctors, nurses and health technicians. The mechanism of blood and body fluid exposure was accidental needle-stick injury in 78.9% of health staff, and 81% of trainees, accidental cut in 14.7% of health workers and 10.2% of trainees. The increasing severity of blood exposure accidents is linked to the lack of safe behavior against this risk.

  1. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-01-01

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg o ) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg o -not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p o could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress

  2. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical-skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health.

  3. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macca, I.; Scapellato, M. L.; Carrieri, M.; Di Bisceglie, A. P.; Saia, B.; Bartolucci, G. B.

    2008-01-01

    To assess occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, 11 microwave (MW), 4 short-wave diathermy and 15 magneto therapy devices were analysed in eight physiotherapy departments. Measurements taken at consoles and environmental mapping showed values above European Directive 2004/40/EC and ACGIH exposure limits at ∼50 cm from MW applicators (2.45 GHz) and above the Directive magnetic field limit near the diathermy unit (27.12 MHz). Levels in front of MW therapy applicators decreased rapidly with distance and reduction in power; this may not always occur in work environments where nearby metal structures (chairs, couches, etc.) may reflect or perturb electromagnetic fields. Large differences in stray field intensities were found for various MW applicators. Measurements of power density strength around MW electrodes confirmed radiation fields between 30 deg. and 150 deg., with a peak at 90 deg., in front of the cylindrical applicator and maximum values between 30 deg. and 150 deg. over the whole range of 180 deg. for the rectangular parabolic applicator. Our results reveal that although most areas show substantially low levels of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy units, certain cases of over-occupational exposure limits do exist. (authors)

  4. Hearing loss in the elderly: History of occupational noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Melo, Juliana Jandre; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2013-04-01

     Noise exposure is one of the most common health risk factors, and workers are exposed to sound pressure levels capable of producing hearing loss.  To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly and its possible association with a history of occupational noise exposure and with sex.  A prospective study in subjects aged over 60 years. The subjects underwent anamnesis and audiological assessment. The Mann-Whitney test and multiple logistic regression, with 95% confidence interval and p hearing I (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz p = 0.8318) and the mean hearing II (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz; p occupational noise exposure, we obtained the medium hearing I (p = 0.9542) and the mean hearing II (p = 0.0007).  There was a statistically significant association between hearing loss at high frequencies and the risk factors being male and occupational noise exposure.

  5. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S

    2006-01-01

    effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross......-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts...... but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb...

  6. Contributions to the thorium occupational exposure in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Kenya Moore de Almeida Dias da

    1997-01-01

    There are around 15.000 workers in Brazil involved in the mining and milling processes of thorium bearing minerals. It is necessary to estimate the exposure of workers to airborne particulate containing thorium to estimate the risk associated with the inhalation of aerosols. The aims of this study were: - to develop a national cascade impactor and - to characterize the exposure of workers to airborne particulate containing Th in two plants and one industry that were chosen. Plant A and Pant B process niobium ore and industry C uses thorium nitrate to manufacture gas mantle. The national cascade impactor - ICN was developed to collect particulate in the range of 0,64 up to 19,4 μm. Its advantage over commercially available cascade impactors is the selections of particulate in the respirable and inhalable fractions of aerosol. The experimental calibration of the ICN agreed with the theoretical calibration. The results obtained with the ICN were compared to the ones obtained with other selective air samplers, in 3 plants. The particle size distribution and the Th mass concentration were determined in those plants. The size distribution of particulate containing Nb. U Zr, Pb. Fe, Y and Sr, and the elemental mass concentration was determined. A group of workers in installations B and C were also monitored through bioassay analysis of Th excreted in urine and feces. Air and bioassay results have shown that the systemic incorporation of Th is not significant. (author)

  7. Physicochemical characteristics and occupational exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particles during building refurbishment activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant, E-mail: p.kumar@surrey.ac.uk, E-mail: prashant.kumar@cantab.net; Mulheron, Mike [University of Surrey, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (United Kingdom); Colaux, Julien L.; Jeynes, Chris [University of Surrey, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Ion Beam Centre (United Kingdom); Adhami, Siavash; Watts, John F. [University of Surrey, The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Understanding of the emissions of coarse (PM{sub 10} ≤10 μm), fine (PM{sub 2.5} ≤2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles (UFP <100 nm) from refurbishment activities and their dispersion into the nearby environment is of primary importance for developing efficient risk assessment and management strategies in the construction and demolition industry. This study investigates the release, occupational exposure and physicochemical properties of particulate matter, including UFPs, from over 20 different refurbishment activities occurring at an operational building site. Particles were measured in the 5–10,000-nm-size range using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer and a GRIMM particle spectrometer for 55 h over 8 days. The UFPs were found to account for >90 % of the total particle number concentrations and <10 % of the total mass concentrations released during the recorded activities. The highest UFP concentrations were 4860, 740, 650 and 500 times above the background value during wall-chasing, drilling, cementing and general demolition activities, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis were used to identify physicochemical characteristics of particles and attribute them to probable sources considering the size and the nature of the particles. The results confirm that refurbishment activities produce significant levels (both number and mass) of airborne particles, indicating a need to develop appropriate regulations for the control of occupational exposure of operatives undertaking building refurbishment.

  8. Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian phosphate mines and their significance in the occupational exposure of mine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Hussein, Mohamed I.; Hussein, A.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon ( 222 Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progeny) and thoron ( 220 Rn) progeny, as well as γ-radiation from mine walls, ceilings and floors. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the Maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60. A number of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines

  9. Occupational exposure to chromium, copper and arsenic during work with impregnated wood in joinery shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, O; Nilsson, C A; Lindahl, R

    1992-10-01

    CCA-impregnated timber contains copper, chromium and arsenic (CCA), and occupational exposure to wood dust as well as the CCA compounds may occur in work with such timber. Dust from commercially available impregnated wood has been found to contain hexavalent chromium, which is regarded as a carcinogen. Apart from determinations of the total amounts of the CCA compounds, specific determination of hexavalent chromium is therefore essential. Selective methods have been applied for control of the work environment in six joinery shops. The mean exposure to wood dust was found to be below 1 mg m-3. The mean airborne concentration of arsenic around various types of joinery machines was in the range from 0.54 to 3.1 micrograms m-3. No hexavalent chromium was detected in any samples and no increased concentrations of arsenic were found in urine from the workers. The presence of arsenic in the work-room air must be considered for appropriate assessment of the occupational environment in joinery shops.

  10. An assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, John; Cocker, John; Scobbie, Emma; Chambers, Helen

    2006-06-01

    A cross-industry occupational hygiene survey was commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in UK industry and to determine if one or more target analytes were suitable as markers for assessing total exposure to PAHs. There were no broadly applicable UK exposure standards for assessing total exposure to PAHs. Until 1993 a guidance value for assessing exposure in coke ovens only, where PAH exposure is known to be the highest, was based on gravimetric analysis of cyclohexane-soluble material. Biological monitoring based on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is widely reported to be an effective indicator of exposure by both dermal and inhalation routes but there was no UK guidance value. The survey involved an occupational hygiene study of 25 sites using both airborne monitoring of a total of 17 individual PAHs and biological monitoring. The results showed 8 h TWA levels of total PAH in air ranged from 0.4 to 1912.6 microg m(-3) with a GM of 15.8 microg m(-3). The profile of PAHs was dominated by naphthalene, the most volatile 2-ring PAH. Airborne benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) correlated well (r(2) = 0.971) with levels of carcinogenic 4-6 ring PAHs and was an effective marker of exposure for all industries where significant particle bound PAH levels were found and, in particular, for CTPV exposure. The 8 h TWA levels of BaP ranged from <0.01 to 6.21 microg m(-3) with a GM of 0.036 microg m(-3); 90% were <0.75 microg m(-3) and 95% were <2.0 microg m(-3). Two hundred and eighteen urine samples collected from different workers at the end of shift and 213 samples collected pre-shift next day were analysed for 1-OHP. Levels of 1-OHP in end-of-shift samples were generally higher than those in pre-shift-next-day samples and showed a good correlation (r(2) = 0.768) to airborne BaP levels if samples from workers using respiratory protection or with significant dermal exposure were excluded. Urinary 1-OHP

  11. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: This symposium forms an essential part of the continuing tradition of subjecting nuclear energy to periodic review to assess the adequacy of radiation protection practices and experiences and to identify those areas needing further study and development. Specifically, the symposium focused on a review of statistical data on radiation exposure experience to workers in the nuclear fuel cycle through 1978. The technical sessions were concerned with occupational exposures: experienced in Member States; in research and development facilities; in nuclear power plants; in nuclear Fuel reprocessing facilities; in waste management facilities; and techniques to minimize doses. A critical review was made of internal and external exposures to the following occupational groups: uranium miners; mill workers; fuel fabricators; research personnel, reactor workers; maintenance staff; hot cell workers; reprocessing plant personnel; waste management personnel. In particular, attention was devoted to the work activities causing the highest radiation exposures and successful techniques which have been used to minimize individual and collective doses. Also there was an exchange of information on the trends of occupational exposure over the lifespan of individual nuclear power plants and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. During the last session there was a detailed panel discussion on the conclusions and future needs highlighted during the symposium. While past symposia on nuclear power and its fuel cycle have presented data on occupational dose statistics, this symposium was the first to focus attention on the experience and trends of occupational exposure in recent years. The papers presented an authoritative account of the status of the levels and trends of the average annual individual dose as well as the annual collective dose for occupational workers in most of the world up to 1979. From the data presented it became evident that considerable progress has been

  12. 1999 report on occupational radiation exposures in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sont, W.; Ashmore, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The report provides statistics on occupational radiation exposures for use by regulatory authorities, organizations and private individuals. Out of a total of 125,883 monitored workers, 4 annual doses exceeded the regulatory limit of 50 mSv in 1998. Out of 43 specified job categories, 18 had a smaller annual average in 1998 than in 1997, 17 had a higher average, and 8 had the same average rounded to 0.01 mSv. The uranium mining job categories are not in this list because the conversion factor for radon progeny exposure to effective dose was changed from 10 to 5 mSv/WLM, precluding a valid comparison of the averages. In all categories of workers, from 1996 to 1997, 19 average annual doses went up, 33 went down, and 4 stayed the same. The figures reflect a sustained effort in keeping the occupational doses low. (author)

  13. Association Between Kidney Cancer and Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhagen, Morten; Grønskag, Anna; Ragde, Siri Fenstad; Hilt, Bjørn

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the association between occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and kidney cancer, as this correlation has been questioned. The incidence of cancers was studied in a dynamic cohort of 997 male workers who for many years had been occupationally exposed to TCE. During a 50-year observation period, 13 cases of kidney cancer were observed (7.5 expected) with a standardized incidence ratio of 1.7 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.0 to 3.0. Four other cases, not included in the SIR analysis, were also observed. Long-term TCE exposure was positively confirmed for 14 of the 17 incident cases. There is reason to assume that the remaining cases also had been exposed to TCE. The present study supports the view that TCE is a kidney carcinogen.

  14. Isoe - information system on occupational exposure. Ten years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created in 1992 to provide a forum for radiation protection experts from both utilities and national regulatory authorities to discuss, promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The ISOE System is jointly managed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report provides an overview of the experience gained from, and benefits provided by, the ISOE System over the past ten years. Active participation of a large number of utilities in ISOE has contributed to a reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants worldwide. (authors)

  15. State Register of Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Occupational exposure

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    One of main tasks of Radiation Protection Centre is to collect, process, systematize, store and provide the data on sources of ionizing radiation and occupational exposures. The number of sources in 2002 is provided and compared with previous year. Distribution of workers according to the type of practice is compared with previous year. Distribution of sealed sources and x-ray machines according their use is presented.

  16. Urinary metallothionein as a biological indicator of occupational cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, C.; Shaikh, Z.A.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay and neutron activation data indicate that the urinary metallothionein concentration is related to the liver Cd concentration in occupational Cd exposure. It is also related to the kidney Cd content - but only before the onset of renal dysfunction. Further epidemiological studies are needed to establish a dose-response relationship, which may be useful in minimizing the hazard of Cd-induced renal dysfunction

  17. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  18. [Occupational exposure investigation and protective measures in a tertiary infectious disease hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H M; Zhou, X P; Huang, J Z

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the cause of occupational exposure among 136 nurses in a tertiary infectious disease hospital, and puts forward the prevention strategy. Methods: A total of 136 nurses exposed to occupational exposure between 2014 and 2016 were included in the study. Analysis was conducted from the years of work of nurses, exposure routes, and the pathogens. Results: The nurses suffer from the highest risk of occupational exposures (73.91%) .Nurses working for less than 5 years and interns are most likely to suffer occupational exposure (45.59% and 35.29% respectively) . Occupational exposure was mainly caused by needle injuries, in which infusion was the main route of occupational exposure (36.76%) . The improper treatment of needle pulling after infusion is the main link of needle puncture (36.76%) . Occupational exposure pathogens were mainly HBV (63.24%) . Conclusion: Nursing staff is the high-risk group of occupational exposure. Irregular operation, lack of awareness of protection, improper disposal after the needle withdrawal and poor safety assessment of the operating environment are the main causes of occupational exposure. It is suggested to strengthen the training of occupational safety and protection, enhance clinical nurses occupational safety protection consciousness, standardize medical operation, so as to prevent the occurrence of occupational exposure.

  19. Occupational chemical exposures in artificial organic fiber industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirguis, S S; Cohen, M B

    1984-05-01

    This review discusses artificial organic fibers that are produced from materials of natural origin such as rayons, cellulose triacetates and proteins; or made from polymerised chemicals such as polyamides, polyesters, polyvinyls, modacrylics, carbon fibers, polyolefins, polyurethane and polytetrafluoroethylene. Chemicals involved include monomers, solvents, flame retardants, pigments and other additives. Occupational exposure to chemicals in the production stages are discussed and also the potential health hazards involved are reviewed. Current exposure levels, engineering controls and work practices for some of the chemicals used in the Ontario artificial fiber industry are discussed. Recommendations are made for areas that need further study and/or investigation.

  20. Approaches for occupational exposures during the decontamination of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.N.G da.; Guimarães, J.R.D.; Rochedo, E.R.R.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of various accidents involving radioactive material and the performance of the staff responsible for the radiological protection of the public have highlighted the need for prior planning for the assessment of public exposure and pre-defined guidelines for the application of more appropriate protective and remediation measures. This work is part of a project that aims to develop a multi-criteria tool to support decision-making processes in cases of nuclear or radiological accidents in Brazil. It describes the development of a model to assess occupational exposure related to decontamination procedures for the remediation of urban areas. Numerical values for model parameters were mainly based on previous developed works within the same project that includes a database describing main features of different procedures that may be used during the remediation phase after accidents and the definition of standard scenarios to perform simulations of accident consequences focusing members of the public doses. The model defined for estimation of occupational doses due to decontamination procedures shall be included in the multi-criteria tool under development in order to assess the effects of application of decontamination procedures in occupational exposure as compared to the averted doses to members of the public due to the same procedure. (authors)

  1. Impairment induced by chronic occupational cadmium exposure during brazing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, S.M.; Aly, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium (CD) is considered a metal of the 20 th century to which all inhabitants of develop societies are exposed. Long-term occupational and environmental exposure to CD often results in renal dysfunction as the kidney is considered the critical target organ. The aim of this work was to evalutate both resporatory and renal manifestations induced by occupational exposure to CD compounds during brazing process, and suggesting a protocol for prevention and control for CD- induced health effects. This study was conducted on 20 males occupationally exposed workers. They are divided into two groups: Group-1 included (10) exposed smokers and group-2 included (10) exposed non-smokers. Results of both groups were compared with those of 10 healthy age and sex matched non-smokers. All subjects were subjected to detailed history taking and laboratory investigations including blood and urinary CD, liver profile (SGOT, SGPT and alkline phosphates), kindey function tests (blood urea, creatinine and urinary beta 2 - microglobulin). The level of Cd in the atmosphere of the work plase air was also assessed to detect the degree of exposure as it was about 6 times greater than thesave level (1 mu /m 3 ). (1) This study demonstrated elevation levels of blood CD, urea, creatinine and urinary CD and beta 2 -microglobulin for both exposed worker groups than the controls. In additions no appreciable were noted for liver function tests, although the levels fell within normal range

  2. Occupational radiation exposures at radioactive and nuclear facilities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, A.; Pardo, G.; Melis, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of occupational radiation exposures at relevant radioactive and nuclear facilities in Argentina, for 1996. The facilities send this information to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority due to the requirements included in their operation licenses and authorizations. Dose distributions of 1891 workers and their parameters are presented. The analysis is performed for each type of the following practices: nuclear power plants, research reactors, radioisotope production, fuel fabrication, industrial irradiation and research in the nuclear fuel cycle. Trends of occupational exposure in different practices are analysed and the highest doses have been identified. Following the 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 60), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina updated the dose limits for workers in 1995. The individual dose limits are 20 mSv per year averaged over five consecutive years (100 mSv in 5 years), not exceeding 50 mSv in a single year. To evaluate the occupational radiation exposure trend, without taking into account practices, an analysis of the distribution of individual doses accumulated in the period 1995/96, for all workers, is performed. Individual doses received during 1996 were all below 50 mSv and doses accumulated in the period 1995/96 were below 100 mSv. (author). 7 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Assessment of complex microwaves occupational exposure in radar maintenance activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danulescu, R.

    1996-01-01

    The modern of the society teas determined the increase of thousand times greater than the natural fond of the humankind exposure to a complex combination of electromagnetic man-made fields and radiations of extremely various strength and frequencies. A special contribution to this environmental change has had in the last decade the appearance and the explosive development of the microwaves generating appliances such as radars used in a great variety of military and civilian applications and which essentially contributes to the electromagnetic pollution. In the above mentioned content which firstly interests the occupational environment, it is necessary to improve the exposure limits, as well as, the emission standards, in order to better protect the human health and well-being. From this point of view, the estimation of the microwave occupational exposure risk constitutes, alongside the health status assessment, one of the priorities of the Occupational Health because the theoretical and practical problems related to the bioeffects of this kind of radiations are far to be clarified. Our study has been carried out in a factory where one performs research, production and especially maintenance of microwaves generating devices. (author)

  4. RADIOFREQUENCY AND MICROWAVE RADIATION HEALTH EFFECTS AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Damnjanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there have been considerable discussion and concern about the possible hazards of RF/MW radiation. More recently, the growth and development in personal mobile communications have focused attention on the frequencies associated with this technology. A number of studies have examined the health effects of RF/MW electromagnetic fields (EMFs, originating from occupational exposure, hobbies, or residence near the radio or television transmitters. Particularly controversial are the biophysical mechanisms by which these RF fields may affect biological systems. General health effects reviews explore possible carcinogenic, reproductive and neurological effects. Health effects by exposure source have been observed in radar traffic devices, wireless communications with cellular phones, radio transmission, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Several epidemiological surveys have suggested associations with non-specific complaints such as headache, tiredness, sleep disturbance, loss of memory, and dizziness. These findings, which echo reports of illness associated with other types of radiofrequency (RF radiation, relate not only to the use of mobile phones, but also to residence near the mobile phone base stations and other settings involving occupational exposure. The biological effects suggest that some precautions are necessary, and preventive approaches are highly recommended. Further researches are required to give more information about the effects of microwave radiation on our health, especially in occupational setting and professionally exposed workers.

  5. Can occupational exposure be optimized for medical workers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Lefaure, C.

    1998-01-01

    Implementation of the principle of optimization (ALARA), an essential radiation protection regulations, remains very limited in the medical field, even though 80 % of workers whose exposure exceeds 50 mSv are to be found in this domain. The doses measured by legal dosimetry sometimes underestimate the real exposure of workers. It is therefore necessary to optimize the protection of occupational exposure in the medical field. This paper reviews the steps of the optimization procedure with emphasis on specificity of its application in this domain. Operating dosimetry as well as information on the residual risk due to low exposures and a better estimation of the risk/benefit factor for the patient are needed for satisfactory implementation. (author)

  6. The optimisation of occupational potential exposures - preliminary considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P. [Centre d`Etude sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Guimaraes, L. [Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira (Brazil)

    1995-03-01

    One of the major innovation brought about the ICRP 60 recommendations and emphasized by the ICRP 64 publication, is the introduction of the concept of potential exposures into the system of radiological protection. Potential exposures are characterized by {open_quotes}probability of occurrence lesser than unity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}radiological risks exceeding normal levels{close_quotes} where normal must be interpreted as not exceeding the planned routine exposures. It is then necessary to develop consensual methods to look for and choose the optimum scenarios (i.e. those for which probability of events and possible consequences have been reduced as low as reasonably achievable). Moreover, the boundaries for the unacceptable levels of risks for workers should be defined, as well as reasonable risk indicators. The aim of this paper is to discuss the actual changes in the field of occupational radiological protection, induced by the potential exposure concept with particular emphasize on the optimization of protection.

  7. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  8. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalaura Carducci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA methodology, which has already been applied to drinking water and food safety, may also be applied to risk assessment and management at the workplace. The present study developed a preliminary QMRA model to assess microbial risk that is associated with inhaling bioaerosols that are contaminated with human adenovirus (HAdV. This model has been applied to air contamination data from different occupational settings, including wastewater systems, solid waste landfills, and toilets in healthcare settings and offices, with different exposure times. Virological monitoring showed the presence of HAdVs in all the evaluated settings, thus confirming that HAdV is widespread, but with different average concentrations of the virus. The QMRA results, based on these concentrations, showed that toilets had the highest probability of viral infection, followed by wastewater treatment plants and municipal solid waste landfills. Our QMRA approach in occupational settings is novel, and certain caveats should be considered. Nonetheless, we believe it is worthy of further discussions and investigations.

  9. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  10. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  11. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, G.D.; Lynam, D.R. [Air Conservation Department, Ethyl Corporation, 330 South Fourth Street, Richmond, VA (United States); Harrison, R.M. [The University of Birmingham, Environmental Health, School of Chemistry, Edgbaston, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM{sub 2.5} were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM{sub 2.5}, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rails, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear.

  12. Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Su-Jung; Ada, Earl; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Manual handling of nanoparticles is a fundamental task of most nanomaterial research; such handling may expose workers to ultrafine or nanoparticles. Recent studies confirm that exposures to ultrafine or nanoparticles produce adverse inflammatory responses in rodent lungs and such particles may translocate to other areas of the body, including the brain. An important method for protecting workers handling nanoparticles from exposure to airborne nanoparticles is the laboratory fume hood. Such hoods rely on the proper face velocity for optimum performance. In addition, several other hood design and operating factors can affect worker exposure. Handling experiments were performed to measure airborne particle concentration while handling nanoparticles in three fume hoods located in different buildings under a range of operating conditions. Nanoalumina and nanosilver were selected to perform handling experiments in the fume hoods. Air samples were also collected on polycarbonate membrane filters and particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Handling tasks included transferring particles from beaker to beaker by spatula and by pouring. Measurement locations were the room background, the researcher's breathing zone and upstream and downstream from the handling location. Variable factors studied included hood design, transfer method, face velocity/sash location and material types. Airborne particle concentrations measured at breathing zone locations were analyzed to characterize exposure level. Statistics were used to test the correlation between data. The test results found that the handling of dry powders consisting of nano-sized particles inside laboratory fume hoods can result in a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the fume hood into the laboratory environment and the researcher's breathing zone. Many variables were found to affect the extent of particle release including hood design, hood operation (sash height, face velocity

  13. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the res...

  14. Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Su-Jung, E-mail: candace.umass@gmail.com; Ada, Earl [University of Massachusetts Lowell, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States); Isaacs, Jacqueline A. [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States); Ellenbecker, Michael J. [University of Massachusetts Lowell, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Manual handling of nanoparticles is a fundamental task of most nanomaterial research; such handling may expose workers to ultrafine or nanoparticles. Recent studies confirm that exposures to ultrafine or nanoparticles produce adverse inflammatory responses in rodent lungs and such particles may translocate to other areas of the body, including the brain. An important method for protecting workers handling nanoparticles from exposure to airborne nanoparticles is the laboratory fume hood. Such hoods rely on the proper face velocity for optimum performance. In addition, several other hood design and operating factors can affect worker exposure. Handling experiments were performed to measure airborne particle concentration while handling nanoparticles in three fume hoods located in different buildings under a range of operating conditions. Nanoalumina and nanosilver were selected to perform handling experiments in the fume hoods. Air samples were also collected on polycarbonate membrane filters and particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Handling tasks included transferring particles from beaker to beaker by spatula and by pouring. Measurement locations were the room background, the researcher's breathing zone and upstream and downstream from the handling location. Variable factors studied included hood design, transfer method, face velocity/sash location and material types. Airborne particle concentrations measured at breathing zone locations were analyzed to characterize exposure level. Statistics were used to test the correlation between data. The test results found that the handling of dry powders consisting of nano-sized particles inside laboratory fume hoods can result in a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the fume hood into the laboratory environment and the researcher's breathing zone. Many variables were found to affect the extent of particle release including hood design, hood operation (sash height, face

  15. Retrospective internal radiation exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neton, J.W.; Flora, J.T.; Spitz, H.B.; Taulbee, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of workers at U.S. Department of Energy facilities are being conducted by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to evaluate the health risk associated with exposure to sources of external and internal ionizing radiation. While exposure to external sources of radiation can be estimated from personal dosimeter data, reconstruction of exposure due to internally deposited radioactivity is more challenging because bioassay monitoring data is frequently less complete. Although comprehensive monitoring was provided for workers with the highest internal exposures, the majority of workers were monitored relatively infrequently. This monitoring was conducted to demonstrate compliance with regulations rather than to evaluate exposure for use in epidemiologic studies. Attributes of past internal monitoring programs that challenge accurate exposure assessment include: incomplete characterization of the workplace source term; a lack of timely measurements; insensitive and/or nonspecific bioassay measurements; and the presence of censored data. In spite of these limitations, many facilities have collected a large amount of worker and workplace monitoring information that can be used to evaluate internal exposure while minimizing worker misclassification. This paper describes a systematic approach for using the available worker and workplace monitoring data that can lead to either a qualitative or quantitative retrospective assessment of internal exposures. Various aspects of data analysis will be presented, including the evaluation of minimum detectable dose, the treatment of censored data, and the use of combinations of bioassay and workplace data to characterize exposures. Examples of these techniques applied to a cohort study involving chronic exposure scenarios to uranium are provided. A strategy for expressing exposure or dose in fundamental, unweighted units related to the quantity of radiation delivered to an organ will also

  16. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  17. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  18. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad [Radiation Safety & Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, N. A. H. Abd. [Faculty of Science & Mathematics, Sultan Idris of Education Universit, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  19. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H 0 ) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  20. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolek, Ertugrul Cagri; Erden, Abdulsamet; Kulekci, Cagri; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karadag, Omer

    2017-10-06

    Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis), some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine). Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium), it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6):963-967. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Cagri Bolek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis, some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine. Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium, it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6:963–967

  2. Occupational radiation exposure in work with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation exposure to personnel dealing with radioactive materials is studied on a national scale. The survey covers any type of radiation work except for mining and milling of radioactive ore, fuel production, and nuclear reactor operation. Assessments are based on a decade's collection of personnel monitoring data obtained by film dosimetry techniques, as well as on data from systematic operational site monitoring. Statistical analysis indicated exposures based on personal records to follow a normal distribution pattern and, hence, arithmetic averages to be representative. Airborne concontrations of radioactive materials and aerosols in working areas are shown to follow a logarithmic normal distribution pattern, so that geometric means are representative. Radiation exposures are generally found to be well below annual maximum permissible doses for radiation workers. However, their distribution among employee groups is nonuniform. Group A, comprising about 700 subjects, received mean annual gonad doses of more than 1000 mrem; group B, about 670 subjects, had doses ranging from 100 to 500 mrem per year; and group C, 1610 subjects, received less than 100 mrem per year. Most of the radiation dose is accounted for by external radiation, which contributed 0.327 mrem to the genetically significant population dose (0.227 from exposure to males, and 0.025 mrem from exposure to females). Analysis of accidental exposures occurring over the period 1963-1973 indicated that the contribution of this source is substantial as compared to routine work (1.0:0.3). Based on the results obtained, a number of preventive measures are developed and introduced into practice to improve radiological safety in work with radioactive materials. (A.B.)

  3. Consideration on a limit for lifetime occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Annual dose limits in occupational radiation exposure are merely a secondary constraint in addition to the primary rule of dose reduction and justification. The limits may, therefore, be reached only in rare, special cases. However, in principle, there might be cases in which the annual limit is continuously exhausted throughout a working life; a high total dose of 0.8 Sv could then be reached. In view of this possibility, there have been considerations of an added restriction by limiting the lifetime occupational dose to 0.4 Sv. The implications of such lifetime doses are considered, and it is shown that an exposure up to the maximum of 0.8 Sv will lead to the need for compensation, if a leukaemia were to occur in the exposed worker. A lifetime dose of 0.4 Sv equally spread over a working life will not lead to the critical value of the probability of causation in excess of 0.5. Nevertheless, it could cause such critical values when it is accumulated during shorter periods. More decisive than the probabilities of causation are, however, the absolute numbers of excess cases of leukaemia due to the occupational exposure. It is seen that less than one excess case would be expected if a group of 100 workers were all exposed to the maximum of 0.8 Sv. Since lifetime doses of 0.8 or 0.4 Sv will be accumulated in very few cases and only with special justification, there appears to be little need to introduce a further limit of lifetime exposure in addition to the current annual limit. (orig.)

  4. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiech, Jaromir; Kieliszek, Jarosław; Puta, Robert; Bartczak, Dagmara; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2017-06-19

    Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems). Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20-80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator's exposure is 60-120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF) band radios, the electric field strength is between 7-30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9-20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7-15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons - 100-150 V/m. In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% - only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):565-577. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kieliszek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Material and Methods: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems. Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Results: Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20–80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator’s exposure is 60–120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF band radios, the electric field strength is between 7–30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9–20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7–15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons – 100–150 V/m. Conclusions: In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% – only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4:565–577

  6. Impact of occupational mechanical exposures on risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia requiring surgical repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Marie Vestergaard; Frost, Poul; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair.......We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair....

  7. Controlling occupational radiation exposure at operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical development of the philosophy of keeping the radiation exposure of workers at light-water reactors as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is presented. A review is made of some of the ALARA activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and various nuclear installations. Data compiled by the NRC show that routine and special maintenance at light-water reactors accounts for 72 percent of all occupational exposure at these sites. The role that Oak Ridge National Laboratory has taken in ALARA research is presented, with emphasis placed on a study of valve malfunctions at light-water reactors. The valve study indicates a trend toward decreasing valve reliability over the past few years. Finally a cost--benefit analysis of radiation dose reduction is discussed. The rationale for assigning a cost per man-rem based on the radiation exposure level that is encountered is presented

  8. Occupational radiation exposure in the GDR in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.; Rothe, W.; Scheler, R.

    1982-01-01

    As in the previous year, the centralized monitoring of radiation workers for occupational exposure was carried out on the basis of film badges (38,781 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter and analyses of biosamples (351 persons in all). According to the film data, the monthly exposures exceeding 4 mGy totalled 682 including 48 doses higher than 10 mGy. Four workers received annual doses above 50 mGy, with the highest value being 1410 mGy. For the exposed population as a whole and some sub-groups, annual collective and mean annual doses have been given. In assessing internal exposure situation, use has been made of both data from the centralized monitoring program and those determined by some nuclear facilities themselves under the auspices of the SAAS. The results gave no indication of internal doses exceeding the annual limits of intake. (author)

  9. Occupational radiation exposure in the GDR in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.; Rothe, W.; Scheler, R.

    1982-01-01

    As in the previous year, the centralized monitoring of radiation workers for occupational exposure was carried out on the basis of film badges (38,178 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter (247 persons) and analyses of biosamples (318 persons). According to the film data, the monthly exposures exceeding 4 mGy totalled 610 including 92 doses higher than 10 mGy. Six workers received annual doses above 50 mGy, with the highest value being 123 mGy. For the exposed population as a whole and some sub-groups, annual collective and mean annual doses have been given. In assessing the internal exposure situation, use has been made of both data from the centralized monitoring program and those determined by some nuclear facilities themselves under the auspices of the SAAS. The results gave no indication of internal doses exceeding the annual limits of intake. (author)

  10. A computer system for occupational radiation exposure information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized occupational radiation exposure information system has been developed to maintain records for contractors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The system also allows indexing and retrieval of three million documents from microfilm, thus significantly reducing storage needs and costs. The users are linked by display terminals to the data base permitting them instant access to dosemetry and other radiation exposure information. Personnel dosemeter and bioassay results, radiation training, respirator fittings, skin contaminations and other radiation occurrence records are included in the data base. The system yields immediate analysis of radiological exposures for operating management and health physics personnel, thereby releasing personnel to use their time more effectively

  11. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  12. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  13. Availability of a New Job-Exposure Matrix (CANJEM) for Epidemiologic and Occupational Medicine Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2018-04-10

    To introduce the Canadian job-exposure matrix (CANJEM). Four large case-control studies of cancer were conducted in Montreal, focused on assessing occupational exposures by means of detailed interviews followed by expert assessment of possible occupational exposures. 31,673 jobs were assessed using a checklist of 258 agents (listed with prevalences at http://expostats.ca/chems). This large exposure database was configured as a JEM. CANJEM is available in four occupational classification systems. It provides estimates of probability of exposure among workers with a given occupation, and for those exposed, various metrics of exposure. CANJEM can be accessed online (www.canjem.ca) or in a batch version. CANJEM is a large source of retrospective exposure information, covering most occupations and many agents. CANJEM can be used to support exposure assessment efforts in epidemiology and occupational health.

  14. Occupational Hazard Exposures and Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sherri S; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Tu, Nai-Chi; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of exposure to occupational hazards and depressive mood with associated underlying risk factors among pregnant workers. Women at 12 weeks of gestation (n = 172) were recruited during regular prenatal screening. Data were obtained via questionnaires that explored job details and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most commonly encountered hazard was prolonged standing. The majority of women reported that the workplace provided no information on the safety or rights of pregnant women, but those exposed to at least four hazards had more access to such services (P workplace support were significantly associated with possible antenatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant workers are exposed to substantial levels of occupational hazards and may experience depressive symptoms; thus, their work conditions require monitoring and improvement.

  15. Adaptive response induced by occupational exposures to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquinero, J.F.; Caballin, M.R.; Barrios, L.; Murtra, P.; Egozcue, J.; Miro, R.; Ribas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have found a significant decreased sensitivity to the cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation (IR) and bleomycin (BLM) in lymphocytes from individuals occupationally exposed to IR when compared with a control population. These results suggest that occupational exposures to IR can induce adaptive response that can be detected by a subsequent treatment by IR or by BLM. However, no correlation between the results obtained with both treatments was observed. A great heterogeneity in the frequencies of chromatid aberrations induced by BLM was observed. The study of the influence of different harvesting times showed that there was no correlation with the frequencies of chromatid breaks. Our results indicate that the use of BLM to detect adaptive response has several difficulties at the individual level. (author)

  16. European study of occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX -. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1997-11-01

    The ESOREX-Project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Its purpose is to survey in each of these countries 1. the administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, 2. the numbers of occupationally radiation exposed persons and dose distributions for the year 1995. The study shall describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the quantity structures. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyze the possibilities for a European harmonization. In order to achieve the co-operation of the European states the European Commission and the BfS organized an international introductory workshop in Luxembourg in May, 1997. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  17. Review of occupational exposure patterns in Indian Health Care Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Nehru, R.M.; Sonawane, A.U.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of individual radiation is a prime part of the radiation protection programme. The primary justification for monitoring helps achieve and demonstrate an appropriate level of protection and can demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements, contribute to the control of operations and design of installations. Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules 2004 advocates that radiation surveillance is mandatory for all radiation workers. The largest group of individuals exposed occupationally to artificial radiation sources is that employed in health care facilities such as Diagnostic Radiology, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine. In this work, a comprehensive analysis was carried out on occupational exposure data for the period 2000 to 2014 to bring a measure of radiation protection infrastructure quality in health care facilities

  18. Overview of the use of dose constraints in occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonny, A.

    2013-04-01

    An overview of the use of dose constraints in occupational exposures has been carried out in this project. This was done by reviewing and analyzing some of the operational issues/challenges associated with their implementation and providing suggestions regarding operational objectives and uses of dose constraints.The role of dose constraints in the process of optimisation of radiation protection was described, and explanations provided where necessary in order to avoid the possible situations where dose constraints are misinterpreted or used as a stringent limit. Finally, the identification of potential issues that need to be considered in the implementation and setting of dose constraints for the purposes of occupational radiation protection were discussed. (author)

  19. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppm a )] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Biological response to TCE exposure was determined using a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) framework, with metabolic changes and plasma TCE metabolites evaluated by dose-response and pathway enrichment. Biological perturbations were then linked to immunological, renal and exposure molecular markers measured in the same population. Metabolic features associated with TCE exposure included known TCE metabolites, unidentifiable chlorinated compounds and endogenous metabolites. Exposure resulted in a systemic response in endogenous metabolism, including disruption in purine catabolism and decreases in sulphur amino acid and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. Metabolite associations with TCE exposure included uric acid (β = 0.13, P-value = 3.6 × 10 -5 ), glutamine (β = 0.08, P-value = 0.0013), cystine (β = 0.75, P-value = 0.0022), methylthioadenosine (β = -1.6, P-value = 0.0043), taurine (β = -2.4, P-value = 0.0011) and chenodeoxycholic acid (β = -1.3, P-value = 0.0039), which are consistent with known toxic effects of TCE, including immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Correlation with additional exposure markers and physiological endpoints supported known disease associations. High-resolution metabolomics correlates measured occupational exposure to internal dose and metabolic response, providing insight into molecular mechanisms of exposure-related disease aetiology. © The Author 2016; all rights

  20. [Occupational differences in exposure to hazardous work conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinacci, Chiara; d'Errico, A; Cardano, M; Perini, F; Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have been aimed at describing organizational and psychosocial conditions of the Italian workforce by occupational group, and they have been mainly conducted within specific occupations. The present study aimed at identifying specific groups of occupations which have unfavourable profiles from the point of view of exposure to specific organizational factors and psychosocial risks, and to physical, chemical and ergonomic risks, and analyzing their distribution by worker age. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 4,195 workers in the Piedmont Region who were members of the CGIL Trade Union (Italian General Confederation of Labour), who answered a self-administered questionnaire in 2000, aimed at assessing chemical, physical, and ergonomic risks, accidents, and psychosocial factors connected with work organization and work tasks. Psychosocial risks were assessed via three scales aimed at measuring the degree of control, psychophysical demands, and worker satisfaction. The proportion of workers exposed to the above mentioned risks was analysed according to occupational group. This group was then compared with all other groups taken together, according to prevalence of high strain condition (combination of high demand and low control) and HSUR condition (High Strain Unfairly Rewarded; combination of high strain and low satisfaction). Among males aged 25-44 years, restricted to the occupation groups with more than ten workers in high strain condition, significantly higher proportions of stress were observed in leather workers and shoemakers, paper factory workers, rubber workers, crane and bridge crane operators, plastic workers, painters, transport drivers and carpenters. For many of these groups, excesses were confirmed for the HSUR condition. Among subjects aged over 44 years, a higher risk for high strain was confirmed in rubber workers, transport drivers and carpenters. In addition, machine tool operators, assembly line and mechanical workers in this

  1. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    N Lakshmi Priya; K Usha Krishnan; G Jayalakshmi; S Vasanthi

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical ...

  2. Low Magnitude Occupational Radiation Exposures Are They Safe or Unsafe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, R.

    2013-01-01

    Man has always been exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources and background exposure varies with the locations. No deleterious effects have been uniquely correlated, either they are not produced at low levels of exposure or their frequency is too low to be statistically observable. Direct source of information on radiation hazards in man is obviously based on follow up of population groups exposed to certain levels of radiation. Harmful effects of ionizing radiations are traced to documented exposures; for radiologists during 1920 s and 30 s, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity, workers in the radium industry, follow-up data of Japanese nuclear bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Marshallese accident in 1954, and the victims of the limited number of accidents at nuclear installations including Chernobyl. Mostly these information are from situations involving higher doses and dose rates. Ionizing radiations have been used extensively on the peaceful applications of atomic energy in general and medical applications in particular have shown to outweigh benefits over the risks. Personnel, low magnitude of exposures are encountered during routine work in handling radiation sources. In the light of present knowledge there is need to reassess the quantum of actual risk instead of projected risk based on long time models. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) described models for dose-response relationships and micro-dosimetric arguments for defining low doses. The definition of low doses could also be based on direct observations in experimental or epidemiological studies. Through measurement of cell damage or death using human lymphocytes, linear and quadratic terms have been fitted the response and low doses have been judged to be 20-40 mSv. Data derived from epidemiological studies, mainly the atomic bomb survivors, suggests that for solid tumours and leukaemia, 200 mSv could be considered the

  3. Occupational exposure to HDI: progress and challenges in biomarker analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Sheila L; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-10-01

    1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N'-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015-0.060 μg/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19-2.2 μg/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 μg/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 μg/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Male fertility following occupational exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Marcello; Satta, Giannina; Fadda, Domenica; Pili, Sergio; Cocco, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    The inconsistent epidemiological results of the endocrine disrupting effects of DDT fuel a harsh debate on its global ban. We tested the hypothesis that occupational exposure to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) causes impairment in male fertility in a cohort of DDT exposed workers, in Sardinia, Italy. We accessed official records on date of marriage and date of birth of the first child to estimate time to pregnancy (TTP) in the spouses of 1223 workers employed in a 1946-1950 anti-malarial campaign. The TTP calculation was censored at the 13th month after date of marriage. We used a modified Cox's proportional hazard model to calculate the fecundability ratio (FR) by job, by cumulative exposure to DDT, and by time window in relation to the anti-malarial operations, adjusting by paternal age at marriage. Among the spouses of DDT applicators, fecundability did not vary during DDT use (FR=1.22, 95% CI 0.84-1.77) nor in the following decade (FR=1.01, 95% CI 0.67-1.50) with reference to the prior years. A significant increase occurred among the unexposed and the less exposed sub-cohorts, which generated a non-significantly reduced FR among the DDT applicator sub-cohort with reference to the unexposed following exposure. We did not find evidence of an impairment in male fertility following heavy occupational exposure to DDT. However, although fecundability was highest among the spouses of the DDT applicators in the years prior to the anti-malarial campaign, we cannot exclude that DDT exposure prevented an increase parallel to that observed among the unexposed and the less exposed sub-cohorts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. 1996 report on occupational radiation exposures in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistics are provided on occupational radiation exposures of monitored workers in Canada. The information is based on the data in the National Dose Registry maintained by the Radiation Protection Bureau of Health Canada. The Registry is a centralized record-keeping system containing dose information on all monitored workers in Canada. It includes records from the National Dosimetry Services (NDS), as well as data submitted by nuclear power generating stations, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., uranium mines, and private dosimeter processing companies. About 80 percent of the records are from the NDS. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  6. The OSHA hazardous chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, D A

    1991-01-01

    OSHA's chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories is an outgrowth of the previously issued Hazard Communication Standard. The standard relieves laboratories from complying with general industry standards but does require compliance with specific laboratory guidelines. The heart of the standard is the creation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). The CHP addresses major issues such as safety equipment and procedures, work practices, training, the designation of a chemical hygiene officer, and the provision of medical consultation and examination for affected employees. This new standard, in full effect as of January 31, 1991, presents yet another regulatory challenge to laboratory managers but also ensures a safer environment for laboratory workers.

  7. Influence of materials choice on occupational radiation exposure in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, C.B.A.; Firth, J.D.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In fission reactor plant, the radiation doses associated with inspection and maintenance of the primary cooling circuit account for a substantial fraction of the collective occupational radiation exposure (ORE). Similarly, it is anticipated that much of the ORE occurring during normal operation of ITER will arise from active deposits in the cooling loop. Using a number of calculation steps ranging from neutron activation analysis, mobilisation and transport modelling and Monte Carlo simulation, estimates for the gamma photon flux and radiation dose fields around a typical 'hot-leg' cooling pipe have been made taking SS316, OPTSTAB, MANET-II and F-82H steels as alternative candidate loop materials. (orig.)

  8. Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Parshall B. Bush

    1992-01-01

    Occupational safety and health concerns have been raised in a number of southern states by workers conducting prescribed burns on forested lands treated with herbicides. Modeling assessments coupled with laboratory experiments have shown that the risk of airborne herbicide residues to workers is insignificant, even if the fire occurs immediately after herbicide...

  9. Development of a Job-Exposure Matrix (AsbJEM) to Estimate Occupational Exposure to Asbestos in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oyen, Svein C; Peters, Susan; Alfonso, Helman; Fritschi, Lin; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Reid, Alison; Franklin, Peter; Gordon, Len; Benke, Geza; Musk, Arthur W

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposure data on asbestos are limited and poorly integrated in Australia so that estimates of disease risk and attribution of disease causation are usually calculated from data that are not specific for local conditions. To develop a job-exposure matrix (AsbJEM) to estimate occupational asbestos exposure levels in Australia, making optimal use of the available exposure data. A dossier of all available exposure data in Australia and information on industry practices and controls was provided to an expert panel consisting of three local industrial hygienists with thorough knowledge of local and international work practices. The expert panel estimated asbestos exposures for combinations of occupation, industry, and time period. Intensity and frequency grades were estimated to enable the calculation of annual exposure levels for each occupation-industry combination for each time period. Two indicators of asbestos exposure intensity (mode and peak) were used to account for different patterns of exposure between occupations. Additionally, the probable type of asbestos fibre was determined for each situation. Asbestos exposures were estimated for 537 combinations of 224 occupations and 60 industries for four time periods (1943-1966; 1967-1986; 1987-2003; ≥2004). Workers in the asbestos manufacturing, shipyard, and insulation industries were estimated to have had the highest average exposures. Up until 1986, 46 occupation-industry combinations were estimated to have had exposures exceeding the current Australian exposure standard of 0.1 f ml(-1). Over 90% of exposed occupations were considered to have had exposure to a mixture of asbestos varieties including crocidolite. The AsbJEM provides empirically based quantified estimates of asbestos exposure levels for Australian jobs since 1943. This exposure assessment application will contribute to improved understanding and prediction of asbestos-related diseases and attribution of disease causation. © The

  10. Adaptive response induced by occupational exposures to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquinero, J.F.; Caballin, M.R.; Barrios, L.; Egozcue, J.; Miro, R.; Ribas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have found a significant decreased sensitivity to the cytogenetic effects of both ionizing radiation (IR) (2 Gy of γ rays) and bleomycin (BLM, 0,03 U/ml), in lymphocytes from individuals occupationally exposed to IR when compared with controls. These results suggest that occupational exposures to IR can induce adaptive response that can be detected by a subsequent treatment either by IR or by BLM. When a comparison is made between the cytogenetic effects of both treatments, no correlation was observed at the individual level. On the other hand, the individual frequencies of chromosome aberrations induced by a challenge dose of IR were negatively correlated with the occupationally received doses during the last three years. This correlation was not observed after the challenge treatment of BLM. Moreover, the individual frequencies of chromosome aberrations induced by IR treatment were homogeneous. This is not the case of the individual frequencies of chromatid aberrations induced by BLM, where a great heterogeneity was observed. (authors)

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Elena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice.

  12. Occupational radiation exposures at NRC-licensed facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    For the past ten years, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission, have required certain licensees to routinely submit two types of occupational radiation exposure reports: termination and annual reports. Each licensee engaged in any one of the activities: (1) operation of nuclear power reactors, (2) industrial radiography, (3) fuel fabrication, processing and reprocessing, and (4) large supply of byproduct material, is required to submit an annual statistical report and a termination report for each monitored employee who ends his employment or work assignment. A new regulation now requires all NRC licensees to submit annual reports for the years 1978 and 1979. These reports have been collected, computerized and maintained by the Commission at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. They are useful to the NRC in the evaluation of the risk of radiation exposure associated with the related activities. (author)

  13. Occupational radiation exposure of the personnel due to interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wucherer, M.; Schmidt, T.; Loose, R.

    2000-01-01

    Applications of interventional radiology continue to be on an upward trend, some countries reporting a 100% increase within 2-4 years, so that the resulting radiation exposure of both patients and personnel is an issue of increasing importance. Whereas those applications in general are of advantage for the patients, they mean just a further health hazard for the medical personnel. It is therefore necessary to exploit all available means to reduce the occupational doses. Modern interventional radiology systems offer a range of measures for this purpose, as e.g. last-image-hold, or pulsed modes. Special attention has to be given to the exposure of hand and head. Particularly the hand is closest to the useful beam, and it should be a mandatory requirement to wear film rings. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Occupational radiation exposure in upper Austrian water supplies and Spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Simader, M.; Bernreiter, M.; Aspek, W.; Kaineder, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM lays down the basic safety standards for the protection of the workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, including natural radiation. Based on the directive and on the corresponding Austrian legislation a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the occupational radiation exposure in Upper Austrian water supplies and spas. The study comprises 45 water supplies and 3 spas, one of them being a radon spa. Most measurements taken were to determine the radon concentration in air at different workplaces (n = 184), but also measurements of the dose rate at dehumidifiers (n = 7) and gamma spectrometric measurements of back washing water (n = 4) were conducted. To determine the maximum occupational radon exposure in a water supply measurements were carried out in all water purification buildings and in at least half o f the drinking water reservoirs of the water supply. The results were combined with the respective working times in these locations (these data having been collected by means of a questionnaire). Where the calculated exposure was greater than 1 MBq h/m then all drinking water reservoirs of the concerned water suppl y were measured for their radon concentration to ensure a reliable assessment of the exposure. The results show that the radon concentrations in the water supplies were lower as expected, being in 55% of all measurement sites below 1000 Bq/m in 91% below 5000 Bq/m and with a maximum value of 38700 Bq/m.This leads to exposures that are below 2 MBq h/m (corresponding to approx. 6 mSv/a) in 42 water supplies. However, for the remaining three water supplies maximal occupational exposures due to radon of 2.8 MBq h/m (∼ 10 mSv/a), 15 MBq h/m (∼ 50 mSv/a), and 17 MBq h/m ( ∼ 56 mSv/a), respectively, were determined. In these water supplies remediation measures were proposed, based mainly on improved ventilation of and/or reduction of working time in the building

  15. Occupational exposure to nickel salts in electrolytic plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilunen, M; Aitio, A; Tossavainen, A

    1997-04-01

    An occupational hygiene survey was made in 38 nickel plating shops in Finland and exposure to nickel was studied by means of biological measurements and, in three shops, by using air measurements. The average after-shift urinary nickel concentration of 163 workers was 0.16 mumol l.-1 (range 0.001-4.99 mumol l.-1). After the 1-5 week vacation the urinary nickel concentration was higher than the upper reference limit of non-exposed Finns indicating that a part of water-soluble nickel salts is accumulated in the body. Urinary nickel concentrations in the shops considered clean in the industrial hygiene walk-through were not different from those observed in the shops considered dirty. The correlation between the concentrations of nickel in the air and in the urine was low, and the amount of nickel excreted in the urine exceeded the calculated inhaled amounts, indicating exposure by other routes such as ingestion.

  16. ITER SAFETY TASK NID-10A:CANDU occupational exposure experience: ORE for ITER fuel cycle and cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains information on TRITIUM Occupational Exposure (Internal Dose) from typical CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations. In addition to dose, airborne tritium levels are provided, as these strongly influence operational exposure. The exposure dose data presented in this report cover a period of five years of operation and maintenance experience from four CANDU Reactors and are considered representative of other CANDU reactors. The data are broken down according to occupational function ( Operators, Maintenance and Support Service etc.). The referenced systems are mainly centered on CANDU Hear Transport System, Moderator System, Tritium Removal Facility and Heavy Water (D20) Upgrading System. These systems contain the bulk part of tritium contamination in the CANDU Reactor. Because of certain similarities between ITER and CANDU systems, this data can be used as the most relevant TRITIUM OCCUPATIONAL DOSE information for ITER COOLING and FUEL CYCLE systems dose assessment purpose, if similar design and operation principles as described in the report are adopted. (author). 16 refs., 8 tabs., 13 figs

  17. Occupational exposure in services of Oncological Hospital of Camaguey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreras, C.A.; Brigido, F.O.; Naranjo, L.A.; Sanches, M.P.; Lasserra, S.O.; Hernandez, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Service of the Cancer Hospital at Camaguey presents data on the occupationally exposure workers, during 1990-1999, obtained from film dosimetry. The outcomes show that: the average of annual effective equivalent dose for nuclear medical personnel was 2.47 mSv, while 2.13 mSv were to represent radiotherapy and 1.11 mSv were to represent the personnel tied to the others radiodiagnostic services, in the same period; 88,3% of the nuclear medicine personnel and the 94.9% of the radiotherapy personnel have received doses inferior to 3 mSv/year; the total collective dose for the studied period were 212.5, 189.8 and 22.3 mSv.man for nuclear medicine and radiotherapy and other medical users respectively. In this work, the annual behavior of the total collective doses is described based on the evaluation of the contribution of different radiodiagnostic procedures carried out at the Hospital. Others aspects related to biological radiation effects of occupational exposure and some outcomes are compared with those from the data of the other countries

  18. The assessment of occupational exposures in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Prouza, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Licensees are obliged to submit to the State Office for Nuclear Safety their personnel monitoring results. The data are used to update the Central Registry of Occupational Exposure (CROE), established in 1993. Facility classification and worker classification used in the CROE are tabulated. Data from the CROE were partly used for evaluation of occupational exposure within UNSCEAR questionnaires for 1990-1994. The results and comparison of the 1985-1989 and 1990-1994 periods are shown in figures. The average values and trends of individual effective dose equivalent (HE) are comparable with those in developed countries (only 20-30% ORE values were higher than 0.2 mSv). A major part of the annual collective dose equivalent arises from diagnostic uses of ionizing radiation sources. In the uranium industry, HE from radon, its daughter products and from ore dust contributed about 50-80% to the total. The average individual HE values at the Dukovany NPP are lower than or comparable to those at other PWRs. Over the 1985-1994 period, the HE values lay within the region of 0.38-0.87 mSv (average 0.56 mSv). (P.A.)

  19. Occupational noise exposure and hearing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johannessen, Håkon A; Tynes, Tore; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    To give a systematic review of the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in working life. A literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Health and Safety Abstracts, with appropriate keywords on noise in the workplace and health, revealed 22,413 articles which were screened by six researchers. A total of 698 articles were reviewed in full text and scored with a checklist, and 187 articles were found to be relevant and of sufficient quality for further analysis. Occupational noise exposure causes between 7 and 21 % of the hearing loss among workers, lowest in the industrialized countries, where the incidence is going down, and highest in the developing countries. It is difficult to distinguish between NIHL and age-related hearing loss at an individual level. Most of the hearing loss is age related. Men lose hearing more than women do. Heredity also plays a part. Socioeconomic position, ethnicity and other factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, vibration and chemical substances, may also affect hearing. The use of firearms may be harmful to hearing, whereas most other sources of leisure-time noise seem to be less important. Impulse noise seems to be more deleterious to hearing than continuous noise. Occupational groups at high risk of NIHL are the military, construction workers, agriculture and others with high noise exposure. The prevalence of NIHL is declining in most industrialized countries, probably due to preventive measures. Hearing loss is mainly related to increasing age.

  20. Influence of instruments performance and material properties on exposure assessment of airborne engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Marcus

    Over the last decades, materials engineered of nanosized structures have increased tremendously, in terms of both produced tonnage and economic market share. This, together with the fact that some of these engineered nanomaterials have shown an increased toxicological effect in humans as compared...... characteristics, and highlights necessary improvements for future adaptions of new metrics into regulatory testing and occupational exposure limits....

  1. Exposure to Airborne Noroviruses and Other Bioaerosol Components at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols associated with wastewater treatment processes may represent an occupational health risk for workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A high frequency of acute symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract among the wastewater workers at a Danish WWTP has been reported. Th...

  2. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown aetiology. In addition to genetic and hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected of playing a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an in...

  3. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  4. The Australian Work Exposures Study: prevalence of occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in occupational settings. Diesel exhaust has been classified as a lung carcinogen, but data on number of workers exposed to different levels of diesel exhaust are not available in Australia. The aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of exposure to diesel engine exhaust in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of Australian males and females (18-65 years old) in current paid employment was undertaken. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Semi-quantitative occupational exposure levels to diesel exhaust were assigned using programmed decision rules and numbers of workers exposed in Australia in 2011 were estimated. We defined substantial exposure as exposed at a medium or high level, for at least 5h per week. Substantial occupational exposure to diesel exhaust was experienced by 13.4% of the respondents in their current job. Exposure prevalence varied across states, ranging from 6.4% in the Australian Capital Territory to 17.0% in Western Australia. Exposures occurred mainly in the agricultural, mining, transport and construction industries, and among mechanics. Men (20.4%) were more often exposed than women (4.7%). Extrapolation to the total working population indicated that 13.8% (95% confidence interval 10.0-20.4) of the 2011 Australian workforce were estimated to be substantially exposed to diesel exhaust, and 1.8% of the workers were estimated to experience high levels of exposures in their current job. About 1.2 million Australian workers were estimated to have been exposed to diesel exhaust in their workplace in 2011. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational diesel exhaust exposure in Australia and will enable estimation of the number of lung cancers attributable to diesel exhaust exposure in the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  5. Evaluation of medical and occupational exposures in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekoshi, Hisashi; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Tsuzaka, Masatoshi; Tamiya, Tadashi; Nakamura, Kiyoko.

    1992-01-01

    Absorbed radiation doses received by patients and personnel during interventional procedures were estimated in this study. An Angiostar, a fluoroscopy x-ray unit, made by Siemens Co. Ltd. was used. Fluoroscopic conditions were 82 to 112 kV of tube voltage and 2.5 to 4.3 mA of tube current. The absorbed doses to the ovaries were measured in a Mix-Dp phantom after the image intensifier's field size was changed from 40 cm to 14 cm in diameter. X-ray scattering dose distributions in the vicinity of the fluoroscopy table were measured by an ionization survey meter. This measurement was carried out concurrently with the above x-ray exposure conditions. Patient and personnel exposure increased in relation to the decreased field size. These medical and occupational exposures increases were the result of the x-ray output gradually increasing as the image intensifier's field was progressively decreased. This condition was caused by the automatic brightness control circuits of the x-ray unit. When the smallest field size of the image intensifier (I.I.) was employed the exposure doses absorbed by both patients and personnel were about three times larger than the doses received in the largest field size. (author)

  6. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry

  7. Occupational exposure to microwave radiation in diathermia units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.A.; Ubeda, A.; Tellez, M.; Santa Olalla, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present study summarizes preliminary data addressed to complete the present knowledge on the microwave (M.V.)-exposure doses and conditions in workers exposed chronically to relatively high, though nonthermal, levels of that non ionizing radiations (N.I.R.). The obtained data are of direct application to radiation protection in occupational media provided that: 1) help to detect and eradicate practices and situations that result in overexposure; 2) they constitute a basis for the design and development of strategies for exposure control and minimization, and 3) they represent a dosimetric support necessary to properly interpret past and future epidemiologic and experimental data on potential health effects of chronic exposures to M.W. radiation at work. The described results will be extended through additional dosimetric recordings in other hospitals. The dosimetric data will be compared to the results of questionnaires among the electro-therapists working at the units studied. The objective is to identify potential relationships between exposure doses and specific diseases or level of risk perception among the investigated professional group. (authors)

  8. Occupational exposure to microwave radiation in diathermia units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.A.; Ubeda, A. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Servicio de Investigacion-BEM, Madrid (Spain); Tellez, M.; Santa Olalla, I. [Hospital La Paz, Servicio de Radiofisica y Radioproteccion, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The present study summarizes preliminary data addressed to complete the present knowledge on the microwave (M.V.)-exposure doses and conditions in workers exposed chronically to relatively high, though nonthermal, levels of that non ionizing radiations (N.I.R.). The obtained data are of direct application to radiation protection in occupational media provided that: 1) help to detect and eradicate practices and situations that result in overexposure; 2) they constitute a basis for the design and development of strategies for exposure control and minimization, and 3) they represent a dosimetric support necessary to properly interpret past and future epidemiologic and experimental data on potential health effects of chronic exposures to M.W. radiation at work. The described results will be extended through additional dosimetric recordings in other hospitals. The dosimetric data will be compared to the results of questionnaires among the electro-therapists working at the units studied. The objective is to identify potential relationships between exposure doses and specific diseases or level of risk perception among the investigated professional group. (authors)

  9. Occupational radiation exposures at Canadian CANDU nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.; Taylor, G.F.

    1982-09-01

    In Canada, methods to reduce the radiation exposure to workers at nuclear power reactors have been studied and implemented since the early days of the CANDU reactor program. Close collaboration between the designers, the operators, and the manufacturers has reduced the total exposure at each station, the dose requirement to operate and maintain each successive station compared with earlier stations, and the average annual exposure per worker. Specific methods developed to achieve dose reduction include water chemistry; corrosion resistant materials; low cobalt materials; decontamination; hot filtration, improved equipment reliability, maintainability, and accessibility; improved shielding design and location; planning of work for low exposure; improved operating and maintenance procedures; removal of tritium from D 2 O systems and work environments; improved protective clothing; on-power refuelling; worker awareness and training; and many other small improvements. The 1981 occupational dose productivity factors for Pickering A and Bruce A nuclear generating stations were respectively 0.43 and 0.2 rem/MW(e).a

  10. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaaimi, M.; Alkhorayef, M.; Omar, M.; Abughaith, N.; Alduaij, M.; Salahudin, T.; Alkandri, F.; Sulieman, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure is associated with eye lens opacities and cataracts. Radiation workers with heavy workloads and poor protection measures are at risk for vision impairment or cataracts if suitable protection measures are not implemented. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the occupational radiation exposure in a nuclear medicine (NM) department. The annual average effective doses (Hp[10] and Hp[0.07]) were measured using calibrated thermos-luminescent dosimeters (TLDs; MCP-N [LiF:Mg,Cu,P]). Five categories of staff (hot lab staff, PET physicians, NM physicians, technologists, and nurses) were included. The average annual eye dose (Hp[3]) for NM staff, based on measurements for a typical yearly workload of >7000 patients, was 4.5 mSv. The annual whole body radiation (Hp[10]) and skin doses (Hp[0.07]) were 4.0 and 120 mSv, respectively. The measured Hp(3), Hp(10), and Hp(0.07) doses for all NM staff categories were below the dose limits described in ICRP 2014 in light of the current practice. The results provide baseline data for staff exposure in NM in Kuwait. Radiation dose optimization measures are recommended to reduce NM staff exposure to its minimal value.

  11. On exposure to air-borne particulate activity in a radiological laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Bara, Vivek; Jat, Deepika; Srinivasan, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate different exposure scenarios in a laboratory having once through ventilation. It has been considered a laboratory of volume V (m 3 ) which has once through ventilation rate of λ(hr -1 ). It is assumed that a certain amount, q Bq, of long lived activity has got released into the laboratory and the air-bone activity instantaneously got distributed throughout the volume of the laboratory. In the study a simple mathematical expression is applied for the source term for generic cases of containment breach leading to air-borne activity. It is analysed, considering different time duration of release as less than total time of exposure, for duration of 7 hour exposure

  12. Operating philosophy for maintaining occupational radiation exposures as low as is reasonably achievable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Both this guide and Regulatory Guide 8.8, ''Information Relevant to Maintaining Occupational Radiation Exposure as Low as is Reasonably Achievable (Nuclear Power Reactors),'' deal with the concept of ''as low as is reasonably achievable'' occupational exposures to radiation. This guide describes an operating philosophy that the NRC staff believes all specific licensees should follow to keep occupational exposures to radiation as low as is reasonably achievable. (auth)

  13. Exposure to formaldehyde: a challenge of occupational health significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaonga, K.

    2009-01-01

    The use of formaldehyde as the fixative for general microscopic demonstration of tissues in medical laboratory establishments is as significant as the diagnosis of the underlying ailment. Instantaneous human exposure to formaldehyde elicits symptoms that may include watery eyes, headache, inflamed throat and dyspnea. The gaseous chemical is toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. A study to determine the incidence of human exposure to formaldehyde was carried out at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia from January to December, 2007. Anonymous questionnaires on various aspects of human exposure to formaldehyde were given to laboratory technical personnel. Exposure to formaldehyde was determined using general consideration model comprising points awarded to participants according to their responses. Five points represented the maximum level of exposure, while one point denoted the minimum encounter. There were 8 incidents of formaldehyde pollution, with five being emissions from 210-litre formalin receptacles whose stoppers were inadvertently left loose overnight, while three involved accidental breakage of Winchester bottles of formalin. A total of 115 people were exposed during the year. Fifteen (13.0 percent) participants scored one point each, while 20 (17.4 percent) participants obtained 2 points each. Thirty-five (30.4 percent) participants got 3 points each, while 30 (26.0 percent) participants received 4 points each. Twenty-five (21.7 percent) participants attained 5 points each. Human exposure to formaldehyde is an issue of occupational health concern. Participants with a score of 3 points or more need regular medical check ups in order to safeguard their health. Programs on effective management of hazardous chemicals are worth setting up.(author)

  14. Comparative occupational radiation exposure between fixed and mobile imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Daniel E; Miller, Claire P; Moorehead, Pamela A; Kim, Ann H; Baele, Henry R; Wong, Virginia L; Jordan, David W; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular intervention exposes surgical staff to scattered radiation, which varies according to procedure and imaging equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in occupational exposure between procedures performed with fixed imaging (FI) in an endovascular suite compared with conventional mobile imaging (MI) in a standard operating room. A series of 116 endovascular cases were performed over a 4-month interval in a dedicated endovascular suite with FI and conventional operating room with MI. All cases were performed at a single institution and radiation dose was recorded using real-time dosimetry badges from Unfors RaySafe (Hopkinton, Mass). A dosimeter was mounted in each room to establish a radiation baseline. Staff dose was recorded using individual badges worn on the torso lead. Total mean air kerma (Kar; mGy, patient dose) and mean case dose (mSv, scattered radiation) were compared between rooms and across all staff positions for cases of varying complexity. Statistical analyses for all continuous variables were performed using t test and analysis of variance where appropriate. A total of 43 cases with MI and 73 cases with FI were performed by four vascular surgeons. Total mean Kar, and case dose were significantly higher with FI compared with MI. (mean ± standard error of the mean, 523 ± 49 mGy vs 98 ± 19 mGy; P < .00001; 0.77 ± 0.03 mSv vs 0.16 ± 0.08 mSv, P < .00001). Exposure for the primary surgeon and assistant was significantly higher with FI compared with MI. Mean exposure for all cases using either imaging modality, was significantly higher for the primary surgeon and assistant than for support staff (ie, nurse, radiology technologist) beyond 6 feet from the X-ray source, indicated according to one-way analysis of variance (MI: P < .00001; FI: P < .00001). Support staff exposure was negligible and did not differ between FI and MI. Room dose stratified according to case complexity (Kar) showed statistically significantly

  15. Optimization of radiation protection in the control of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the three main principles on which protection against ionizing radiation is based is the principle of the optimization of radiological protection. The principle of the optimization of protection was first enunciated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in the 1960s. A principal requirement for the optimization of protection and safety has been incorporated into the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards) from the first edition in 1962 up to the current (1996) edition. The principle of optimization, that all reasonable efforts be made to reduce doses (social and economic factors being taken into account), necessitates considerable effort to apply in practice. The requirement of the Basic Safety Standards to apply the principle of optimization applies to all categories of exposure: occupational, public and medical. The categories of public and medical exposure are rather specific and are covered in other publications; this Safety Report concentrates on the application of the principle to what is probably the largest category, that of occupational exposure. This Safety Report provides practical information on how to apply the optimization of protection in the workplace. The emphasis throughout is on the integration of radiation protection into the more general system of work management, and on the involvement of management and workers in setting up a system of radiation protection and in its implementation. This Safety Report was drafted and finalized in three consultants meetings held in 1999 and 2000. The draft was sent for review and comment to a number of experts, which yielded valuable comments from a number of reviewers whose names are included in the list of contributors to drafting and review

  16. Optimization of radiation protection in the control of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    One of the three main principles on which protection against ionizing radiation is based is the principle of the optimization of radiological protection. The principle of the optimization of protection was first enunciated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in the 1960s. A principal requirement for the optimization of protection and safety has been incorporated into the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards) from the first edition in 1962 up to the current (1996) edition. The principle of optimization, that all reasonable efforts be made to reduce doses (social and economic factors being taken into account), necessitates considerable effort to apply in practice. The requirement of the Basic Safety Standards to apply the principle of optimization applies to all categories of exposure: occupational, public and medical. The categories of public and medical exposure are rather specific and are covered in other publications. This Safety Report concentrates on the application of the principle to what is probably the largest category, that of occupational exposure. This Safety Report provides practical information on how to apply the optimization of protection in the workplace. The emphasis throughout is on the integration of radiation protection into the more general system of work management, and on the involvement of management and workers in setting up a system of radiation protection and in its implementation. This Safety Report was drafted and finalized in three consultants meetings held in 1999 and 2000. The draft was sent for review and comment to a number of experts, which yielded valuable comments from a number of reviewers whose names are included in the list of contributors to drafting and review

  17. Optimization of radiation protection in the control of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the three main principles on which protection against ionizing radiation is based is the principle of the optimization of radiological protection. The principle of the optimization of protection was first enunciated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in the 1960s. A principal requirement for the optimization of protection and safety has been incorporated into the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards) from the first edition in 1962 up to the current (1996) edition. The principle of optimization, that all reasonable efforts be made to reduce doses (social and economic factors being taken into account), necessitates considerable effort to apply in practice. The requirement of the Basic Safety Standards to apply the principle of optimization applies to all categories of exposure: occupational, public and medical. The categories of public and medical exposure are rather specific and are covered in other publications. This Safety Report concentrates on the application of the principle to what is probably the largest category, that of occupational exposure. This Safety Report provides practical information on how to apply the optimization of protection in the workplace. The emphasis throughout is on the integration of radiation protection into the more general system of work management, and on the involvement of management and workers in setting up a system of radiation protection and in its implementation. This Safety Report was drafted and finalized in three consultants meetings held in 1999 and 2000. The draft was sent for review and comment to a number of experts, which yielded valuable comments from a number of reviewers whose names are included in the list of contributors to drafting and review

  18. Does occupational exposure to ionizing radiation induce adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, B.; Selakovic, V.; Radjen, S.; Radakovic, S.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Even the most of personnel occupationally exposed (OE) to ionizing radiation (IR) is exposed to very low doses (LD), some harmful effects can be noticed. IR can affect the cell structure in two ways: directly and indirectly-inducing radiolysis of water and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) similar to endogenously induced. In the low- LET exposure almost 70 % of absorbed energy is spent for ROS production. Over-production of ROS can cause oxidative stress. DNA is the main target of induced ROS. It is also experimentally showed that many important cell protective mechanisms, such is adaptation, are dependent of ROS concentration produced by low doses. The aim of this paper is to investigate if occupational exposure to LD induce over-production of ROS, and influence the activity of protective enzymes and radiosensitivity as well as induce adaptation. Our subjects were medical workers occupationally exposed to IR (44) and not-exposed (33), matched in gender, age, habits-dietary, alcohol consumption, smoking. Occupational exposure was calculated on the basis of individual TL-dose records. Besides the standard medical examination, micronucleus test, superoxide production and lipid peroxidation index, expressed as malonaldehyde (MDA) production, were performed by standard procedures as well as measurements of activity of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). Half of each sample were put in a sterile plastic test-tube placed in a plexiglas container 15 x 15 cm, and irradiated by 60 Co source of γ-ray at room temperature. Employed radiation dose was 2 Gy, dose-rate 0.45 Gy/min and distance from the source 74 cm. All blood samples were frozen at -70 C degrees, and kept till analyses which were performed at the same time. Our results confirm: significantly higher incidence of micronuclei in OE (.31±10 vs 17±8, p=0.00) with significant increase after irradiation in each group and lack of differences in radiosensitivity between groups

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  20. Airborne spread of expiratory droplet nuclei between the occupants of indoor environments: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Z.T.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2018-01-01

    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modelling. Future research needs in three areas are identified: the importance of the direction of indoor airflow patterns, the dynamics of airborne transmission, and the application of CFD simulations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  1. Workshop. Assessment of Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Genotoxic Substances - a Methodological Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    During the workshop various works concerning radiobiology, environmental and occupational medicine were presented. Exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents, like ionizing radiation, aromatic hydrocarbons, herbicides, pesticides was investigated

  2. Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishnan, S. [Health Physics Unit, Indian Rare Earths Limited, Udyogamandal, 683 501 Kerala (India); Krishnamony, S. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1998-09-01

    High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1 m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000 nGy h{sup -1}. Soil samples showed {sup 232}Th specific activity varying from 0{center_dot}1 to 1{center_dot}5 Bq g{sup -1} with surface alpha activity in the range of1{center_dot}0-12{center_dot}5 Bq cm{sup -2}. Suspended particulates in the samples ranged from 60-140 {mu}g m{sup -3} with {sup 232}Th showing a wider variation of <0{center_dot}03-0{center_dot}3 mBq m{sup -3}. There was poor correlation between suspended particulates and long-lived alpha airborne activity (r=-0{center_dot}3). The resuspension factors for {sup 232}Th were in the range of 1{center_dot}5x10{sup -8}-7{center_dot}9x10{sup -7} cm{sup -1}. Higher resuspension was correlated with dry sand dunes. The upper limits for Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to inhalation of airborne {sup 232}Th at the respective high natural radiation areas were estimated to range from 50{+-}30 to 300{+-}130 {mu}Sv (5-30 mrem) per year per adult member of public assuming an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1 {mu}m for the airborne particulates. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Exposure to occupational therapy as a factor influencing recruitment to the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    This article provides insight into the impact that exposure to an occupational therapist, in personal capacity or via a professional interaction, has on the decision to enter an occupational therapy undergraduate programme. A quantitative survey was completed by 139 occupational therapy students. The survey tool focussed on the students' exposure to a range of allied health professions (e.g. occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology) and investigated how exposure to occupational therapy had influenced their decision to enter the programme. The results indicated that over 70% of respondents had personal professional exposure to occupational therapy prior to making a career decision. Exposure most frequently involved occupational therapy intervention of a friend or family member. The majority of students who had professional exposure to occupational therapy (e.g. family, self, friend received occupational therapy) identified that it was the most influential factor in their career choice. Forty per cent of the occupational therapy students did not enter the programme straight from school and the influence of 'working with an occupational therapist' was noteworthy for mature aged students. Occupational therapists need to consider that every interaction they have with the community provides valuable information regarding the profession and gives insight into occupational therapy as a potential career path for other people. Additionally, the current research identifies there were differences in the impact, type and number of exposures for different student groups, and this potentially offers some insight into ways in which occupational therapy could target specific groups within the community to increase future diversity in the profession. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  4. Effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Rosenman, Kenneth D; Reilly, Mary Jo; Rice, Carol H

    2002-08-01

    To assess the effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function. Epidemiologic evaluation based on employee interview, plant walk-through, and information abstracted from company medical records, employment records, and industrial hygiene measurements. Drawn from 1,072 current and former hourly wage workers employed before January 1, 1986. Thirty-six individuals with radiographic evidence of parenchymal changes consistent with asbestosis or silicosis were excluded. In addition, eight individuals whose race was listed as other than white or black were excluded. Analysis of spirometry data (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) only using the test results that met American Thoracic Society criteria for reproducibility and acceptability shows decreasing percent-predicted FVC and FEV1 and decreasing FEV1/FVC in relationship to increasing silica exposure among smokers. Logistic regression analyses of abnormal FVC and abnormal FEV1 values (where abnormal is defined as OSHA)-allowable level of 0.1 mg/m3. Longitudinal analyses of FVC and FEV1 measurements show a 1.6 mL/yr and 1.1 mL/yr, respectively, decline per milligram/cubic meter mean silica exposure (p = 0.011 and p = 0.001, respectively). All analyses were adjusted for weight, height, age, ethnicity, smoking status, and other silica exposures. Systematic problems leading to measurement error were possible, but would have been nondifferential in effect and not related to silica measurements. There is a consistent association between increased pulmonary function abnormalities and estimated measures of cumulative silica exposure within the current allowable OSHA regulatory level. Despite concerns about the quality control of the pulmonary function measurements use in these analyses, our results support the need to lower allowable air levels of silica and increase efforts to encourage cessation of cigarette smoking among silica-exposed workers.

  5. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers′ Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively. Workplace dust exposure was classified as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24 and 3.42 (2.26-5.17 at 80-89 dB and ≥90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury.

  6. Radiation protection in occupational exposure to microwave electrotherapy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardia, V.; Ferrer, S.; Alonso, O.; Almonacid, M.

    2012-01-01

    During the last years, electromagnetic emitters are more and more commonly used for therapeutic treatments in electrotherapy centers. This extended use has caused worries workers, who believe that microwave radiation radiation might have effects similar to those induced by radioactivity, even if the only effects recognised by international regulatory bodies concerning microwave exposure of humans are those of thermal origin. The present study aims to answer the existing concerns about electromagnetic exposure in electrotherapy facilities. After monitoring environmental values in an electrotherapy facility, we conclude that actions must be undertaken in order to reduce the exposure levels, as proposed by the current European guidelines, which should become legally binding for all EU state members within the current year. With the purpose of reducing potential risks of occupational overexposure, we are developing innovative fabrics for microwave shielding. These new materials are able to attenuate 85% of the microwave radiation. As these are light materials, they can be used in all kind of facilities, as wall covers, movable screens or even as personal protection, like lab clothes or gloves. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Airborne exposures associated with the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Michael; Williams, Pamela R D; Ovesen, Jerald; Maier, Andrew

    2018-04-19

    Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied. Both short-term (15 min) and task-based (≥1 hr) charcoal tube samples were collected in the breathing zone and adjacent work area and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THCs), toluene, and benzene. The majority of personal (N = 48) and area (N = 47) samples had detectable levels of THC and toluene, but no detections of benzene were found. For the personal short-term samples, average airborne concentrations ranged from 3.1 - 61.5 ppm (13.8-217.5 mg/m 3 ) for THC and 2.2 - 44.0 ppm (8.2-162.5 mg/m 3 ) for toluene, depending on the scenario. Compared to the personal short-term samples, average concentrations were generally 2 to 3 times lower for the personal task-based samples and 2 to 5 times lower for the area short-term samples. The highest exposures occurred when the garage bay doors were closed, floor fan was turned off, or greatest amount of brake cleaner was used. These findings add to the limited dataset on this topic and can be used to bound or approximate worker or consumer exposures from use of aerosol cleaning products with similar compositions and use patterns.

  8. Ionizing radiation occupational exposure in the hemodynamics services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronchi, Claudia Carla

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the ionizing radiation occupational exposure in the hemodynamic services of two large scale hospitals (Hospital A and Hospital B) of the Sao Paulo city. The research looked into annual doses that 279 professionals of the hemodynamic services were exposed to between 1991 and 2002. The data analyzed was collected from the database of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) for Hospital A, and from the Radiological Protection Department of Hospital B. Besides this, measures of hands and crystalline lens equivalent doses were performed during hemodynamic procedures of the physicians, assistant physicians and nursing assistants with TL dosimeters (CaSO 4 :Dy + Teflon R) produced at IPEN. The safety procedures adopted by the hospitals were verified with the aid of a specific questionnaire for the hemodynamic services. Finally, a profile of the professionals that work in cardiac catheterism laboratories of the hemodynamic services was delineated, considering the variables of individual monitoring time, age and sex. This study allowed for observation of the behavior of the professionals' annual doses of these hemodynamic services in relation to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear and the Secretaria de Vigilancia Sanitaria limits. It showed that the annual doses of the same specialized occupations would vary from one hospital to another. It further showed the need of individual monitoring of the physicians' unprotected body parts (hands and crystalline lens) during the hemodynamic procedures. (author)

  9. Detriment calculations resulting from occupational radiation exposures in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghani, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The application of the nominal probability coefficient to evaluate the detriment after the annual occupational exposures of workers from radiation sources and radioactive material have been calculated for workers in medical practices, industrial applications, atomic energy activities and those involved in exploration and mining of radioactive ores and phosphates. The aim of detriment calculations is to provide a foresight for the future occurrence of stochastic effects among the exposed workers. The calculated detriment can be classified into three classes. The first includes workers in diagnostic radiology and atomic energy activities who received the higher doses and consequently represent the higher detriment. The second class comprises workers in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine whose detriment is for times lesser than that of the first class. The third one concerns workers in industrial applications and in exploration and mining of radioactive ores and phosphates, their detriments ten times lesser than that of the second class. The occupational radiation doses are endorsed by the united nation scientific committee on efects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR) for the period january 1995 to december 1998

  10. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide: management of hydrogen sulfide exposure victims (Preprint No. SA-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1989-04-01

    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S.A. has listed 73 industries with potential exposure to hydrogen sulphide. Though the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide is known to mankind since the beginning of seventeenth century the exact mode of its toxicity and effective therapeutic regimen remains unclear as yet. This paper presents current thoughts on the toxicity of this substance and a discussion on the role of various antidotes used in H 2 S poisoning. (autho r)

  11. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  12. Occupational radiation exposure. Annual report No. 11 for 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.; McDonald, S.; Richardson, E.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the information reported for calendar year 1978 by all NRC licensees to the Commission's centralized repository of personnel occupational radiation exposure information. The bulk of the information in the report is derived from annual reports that were required to be submitted by all NRC licensees pursuant to 10CFR 20.407. Previously only certain categories - commercial nuclear power reactors, industrial radiographers, fuel fabricators and processors and commercial distributors of byproduct materials - of NRC licensees had submitted such reports. The requirement of 10CFR 20.408 for the submission of termination reports continued to apply to only these four categories, and some analysis of the data contained in these reports is also presented. A brief description of personnel overexposures reported by NRC licensees is included as well

  13. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  14. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1979-11-01

    An updated compilation is presented of occupational radiation exposures at commercial nuclear power reactors for the years 1969 through 1978. Data received from the 64 light water cooled reactors (LWRs) that had completed at least one year of commercial operation as of December 31, 1978 are included. This represents an increase of seven reactors over the number contained in last year's report. The total number of personnel monitored at LWRs during 1978 increased by approximately 12% to 76,121. The number of workers that received measurable doses, however, increased only 8% to 45,978. The total collective dose for 1978 is estimated to be 31,806 man-rems, a small decrease from last year's value of 32,511, which results in the average dose per worker decreasing slightly to 0.69 rems. The average collective dose per reactor also decreased, by approximately 15%, to a value of 497 man-rems

  15. Role of American Nuclear Insurers in reducing occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1957 the nuclear insurance pools have provided liability and property insurance for the nation's nuclear power generating stations as mandated by the Price-Anderson Act. Although the insurance was originally structured to give financial protection to the insured in the event of a major accident, the potential for third-party claims arising from routine occupational exposure is becoming a more realistic pathway for a loss to the pools. In order to give maximum protection to the pools' assets, the Liability Engineering Department of American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) performs periodic inspections of the power plants. By concentrating on programs and management areas, ANI inspections complement regulatory inspections so that all major areas of common interest are reviewed. This paper presents the nature, results, and findings of those periodic inspections particularly in the general area of plant radiation protection

  16. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  17. Distinguishing nanomaterial particles from background airborne particulate matter for quantitative exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Serita, Fumio; Takaya, Mitsutoshi

    2009-10-01

    As the production of engineered nanomaterials quantitatively expands, the chance that workers involved in the manufacturing process will be exposed to nanoparticles also increases. A risk management system is needed for workplaces in the nanomaterial industry based on the precautionary principle. One of the problems in the risk management system is difficulty of exposure assessment. In this article, examples of exposure assessment in nanomaterial industries are reviewed with a focus on distinguishing engineered nanomaterial particles from background nanoparticles in workplace atmosphere. An approach by JNIOSH (Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) to quantitatively measure exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials is also introduced. In addition to real-time measurements and qualitative analysis by electron microscopy, quantitative chemical analysis is necessary for quantitatively assessing exposure to nanomaterials. Chemical analysis is suitable for quantitative exposure measurement especially at facilities with high levels of background NPs.

  18. Tetrabromobisphenol A – Toxicity, environmental and occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jarosiewicz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brominated flame retardants (BFR, including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA represents 25% of the global market of flame retardants. Among them, TBBPA is used on the largest scale (approx. 60% because of its firebreak properties and widespread occurrence in every day products such as furniture, upholstery, adhesives and electronic equipment. A broad application of TBBPA can contribute to environmental pollution. Tetrabromobisphenol A has been determined in soil, water, river sediments and the atmosphere. Tetrabromobisphenol A is characterized by a high value of coefficient n-octanol/water (log P = 4.5, low acidity, and it may exist in undissociated or dissociated form. Due to the high hydrophobicity, TBBPA may accumulate in living organisms, including humans at different food chain levels. The occurrence of TBBPA in humans, e.g., in blood, fat tissue and mother milk, has been reported. Tetrabromobisphenol A is classified as hazard statements (H H400/H410, which means that it is toxic to aquatic biota, causing long-term changes in these organisms. Up to now, only a few studies have been conducted to assess potential toxicity of high doses of TBBPA to mammals. Although many people are occupationally exposed to TBBPA during production or processing of this substance in their workplaces, there are only a few studies that have assessed the real hazard associated with TBPPA exposure. The aim of the study was to discuss the latest literature (mainly from the years 2010–2016 referring to the presence of TBBPA in the environment and its effects to living organisms. Data concerning occupational exposure to TBBPA were also presented. Med Pr 2017;68(1:121–134

  19. From eyeballing to statistical modelling : methods for assessment of occupational exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis methods for assessment of occupational exposure are evaluated and developed. These methods range from subjective methods (qualitative and semiquantitative) to more objective quantitative methods based on actual measurement of personal exposure to chemical and physical

  20. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  1. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the results with previous observation data. The concentrations were compared with the currently used air quality standards. Results Evaporation was found to be 10- to 1,000-fold higher than the emissions produced from a surrounding industrial complex. The modeled concentrations for benzene failed to meet current labor environmental standards, and the concentration of benzene, toluene, ortho- meta- para-xylene were higher than the values specified by air quality standards and guideline values on the ocean. The concentrations of total VOCs were much higher than indoor environmental criteria for the entire Taean area for a few days. Conclusions The extent of airborne exposure was clearly not the same as that for normal conditions. PMID:22468262

  2. Occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave radiation and the risk of brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Spallek, Jacob; Schüz, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    It is still under debate whether occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave electromagnetic fields (RF/MW-EMF) contributes to the development of brain tumors. This analysis examined the role of occupational RF/MW-EMF exposure in the risk of glioma and meningioma. A population-based, case....... "High" exposure was defined as an occupational exposure that may exceed the RF/MW-EMF exposure limits for the general public recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed separately for glioma and meningioma...

  3. The impact of education on occupational radiation exposure reduction in a diagnostic radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, R.J.; Gray, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Patient load, number of radiographic exams, complexity of some exams, and associated potential occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel have increased significantly in the past decade. Efforts to reduce exposure through employee education and awareness have resulted in significant reduction in occupational exposure for most diagnostic radiographic areas at Mayo Clinic. This paper reviews trends in occupational radiation exposure from diagnostic x- rays at Mayo Clinic over the past ten years. Changes in employee radiation dose equivalents are correlated with patient workload, complexity of exams, increased interventional radiology and cardiology, and efforts to reduce employee radiation exposure

  4. Occupational exposure in the production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Z. H.; Soria, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the experiences in controlling occupational exposure production of radiopharmaceuticals in the Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba. data corresponding period 1996-2014 to 896 records are processed. The percentage distributions of the annual effective dose (E), the equivalent dose in the hands (Hp (0.07)) and the equivalent dose in crystalline (Hp (3)), are presented. The annual performance of the average values ​​of these dose quantities is plotted. The results of the internal dosimetry are processed. Annual activities manipulated radioisotopes greater contribution and its relation to the distribution of the collective dose directly linked S of staff, they are evaluated. The ALARA principle is implemented and maintained, based on qualitative and quantitative analysis, as appropriate. The (63-98)% of workers are monitored to E and the (80-100)% for Hp (0.07) and Hp (3), receives less than 10% of annual exposure limits. Groups of workers Radiopharmacy and Inspection and Testing are the greatest contribution to the collective dose, whose S to E equal to or greater than 2 mSv is the (9-62)% of total annual S. The maximum value of S is 98.3 mSv recorded man-1 and this occurs in 2011, however the highest value of 99Mo activity is handled in 2012 and a later year for 131I. They are identified as the most effective means for optimizing radiation safety the use of electronic dosimeters, internal shields process in hot cells and glove boxes and shields for collection of radioactive waste. a reduction in personnel exposure between (10-27)% is obtained. It is shown that exposure of workers in the production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba is acceptably low. (author)

  5. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  6. Performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) : European collaborative analyses on occupational risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with job exposure matrices (ECOJEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Moual, N; Bakke, P; Orlowski, E; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Kennedy, SM; Rijcken, B; Kauffmann, F

    Objectives-To compare the performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) sand self reported occupational exposure with data on exposure and lung function from three European general populations. Methods-Self reported occupational exposure (yes or no) and present occupation were

  7. 2-methylanthraquinone as a marker of occupational exposure to teak wood dust in boatyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Giampaolo; Carrieri, Mariella; Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Parvoli, Giorgio; Ferrara, Daniela; Rella, Rocco; Sturaro, Alberto; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2009-01-01

    A new gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method was developed to detect 2-methylanthraquinone (2-MeA) in wood dust. 2-MeA is present in teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen) but not in oak, beech, mahogany, birch, ash or pine. The method involved collection of workplace dust on filters and extraction of 2-MeA with methanol and GC/MS analysis. The method was tested on teak wood dust samples (n = 43) collected on polyvinylchloride membrane filters during various work operations in four small factories making furniture and fittings for leisure craft and boatyards (air teak wood dust concentration: range 0.32-14.32 mg m(-3)). A high correlation coefficient for the content of 2-MeA versus teak dust was obtained (logarithmic correlation: y = 1.5308x + 0.0998, r = 0.9215). Determination of airborne 2-MeA is a useful technique to confirm occupational exposure to teak wood dust.

  8. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  9. The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Kalcevich, Christina; McLeod, Chris; Lebeau, Martin; Song, Chaojie; McLeod, Kim; Kim, Joanne; Demers, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure in Canada. We estimate the lifetime cost of newly diagnosed lung cancer and mesothelioma cases associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure for calendar year 2011 based on the societal perspective. The key cost components considered are healthcare costs, productivity and output costs, and quality of life costs. There were 427 cases of newly diagnosed mesothelioma cases and 1904 lung cancer cases attributable to asbestos exposure in 2011 for a total of 2331 cases. Our estimate of the economic burden is $C831 million in direct and indirect costs for newly identified cases of mesothelioma and lung cancer and $C1.5 billion in quality of life costs based on a value of $C100 000 per quality-adjusted life year. This amounts to $C356 429 and $C652 369 per case, respectively. The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure is substantial. The estimate identified is for 2331 newly diagnosed, occupational and para-occupational exposure cases in 2011, so it is only a portion of the burden of existing cases in that year. Our findings provide important information for policy decision makers for priority setting, in particular the merits of banning the mining of asbestos and use of products containing asbestos in countries where they are still allowed and also the merits of asbestos removal in older buildings with asbestos insulation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases: a role for TIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael G; Trinh, Theresa; Yao, Che-Lin

    2009-07-01

    Modern anaesthesia is still mostly administered by the inhalational route and there is increasing concern over its potential for pollution. One of the first gaseous anaesthetic agents was nitrous oxide and this is still widely used today despite being associated with adverse effects caused by depression of vitamin B(12) function and diminished reproductive health. The use of halothane is associated with hepatitis but the adverse effects of newer halogenated hydrocarbons are less well recognised. Chronic exposure may cause reduction in antioxidant activity in plasma and erythrocytes, inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis, depression of central neuro-respiratory activity, increased DNA breaks, effects on cerebral blood circulation and altered renal function. Inhalational anaesthetics also have adverse environmental effects, including ozone damage and greenhouse gas effects. Levels of inhalational anaesthetics in the ambient air of operating theatres and recovery rooms often exceed those stated in national guidelines. Anaesthetic procedures can be modified and air-conditioning and air scavenging systems should be used to minimise the risks from occupational exposure and threats to the environment. Such contamination could be avoided with the use of total intravenous anaesthesia.

  11. Occupational Exposures to Ebola Virus in Ebola Treatment Center, Conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Hélène; Janvier, Frédéric; Karkowski, Ludovic; Billhot, Magali; Aletti, Marc; Bordes, Julien; Koulibaly, Fassou; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Cournac, Jean-Marie; Maugey, Nancy; Gagnon, Nicolas; Cotte, Jean; Cambon, Audrey; Mac Nab, Christine; Moroge, Sophie; Rousseau, Claire; Foissaud, Vincent; De Greslan, Thierry; Granier, Hervé; Cellarier, Gilles; Valade, Eric; Kraemer, Philippe; Alla, Philippe; Mérens, Audrey; Sagui, Emmanuel; Carmoi, Thierry; Rapp, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    We report 77 cases of occupational exposures for 57 healthcare workers at the Ebola Treatment Center in Conakry, Guinea, during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2014-2015. Despite the high incidence of 3.5 occupational exposures/healthcare worker/year, only 18% of workers were at high risk for transmission, and no infections occurred.

  12. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries.......The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries....

  13. Dose — response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers’ Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ≥90 dB versus occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury. PMID:25599757

  14. Occupational exposure to diisocyanates in polyurethane foam factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Świerczyńska-Machura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate health effects of occupational exposure to diisocyanates (DIC among polyurethane foam products factory workers. Material and Methods: Thirty workers had a physical examination, skin prick tests with common allergens, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies to diisocyanates and pulmonary function tests. Concentrations of selected isocyanates in the workplace air samples as well as concentration of their metabolites in the urine samples collected from the workers of the plant were determined. Results: The most frequent work-related symptoms reported by the examined subjects were rhinitis and skin symptoms. Sensitization to at least 1 common allergen was noted in 26.7% of the subjects. Spirometry changes of bronchial obstruction of a mild degree was observed in 5 workers. The specific IgE antibodies to toluene diisocyanate (TDI and 4,4’-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate (MDI were not detected in any of the patients’ serum. Cellular profiles of the collected induced sputum (ISP did not reveal any abnormalities. Air concentrations of TDI isomers ranged 0.2–58.9 μg/m3 and in 7 cases they exceeded the Combined Exposure Index (CEI value for those compounds. Concentrations of TDI metabolites in post-shift urine samples were significantly higher than in the case of pre-shift urine samples and in 6 cases they exceeded the British Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV – 1 μmol amine/mol creatinine. We didn’t find a correlation between urinary concentrations of TDI, concentrations in the air and concentrations of toluenediamine (TDA in the post shift urine samples. Lack of such a correlation may be an effect of the respiratory protective equipment use. Conclusions: Determination of specific IgE in serum is not sensitive enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of concentrations of diisocyanate metabolites in urine samples and the presence of work-related allergic symptoms seem to be

  15. Neurodevelopmental toxicity risks due to occupational exposure to industrial chemicals during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is of particular concern when it occurs during early development. The immature brain is highly vulnerable prenatally and is therefore at risk due to occupational exposures incurred by pregnant women. A systematic search of the literature has been performed...... by occupational health researchers and practitioners from the need to protect pregnant workers. Due to the vulnerability of the brain during early development, a precautionary approach to neurodevelopmental toxicity needs to be applied in occupational health....

  16. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Vedernikova; I. A. Pron; M. N. Savkin; N. S. Cebakovskaya

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on d...

  17. Occupational exposure following Yttrium-90 microspheres SIR therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, P.; Boirie, G.; Dieudonne, A.; Leguludec, D.; Lebtahi, R.; Ben Reguiga, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a promising technique for solid hepatic neoplasms treatment. SIRT consists in implanting radioactive microspheres (RMS) in targeted hepatic lesions via femoral artery. Two RMS-Therapsheres [glass-microspheres/TSR] and Sir-Spheres [resin-spheres/SSR]- are marketed in the European market, both radiolabeled with Yttrium-90. The objective of this study is to assess occupational exposure for nuclear medicine, radiology and clinical staff involved in Y 90 -RMS preparation and implantation. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 20 patients treated for Hepato-Cellular Carcinoma: 10 treated with TSR and 10 with SSR. Dose rate (DR, mSv/h) or absorbed doses (mSv) measurements were made during all steps of TSR and SSR handling: sources receipt and unpacking, preparation, transport to radiology, implantation, and patient care. Measurements were made with portable ionization chamber(Babyline/Nardeux), spectrometer(FieldSpect/Aries), digital dosimeter (NED/Unfors) and operational dosimeter (Mk2/Siemens). Values were expressed as mean±SD. Results: patients received of 1.8 GBq to 3.1 GBq of TSR and 0.55 GBq to 2.4 GBq of SSR. TSR were delivered ready-to-use with the prescribed activity. For SSR only one activity was commercially available and shipped (3 GBq at calibration-time)requiring a preparation step to adjust needed activity. DR measured during RMS was 1723 ± 157 μSv/h SSR and 1189 ± 92 μSv/h for TSR. When preparing spheres in radiopharmacy, fingers and whole body doses were respectively 8326 ± 2360 μSv and 12.3 ± 5,2 μSv for Sir-Spheres vs. 33.5 ± 7.8 μSv and 1.1 ± 0.3 μSv for TSR. DR in contact with carrying case during RMS transfer to radiology were 299 ± 102 μSv/h for SSR and 5.3 ± 1.2 μSv/h for TSR. During RMS infusion, radiologist's finger doses were limited to 3.6 ± 1 μSv for SSR and 0.7± 0.3 μSv for TSR. Finally, following RMS

  18. Evaluation of Simultaneous Exposure to Flour Dust and Airborne Fungal Spores in Milling Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Dehdashti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Wheat flour as an organic allergen particle has an extensive respiratory exposure in milling industry and related industries. Simultaneous exposure to flour dust and fungal spores causes infectious disease, cancers, and impaired pulmonary function tests. This research was carried out with the aim of assessing the concentration of respirable flour particles, determining the type, and concentration of fungal spores in breathing air of workers in milling industries. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 42 area samples were collected on filter and analyzed gravimetrically. Using a specific sampling pump, sampling of bioaerosols and sabro dextrose agar medium of fungal spores, was performed. Microscopic analysis was applied to detect and quantify microorganisms as colony per cubic meter. Results: The mean and standard deviation of total respirable particles in the breathing air of workers was 6/57±1/69mg/m3, which exceeded occupational exposure limit. The concentration of fungal spores in workers’ breathing air ranged from 42 to 310 colony per cubic meter. The percentage of respirable to total dust particles produced in sieve vibration, bagging, and milling sections, were determined 67.83%, 32%, and 62.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the concentration of respirable particles in wheat milling process exceeded the recommended level and the concentration of fungal spores was at the average level of occupational exposure according to ACGIH recommendation. Therefore, engineering controls are required in flour milling process to reduce the exposure of workers.

  19. A review of the cohorts with environmental and occupational mineral fiber exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metintas, Selma; Ak, Guntulu; Metintas, Muzaffer

    2018-04-20

    The aim of the study was to examine factors associated with Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) incidence rate of the groups with occupational asbestos and environmental asbestos or erionite exposure in rural area. In this ecological study, a total of 21 cohort datasets (8 environmental and 13 occupational) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression analysis model. In environmental cohorts, the risk of MM incidence was higher in women and people exposed to erionite. In this cohort, the incidence rate of MM increased as the median exposure time increased, while the incidence decreased as the median cumulative exposure dose increased. In occupational cohorts, the incidence rate of MM was positively correlated with the median cumulative exposure dose. The risk of mesothelioma was lower in those exposed to tremolite than others. Environmental asbestos exposure is as important as occupational exposure to develop MM, and it has its own unique exposure features on the risk of MM.

  20. Overview of medical occupational exposure issues in the European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.; Legaure, C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to set the scene for this, the 6th European ALARA Network (EAN) Workshop, the topic of which is Occupational Exposure Optimisation in the Medical Field and Radiopharmaceutical Industry. As with previous Workshops, apart from providing a forum for the exchange of information and experiences, it has an objective, the identification of recommendations to the European Commission, regulatory bodies and other involved parties. The previous five Workshops have rise to some 35 recommendations. Stemming from these several new projects have been started. For example. . The nd Workshop on Good Practices in Industry and Research identified the need to improve the mechanisms for improving feedback and learning the lessons from accidents and incidents. This lead to an EC pilot study, European Union Radiation Accident and Incident Data Exchange Project (EURAIDE) which is covered in a later paper. . The 3rd Workshop on Managing Internal Internal Exposure gave rise to an EC project: Strategies and Methods for Optimisation of Internal Exposure (SMOPIE) of workers from industrial processes involving naturally occurring radioactive material. . The 5th Workshop Industrial Radiography-Improvements in Radiation Protection has give rise to an EC supported Joint Working Group from EAN and the European Non-Destructive Testing Society to take forward improvements in industrial radiography. The progress of these initiative can be followed in the EAN newsletter. It is to be hoped that the recommendations from this Workshop, will similarly lead to useful programmes of work. . In order to facilitate the development of recommendations, the Workshop Programme includes two sessions where participants will split into a number of Working Groups to develop ideas. These will be reported on in the final session of the programme and we will attempt to bring together the strands into a coherent set of recommendations. As a further aid to this process this paper briefly reviews the

  1. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  2. Occupational chemical exposures: a collaboration between the Georgia Poison Center and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Aaron W; Jones, Alison; Lopez, Gaylord P; Ketcham, Glenn R; Hodgson, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, regional poison centers frequently receive calls about toxic workplace exposures. Most poison centers do not share call details routinely with governmental regulatory agencies. Worker health and safety could be enhanced if regulators such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) had the ability to investigate these events and prevent similar incidents. With this goal in mind, the Georgia Poison Center (GPC) began referring occupational exposures to OSHA in July 2014. GPC began collecting additional employer details when handling occupational exposure calls. When workers granted permission, GPC forwarded call details to the OSHA Regional Office in Atlanta. These referrals enabled OSHA to initiate several investigations. We also analyzed all occupational exposures reported to GPC during the study period to characterize the events, detect violations of OSHA reporting requirements, and identify hazardous scenarios that could form the basis for future OSHA rulemaking or guidance. GPC was informed about 953 occupational exposures between 1 July, 2014 and 7 January, 2016. Workers were exposed to 217 unique substances, and 70.3% of victims received treatment in a healthcare facility. Hydrogen sulfide was responsible for the largest number of severe clinical effects. GPC obtained permission to refer 89 (9.3%) calls to OSHA. As a result of these referrals, OSHA conducted 39 investigations and cited 15 employers for "serious" violations. OSHA forwarded several other referrals to other regulatory agencies when OSHA did not have jurisdiction. At least one employer failed to comply with OSHA's new rule that mandates reporting of all work-related hospitalizations. This collaboration increased OSHA's awareness of dangerous job tasks including hydrofluoric acid exposure among auto detailers and carbon monoxide poisoning with indoor use of gasoline-powered tools. Collaboration with the GPC generated a useful source of referrals to OSHA. OSHA

  3. [Prevalence of exposure to occupational risks in pregnant Spanish workers (the INMA Project-Valencia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galarzo, M Carmen; García, Ana M; Estarlich, Marisa; García García, Francisco; Esplugues, Ana; Rodríguez, Paz; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran

    2009-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks among pregnant women and analyze its relationship with personal and occupational characteristics using information collected in the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA])-Valencia cohort study. The INMA-Valencia cohort study started in 2004 with 855 pregnant women living in Valencia, Spain. Data on sociodemographic variables (age, education and country of birth) and occupational conditions (activity, occupation, type of contract, working hours and self-reported occupational exposure to physical load and psychosocial, physical, chemical and biological risks) in women with paid employment during pregnancy (n=649) were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire in week 32 of pregnancy. The prevalences of reported exposure to physical and psychosocial load and to physical pollutants (including non-ionizing radiations) were 56%, 63% and 62%, respectively. The prevalence of reported exposure to chemicals (including cleaning products) and biological pollutants was 22% and 6%, respectively. In general, the characteristics most closely associated with exposure to occupational risks were younger age, non-Spanish nationality, lower education, having a temporary contract or being self-employed. This study is the first to quantify the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks during pregnancy in a Spanish population-based sample. According to the data observed, surveillance and control actions should be intensified in pregnant workers, as some of the observed occupational exposures have been consistently associated with detrimental reproductive and developmental effects.

  4. Elemental properties of copper slag and measured airborne exposures at a copper slag processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugford, Christopher; Gibbs, Jenna L; Boylstein, Randy

    2017-08-01

    In 1974, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended a ban on the use of abrasives containing >1% silica, giving rise to abrasive substitutes like copper slag. We present results from a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health industrial hygiene survey at a copper slag processing facility that consisted of the collection of bulk samples for metals and silica; and full-shift area and personal air samples for dust, metals, and respirable silica. Carcinogens, suspect carcinogens, and other toxic elements were detected in all bulk samples, and area and personal air samples. Area air samples identified several areas with elevated levels of inhalable and respirable dust, and respirable silica: quality control check area (236 mg/m 3 inhalable; 10.3 mg/m 3 respirable; 0.430 mg/m 3 silica), inside the screen house (109 mg/m 3 inhalable; 13.8 mg/m 3 respirable; 0.686 mg/m 3 silica), under the conveyor belt leading to the screen house (19.8 mg/m 3 inhalable), and inside a conveyor access shack (11.4 mg/m 3 inhalable; 1.74 mg/m 3 respirable; 0.067 mg/m 3 silica). Overall, personal dust samples were lower than area dust samples and did not exceed published occupational exposure limits. Silica samples collected from a plant hand and a laborer exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist Threshold Limit Value of 0.025 µg/m 3 . All workers involved in copper slag processing (n = 5) approached or exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 10 µg/m 3 for arsenic (range: 9.12-18.0 µg/m 3 ). Personal total dust levels were moderately correlated with personal arsenic levels (R s = 0.70) and personal respirable dust levels were strongly correlated with respirable silica levels (R s = 0.89). We identified multiple areas with elevated levels of dust, respirable silica, and metals that may have implications for personal exposure at other facilities if preventive

  5. Sensor-triggered sampling to determine instantaneous airborne vapor exposure concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip A; Simmons, Michael K; Toone, Phillip

    2018-06-01

    It is difficult to measure transient airborne exposure peaks by means of integrated sampling for organic chemical vapors, even with very short-duration sampling. Selection of an appropriate time to measure an exposure peak through integrated sampling is problematic, and short-duration time-weighted average (TWA) values obtained with integrated sampling are not likely to accurately determine actual peak concentrations attained when concentrations fluctuate rapidly. Laboratory analysis for integrated exposure samples is preferred from a certainty standpoint over results derived in the field from a sensor, as a sensor user typically must overcome specificity issues and a number of potential interfering factors to obtain similarly reliable data. However, sensors are currently needed to measure intra-exposure period concentration variations (i.e., exposure peaks). In this article, the digitized signal from a photoionization detector (PID) sensor triggered collection of whole-air samples when toluene or trichloroethylene vapors attained pre-determined levels in a laboratory atmosphere generation system. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of whole-air samples (with both 37 and 80% relative humidity) collected using the triggering mechanism with rapidly increasing vapor concentrations showed good agreement with the triggering set point values. Whole-air samples (80% relative humidity) in canisters demonstrated acceptable 17-day storage recoveries, and acceptable precision and bias were obtained. The ability to determine exceedance of a ceiling or peak exposure standard by laboratory analysis of an instantaneously collected sample, and to simultaneously provide a calibration point to verify the correct operation of a sensor was demonstrated. This latter detail may increase the confidence in reliability of sensor data obtained across an entire exposure period.

  6. Methods for air cleaning and protection of building occupants from airborne pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolashikov, Z.D.; Melikov, A.K. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Alle, building 402, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-07-15

    This article aims to draw the attention of the scientific community towards the elevated risks of airborne transmission of diseases and the associated risks of epidemics or pandemics. The complexity of the problem and the need for multidisciplinary research is highlighted. The airborne route of transmission, i.e. the generation of pathogen laden droplets originating in the respiratory tract of an infected individual, the survivability of the pathogens, their dispersal indoors and their transfer to a healthy person are reviewed. The advantages and the drawbacks of air dilution, filtration, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), plasmacluster ions and other technologies for air disinfection and purification from pathogens are analyzed with respect to currently used air distribution principles. The importance of indoor air characteristics, such as temperature, relative humidity and velocity for the efficiency of each method is analyzed, taking into consideration the nature of the pathogens themselves. The applicability of the cleaning methods to the different types of total volume air distribution used at present indoors, i.e. mixing, displacement and underfloor ventilation, as well as advanced air distribution techniques (such as personalized ventilation) is discussed. (author)

  7. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  8. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  9. Exposure to airborne culturable microorganisms and endotoxin in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paba, Emilia; Chiominto, Alessandra; Marcelloni, Anna Maria; Proietto, Anna Rita; Sisto, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Even if slaughterhouses' workers handle large amounts of organic material and are potentially exposed to a wide range of biological agents, relatively little and not recent data are available. The main objective of this study was to characterize indoor concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin mod = Im (endotoxin∼Gram-negative*plant*filter) in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses. Air samples near air handling units inlets were also collected. Since there are not standardized protocols for endotoxin sampling and extraction procedures, an additional aim of the study was to compare the extraction efficiency of three different filter.. The study was also aimed at determining the correlation between concentrations of Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin. In Plant A bacterial levels ranged from 17.5 to 2.6×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentrations were observed in evisceration area of chickens, between the automatic detachment of the neck and washing offal, and near birds coupling before hair-chilling. The highest mean value of Gram-negative (266.5 CFU/m3) was found near the washing offal of turkeys. In Plant B bacterial concentration ranged from 35 to 8×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentration. with the highest value of Gram-negative (248 CFU/m3), was found after defeathering. Fungal concentrations were overall lower than those found for bacteria (range: 0-205 CFU/m3 in Plant A and 0-146.2 CFU/m3 in Plant B). The microbial flora was dominated by Gram-negative and coagulase-negative staphylococci for bacteria and by species belonging to Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera for molds. The highest endotoxin concentrations were measured in washing offal for Plant A (range: 122.7-165.9 EU/m3) and after defeathering for Plant B (range: 0.83-38.85 EU/m3). In this study airborne microorganisms concentrations were lower than those found in similar occupational settings and below the occupational limits proposed by some authors. However, these

  10. The relationship between blood lead levels and occupational exposure in a pregnant population

    OpenAIRE

    Osmel La-Llave-León; José Manuel Salas Pacheco; Sergio Estrada Martínez; Eloísa Esquivel Rodríguez; Francisco X. Castellanos Juárez; Ada Sandoval Carrillo; Angélica María Lechuga Quiñones; Fernando Vázquez Alanís; Gonzalo García Vargas; Edna Madai Méndez Hernández; Jaime Duarte Sustaita

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnant women exposed to lead are at risk of suffering reproductive damages, such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, premature delivery and low birth weight. Despite that the workplace offers the greatest potential for lead exposure, there is relatively little information about occupational exposure to lead during pregnancy. This study aims to assess the association between blood lead levels and occupational exposure in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional stu...

  11. FOODCHAIN: a Monte Carlo model to estimate individual exposure to airborne pollutants via the foodchain pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, E.; Holton, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Ingestion of contaminated food due to the airborne release of radionuclides or chemical pollutants is a particularly difficult human exposure pathway to quantify. There are a number of important physical and biological processes such as atmospheric deposition and plant uptake to consider. These processes are approximate by techniques encoded in the computer program TEREX. Once estimates of pollutant concentrations are made, the problem can be reduced to computing exposure from ingestion of the food. Some assessments do not account for where the contaminated food is eaten, while others limit consumption to meat and vegetables produced within the affected area. While those approaches lead to an upper bound of exposure, a more realistic assumption is that if locally produced food is not sufficient to meet the dietary needs of the local populace, then uncontaminated food will be imported. This is the approach taken by the computer model FOODCHAIN. Exposures via ingestion of six basic types of food are modeled: beef, milk, grains, leafy vegetables, exposed produce (edible parts are exposed to atmospheric deposition), and protected produce (edible parts are protected from atmospheric deposition). Intake requirements for these six foods are based on a standard diet. Using TEREX-produced site-specific crop production values and food contamination values, FOODCHAIN randomly samples pollutant concentrations in each of the six foodstuffs in an inerative manner. Consumption of a particular food is weighted by a factor proportional to the total production of that food within the area studied. The exposures due to consumption of each of the six foodstuffs are summed to produce the total exposure for each randomly calculated diet

  12. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Crick, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO-as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS-the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as record keeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  13. Release of airborne radionuclides from Olympic Dam operations and exposure assessment for members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, F.F.; Chandler, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Olympic Dam Operations, a copper, uranium, silver and gold producing project, is situated in a semi-arid area 550 km north of Adelaide. Airborne dispersal is the major transport pathway of operation-related radionuclides to members of the public, and as such has become the focus of a major environmental monitoring program. Major emissions consist of radon and its associated daughters and radionuclides in dust that originate from mine, metallurgical plant, ore and mullock stockpiles and the tailings retention system. Dispersion modelling and measured ground level concentrations have been utilised to calculate the effective dose equivalent for three critical groups. All critical groups exposures are less than 0.2 mSv by the most conservative calculation and are well below the legislative limit of 1 mSv applicable to members of the public. 12 refs., 5 gabs., 12 figs

  14. [Monitoring of hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in infectious disease hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Manxia; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Yimei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the status and risk factors for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in an infectious disease hospital, and to provide a scientific basis for targeted preventive and control measures. The occupational exposure of 395 medical workers in our hospital was monitored from January 2012 to December 2014, among whom 79 individuals with occupational exposure were subjected to intervention and the risk factors for occupational exposure were analyzed. The high-risk group was mainly the nursing staff (69.6%). The incidence of hematogenous occupational exposure was high in medical personnel with a working age under 3 years, aged under 25 years, and at the infection ward, accounting for 63.3%, 72.1%, and 72.2%, respectively. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Treponema pallidum, and human immunodeficiency virus were the primary exposure sources. Sharp injury was the major way of injury (91.1%), with needle stick injury accounting for the highest proportion (86.1%). Injury occurred on the hand most frequently (91.1%). The high-risk links were improper disposal during or after pulling the needle, re-capturing the needle, and processing waste, accounting for 46.8%, 17.7%, and 12.7%, respectively. Seventy-nine professionals with occupational exposure were not infected. The main risk factor for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in the infectious disease hospital is needle stick injury. Strengthening the occupational protection education in medical staff in infectious disease hospital, implementing protective measures, standardizing operating procedures in high-risk links, and enhancing the supervision mechanism can reduce the incidence of occupational exposure and infection after exposure.

  15. Occupational exposure to staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Elzaki, M.; Khalil, M.

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure is an invasive technique that requires fluoroscopic and radiographic exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the occupational dose of ionising radiation at three gastroenterology departments (Fedial, Soba and Ibn seena hospitals) in Khartoum (Sudan). The radiation dose was measured during 55 therapeutic ERCP procedures. Thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. The mean radiation dose for the first operator was 0.27 mGy for the eye lens, 0.21 for the thyroid, 0.32 for the chest, 0.17 for the hand and 0.22 for the leg. The mean radiation dose for the second operator was 0.21 mGy for the hand and 0.20 mGy for the chest, while the mean radiation dose for the nurse was 0.44 mGy for the hand and 0.19 for the chest. The radiation dose received by the staff in these hospitals was found to be higher than most of the values in the literature. The radiation absorbed dose received by the different organs is relatively low. Additional studies need to be conducted for radiation dose optimisation. (authors)

  16. Occupational exposure for workers in interventional radiological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An interventional radiological examination is a diagnostic or therapeutic in any organ or anatomical region using images acquired with ionizing radiation. Compared to other radiological acquisition, personnel who perform interventional procedures, which involve long fluoroscopy times and a high workload may receive radiation doses comparable to the dose limits. Therefore to ensure that no person be subjected to an unacceptable risk from radiation, that need for accurate individual monitoring has arisen. In this work, the doses received by physician in cardiac angiography were evaluated and the results of two months were presented. Only 7 physicians were monitored. Hence the data available is presented, and it is hoped to provide some information on the assessment of occupational exposure in interventional radiological examination. Measurements were done using Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and a calibrated Harshaw Reader. Two TLDs were used by each physician, one worn under a protective apron at the waist (H W ) and the other worn outside and above the apron at the neck (H N ). The effective dose E was estimated from the formula: E (estimated) = 0.5 H W + 0.025 H N . From the result obtained it was concluded that, the weak point of radiation protection philosophy in medical application is in the work of interventional physicians who have no full time decision like the radiologist physicians and therefore haven't enough knowledge about the radiation and radiation protection. So they are the highest risk group among physicians and to whom the efforts must be directed. (author)

  17. Tobacco smoking, occupational exposure and bladder cancer in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscovich, J; Castelletto, R; Estève, J; Muñoz, N; Colanzi, R; Coronel, A; Deamezola, I; Tassi, V; Arslan, A

    1987-12-15

    The highest rate for bladder cancer in Latin America has been reported from La Plata, Argentina. A case-control study was carried out to investigate the reasons for this high rate. A total of 117 cases, 117 hospital controls and 117 neighbourhood sex- and age-matched controls were interviewed regarding their smoking and drinking habits and occupational exposures. Cigarette smoking and coffee drinking were identified as the major risk factors, and a significant association was also found for truck and railway drivers and for oil refinery workers. The relative risks for male smokers who ever smoked cigarettes vs. non-smokers was 4.3 (95% Cl: 1.9-10.3). The risk associated with black tobacco cigarettes was 2-3 times higher than that of blond cigarettes. For male ex-smokers the risk after 5 years of no smoking is less than one third of that of current smokers. The RR for drinking coffee was 2.4 (95% Cl: 1.4-4.4) after adjusting for the effects of tobacco smoking, and the risk increased with the number of cups per day. No association was found with the use of saccharin.

  18. Occupational radon daughter exposure in underground workplaces in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Kolstad, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Occupational doses from radon daughter exposure in different underground environments in Norway have been estimated. Monitoring programs have been undertaken in mines, hydroelectric power stations, defence installations and tunnels. Based on these measurements the average effective dose equivalent and the corresponding collective effective dose equivalent have been estimated. Hydroelectric power stations is the largest group. In 1984 and 1985 measurements were performed in about 130 of the appr. 150 facilities in Norway. The average radon concentration was about 270 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent between 2 and 2.5 mSv. In 1984 there were about 19 mines in operations in Norway. Based on the measurements, the average radon concentration in mines is 260 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent 3.4 mSv. However, at the time being there are only 10 mines in operation and the number of miners has been reduced from about 1400 in 1984 to about 900 in 1990. The measurements show that the average level of radon in defence installations and tunnels is less than in mines and hydroelectric power stations. The total collective effective dose equivalent for workers underground in Norway is estimated in this paper to be between 5 and 7 manSv. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Epidemiological studies of groups with occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continues to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose results are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by a consultant, Dr. Joan M. Davies, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of workers occupationally exposed to radiations, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments. The primary objective is to provide background material to be used by national authorities that have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection as well as by other persons interested in this subject

  20. [Exposure to metal compounds in occupational galvanic processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgiewicz, Jolanta; Domański, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Occupational galvanic processes are provided in more than 600 small and medium enterprises in Poland. Workers who deal with galvanic coating are exposed to heavy metal compounds: tin, silver, copper and zinc. Some of them are carcinogenic, for example, hexavalent chromium compounds, nickel and cadmium compounds. Research covered several tens of workstations involved in chrome, nickel, zinc, tin, silver, copper and cadmium plating. Compounds of metals present in the air were determined: Cr, Ni, Cd, Sn, Ag--by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization (ET-AAS) and Zn--by atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization (F-AAS). The biggest metal concentrations--of silver and copper--were found at workstations of copper, brass, cadmium, nickel and chrome plating, conducted at the same time. Significant concentrations of copper were found at workstations of maintenance bathing and neutralizing of sewage. The concentrations of metals did not exceed Polish MAC values. MAC values were not exceeded for carcinogenic chromium(VI), nickel or cadmium, either. In galvanic processes there was no hazard related to single metals or their compounds, even carcinogenic ones. Combined exposure indicators for metals at each workstation did not exceed 1, either. However, if there are even small quantities of carcinogenic agents, health results should always be taken into consideration.

  1. 1997 report on occupational radiation exposures in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This series of reports provides statistics on occupational radiation exposures of monitored workers in Canada. The information is based on the data in the National Dose Registry (NDR) maintained by the Radiation Protection Bureau of Health Canada. The Registry is a centralized record-keeping system containing dose information on all monitored workers in Canada. It includes records from the National Dosimetry Services, as well as data submitted by nuclear power generating stations, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., uranium mines and private dosimeter processing companies. Information for input into the NDR is received in a number of different physical forms. Data from the National Dosimetry Service are fed directly from the dosimeter reading stations into a computer. Most other dose records are submitted to the Registry in computer readable form. The report provides data on the two consecutive years prior to the year in which the data are extracted form the database. The data for the second year will be close to stable at the time of data extraction. Some changes may still occur, for which the most frequent causes are: 1. a high dose to a dosimeter is judged to be non-personal after investigation; 2. a job category of a worker is updated; or 3. dosimeters or data are returned late. The report therefore contains preliminary data on the second year, and more complete data on the first year

  2. Characterization of exposures to airborne nanoscale particles during friction stir welding of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; McCarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-07-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 microm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 microm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM(2.5) concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 microm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at approximately 30 and approximately 550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at approximately 4.0 x 10(5) particles cm(-3), whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm(-3), depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10-100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) microg m(-3); the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may

  3. Environmental aspects and public exposure doses of airborne radioactive effluents from a PWR-power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Miaofa; Zhang Jin; Fu Rongchu; Hu Yinxiu

    1989-04-01

    It is estimated that the environmental aspects and public exposure doses of airborne radioactive effluents from a imaginary 0.3 GW PWR-power plant which sited on the site of a large coalfired power plant estimated before. The major contributor to public exposure is found to be the release of 14 C and the critical pathway is food ingestion. A maximum annual individual body effective dose equivalent of 7.112 x 10 -6 Sv · (GW · a) -1 is found at the point of 0.5 km southeast of the source. The collective dose equivalent in the area around the plant within a radius of 100 km is to be 0.5974 man-Sv · a) -1 . Both maximum individual and collective effective dose equivalents of the PWR-power plant are much lower than those of the coal-fired one. If the ash emission ratio of the latter decreases from 24.6% to 1%, public exposure doses of the two plants would be nearly equal

  4. Occupational exposures are associated with worse morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Laura M; Diette, Gregory B; Blanc, Paul D; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D; Kanner, Richard E; Belli, Andrew J; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R Graham; Hansel, Nadia N

    2015-03-01

    Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n = 1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (-26.0 m; P = 0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P = 0.004), CAT (1.8; P = 0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P = 0.003), and SF-12 Physical (-3.3; P Accounting for smoking, occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may influence disease burden.

  5. Airborne particles in indoor environment of homes, schools, offices and aged care facilities: The main routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Bae, G N; Buonanno, G; Chao, C Y H; Clifford, S; Fu, S C; Hänninen, O; He, C; Isaxon, C; Mazaheri, M; Salthammer, T; Waring, M S; Wierzbicka, A

    2017-11-01

    It has been shown that the exposure to airborne particulate matter is one of the most significant environmental risks people face. Since indoor environment is where people spend the majority of time, in order to protect against this risk, the origin of the particles needs to be understood: do they come from indoor, outdoor sources or both? Further, this question needs to be answered separately for each of the PM mass/number size fractions, as they originate from different sources. Numerous studies have been conducted for specific indoor environments or under specific setting. Here our aim was to go beyond the specifics of individual studies, and to explore, based on pooled data from the literature, whether there are generalizable trends in routes of exposure at homes, schools and day cares, offices and aged care facilities. To do this, we quantified the overall 24h and occupancy weighted means of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PN - particle number concentration. Based on this, we developed a summary of the indoor versus outdoor origin of indoor particles and compared the means to the WHO guidelines (for PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) and to the typical levels reported for urban environments (PN). We showed that the main origins of particle metrics differ from one type of indoor environment to another. For homes, outdoor air is the main origin of PM 10 and PM 2.5 but PN originate from indoor sources; for schools and day cares, outdoor air is the source of PN while PM 10 and PM 2.5 have indoor sources; and for offices, outdoor air is the source of all three particle size fractions. While each individual building is different, leading to differences in exposure and ideally necessitating its own assessment (which is very rarely done), our findings point to the existence of generalizable trends for the main types of indoor environments where people spend time, and therefore to the type of prevention measures which need to be considered in general for these environments. Copyright © 2017 The

  6. Occupational exposure to biological agents intentionally used in Polish enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kozajda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper presents the intentional use of biological agents for industrial, diagnostic and research purposes in Polish enterprises. Material and Methods: The National Register of Biological Agents (Krajowy Rejestr Czynników Biologicznych – KRCB is an online database that collects the data on the intentional use of biological agents at work in Poland. Results: As of December 2013 there were 533 notifications in KRCB, mainly for diagnostic (73%, research (20% and industrial purposes (7%. Mostly there were hospital diagnostic laboratories (37%, and other laboratories (35%, as well as higher education and research institutions (11%. In total, 4015 workers (91.7% of women, 8.3% of men were exposed to biological agents. Agents classified in risk group 2 were used in 518 enterprises, and in risk group 3 in 107 enterprises. Of those agents the following bacteria were the most frequently used: Escherichia coli except for non-pathogenic strains (455 enterprises and 3314 exposed workers; Staphylococcus aureus (445 and 3270; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (406 and 2969, respectively. In 66 enterprises there were used biological agents recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC as carcinogens. They are viruses: Epstein-Barr (7 enterprises, 181 exposed workers; hepatitis B (16 and 257; hepatitis C virus (15 and 243; human immunodeficiency virus (8 and 107; human papillomaviruses (2 and 4; parasites: Clonorchis viverrini (1 and 2; Clonorchos sinensis (1 and 2; Schistosoma haematobium (1 and 2 and bacteria Helicobacter pylori (15 and 230, respectively. Conclusions: The National Register of Biological Agents at Work permits to evaluate the situation of occupational exposure to biological agents used intentionally in enterprises in Poland. Med Pr 2015;66(1:39–47

  7. A Monte Carlo program to calculate the exposure rate from airborne radioactive gases inside a nuclear reactor containment building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbini, S; Tamasanis, D; Sykes, J; Porter, S W

    1986-12-01

    A program was developed to calculate the exposure rate resulting from airborne gases inside a reactor containment building. The calculations were performed at the location of a wall-mounted area radiation monitor. The program uses Monte Carlo techniques and accounts for both the direct and scattered components of the radiation field at the detector. The scattered component was found to contribute about 30% of the total exposure rate at 50 keV and dropped to about 7% at 2000 keV. The results of the calculations were normalized to unit activity per unit volume of air in the containment. This allows the exposure rate readings of the area monitor to be used to estimate the airborne activity in containment in the early phases of an accident. Such estimates, coupled with containment leak rates, provide a method to obtain a release rate for use in offsite dose projection calculations.

  8. Use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (FINJEM) in epidemiologic, surveillance, and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Timo; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Saalo, Anja; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (Finnish job-exposure matrix, FINJEM) in different applications in Finland and other countries. We describe and discuss studies on FINJEM and studies utilizing FINJEM in regard to the validity of exposure estimates, occupational epidemiology, hazard surveillance and prevention, the assessment of health risks and the burden of disease, the assessment of exposure trends and future hazards, and the construction of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in countries other than Finland. FINJEM can be used as an exposure assessment tool in occupational epidemiology, particularly in large register-based studies. It also provides information for hazard surveillance at the national level. It is able to identify occupations with high average exposures to chemical agents and can therefore serve the priority setting of prevention. However, it has only limited use at the workplace level due to the variability of exposure between workplaces. The national estimates of exposure and their temporal trends may contribute to the assessment of both the recent and future burden of work-related health outcomes. FINJEM has also proved to be useful in the construction of other national JEMs, for example in the Nordic Occupational Cancer study in the Nordic countries. FINJEM is a quantitative JEM, which can serve many purposes and its comprehensive documentation also makes it potentially useful in countries other than Finland.

  9. Examination of occupational exposure to medical staff (primarily nurses) during 131I medical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masayoshi; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Ito, Kunihiko; Ito, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a new amendment to protect against radiation damage to humans has been enacted based on a 1990 recommendation by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Consequently, the dose limits of occupational exposure to medical staff were cut down sharply compared with conventional readjustments. This amended bill, however, may be triggering a reduction in the number of applicants, which hope to engage in radiotherapy. This being the case, we measured the dose levels of the occupational exposure to medical staff (doctor's group, nuclear medicine technologist's group, nurse's group and pharmacist's group) from 1999 to 2002. Moreover, we investigated what the main factor is in nurse's occupational exposure to 131 I. The highest doses of occupational exposure were 3.640 mSv to doctors, 7.060 mSv to nuclear medicine technologists, 1.486 mSv to nurses and 0.552 mSv to pharmacists. According to our results, it was clear that the highest doses in each group were far below the legally mandated upper limits of exposure doses. Although we investigated the correlations between the factors of nurse's occupational exposure to 131 I with the number of inpatients, the amount of 131 I and the number of servicing times for patients, there were no correlations found. Furthermore, to analyzing the factors in detail, it became clear that the main factor in the nurse's occupational exposure was due to the existence of patients who needed many more servicing times for their care than ordinary patients. (author)

  10. Lifelong occupational exposures and hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans aged 65–75 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, OiSaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Kerr, Madeleine J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and hearing among elderly Latino Americans. Design A descriptive, correlational design used for this secondary analysis with the data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging (SALSA). Study sample A total of 547 older adults were included. Results A majority of participants (58%) reported occupational exposures to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals. About 65% and over 90% showed hearing loss at low and high frequencies, respectively. Participants with occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals were, significantly, two times more likely to have hearing loss at high frequencies compared to those without exposure (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.17 – 4.51, p = .016), after controlling for other risk factors of hearing loss such as age, gender, household income, current smoking, and diabetes. However, lifelong occupational exposure was not significantly associated with hearing loss at low frequencies (OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.94 – 2.18, p = .094). Conclusion Lifelong occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals was significantly associated with hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans. Healthy work life through protection from harmful auditory effects of occupational exposures to noise and chemicals will have a positive impact on better hearing in later life. PMID:25549170

  11. Lifelong occupational exposures and hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans aged 65-75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, OiSaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Kerr, Madeleine J

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and hearing among elderly Latino Americans. A descriptive, correlational design used for this secondary analysis with the data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging (SALSA). A total of 547 older adults were included. A majority of participants (58%) reported occupational exposures to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals. About 65% and over 90% showed hearing loss at low and high frequencies, respectively. Participants with occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals were, significantly, two times more likely to have hearing loss at high frequencies compared to those without exposure (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.17 = 4.51, p = .016), after controlling for other risk factors of hearing loss such as age, gender, household income, current smoking, and diabetes. However, lifelong occupational exposure was not significantly associated with hearing loss at low frequencies (OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.94 = 2.18, p = .094). Lifelong occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals was significantly associated with hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans. Healthy work life through protection from harmful auditory effects of occupational exposures to noise and chemicals will have a positive impact on better hearing in later life.

  12. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  13. 78 FR 65242 - Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension of Comment Period; Extension of Period To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... continue at the same time on subsequent days. Peer reviewers of OSHA's Health Effects Literature Review and... 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0034] RIN 1218-AB70 Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension...; Scheduling of Public Hearings AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  14. Varicose veins in the lower extremities in relation to occupational mechanical exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Sorosh; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if occupational mechanical exposures are associated with an increased risk of surgery for varicose veins (VV) in the lower extremities. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of persons from the Musculoskeletal Research Database at the Danish Ramazzini Centre who were 18...... and a preventive potential of more than 60% of all cases in exposed occupations....

  15. Exposure to airborne organophosphates originating from hydraulic and turbine oils among aviation technicians and loaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbu, Kasper; Daae, Hanne Line; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag Gunnar; Lundanes, Elsa; Molander, Paal

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the potential for occupational exposure to organophosphates (OPs) originating from turbine and hydraulic oils, among ground personnel within the aviation industry. The OPs tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), dibutyl phenyl phosphate (DBPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and tricresyl phosphate (TCP) have been emphasized due to their use in such oils. Oil aerosol/vapor and total volatile organic compounds (tVOCs) in air were also determined. In total, 228 and 182 OPs and oil aerosol/vapor samples from technician and loader work tasks during work on 42 and 21 aircrafts, respectively, were collected in pairs. In general, the measured exposure levels were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for 84%/98% (oil aerosol) and 82%/90% (TCP) of the samples collected during technician/loader work tasks. The air concentration ranges for all samples related to technician work were exposure levels measured during wheel well maintenance. For loader work the corresponding air concentration ranges were exposure levels measured during loading from jet engine aircrafts. Investigation of provoked exposure situations revealed substantially higher exposure levels of the contaminants when compared to regular conditions, illustrated by oil aerosol and TCP concentrations up to 240 and 31 mg m(-3), respectively. The tailored OP and the general oil aerosol sampling methods were compared, displaying the advantages of tailored OP sampling for such exposure assessments.

  16. Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and kidney cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami, S.; Lan, Q.; Rothman, N.; Stewart, P.A.; Lee, K.M.; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Moore, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inconsistent epidemiological findings, debate over interpretation, and extrapolation of findings from animal studies to humans have produced uncertainty surrounding the carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure in occupational settings. We updated meta-analyses of published

  17. Occupational exposure to pesticides are associated with fixed airflow obstruction in middle-age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Burgess, John A; Perret, Jennifer L; Lodge, Caroline J; Morrison, Stephen; Johns, David Peter; Giles, Graham G.; Gurrin, Lyle C; Thomas, Paul S; Hopper, John Llewelyn; Wood-Baker, Richard; Thompson, Bruce R; Feather, Iain H; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Walters, E Haydn; Abramson, Michael J; Matheson, Melanie Claire

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Population-based studies have found evidence of a relationship between occupational exposures and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but these studies are limited by the use of prebronchodilator spirometry. Establishing this link using postbronchodilator is critical, because

  18. Difficulties in using Material Safety Data Sheets to analyse occupational exposures to contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on the occurrence of contact allergens and irritants is crucial for the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are important sources of information concerning exposures in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: From a medical viewpoint...

  19. Attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a Southeastern city of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Noise is the most frequent type of occupational exposure and can lead to both auditory and extra-auditory dysfunction as well as increasing the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil. In this hospital-based case-control study, including 600 cases and 822 controls, the odds ratio of work accidents (controlled for several covariables) was obtained classifying occupational noise exposure into four levels and determining the prevalence at each level. Based on these data, the calculated attributable fraction was 0.3041 (95%CI: 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 30% of work accidents in the study area were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The authors discuss the causes of this association and the implications for the prevention of work accidents.

  20. Walker occupancy has an impact on changing airborne bacterial communities in an underground pedestrian space, as small-dust particles increased with raising both temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Torahiko; Osaki, Takako; Nozaki, Eriko; Uemura, Akira; Sakai, Kouhei; Matushita, Mizue; Matsuo, Junji; Nakamura, Shinji; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Although human occupancy is a source of airborne bacteria, the role of walkers on bacterial communities in built environments is poorly understood. Therefore, we visualized the impact of walker occupancy combined with other factors (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, dust particles) on airborne bacterial features in the Sapporo underground pedestrian space in Sapporo, Japan. Air samples (n = 18; 4,800L/each sample) were collected at 8:00 h to 20:00 h on 3 days (regular sampling) and at early morning / late night (5:50 h to 7:50 h / 22:15 h to 24:45 h) on a day (baseline sampling), and the number of CFUs (colony forming units) OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and other factors were determined. The results revealed that temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure changed with weather. The number of walkers increased greatly in the morning and evening on each regular sampling day, although total walker numbers did not differ significantly among regular sampling days. A slight increase in small dust particles (0.3-0.5μm) was observed on the days with higher temperature regardless of regular or baseline sampling. At the period on regular sampling, CFU levels varied irregularly among days, and the OTUs of 22-phylum types were observed, with the majority being from Firmicutes or Proteobacteria (γ-), including Staphylococcus sp. derived from human individuals. The data obtained from regular samplings reveled that although no direct interaction of walker occupancy and airborne CFU and OTU features was observed upon Pearson's correlation analysis, cluster analysis indicated an obvious lineage consisting of walker occupancy, CFU numbers, OTU types, small dust particles, and seasonal factors (including temperature and humidity). Meanwhile, at the period on baseline sampling both walker and CFU numbers were similarly minimal. Taken together, the results revealed a positive correlation of walker occupancy with airborne bacteria that increased with increases in

  1. Maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter causes postnatal immunological dysfunction in mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Xinru; Liu, Chaobin; Chen, Xiaoqiu; Song, Yanfeng; Wang, Qin; Wang, Ping; Hu, Dian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to air pollution affects the ontogeny and development of the fetal immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) on immune function in postnatal offspring. Pregnant female ICR mice were intralaryngopharyngeally administered with 30 μl of phosphate buffered solution (the control group) or resuspended PM of Standard Reference Material 1649a at 0.09 (low), 0.28 (medium), 1.85 (high) or 6.92 (overdose) μg/μl once every three days from day 0 to 18 of pregnancy (n = 8–10). Offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 30. Interleukin-4 and interferon-γ levels in plasma and splenocytes, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and expressions of GATA-3 and T-bet mRNA in the spleen were tested. The spleen and thymus were histopathologically examined. The offspring of the medium, high and overdose PM-exposed dams showed significantly suppressed splenocyte proliferation. Decreased interferon-γ and increased interleukin-4 levels in the blood and splenocytes, and lowered T-bet and elevated GATA-3 mRNA expressions were found in the spleen in the medium, high and overdose groups when compared with the control or low dose group (P < 0.05). Histopathology revealed prominent tissue damage in the spleen and thymus in the overdose group. These results suggest that exposure of pregnant mice to PM modulates the fetal immune system, resulting in postnatal immune dysfunction by exacerbation of Thl/Th2 deviation. This deviation is associated with altered T-bet and GATA-3 gene expressions

  2. Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, mining and milling; medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker, which is attributable to the worker's occupation and committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses attributable to their occupation, which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. It should be noted that the UNSCEAR 2000 Report describes a downward trend in the exposure of several groups of workers, but it also indicates that occupational exposure is affecting an increasingly large group of people worldwide. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, inter alia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection which includes radiation dose limits for occupational exposure. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO. These Guides describe, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). The IAEA i organized its first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection. The

  3. Medical radiation exposure and its impact on occupational practices in Korean radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seul Ki; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    The use of radiology examinations in medicine has been growing worldwide. Annually an estimated 3.1 billion radiologic exams are performed. According to this expansion of medical radiation exposure, it has been hard to pay no attention to the effects of medical radiation exposures in the exposure from different types of radiation source. This study, therefore, was aimed to assess the association of medical and occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiologic technologists and evaluate necessity for its consideration in occupational studies. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure.

  4. Medical radiation exposure and its impact on occupational practices in Korean radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seul Ki; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The use of radiology examinations in medicine has been growing worldwide. Annually an estimated 3.1 billion radiologic exams are performed. According to this expansion of medical radiation exposure, it has been hard to pay no attention to the effects of medical radiation exposures in the exposure from different types of radiation source. This study, therefore, was aimed to assess the association of medical and occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiologic technologists and evaluate necessity for its consideration in occupational studies. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure.

  5. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  6. Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Aniołczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF (range: 100 kHz – 300 GHz and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Material and Methods: Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI values were also analyzed. The determinations and measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. Results: The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold. Conclusions: Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio communication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations. Med Pr 2015;66(2:199–212

  7. Assessment of health consequences of steel industry welders′ occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zamanian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that the time period of UV exposure in welders is higher than the permissible contact threshold level. Therefore, considering the outbreak of the eye and skin disorders in the welders, decreasing exposure time, reducing UV radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  8. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia antibodies and pregnancy outcome in Danish women with occupational exposure to animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Mølbak, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    to occupational exposure to animals in women exposed to food producing animals. METHODS: We used data and blood samples from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Serum samples collected during the first trimester from 192 pregnant women who were occupationally exposed to domestic animals and 188 randomly selected...... unexposed pregnant women were analysed for IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia. Pregnancy outcomes of interest were identified through the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: Women with occupational exposure to animals had significantly higher IgG antibody...

  9. Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants. Fourteenth annual report of the ISOE programme, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from 478 operating and shutdown commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90% of the world's total operating commercial reactors). The Fourteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2004 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described. (author)

  10. Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants. Eleventh annual report of the Isoe programme, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 452 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors). The Eleventh Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2001 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described. (author)

  11. Occupational blood exposure among health care workers: I. Frequency and reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1993-01-01

    The frequency and reporting rate concerning occupational blood exposure were investigated among former and currently employed medical staff at a Department of Infectious Diseases (DID) having a high prevalence of HIV-positive patients. Subjects were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire......, carries a real and serious risk of contracting infectious diseases due to occupational exposure to blood. The importance of reporting needs to be emphasized....... describing occupational percutaneous exposure (PCE) and mucocutaneous exposure (MCE) to blood, experienced during their employment at the DID. 135 out of 168 (80%) subjects responded. 45 subjects described 37 incidents of PCE and 15 of MCE. 44 of the exposures (85%) involved HIV-positive blood and 6 (11...

  12. Effects of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation on reproductive and child health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienefeld, M.K.; McLaughlin, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence regarding the effects of occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation on reproductive health is limited. However, exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation is associated with increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. The resulting uncertainty about the effects of occupational exposures has caused concern among some workers, therefore, we have designed a study to examine this question among Canadian medical radiation technologists. A short mailed questionnaire will be sent to all CAMRT members to obtain information about reproductive history, and a sample of respondents will receive a second questionnaire requesting information about other important exposures. Occupational dose records will be retrieved from the National Dose Registry. Using this information, relative risks for each outcome will be calculated for different radiation dose levels. This article provides a brief review of the literature on ionizing radiation exposure and reproductive outcomes, and an outline of the proposed study

  13. Burn Pit Emissions Exposure and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Conditions Among Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason; Lezama, Nicholas; Gasper, Joseph; Kawata, Jennifer; Morley, Sybil; Helmer, Drew; Ciminera, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how burn pit emissions exposure is associated with the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. We examined the associations between assumed geographic and self-reported burn pit emissions exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in participants of the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry. We found significant dose-response associations for higher risk of self-reported emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with increased days of deployment within 2 miles of selected burn pits (P-trend = 0.01) and self-reported burn pit smoke exposure (P-trend = 0.0005). We found associations between burn pit emissions exposure and higher incidence of post-deployment self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but these findings should be interpreted with caution because the surrogate measurements of burn pit emissions exposure in this analysis may not reflect individual exposure levels.

  14. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  15. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

  16. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Tehran Metro Drivers to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad reza Monazzam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs in train drivers is an integral part of the driving task and creates concern about driving jobs. The present study was designed to investigate the occupational exposure of Tehran train drivers to extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Methods: In order to measure the driver’s exposure, from each line, a random sample in AC and DC type trains was selected and measurements were done according to the IEEE std 644-1994 using a triple axis TES-394 device. Train drivers were then compared with national occupational exposure limit guidelines. Results: The maximum and minimum mean exposure was found in AC external city trains (1.2±1.5 μT and DC internal city trains (0.31±0.2 μT, respectively. The maximum and minimum exposure was 9 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains of line 5, respectively. In the internal train line, maximum and minimum values were 5.4 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains. Conclusions: In none of the exposure scenarios in different trains, the exposure exceeded the national or international occupational exposure limit guidelines. However, this should not be the basis of safety in these fields

  17. Occupational exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Karahalios, Amalia; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Mehta, Amar J; Miedinger, David; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-08-01

    Due to contradictory literature we have performed a systematic review and meta-analyse of population-based studies that have used Job Exposure Matrices to assess occupational exposure and risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Two researchers independently searched databases for published articles using predefined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed, and results pooled for COPD and chronic bronchitis for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes using a fixed and random effect model. Five studies met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed low exposure to mineral dust, and high exposure to gases/fumes were associated with an increased risk of COPD. We also found significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis for low and high exposure to biological dust and mineral dust. Expert commentary: The relationship between occupational exposure assessed by the JEM and the risk of COPD and chronic bronchitis shows significant association with occupational exposure. However, the heterogeneity of the meta-analyses suggests more wide population-based studies with older age groups and longitudinal phenotype assessment of COPD to clarify the role of occupational exposure to COPD risk.

  18. Occupational exposures and Parkinson's disease mortality in a prospective Dutch cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Koeman, Tom; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kromhout, Hans; Schouten, Leo J; Peters, Susan; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the association between six occupational exposures (ie, pesticides, solvents, metals, diesel motor emissions (DME), extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and electric shocks) and Parkinson's disease (PD) mortality in a large population-based prospective cohort study. The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer enrolled 58,279 men and 62,573 women aged 55-69 years in 1986. Participants were followed up for cause-specific mortality over 17.3 years, until December 2003, resulting in 402 male and 207 female PD deaths. Following a case-cohort design, a subcohort of 5,000 participants was randomly sampled from the complete cohort. Information on occupational history and potential confounders was collected at baseline. Job-exposure matrices were applied to assign occupational exposures. Associations with PD mortality were evaluated using Cox regression. Among men, elevated HRs were observed for exposure to pesticides (eg, ever high exposed, HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.88) and ever high exposed to ELF-MF (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36). No association with exposure duration or trend in cumulative exposure was observed for any of the occupational exposures. Results among women were unstable due to small numbers of high-exposed women. Associations with PD mortality were observed for occupational exposure to pesticides and ELF-MF. However, the weight given to these findings is limited by the absence of a monotonic trend with either duration or cumulative exposure. No associations were found between PD mortality and occupational exposure to solvents, metals, DME or electric shocks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants. Twelfth annual report of the Isoe programme, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The ISOE Programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 465 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the Programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors). The Twelfth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2002 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described. (author)

  20. Noise exposure in occupational setting associated with elevated blood pressure in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is the primary out-auditory adverse outcome caused due to occupational noise exposure. This study investigated the associations of noise exposure in an occupational setting with blood pressure and risk of hypertension. Methods A total of 1,390 occupational noise-exposed workers and 1399 frequency matched non-noise-exposed subjects were recruited from a cross-sectional survey of occupational noise-exposed and the general population, respectively. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer following a standard protocol. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of noise exposure adjusted by potential confounders. Results Noise-exposed subjects had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure(SBP (125.1 ± 13.9 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP (77.6 ± 10.7 mm Hg than control subjects (SBP: 117.2 ± 15.7 mm Hg, DBP: 70.0 ± 10.5 mm Hg (P  0.05. Conclusions Occupational noise exposure was associated with higher levels of SBP, DBP, and the risk of hypertension. These findings indicate that effective and feasible measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of hypertension caused by occupational noise exposure.

  1. Release of airborne particles and Ag and Zn compounds from nanotechnology-enabled consumer sprays: Implications for inhalation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Leonardo; Han, Taewon T.; McGilvery, Catriona M.; Yang, Letao; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alexandra E.; Smith, Rachel; Chung, Kian Fan; Lioy, Paul J.; Zhang, Junfeng; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-04-01

    The increasing prevalence and use of nanotechnology-enabled consumer products have increased potential consumer exposures to nanoparticles; however, there is still a lack of data characterizing such consumer exposure. The research reported here investigated near-field airborne exposures due to the use of 13 silver (Ag)-based and 5 zinc (Zn)-based consumer sprays. The products were sprayed into a specially designed glove box, and all products were applied with equal spraying duration and frequency. Size distribution and concentration of the released particles were assessed using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate the presence of metals in all investigated products. Spray liquids and airborne particles from select products were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). We found that all sprays produced airborne particles ranging in size from nano-sized particles (2.5 μm); however, there was a substantial variation in the released particle concentration depending on a product. The total aerosol mass concentration was dominated by the presence of coarse particles, and it ranged from ∼30 μg/m3 to ∼30,000 μg/m3. The TEM verified the presence of nanoparticles and their agglomerates in liquid and airborne states. The products were found to contain not only Ag and Zn compounds - as advertised on the product labeling - but also a variety of other metals including lithium, strontium, barium, lead, manganese and others. The results presented here can be used as input to model population exposures as well as form a basis for human health effects studies due to the use nanotechnology-enabled products.

  2. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a nationwide Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim was to examine exposure-response relationships between cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), and to compare sex-specific exposure-response relationships. The secondary aim was to examine the time window of relevant exposures. We conducted a nationwide register study of all persons born in Denmark (1933-1977), who had at least 5 years of full-time employment. In the follow-up period (2003-2008), we identified first-time events of surgery for SIS. Cumulative exposure estimates for a 10-year exposure time window with a 1-year lag time were obtained by linking occupational codes with a job exposure matrix. The exposure estimates were expressed as, for example, arm-elevation-years in accordance with the pack-year concept of tobacco consumption. We used a multivariable logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis. The adjusted OR (ORadj) increased to a maximum of 2.1 for arm-elevation-years, repetition-years and force-years, and to 1.5 for hand-arm-vibration-years. Sex-specific exposure-response relationships were similar for men and women, when assessed using a relative risk scale. The ORadj increased gradually with the number of years contributing to the cumulative exposure estimates. The excess fraction was 24%. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures carried an increase in risk of surgery for SIS with similar exposure-response curves for men and women. The risk of surgery for SIS increased gradually, when the period of exposure assessment was extended. In the general working population, a substantial fraction of all first-time operations for SIS could be related to occupational exposures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Assessment of Relationship between Spontaneous Abortion and Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, some studies indicate the adverse effects of exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion with occupational exposure to organic solvents in pharmaceutical industry. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study which was carried out in 2010 in one of the pharmaceutical factories located in the suburbs of Tehran. During the study, married women who were working in the factory laboratory units and were exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with married women who were working in the packing units of the factory without occupational exposure to organic solvents. Frequency of spontaneous abortion and duration of pregnancy were assessed in both two groups. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software using t-test, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results: In the present study, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in employees with exposure to organic solvents mixture was 10.7%. This study showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant correlation between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture and this correlation increased with increasing levels of exposure to organic solvents. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents and waiting time to become pregnant (TTP. Furthermore, this study showed that even after adjustment for confounding variables, shift workers were significantly more affected by spontaneous abortion compared to daytime workers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, since there is probability of spontaneous abortion resulting from occupational exposure to various chemicals including organic solvents, review of the status of occupational exposure of workers can be helpful

  4. [Occupational hazards, DNA damage, and oxidative stress on exposure to waste anesthetic gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Lorena M C; Braz, Mariana G; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Braz, José Reinaldo C; Braz, Leandro G

    The waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) present in the ambient air of operating rooms (OR), are associated with various occupational hazards. This paper intends to discuss occupational exposure to WAGs and its impact on exposed professionals, with emphasis on genetic damage and oxidative stress. Despite the emergence of safer inhaled anesthetics, occupational exposure to WAGs remains a current concern. Factors related to anesthetic techniques and anesthesia workstations, in addition to the absence of a scavenging system in the OR, contribute to anesthetic pollution. In order to minimize the health risks of exposed professionals, several countries have recommended legislation with maximum exposure limits. However, developing countries still require measurement of WAGs and regulation for occupational exposure to WAGs. WAGs are capable of inducing damage to the genetic material, such as DNA damage assessed using the comet assay and increased frequency of micronucleus in professionals with long-term exposure. Oxidative stress is also associated with WAGs exposure, as it induces lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in DNA, and impairment of the antioxidant defense system in exposed professionals. The occupational hazards related to WAGs including genotoxicity, mutagenicity and oxidative stress, stand as a public health issue and must be acknowledged by exposed personnel and responsible authorities, especially in developing countries. Thus, it is urgent to stablish maximum safe limits of concentration of WAGs in ORs and educational practices and protocols for exposed professionals. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  6. Occupational exposure to solvents, metals and welding fumes and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between occupational exposure to solvents, metals and/or welding fumes and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Data of a hospital based case-control study including 444 PD patients and 876 age and sex matched controls was used. Occupational histories and lifestyle information of cases and controls were collected in a structured telephone interview. Exposures to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents and metals were estimated by linking the ALOHA+ job-exposure matrix to the occupational histories. Exposure to welding fumes was estimated using self-reported information on welding activities. No statistically significant associations with any of the studied metal and solvent exposures were found. However, for self-reported welding activities we observed non-statistically significant reduced risk estimates (third tertile cumulative exposure: OR = 0.51 (95% CI: 0.21-1.24)). The results of our study did not provide support for an increased chance on developing PD after occupational exposure to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents or exposure to metals. The results showed reduced risk estimates for welding, which is in line with previous research, but no clear explanation for these findings is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk of ischemic heart disease following occupational exposure to welding fumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Kristiansen, Pernille; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Air pollution has been linked to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), but less is known about occupational exposure to welding fumes and the risk of IHD. The objective of this paper was to review the epidemiological evidence on causal links between welding fume exposure...

  8. Assessment of occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture : Pt 1 General aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1992-01-01

    For registration of pesticides data on toxicology and on occupational exposure are required. In this series of reviews the exposure data available in the published literature for mixing and loading, application and re-entry are considered for the establishment of generic/surrogate data bases with

  9. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Garne, Ester

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies. Organic solvents are also used in the home environments in paint products, but no study has investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population....

  10. Skin sensitization quantitative risk assessment for occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dye ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Carsten; Diepgen, Thomas L; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Gaspari, Anthony A; Schnuch, Axel; Fuchs, Anne; Schlotmann, Kordula; Krasteva, Maya; Kimber, Ian

    2018-06-01

    Occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dyes has been associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) involving the hands. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) have been implicated as important occupational contact allergens. To conduct a quantitative risk assessment for the induction of contact sensitization to hair dyes in hairdressers, available data from hand rinsing studies following typical occupational exposure conditions to PPD, PTD and resorcinol were assessed. By accounting for wet work, uneven exposure and inter-individual variability for professionals, daily hand exposure concentrations were derived. Secondly, daily hand exposure was compared with the sensitization induction potency of the individual hair dye defined as the No Expected Sensitization Induction Levels (NESIL). For PPD and PTD hairdresser hand exposure levels were 2.7 and 5.9 fold below the individual NESIL. In contrast, hand exposure to resorcinol was 50 fold below the NESIL. Correspondingly, the risk assessment for PPD and PTD indicates that contact sensitization may occur, when skin protection and skin care are not rigorously applied. We conclude that awareness of health risks associated with occupational exposure to hair dyes, and of the importance of adequate protective measures, should be emphasized more fully during hairdresser education and training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational hand eczema caused by nickel and evaluated by quantitative exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. EU legislation has reduced the epidemic of nickel contact allergy affecting the consumer, and shifted the focus towards occupational exposure. The acid wipe sampling technique was developed to quantitatively determine skin exposure to metals. Objectives. To assess the clinical...... dilution series were performed. Results. Nickel was detected in all samples from the hands. In all patients, the nickel content on the hands was higher than on the non-exposed control area. Conclusions. Occupational exposure to nickel-releasing items raised the nickel content on exposed skin as compared...

  12. Construction of pilot system for the Korea information system of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Seong Ho; Park, Moon Il; Im, Bok Soo; Lee, Seon Mi; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chae, Eun Yeong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the construction of Korea Information System of Occupational Exposure (KISOE) system is designed with occupational exposure control system based on information evaluation technology and it makes the reliability of the personal exposure by use of personal dose verification. While the operation of national based radiation worker protection system, this system are settled the control system for radiation worker and ALARA. The purpose of construction and operation of pilot system of KISOE systematically is to derive the master plan of KISOE, stable development of this system, and serve the high quality radiation use internationally

  13. Construction of pilot system for the Korea information system of occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Il; Im, Bok Soo; Lee, Seon Mi; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chae, Eun Yeong [ADDLAB Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-15

    In this study, the construction of Korea Information System of Occupational Exposure (KISOE) system is designed with occupational exposure control system based on information evaluation technology and it makes the reliability of the personal exposure by use of personal dose verification. While the operation of national based radiation worker protection system, this system are settled the control system for radiation worker and ALARA. The purpose of construction and operation of pilot system of KISOE systematically is to derive the master plan of KISOE, stable development of this system, and serve the high quality radiation use internationally.

  14. Occupational standard for exposure to ultraviolet radiation (1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The exposure limit (EL) values in this standard refer to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the spectral region between 180 and 400 nm and represents conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect. The EL values for exposure of the eye or the skin may be used to evaluate potentially hazardous exposure from UVR. The limits do not apply to ultraviolet lasers. The values should be used as guides in the control of exposure to both pulsed and continuous sources of UVR where the exposure duration is not less than 0.1 μsec. The ELs are below levels used for UV exposures of patients as a part of medical treatment or for elective cosmetic purposes. They are intended as upper limits for non therapeutic and non cosmetic exposure. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Chromosome aberrations as a means to determine occupational exposure: an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology developed to study chromosome aberrations in vitro, and the results gained in application of the method in in vivo studies of individuals receiving ionizing radiation, may provide a basis to more definitively assess occupational exposure in radiographers and radiation therapy technologists. The need for more definitive methods in measuring occupational exposure is given impetus by the fact that there is now a large group of individuals in whom a significant duration of occupational exposure may be measured. Further, increased knowledge of the effects of radiation has resulted in lower and lower levels of maximum permissible dose. And there is the undeniable, albeit relatively unproven, claim of radiation hazard in occupations not previously considered. As a group, technologists are now better organized and more aware of occupational hazards than in the past. It behooves us as professionals to act in our own behalf to improve the state of knowledge and methods of evaluation of occupational hazards that we have endured for several decades. There is no longer any more time to waste in the light of what we now know. In the author's opinion, the method described herein has the potential to determine occupational dose more accurately and definitively than has been possible heretofore and, therefore, should be tested as an alternative to present methods of personnel monitoring. History, rationale, and method are presented, and a protocol for a research study is described

  16. Medical and occupational radiation exposure reported by self-administered questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Fujita, Shoichiro

    1977-01-01

    Affirmative response rates for diagnostic, therapeutic, and occupational ionizing radiation exposure were ascertained by surveying Hiroshima and Nagasaki aBCC-JNIH Adult Health Study subjects. Half reported diagnostic exposure since last visiting ABCC; 20%, within 3 months of interview. Rates were higher for A-bomb exposed than those not-in-city; possibly because of a higher disease rate or concern therefore among the A-bomb exposed group and/or A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law handbooks' facilitating more examinations of the exposed. The rates did not differ among the A-bomb exposed groups. The respective Hiroshima and Nagasaki rates were 2.6%, and 1.6% for radiation therapy; and 0.5% and 0.2% for occupational exposure. Neither radiation therapy nor occupational exposure rates differed by A-bomb dose. (auth.)

  17. Occupational exposure to ultrafine particles among airport employees--combining personal monitoring and global positioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported...... at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH......). METHOD: 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days...

  18. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures......-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period......, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (P

  19. Assessment of the occupational exposures at two NORM industries located at the South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Tenorio, Rafael; Juan Pedro, Bolivar

    2008-01-01

    On the frame of a broad project devoted to the control of exposures in several typical NORM industries located at the South of Spain, the evaluation of the occupational radiation exposures in two industries, one devoted to the production of phosphoric acid by the so-called 'wet-acid method' and the other devoted to the production of titanium dioxide pigments, has been performed. Internal (via inhalation) and external (via gamma) pathways of exposure have been considered in the performed evaluations, arriving in both industrial activities to the same conclusion: under normal running conditions, the increment of the occupational exposures is lower than 1 mSv/y. However, some precautions should be taken in both industries: a) In order not to change drastically the worker time occupational factors, now under application, especially in the areas with high instantaneous external dose rates and; b) During maintenance operations. (author)

  20. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Xu-Chu; Jin, Li-Fen; Yang, Zhang-Ping; Jiang, Cai-Xia; Chen, Qing; Ren, Xiao-Bin; Cao, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2011-04-12

    Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%). Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L) than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  1. Assessment of illnesses associated with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, I.

    1996-01-01

    The medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers allows to assess their health condition and is supported by the performance of pre-employment and periodic medical researches that would lead to the discovery of deviations or disorders in organs and tissues specially sensitive to radiation damage as a result of working with ionizing radiation

  2. Assessment of personal exposure to airborne nanomaterials: Evaluation of a novel sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Bertrand; Dozol, Hélène; Brouard, Christophe; Guiot, Arnaud; Clavaguera, Simon

    2017-01-01

    A novel sampler, the NANOBADGE, has been developed to assess personal exposure to nano-objects, agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA) at the workplace. The NANOBADGE collects particles on filters subsequently analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), which provides a mass-based quantification with chemical selectivity. The NANOBADGE was benchmarked against a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a DiSCmini by carrying out simultaneous measurements on test aerosols of ZnO or TiO 2 for particle sizes between 20 and 400 nm for which the DiSCmini has its highest accuracy. The effective density and shape of the NOAA present in the test aerosols were determined experimentally to compare number-based data obtained with the SMPS and the DiSCmini with mass-based data obtained with the NANOBADGE. The agreement between the SMPS and the NANOBADGE sampler was within ± 25 % on all test aerosols. The converted DiSCmini data matched the SMPS and sampler data for polydisperse aerosols in the specified size range as long as the DiSCmini assumptions meet the aerosol characteristics (i.e. lognormal size distribution with a given geometric standard deviation σg = 1.9). The detection limits of the NANOBADGE sampler were in the order of tens of nanograms per filter, which is low enough to reliably detect exposure levels below the recommended exposure limit (REL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité (INRS) for ultrafine ZnO and TiO 2 even for short-term exposure situations. (paper)

  3. Occupational agriculture organic dust exposure and its relationship to asthma and airway inflammation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunschel, Javen; Poole, Jill A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have made advances into understanding the complex agriculture work exposure environment in influencing asthma in adults. The objective of this study is to review studies of occupational agricultural exposures including dust, animal, and pesticide exposures with asthma in adult populations. PubMed databases were searched for articles pertaining to farming, agriculture, asthma, occupational asthma, airway inflammation, respiratory disease, lung disease, pesticides, and organic dust. Studies chosen were published in or after 1999 that included adults and asthma and farming/agricultural work or agricultural exposures and airway inflammatory disease measurements. The data remain inconclusive. Several retrospective studies demonstrate agricultural work to be protective against asthma in adults, especially with increased farming exposure over time. In contrast, other studies find increased risk of asthma with farming exposures, especially for the non-atopic adult. Mechanistic and genetic studies have focused on defining the wide variety and abundance of microorganisms within these complex organic dusts that trigger several pattern recognition receptor pathways to modulate the hosts' response. Asthma risk depends on the interplay of genetic factors, gender, atopic predisposition, type of livestock, pesticide exposure, and magnitude and duration of exposure in the adult subject. Longer exposure to occupational farming is associated with decreased asthma risk. However, studies also suggest that agricultural work and multiple types of livestock are independent risk factors for developing asthma. Prospective and longitudinal studies focusing on genetic polymorphisms, objective assessments, and environmental sampling are needed to further delineate the influence of agriculture exposure in the adult worker.

  4. Occupational health experience with a contractor uranium refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatherton, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents information related to the occupational exposure of workers in uranium refinery operations at the Feed Materials Production Center since 1958. Included are: a brief history of the FMPC; a description of the operations and the principal sources of exposure; airborne uranium, urinary excretion, in vivo monitoring and tissue analysis data; and some observations regarding the exposure and health status of employees

  5. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment w