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Sample records for airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms

  1. Association of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms withbuilding-related symptoms and water damage in 100 U.S. office buildings:Analyses of the U.S. EPA BASE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Lei, Quanhong; Cozen, Myrna O.; Shendell, DerekG.; Macher, Janet M.; Tsai, Feng C.

    2003-10-01

    Metrics of culturable airborne microorganisms for either total organisms or suspected harmful subgroups have generally not been associated with symptoms among building occupants. However, the visible presence of moisture damage or mold in residences and other buildings has consistently been associated with respiratory symptoms and other health effects. This relationship is presumably caused by adverse but uncharacterized exposures to moisture-related microbiological growth. In order to assess this hypothesis, we studied relationships in U.S. office buildings between the prevalence of respiratory and irritant symptoms, the concentrations of airborne microorganisms that require moist surfaces on which to grow, and the presence of visible water damage. For these analyses we used data on buildings, indoor environments, and occupants collected from a representative sample of 100 U.S. office buildings in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (EPA BASE) study. We created 19 alternate metrics, using scales ranging from 3-10 units, that summarized the concentrations of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms (AMIMOs) as indicators of moisture in buildings. Two were constructed to resemble a metric previously reported to be associated with lung function changes in building occupants; the others were based on another metric from the same group of Finnish researchers, concentration cutpoints from other studies, and professional judgment. We assessed three types of associations: between AMIMO metrics and symptoms in office workers, between evidence of water damage and symptoms, and between water damage and AMIMO metrics. We estimated (as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals) the unadjusted and adjusted associations between the 19 metrics and two types of weekly, work-related symptoms--lower respiratory and mucous membrane--using logistic regression models. Analyses used the original AMIMO metrics and were

  2. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2) Determining sampling efficiencies of four bioaerosol samplers for bacteria and virus. Study 1. The overloading problem of the EU reference impaction pre-separator (IPS) was tested in layer houses and c...

  3. Measuring airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

      Airborne transmission has been suspected to be responsible for epidemics of highly infectious disease in livestock production. In such transmission, the pathogenic microorganisms may associate with dust particles. However, the extent to which airborne transmission plays a role in the spread of diseases between farms, and the relationship between microorganisms and dust remain unclear. In order to better understand airborne transmission and to set up effective control techniques, this s...

  4. Sources of airborne microorganisms in the built environment

    OpenAIRE

    Prussin, Aaron J.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Each day people are exposed to millions of bioaerosols, including whole microorganisms, which can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. The next chapter in understanding the airborne microbiome of the built environment is characterizing the various sources of airborne microorganisms and the relative contribution of each. We have identified the following eight major categories of sources of airborne bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the built environment: humans...

  5. Analysis of Membrane Lipids of Airborne Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A method of characterization of airborne micro-organisms in a given location involves (1) large-volume filtration of air onto glass-fiber filters; (2) accelerated extraction of membrane lipids of the collected micro-organisms by use of pressurized hot liquid; and (3) identification and quantitation of the lipids by use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. This method is suitable for use in both outdoor and indoor environments; for example, it can be used to measure airborne microbial contamination in buildings ("sick-building syndrome"). The classical approach to analysis of airborne micro-organisms is based on the growth of cultureable micro-organisms and does not provide an account of viable but noncultureable micro-organisms, which typically amount to more than 90 percent of the micro-organisms present. In contrast, the present method provides an account of all micro-organisms, including cultureable, noncultureable, aerobic, and anaerobic ones. The analysis of lipids according to this method makes it possible to estimate the number of viable airborne micro-organisms present in the sampled air and to obtain a quantitative profile of the general types of micro-organisms present along with some information about their physiological statuses.

  6. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  7. Airborne Microorganism Disinfection by Photocatalytic HEPA Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotruedee Chotigawin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the efficacy of photocatalytic HEPA filters on microorganism disinfection in a closed-loop chamber and later applied it in an air purifier and tested its efficacy in an 8-m3 chamber and in a hospital. The photocatalytic filters were made by dip-coating a HEPA filter in a TiO2 slurry. In order to disinfect the microorganisms retained on the filter, UV-A light was irradiated onto the filter to create strong oxidative radicals which can destroy microorganisms. The findings showed that disinfection efficiency of the photocatalytic filters with high TiO2 loading was insignificantly higher than with lower loading. S. epidermidis was completely eliminated within 2 hours, while 86.8% of B. subtilis, 77.1% of A. niger, and 82.7% of P. citrinum were destroyed within 10 hours. When applying the photocatalytic filters into an air purifier in a 8-m3 chamber, it was found that as soon as the air purifier was turned on, 83.4% of S. epidermidis, 81.4% of B. subtilis, 88.5% of A. niger, and 75.8% of P. citrinum were removed from the air. In a hospital environment, the PCO air purifier efficacy was lower than that in the chamber. Besides, relative humidity, distances from the air purifier and room size were suspected to affect the efficacy of the photocatalytic filters.

  8. Personal exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms in agricultural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-An; Adhikari, Atin; Grinshpun, Sergey A; McKay, Roy; Shukla, Rakesh; Reponen, Tiina

    2006-03-01

    Airborne dust and microorganisms are associated with respiratory diseases and increased mortality and morbidity. Farmers are at high risk of exposure to both of these hazards. Very limited information, however, is available on the combined exposures to both hazards on different types of farms. Moreover, most of the previous studies have measured the mass concentration of particles ignoring the particle size. In this study, farmers' exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms was studied using our newly developed personal sampling system. Particle number concentration and size distribution were measured with an optical particle counter. Simultaneously, particles were collected on a filter and analyzed for microorganisms. The field measurements were conducted in animal confinements (swine, poultry, and dairy) and during grain harvesting (corn and soybean). The results show the following average concentrations on the workers' breathing zone: 1.7 x 10(6) to 2.9 x 10(7) particles/m(3) for total dust, 0.9 x 10(3) to 3.9 x 10(4) spores/m(3) for total fungal spores, 0.3 x 10(3) to 3.6 x 10(4)CFU/m(3) for culturable fungal spores, 0.3 x 10(4) to 3.3 x 10(8) CFU/m(3) for culturable bacteria, and limit of detection (LOD) to 2.8 x 10(3) CFU/m(3) for culturable actinomycetes in animal confinements. The respective concentrations were 4.4 x 10(6) to 5.8 x 10(7) particles/m(3), 3.4 x 10(4) to 6.1 x 10(6) spores/m(3), 8.2 x 10(4) to 7.4 x 10(6) CFU/m(3), 0.4 x 10(5) to 1.4 x 10(6) CFU/m(3), and LOD to 2.6 x 10(4) CFU/m(3) during grain harvesting. The highest contribution of large particles (3-10 microm) in total particles was found during grain harvesting, whereas the size distribution was dominated by smaller particles (particles between 2-10 microm was found to be fungal spores. The results indicate that an increase in the concentration of large dust particles (2-10 microm) during grain harvesting was partially attributed to the increase in the concentration of the fungal spores

  9. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration.

  10. Airborne microorganisms associated with waste management and recovery: biomonitoring methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Coccia; Paola Margherita Bianca Gucci; Ines Lacchetti; Rosa Paradiso; Federica Scaini

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from a year-long indoor bioaerosol monitoring performed in three working environments of a municipal composting facility treating green and organic waste. Composting, whereby organic matter is stabilized through aerobic decomposition, requires aeration, causing the dispersion of microbial particles (microorganisms and associated toxins). Waste can, therefore, become a potential source of biological hazard. Bioaerosol samples were collected on a monthly ...

  11. Airborne microorganisms associated with waste management and recovery: biomonitoring methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Coccia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from a year-long indoor bioaerosol monitoring performed in three working environments of a municipal composting facility treating green and organic waste. Composting, whereby organic matter is stabilized through aerobic decomposition, requires aeration, causing the dispersion of microbial particles (microorganisms and associated toxins. Waste can, therefore, become a potential source of biological hazard. Bioaerosol samples were collected on a monthly basis. Through a comparison of results obtained using two samplers - the Surface Air System DUO SAS 360 and the BioSampler - the study aimed at assessing the presence of biological pollutants, and at contributing to the definition of standard sampling methods for bioaerosols leading, eventually, to the establishment of exposure limits for these occupational pollutants.

  12. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hey Reoun; Mainelis, Gediminas; White, Lori

    This manuscript describes the coupling of bioaerosol collection and the use of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify the airborne bacteria. The quantity of collected bacteria determined by RT-PCR is compared with conventional quantification techniques, such as culturing, microscopy and airborne microorganism counting by using optical particle counter (OPC). Our data show that an experimental approach used to develop standard curves for use with RT-PCR is critical for accurate sample quantification. Using universal primers we generated 12 different standard curves which were used to quantify model organism Escherichia coli (Migula) Catellani from air samples. Standard curves prepared using a traditional approach, where serially diluted genomic DNA extracted from pure cultured bacteria were used in PCR reaction as a template DNA yielded significant underestimation of sample quantities compared to airborne microorganism concentration as measured by an OPC. The underestimation was especially pronounced when standard curves were built using colony forming units (CFUs). In contrast, the estimate of cell concentration in an air sample by RT-PCR was more accurate (˜60% compared to the airborne microorganism concentration) when the standard curve was built using aerosolized E. coli. The accuracy improved even further (˜100%) when air samples used to build the standard curves were diluted first, then the DNA extracted from each dilution was amplified by the RT-PCR—to mimic the handling of air samples with unknown and possibly low concentration. Therefore, our data show that standard curves used for quantification by RT-PCR needs to be prepared using the same environmental matrix and procedures as handling of the environmental sample in question. Reliance on the standard curves generated with cultured bacterial suspension (a traditional approach) may lead to substantial underestimation of microorganism quantities in environmental samples.

  13. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during flax scutching on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Skórska, Czesława; Prazmo, Zofia; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed on 5 flax farms located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the concentrations of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin were collected in barns during machine scutching of flax stems by the farmers. The concentrations of mesophilic bacteria ranged from 203.5-698.8 x 10(3) cfu/m3, of Gram-negative bacteria from 27.2-123.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3, of thermophilic actinomycetes from 0.5-2.6 x 10(3) cfu/m3, and of fungi from 23.4-99.8 x 10(3) cfu/m3. The concentrations of total airborne microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) were within a range of 245.0-741.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3. The values of the respirable fraction of total airborne microflora on the examined farms were between 45.5-98.3%. Corynebacteria (irregular Gram-positive rods, mostly Corynebacterium spp.) were dominant at all sampling sites, forming 46.8-67.8% of the total airborne microflora. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most numerous species was Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans), known to have strong endotoxic and allergenic properties. Among fungi, the allergenic species Alternaria alternata prevailed. Altogether, 25 species or genera of bacteria and 10 species or genera of fungi were identified in the farm air during flax scutching; of these, 11 and 6 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 43.7-648.1 mg/m3 (median 93.6 mg/m3), exceeding on all farms the Polish OEL value of 4 mg/m3. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin ranged within 16.9-172.1 microg/m3 (median 30.0 microg/m3), exceeding at all sampling sites the suggested OEL value of 0.2 microg/m). In conclusion, flax farmers performing machine scutching of flax could be exposed to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin, posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. PMID:15627342

  14. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Palmer Drought and Crop Moisture Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Palmer Drought Severity and Crop Moisture Indices are computed for the 344 U.S. Climate Divisions on a weekly basis based on a...

  16. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  17. Impaction onto a Glass Slide or Agar versus Impingement into a Liquid for the Collection and Recovery of Airborne Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Juozaitis, Arvydas; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

    1994-01-01

    To study impaction versus impingement for the collection and recovery of viable airborne microorganisms, three new bioaerosol samplers have been designed and built. They differ from each other by the medium onto which the bioaerosol particles are collected (glass, agar, and liquid) but have the same inlet and collection geometries and the same sampling flow rate. The bioaerosol concentrations recorded by three different collection techniques have been compared with each other: impaction onto ...

  18. Airborne dust, ammonia, microorganisms, and antigens in pig confinement houses and the respiratory health of exposed farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, B; Robertson, J F; Glass, S A; Botheroyd, E M; Lacey, J; Topping, M D

    1991-07-01

    This study investigated the environmental conditions on pig farms and the respiratory health of pig farmers and their immunological response to airborne contaminants. Airborne concentrations of dust and ammonia were measured in 20 pig houses; viable microorganisms, endotoxins, and aeroallergens were measured in 6 of these houses, chosen to represent the range in dustiness. The 29 farmers employed on the farms completed a questionnaire and underwent lung function tests; 24 of them provided blood samples for the measurement of specific IgE and IgG antibody to extracts of pig squames and urine, feed components, and bacterial isolates. Mean airborne dust and ammonia concentrations in the pig houses ranged from 1.66 to 21.04 mg/m3 and from 1.50 to 13.23 ppm, respectively. Factors affecting these concentrations include time of year, feed systems used, and levels of ventilation. There was no direct relationship between airborne dust and ammonia concentrations. Airborne microorganisms ranged from 10(5) to more than 10(7) colony-forming units (cfu)/m3; most were bacteria, with few fungi or thermophilic actinomycetes isolated. Gram-positive bacterial genera (Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and Bacillus spp.) predominated. Concentrations of endotoxin in collected airborne dust were low. Work-related respiratory symptoms, typically chest tightness/wheeze and nasal and eye irritation, were reported by 23 of the 29 workers. Three farmers had specific IgE to pig squames or urine and eight to feed components but none to the microbial extracts. Specific IgG to pig squames or urine and to feed components was demonstrated in 14 and 9 workers, respectively. Specific IgE responses occurred mainly in subjects with chest tightness or wheeze, although specific IgG responses were not related to symptoms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1951065

  19. Airborne Microorganisms in Tie-stall Dairy Barns from Brasov County

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    Silvana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the assessment of the airborne microorganisms in tie-stall dairy cattle barns, through determination of the total number of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We investigated 8 dairy cattle barns with tie-stalls in Brasov County during the winter of 2009. The mean numbers of bacteria and fungi in the morning and in the evening were: 1.02 °— 105 - 1.26 °— 105 CFU/m3 for mesophilic bacteria, 5.34 °— 104 - 5.91 °— 104 CFU/m3 for staphylococci, 2.93 °— 104 - 3.60 °— 104 CFU/m3 for streptococci, 2.17 °— 103 - 3.48 °— 103 CFU/m3 for gram-negative bacteria and 1.54 °— 104 - 2.75 °— 104 CFU/m3 for fungi. In the investigated cattle houses staphylococci represented 52.35 – 46.90%, streptococci were 28.73 – 28.57%, and the gram-negative bacteria were 2.13 – 2.76% within the overall number of mesophilic bacteria. The numbers of bacteria and fungi were slightly elevated in the evening comparative to the morning, but the differences were statistically insignificant (p>0.05. The great numbers of bacteria and fungi in the air of dairy cattle tie-stall barns indicate an elevated risk of disease for animals and human workers.

  20. Observations on the use of membrane filtration and liquid impingement to collect airborne microorganisms in various atmospheric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Gonzalez, C.; Teigell, N.; Petrosky, T.; Northup, D.E.; Lyles, M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sample-collection-time on the recovery of culturable airborne microorganisms using a low-flow-rate membrane-filtration unit and a high-flow-rate liquid impinger were investigated. Differences in recoveries were investigated in four different atmospheric environments, one mid-oceanic at an altitude of ~10.0 m, one on a mountain top at an altitude of ~3,000.0 m, one at ~1.0 m altitude in Tallahassee, Florida, and one at ~1.0 m above ground in a subterranean-cave. Regarding use of membrane filtration, a common trend was observed: the shorter the collection period, the higher the recovery of culturable bacteria and fungi. These data also demonstrated that lower culturable counts were common in the more remote mid-oceanic and mountain-top atmospheric environments with bacteria, fungi, and total numbers averaging (by sample time or method categories) microorganisms is limited in 'extreme' atmospheric environments and thus the use of a 'limited' methodology in these environments must be taken into account; and (4) the atmosphere culls, i.e., everything is not everywhere. ?? 2010 US Government.

  1. Antimicrobial Behavior of Semifluorinated-Quaternized Triblock Copolymers against Airborne and Marine Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.; Finlay, J; Ward, R; Weinman, C; Krishnan, S; Park, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; Callow, J; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Semifluorinated-quaternized triblock copolymers (SQTCs) were synthesized by chemical modification of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymers. Surface characterization of the polymers was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. The surface of the SQTC showed very high antibacterial activity against the airborne bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with >99 % inhibition of growth. In contrast in marine fouling assays, zoospores of the green alga Ulva settled on the SQTC, which can be attributed to the positively charged surface. The adhesion strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula diatoms (a unicellular alga) was high. The SQTC did not show marked algicidal activity.

  2. Airborne microorganism monitoring: a comparison of several methods, including a new direct counting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hýsek, J; Fisar, Z; Zizka, Z; Kofronova, O; Binek, B

    1991-01-01

    Samples of aerosol from the surrounding air were collected by forcing them to impact onto a solid nutrient medium, onto membrane filters, or onto microscope slides on microcover slips. The samples were cultivated or viewed in a fluorescence microscope by using a technique developed by us, or investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The amounts of microorganisms found by cultivation method, i.e. those forming microcolonies (CFU), were on average 85% lower than the amounts determined by the fluorescence technique. Cultivation of microorganisms trapped on Synpor filters of various pore size resulted in lower counts than conventional cultivation. Among bacteria, the genera Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium predominated; the genera Neisseria, Actinomyces, Pseudomonas and others were also found. Of micromycetes, the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium occurred most frequently in air. In the summer season, yeasts and other micromycetes prevailed, whereas in the winter season the bacteria counts were higher. The total counts of all components of the aeroplankton were higher in summer than in winter. Dust particles bounded mainly bacteria. PMID:1950200

  3. Effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating system for control of airborne microorganisms in meat processing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in a meat processing environment was determined. Serratia marcescens and lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were used to artificiall...

  4. 盐城市空气微生物调查与评价%Investigation and Evaluation on Airborne Microorganisms in Yancheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛伟; 蔡琨; 马晶晶

    2015-01-01

    To learn about the airborne microorganism pollution in Yancheng,four urban functional area sites and one suburban refer-ence site were settled from 2009 to 2013.Atmospheric bacteria and Martin's fungi were collected using natural precipitation method. The results indicated that the traffic area had the highest content of atmospheric bacteria,followed by the cultural district,industrial area,residential area,and reference site.The traffic area had the highest content of Martin's fungi,followed by the industrial area, residential area,cultural district,and reference site.Airborne microorganism condition of all functional areas except traffic area in Yancheng was fairly clean or lightly polluted.Years of continuous monitoring results showed that the pollution level of Yancheng was decreasing year by year with slight fluctuations.%为了解盐城市空气微生物污染状况,于2009—2013年在盐城市布设了4个城市主要功能区点位和1个市郊清洁参照点,采用自然沉降法采集空气中细菌和马丁霉菌样品进行分析。结果表明,盐城市空气中细菌数量最多的为交通区,其次依次为文教区、工业区、居民区,清洁参照点最少;马丁霉菌数量最多的是交通区,其次依次为工业区、居民区、文教区,清洁参照点最少。盐城市空气微生物污染级别除交通区外,其他功能区均处于较清洁或轻微污染,污染程度呈逐年波动下降趋势。

  5. Classifying Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Lang, Michael; Goodmanis, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on an activity in which students sample air at school and generate ideas about how to classify the microorganisms they observe. The results are used to compare air quality among schools via the Internet. Supports the development of scientific inquiry and technology skills. (DDR)

  6. Microorganism Billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Colin; Spagnolie, Saverio E; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that certain types of microorganisms "reflect" off of a flat surface at a critical angle of departure, independent of the angle of incidence. The nature of the reflection may be active (cell and flagellar contact with the surface) or passive (hydrodynamic) interactions. We explore the billiard-like motion of such a body inside a regular polygon and show that the dynamics can settle on a stable periodic orbit, or can be chaotic, depending on the swimmer's departure angle and the domain geometry. The dynamics are often found to be robust to the introduction of weak random fluctuations. The Lyapunov exponent of swimmer trajectories can be positive or negative, can have extremal values, and can have discontinuities depending on the degree of the polygon. A passive sorting device is proposed that traps swimmers of different departure angles into separate bins. We also study the external problem of a microorganism swimming in a patterned environment of square ...

  7. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, H.

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  9. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  10. SURVEY OF CULTURABLE AIRBORNE BACTERIA AT FOUR DIVERSE LOCATIONS IN OREGON: URBAN, RURAL, FOREST, AND COASTAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the risks of microbial air pollution from microorganisms used for pesticides and bioremediation, or emanating from composting, fermentation tanks, or other agricultural and urban sources, airborne microbial levels must be evaluated. This study surveyed the atmospheri...

  11. Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Adesiyun, Abiodun A.; Tisha A. M. Harper; Bridgewater, Shelley; Brown, Latoya; Pow-Brown, Patricia; Stewart-Johnson, Alva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and ...

  12. Assessment of the Levels of Airborne Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacteria, and Fungi in Hospital Lobbies

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Uk Park; Jeong-Kwan Yeom; Won Jae Lee; Kyeong-Min Lee

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We assessed the levels of airborne bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and fungi in six hospital lobbies, and investigated the environmental and hospital characteristics that affected the airborne microorganism levels. Methods: An Andersen single-stage sampler equipped with appropriate nutrition plate agar was used to collect the samples. The three types of microorganisms were repeatedly collected at a fixed location in each hospital (assumed to be representative of the entire hospi...

  13. Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms (microbes) are those life forms too small to be seen by the naked eye; that is, those that require a microscope or other form of magnification in order to be observed. The term microorganism is thus a functional description rather than a taxonomic one, and the grouping includes a w...... wide variety of organisms. The article focuses on the functional role of microbes in the biosphere and in different types of habitats - especially in terms of flow of energy and matter....

  14. Rumen microorganisms and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Castillo-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rumen consists of a complex ecosystem where nutrients consumed by ruminants are digested by fermentation process, which is executed by diverse microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. A symbiotic relationship is found among different groups of microorganisms due to the diverse nature of these microbial species and their adaptability and interactions also coexist. The ruminant provides the necessary environment for the establishment of such microorganisms, while the microorganisms obtain energy from the host animal from microbial fermentation end products. Within the ruminal ecosystem, the microorganisms coexist in a reduced environment and pH remains close to neutral. Rumen microorganisms are involved in the fermentation of substrates contained in thedietof the animals (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. However, the fermentation process is not 100% effective because there are energy losses mainly in the form of methane gas (CH4, which is a problem for the environment since it is a greenhouse gas. In order to improve the efficiency of ruminant production systems, nutritional strategies that aim to manipulate ruminal fermentation using additives in the diet such as monensin, tallow, buffers, nitrogen compounds, probiotics, and others have been used. These additives allow changing the ruminal fermentation process in ways that produce better growth efficiency while decreasing energy loss. The purpose of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the fermentation processes taking place in the rumen, providing information that can be applied in the development of new nutritional strategies for the improvement of the digestion process to achieve maximum production.

  15. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  16. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author)

  17. Airborne geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Bastos, L.; Gidskehaug, A.; Meyer, U.; Timmen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne geoid mapping techniques may provide the opportunity to improve the geoid over vast areas of the Earth, such as polar areas, tropical jungles and mountainous areas, and provide an accurate "seam-less" geoid model across most coastal regions. Determination of the geoid by airborne methods...... relies on the development of airborne gravimetry, which in turn is dependent on developments in kinematic GPS. Routine accuracy of airborne gravimetry are now at the 2 mGal level, which may translate into 5-10 cm geoid accuracy on regional scales. The error behaviour of airborne gravimetry is well...

  18. Assessment of the Levels of Airborne Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacteria, and Fungi in Hospital Lobbies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Uk Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We assessed the levels of airborne bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB, and fungi in six hospital lobbies, and investigated the environmental and hospital characteristics that affected the airborne microorganism levels. Methods: An Andersen single-stage sampler equipped with appropriate nutrition plate agar was used to collect the samples. The three types of microorganisms were repeatedly collected at a fixed location in each hospital (assumed to be representative of the entire hospital lobby from 08:00 through 24:00, with a sampling time of less than 5 min. Temperature and relative humidity were simultaneously monitored. Results: Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the major factors affecting microorganism levels. The average levels of bacteria (7.2 × 102 CFU/m3, GNB (1.7 × 10 CFU/m3, and fungi (7.7 × 10 CFU/m3 indicated that all hospital lobbies were generally contaminated. Season was the only factor that significantly affected the levels of all microorganisms (p < 0.0001, where contamination was the highest during the summer, significantly higher than during the winter. Other significant factors varied by microorganism, as follows: airborne bacteria (number of people in the lobby, sampling time, GNB (scale of hospital, and fungi (humidity and air temperature. Conclusions: Hospital lobby air was generally contaminated with microorganisms, including bacteria, GNB, and fungi. Environmental factors that may significantly influence the airborne concentrations of these agents should be managed to minimize airborne levels.

  19. Properties of thermophilic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms are called thermophilic or extreme thermophilic (caldo-active) if they grow and reproduce over 470C and 700C, respectively. A survey of growth characteristics of thermophiles is presented and it includes those which also live at extreme pH. The prevalent but not completely emcompassing theory of the ability of thermophiles to grow at high temperatures is that they have macromolecules and cell organelles with high thermostability. Work on some proteins and cell organelles from thermophiles is reviewed. The thermostabilities of these components are compared with those of the living cells, and factors which may govern optimum as well as minimum growth temperatures of microorganisms are discussed. Examples are from the literature but also include enzymes involved in tetrahydrofolate metabolism and other proteins of acetogenic therhmophilic bacteria which are presently studied in the author's laboratory

  20. Interactions between plants and microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelopathic microorganisms comprise rhizobacteria and fungi that colonize the surfaces of plant roots, and produce and release phytotoxic metabolites, similar to allelochemicals, that detrimentally affect growth of their host plants. The allelopathic microorganisms are grouped separately from typic...

  1. Detecting the presence of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Judd R. (Inventor); Stoner, Glenn E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by culturing microorganisms in a growth medium which is in contact with a measuring electrode and a reference electrode and detecting a change in potential between the electrodes caused by the presence of the microorganisms in the medium with a high impedance potentiometer.

  2. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  3. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  4. Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    FARKOVÁ, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis and description of microorganisms occurring in meat products. The work is by definition enter the search character, so the method chosen as the research literature analysis and the subsequent description of findings. The first chapter focuses on the characteristics of microorganisms and their distribution in several respects. Chapter 2 is already covered by specific genera of microorganisms that have been using a wide range of literary sources characterize...

  5. Airborne wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on 'Fundamentals' contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, o

  6. Technetium in micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of experimental work on the interaction of technetium with the following aquatic micro-organisms and untreated and sterilised sediments: Flavobacterium halmephilum, Uronema marinum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella bioculata, Mytilus edulis, and marine sediments, collected near Coxyde, containing a mixed population of micro-organisms, and sterilised by autoclaving. (UK)

  7. The airborne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  8. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient microorganisms. The following recipient microorganisms are eligible for...

  9. Sensor arrays for detecting microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Freund, Michael S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A sensor array for detecting a microorganism comprising first and second sensors electrically connected to an electrical measuring apparatus, wherein the sensors comprise a region of nonconducting organic material and a region of conducting material compositionally that is different than the nonconducting organic material and an electrical path through the regions of nonconducting organic material and the conducting material. A system for identifying microorganisms using the sensor array, a computer and a pattern recognition algorithm, such as a neural net are also disclosed.

  10. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  11. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  12. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  13. Airborne forest fire research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  14. Particulate airborne impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative effects of air pollutants are of principal concern in research on environmental protection in Sweden. Post-industrial society has imposed many limits on emitted air pollutants, yet the number of reports on the negative effects from them is increasing, largely due to human activity in the form of industrial emissions and increased traffic flows. Rising concerns over the health effects from airborne particulate matter (PM) stem from in vitro, in vivo, and cohort studies revealing...

  15. GRYPHON : Airborne lifestyle concept

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The result of the project, the Gryphon, is a helicopter concept designed for private use. The intention of the project has been to investigate how safe, personal airborne mobility could be an attractive transportation alternative in the future. As an aspirational concept the goal has been to inspire and show an exciting way to enjoy a modern, sustainable lifestyle close to nature without the need for conventional infrastructure.

  16. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  17. Decreased influenza virus pathogenesis by infection with germicidal UV-irradiated airborne virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory infections are acquired by the inhalation of airborne microorganisms. To evaluate the effect of germicidal UV-irradiation on airborne contagion, infectious clouds of influenza A/PR8/34 virus were generated and exposed to known intensities of UV. Thereafter, the airborne virus was used to infect mice wherein the pathogenesis of the viral pneumonia was evaluated. Increasing doses of UV inactivated infectious airborne virus in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the mortality rates as compared to an infectious cloud of untreated virus. When a sublethal cloud of infectious virus was used, UV-irradiation modified the viral infection, as quantified by pulmonary virus titers, from a severe pneumonitis to a milder form of the disease. (author)

  18. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  19. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  20. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  1. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only...

  2. Predatory Microorganisms Would Help Reclaim Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminson, Morris A.; Lehrer, Stanley

    1995-01-01

    Wastewater-reclamation systems of proposed type use predatory, nonpathogenic microorganisms to consume pathogenic microorganisms. Unlike some other wastewater-reclamation systems, these systems do not require use of toxic chemicals, intense heat, or ionizing radiation (conductivity rays or ultraviolet) to destroy microorganisms.

  3. Device and method for reducing spread of microorganisms and airborne health hazardous matter and/or for protection from microorganisms and airborne health hazardous matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012199003A Disclosed is an air distribution control unit or a filtration/ventilation unit which is portable and/or can be mounted on or integrated in furniture e.g. as a cabinet of at the head region of a bed. The filtration/ventilation unit cleanses air from a person/patient by aspira...

  4. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination

  5. Airborne field strength monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bredemeyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  6. Compositae dermatitis from airborne parthenolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compositae dermatitis confined to exposed skin has often been considered on clinical grounds to be airborne. Although anecdotal clinical and plant chemical reports suggest true airborne allergy, no proof has been procured. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a European Compositae plant...

  7. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  8. Airborne monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete system for tracking, mapping, and performing a composition analysis of a radioactive plume and contaminated area was developed at the NRCN. The system includes two major units : An airborne unit for monitoring and a ground station for analyzing. The airborne unit is mounted on a helicopter and includes file following. Four radiation sensor, two 2'' x 2'' Nal (Tl) sensors horizontally separated by lead shield for mapping and spectroscopy, and two Geiger Mueller (GM) tubes as part of the safety system. A multichannel analyzer card is used for spectroscopy. A navigation system, based on GPS and a barometric altitude meter, is used to locate the plume or ground data. The telemetry system, consisting of a transceiver and a modem, transfers all the data in real time to the ground station. An industrial PC (Field Works) runs a dedicated C++ Windows application to manage the acquired data. An independent microprocessor based backup system includes a recorder, display, and key pad. The ground station is based on an industrial PC, a telemetry system, a color printer and a modem to communicate with automatic meteorology stations in the relevant area. A special software controls the ground station. Measurement results are analyzed in the ground station to estimate plume parameters including motion, location, size, velocity, and perform risk assessment. (authors)

  9. Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Smith; Dan Jaffe; Michele Birmele; Griffin, Dale W.; Andrew Schuerger; Hee, J.; Michael Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are abundant in the troposphere and can be transported vast distances on prevailing winds. This study measures the abundance and diversity of airborne bacteria and fungi sampled at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (located 2.7 km above sea level in North America) where incoming free tropospheric air routinely arrives from distant sources across the Pacific Ocean, including Asia. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentrations for microorganisms in the free troposphere, derived from quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, averaged 4.94 × 10(-5) ng DNA m(-3) for bacteria and 4.77 × 10(-3) ng DNA m(-3) for fungi. Aerosols occasionally corresponded with microbial abundance, most often in the springtime. Viable cells were recovered from 27.4 % of bacterial and 47.6 % of fungal samples (N = 124), with 49 different species identified by ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The number of microbial isolates rose significantly above baseline values on 22-23 April 2011 and 13-15 May 2011. Both events were analyzed in detail, revealing distinct free tropospheric chemistries (e.g., low water vapor, high aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone) useful for ruling out boundary layer contamination. Kinematic back trajectory modeling suggested air from these events probably originated near China or Japan. Even after traveling for 10 days across the Pacific Ocean in the free troposphere, diverse and viable microbial populations, including presumptive plant pathogens Alternaria infectoria and Chaetomium globosum, were detected in Asian air samples. Establishing a connection between the intercontinental transport of microorganisms and specific diseases in North America will require follow-up investigations on both sides of the Pacific Ocean.

  10. Inhalable Microorganisms in Beijing’s PM2.5 and PM10 Pollutants during a Severe Smog Event

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA g...

  11. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  12. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  13. Monitoring Airborne Fungal Spores in an Experimental Indoor Environment To Evaluate Sampling Methods and the Effects of Human Activity on Air Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Buttner, M P; Stetzenbach, L D

    1993-01-01

    Aerobiological monitoring was conducted in an experimental room to aid in the development of standardized sampling protocols for airborne microorganisms in the indoor environment. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the relative efficiencies of selected sampling methods for the retrieval of airborne fungal spores and to determine the effect of human activity on air sampling. Dry aerosols containing known concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum spores were generated, and air sam...

  14. Metagenomics: Application of Genomics to Uncultured Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Handelsman, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Metagenomics (also referred to as environmental and community genomics) is the genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from an assemblage of microorganisms. The development of metagenomics stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. This evidence was derived from analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the environment, an approach that ...

  15. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  16. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, accounting for up to ∼10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to Bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of Archaea in the atmosphere. By DNA analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over one year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea. The detected Archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase of bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role for the dispersal of Archaea, including ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens. Also, anthropogenic activities might influence the atmospheric abundance and diversity of Archaea.

  17. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Almeida, S. M.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, and are thus outside extreme environments, accounting for up to ~10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of archaea in the atmosphere. By means of DNA analysis and Sanger sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA (435 sequences) and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over 1 year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea. The detected archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase in bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly predicted methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands (72 sequences) and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role in the dispersal of archaea, including assumed ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens.

  18. South African Airborne Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne operations entail the delivery of ground troops and their equipment by air to their area of operations. They can also include the subsequent support of these troops and their equipment by air. Historically, and by definition, this would encompass delivery by fixed-wing powered aircraft, by glider, by parachute or by helicopter. Almost any troops can be delivered by most of these means. However, the technical expertise and physical as well as psychological demands required by parachuting have resulted in specialist troops being selected and trained for this role. Some of the material advantages of using parachute troops, or paratroops, are: the enormous strategic reach provided by the long-distance transport aircraft used to convey them; the considerable payload which these aircraft are capable of carrying; the speed with which the parachute force can deploy; and the fact that no infrastructure such as airfields are required for their arrival. Perhaps most attractively to cash-strapped governments, the light equipment scales of parachute units’ makes them economical to establish and maintain. There are also less tangible advantages: the soldiers selected are invariably volunteers with a willingness or even desire to tackle challenges; their selection and training produces tough, confident and aggressive troops, psychologically geared to face superior odds and to function independently from other units; and their initiative and self-reliance combined with a high level of physical fitness makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles.

  19. Siderophores from Marine Microorganisms and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junfeng; CHI Zhenming

    2004-01-01

    In view of the fact that siderophores from microorganisms in different environments have received much attention in recent years because of their potential applications and diverse physiological functions, this review deals with siderophore-producing marine microorganisms and the detection, chemical structure and potential applications of siderophores.

  20. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  1. FUNCTIONAL POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES SYNTHESIZED BY MICROORGANISMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qiang Chen; Qiong Wu; Kai Zhao; Peter H.Yu

    2000-01-01

    Many bacteria have been found to synthesize a family of polyesters termed polyhydroxyalkanoate, abbreviated as PHA. Some interesting physical properties of PHAs such as piezoelectricity, non-linear optical activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability offer promising applications in areas such as degradable packaging, tissue engineering and drug delivery.Over 90 PHAs with various structure variations have been reported and the number is still increasing. The mechanical property of PHAs changes from brittle to flexible to elastic, depending on the side-chainlength of PHA. Many attempts have been made to produce PHAs as biodegradable plastics using various microorganisms obtained from screening natural environments, genetic engineering and mutation. Due to the high production cost, PHAs still can not compete with the nondegradable plastics, such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Various processes have been developed using low cost raw materials for fermentation and an inorganic extraction process for PHA purification. However, a super PHA production strain may play the most critical role for any large-scale PHA production. Our recent study showed that PHA synthesis is a common phenomenon among bacteria inhabiting various locations, especially oil-contaminated soils. This is very important for finding a suitable bacterial strain for PHA production. In fact, PHA production strains capable of rapid growth and rapid PHA synthesis on cheap molasses substrate have been found on molasses contaminated soils. A combination of novel properties and lower cost will allow easier commercialization of PHA for many applications.

  2. Neutron radiography applied to the microorganisms detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to present a new method of microorganism detection in several culture medium, such as potable water and corporal fluids. After the steps of processes of growth in culture medium, separation and resuspension in a boron based lid solution, the microorganisms are deposited in lines detectors and at last submitted to a thermal neutrons beam (congruent with 2.2x105 n/cm2.s). The latent tracks registered by the alpha particles coming from the B(n,α)Li reaction are analyzed by an optical microscope, allowing the detection of microorganisms existence

  3. Measurement strategies for the determination of airborne bacterial endotoxin in sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Jörgen; Beijer, Lena; Jonsson, Titti; Rylander, Ragnar

    2002-08-01

    Working in sewage plants can involve exposure to different types of microorganisms, viruses and chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different measurement strategies to determine airborne bacterial endotoxin in such plants. Sewage treatment plants in three municipalities in western Sweden were included. Measurements of airborne endotoxin were performed in April-May and September-October 2001 using personal and stationary samplers. The air sampling times ranged from 60 to 444 min. In stationary and personal sampler measurements, the amounts of airborne endotoxin detected were generally low. At specific worksites, however, higher endotoxin values were identified, with the highest values at worksites located indoors. The results suggest that the exposure situation is relatively stable over a short time period at a specific worksite and that higher values can be recorded during work practices where agitation of wastewater occurs. The results further suggest that airborne endotoxin exposure situations in sewage treatment plants are complex. Sampling techniques, indoor/outdoor measurements and identification of specific worksites/tasks where there is a risk of airborne endotoxin exposure are important factors that must be considered in order to obtain relevant exposure determinations and establish preventive measures from a health risk perspective. PMID:12176770

  4. Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Characterization of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirev, Plamen A.; Fenselau, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Advances in instrumentation, proteomics, and bioinformatics have contributed to the successful applications of mass spectrometry (MS) for detection, identification, and classification of microorganisms. These MS applications are based on the detection of organism-specific biomarker molecules, which allow differentiation between organisms to be made. Intact proteins, their proteolytic peptides, and nonribosomal peptides have been successfully utilized as biomarkers. Sequence-specific fragments for biomarkers are generated by tandem MS of intact proteins or proteolytic peptides, obtained after, for instance, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. In combination with proteome database searching, individual biomarker proteins are unambiguously identified from their tandem mass spectra, and from there the source microorganism is also identified. Such top-down or bottom-up proteomics approaches permit rapid, sensitive, and confident characterization of individual microorganisms in mixtures and are reviewed here. Examples of MS-based functional assays for detection of targeted microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus anthracis, in environmental or clinically relevant backgrounds are also reviewed.

  5. Astrobiology studies of microorganisms in simulated interplanetary and planetary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    For laboratory studies on the responses of resistant life forms to simulated interplanetary space conditions, testbeds are available that simulate the parameters of space, such as vacuum, solar electromagnetic and cosmic ionizing radiation, temperature extremes and reduced gravity that can be applied separately, or in selected combinations. Appropriate biological test systems are extremophiles, i.e. microorganisms that are adapted to grow, or survive in extreme conditions of our biosphere. Examples are airborne microbes, epilithic, endolithic or endoevaporitic microbial communities, or bacterial endospores. Such studies contribute to answer several questions pertinent to astrobiology, such as (i) the role of solar UV radiation in genetic stability, (ii) the role of gravity in basic biological functions, (iii) the probability and limits for interplanetary transfer of life, (iv) strategies of adaptation to environmental extremes, and (v) the needs for planetary protection. In addition, studies on the responses of extremophile microbial communities to simulated planetary surface and subsurface conditions are an essential prerequisite in preparation of space missions to Mars, icy moons or asteroids, searching for signature of life.

  6. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Hermosin Bernardo; Boiron Patrick; Rodriguez-Nava Veronica; Laiz Leonila; Jurado Valme; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo

    2010-01-01

    With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  7. Selective accumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous systems using microbial biomass has been described previously (Nakajima et al. 1982). To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, we extended our investigation of uranium uptake to 83 species of microorganisms, 32 bacteria, 15 yeasts, 16 fungi and 20 actinomycetes. Of these 83 species of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium-absorbing ability was found in Pseudomonas stutzeri, Neurospora sitophila, Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces viridochromogenes. The selective accumulation of heavy metal ions by various microorganisms has also been examined. Uranyl, mercury and lead ions were readily accumulated by almost all the species of microorganisms tested. Actinomycetes and fungi differ from many bacteria and most yeasts in their selective accumulation of uranium and mercury. In addition to this fundamental research, uranium recovery was investigated in immobilized Streptomyces albus, a microorganism with high uranium-uptake ability. These immobilized cells adsorbed uranium readily and selectively. The immobilized cells recovered uranium almost quantitatively and almost all uranium absorbed was desorbed with 0.1 M Na2CO3. The dry weight of the free cells decreased by 50% during 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. However, the dry weight of the immobilized cells decreased by only 2% during 5 cycles. These results showed that microbial cells are more stable after immobilization and can be used repeatedly for the process of uranium adsorption-desorption. (orig.)

  8. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  9. Effect of electrical charges and fields on injury and viability of airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainelis, Gediminas; Górny, Rafał L; Reponen, Tiina; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Baron, Paul; Yadav, Jagjit; Willeke, Klaus

    2002-07-20

    In this study, the effects of the electric charges and fields on the viability of airborne microorganisms were investigated. The electric charges of different magnitude and polarity were imparted on airborne microbial cells by a means of induction charging. The airborne microorganisms carrying different electric charge levels were then extracted by an electric mobility analyzer and collected using a microbial sampler. It was found that the viability of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria, used as a model for sensitive bacteria, carrying a net charge from 4100 negative to 30 positive elementary charges ranged between 40% and 60%; the viability of the cells carrying >2700 positive charges was below 1.5%. In contrast, the viability of the stress-resistant spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (used as simulant of anthrax-causing Bacillus anthracis spores when testing bioaerosol sensors in various studies), was not affected by the amount of electric charges on the spores. Because bacterial cells depend on their membrane potential for basic metabolic activities, drastic changes occurring in the membrane potential during aerosolization and the local electric fields induced by the imposed charges appeared to affect the sensitive cells' viability. These findings facilitate applications of electric charging for environmental control purposes involving sterilization of bacterial cells by imposing high electric charges on them. The findings from this study can also be used in the development of new bioaerosol sampling methods based on electrostatic principles. PMID:12115440

  10. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods. PMID:20830633

  11. Aerogene in kapljične okužbe v zobozdravstvu: Airborne and droplet infections in dentistry:

    OpenAIRE

    Lešničar, Gorazd; Žerdoner, Danijel

    2003-01-01

    Background. In dental care institutions, patients as well as dentistry workersthemselves are at risk of being exposed to various bacteria while on the other hand they both represent a source of such microorganisms. Apart fromthe infected patients and dental care personnel, modern apparatures used in dentistry along with inadequate and poorly maintained air conditioning appliances are the most significant agents of airborne and droplet infection spread. The paper preserats recommendations on p...

  12. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  13. Microorganism characterization by single particle mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a major effort by several groups has been undertaken to identify bacteria by mass spectrometry at the single cell level. The intent of this review is to highlight the recent progress made in the application of single particle mass spectrometry to the analysis of microorganisms. A large portion of the review highlights improvements in the ionization and mass analysis of bio-aerosols, or particles that contain biologically relevant molecules such as peptides or proteins. While these are not direct applications to bacteria, the results have been central to a progression toward single cell mass spectrometry. Developments in single particle matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are summarized. Recent applications of aerosol laser desorption/ionization (LDI) to the analysis of single microorganisms are highlighted. Successful applications of off-line and on-the-fly aerosol MALDI to microorganism detection are discussed. Limitations to current approaches and necessary future achievements are also addressed. PMID:18949817

  14. Airborne Ultrasonic Tactile Display BCI

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Katsuhiko; Mori, Hiromu; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Rutkowski, Tomasz M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents results of our project, which studied whether contactless and airborne ultrasonic tactile display (AUTD) stimuli delivered to a user's palms could serve as a platform for a brain computer interface (BCI) paradigm. We used six palm positions to evoke combined somatosensory brain responses to implement a novel contactless tactile BCI. This achievement was awarded the top prize in the Annual BCI Research Award 2014 competition. This chapter also presents a comparison with a...

  15. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the......The rapid development of recombinant DNA techniques for food organisms urges for an ongoing discussion on the risk assessment of both new as traditional use of microorganisms in food production. This report, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is the result of a workshop where people from...

  16. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  17. Hydrodynamic Phase Locking of Swimming Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfring, Gwynn J.; Lauga, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Some microorganisms, such as spermatozoa, synchronize their flagella when swimming in close proximity. Using a simplified model (two infinite, parallel, two-dimensional waving sheets), we show that phase locking arises from hydrodynamics forces alone, and has its origin in the front-back asymmetry of the geometry of their flagellar waveform. The time evolution of the phase difference between coswimming cells depends only on the nature of this geometrical asymmetry, and microorganisms can phase lock into conformations which minimize or maximize energy dissipation.

  18. Hydrodynamic phase-locking of swimming microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    Elfring, Gwynn J

    2009-01-01

    Some microorganisms, such as spermatozoa, synchronize their flagella when swimming in close proximity. Using a simplified model (two infinite, parallel, two-dimensional waving sheets), we show that phase-locking arises from hydrodynamics forces alone, and has its origin in the front-back asymmetry of the geometry of their flagellar waveform. The time-evolution of the phase difference between co-swimming cells depends only on the nature of this geometrical asymmetry, and microorganisms can phase-lock into conformations which minimize or maximize energy dissipation.

  19. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  20. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  1. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  2. Ecology and metagenomics of soil microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Head, I. M.; Prosser, J. I.; Schloter, M.; Smalla, K.; Tebbe, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-2. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk(CZ) LA10001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microorganism * bioremediation * biogenesis of soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2011

  3. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  4. Radiation sensitivity of hyperthermal composting microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kim, Geun Joong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    In the space station and vehicles designed for long human mission, high-temperature compost is a promising technology for decomposing organic waste and producing the fertilizers. In space, the microorganisms could have the changed biological activities or even be mutated by ionizing irradiation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the sensitivity of bacteria in hyperthermal composting was investigated. The sequence analysis of the amplified 16s rDNA genes and amoA gene were used for the identification of composting microorganisms. Viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly visualized with LIVE/DEAD Baclight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera are Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp. and fungus genera are Metschnikowia bicuspidate and Pichia guilliermondii, respectively. By the gamma irradiation up to the dose of 1 kGy, the microbial population was not changed. Also, the enzyme activities of amylase and cellulose were sustained by the gamma irradiation. These results show that these hyperthermia microorganisms might have the high resistance to gamma radiation and could be used for agriculture in the Space Station.

  5. Human recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Mojica, Ángela J; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Rodríguez, Alexander; Mosquera, Ángela; Díaz, Dennis; Beltrán, Laura; Díaz, Sergio; Pimentel, Natalia; Moreno, Jefferson; Sánchez, Jhonnathan; Sánchez, Oscar F; Córdoba, Henry; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Barrera, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are caused by accumulation of partially degraded substrates within the lysosome, as a result of a function loss of a lysosomal protein. Recombinant lysosomal proteins are usually produced in mammalian cells, based on their capacity to carry out post-translational modifications similar to those observed in human native proteins. However, during the last years, a growing number of studies have shown the possibility to produce active forms of lysosomal proteins in other expression systems, such as plants and microorganisms. In this paper, we review the production and characterization of human lysosomal proteins, deficient in several LSDs, which have been produced in microorganisms. For this purpose, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Ogataea minuta have been used as expression systems. The recombinant lysosomal proteins expressed in these hosts have shown similar substrate specificities, and temperature and pH stability profiles to those produced in mammalian cells. In addition, pre-clinical results have shown that recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms can be taken-up by cells and reduce the substrate accumulated within the lysosome. Recently, metabolic engineering in yeasts has allowed the production of lysosomal enzymes with tailored N-glycosylations, while progresses in E. coli N-glycosylations offer a potential platform to improve the production of these recombinant lysosomal enzymes. In summary, microorganisms represent convenient platform for the production of recombinant lysosomal proteins for biochemical and physicochemical characterization, as well as for the development of ERT for LSD. PMID:26071627

  6. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.; Hansen, B. M.; Hendriksen, N. B.; Kroer, N.

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...

  7. Biodiversity of deep-sea microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengping Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The oceans, with an average depth of 3,800 meters and an average pressure about 38 MPa, cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth. Geological structures under the seawater, such as marine sediments, oceanic crust, hydrothermal vents, and the cold seeps, vary significantly with regard to physical and chemical properties. In combination, these diverse environments contain the largest microbial ecosystem in the world. In deep seawater, the major microorganism groups are Alpha-& Gammaproteobacteria, and Marine Group I. In deep-sea sediments, the abundance of microbes is related to the content of organic matter and distance from land. Methane Oxidizing Archaea (ANME and sulfate reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria are common in deep-sea cold seep environments; while in hydrothermal vents, the richness and dynamics of chemical substances have led to highly diversified archaeal and bacterial groups. In contrast, the oceanic crust is mainly composed of basic and ultrabasic rocks rich in minerals, and as a result houses microorganisms that are mainly autotrophic, utilizing iron, manganese and sulfur. Because more than 99% of deep-sea microorganisms cannot be cultured, an understanding of their diversity, physiological features, and biogeochemical roles remains to be fully achieved. In this article, we review and summarize what is known about the distribution and diversity of deep-sea microorganisms in diverse habitats. It is emphasized that there is much to learn about these microbes.

  8. [DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS TO POLYHEXAMETHYLENEGUANIDINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysytsya, A V; Mandygra, Y M; Bojko, O P; Romanishyna, O O; Mandygra, M S

    2015-01-01

    Factors identified that affect the sensitivity of microorganisms to polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG). Salts of PHMG chloride, valerate, maleate, succinate was to use. Test strains of Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Leptospira interrogans, Paenibacillus larvae, Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, M. fortuitum, Aspergillus niger and some strains of viruses are taken as objects of research. We have determined that the cytoplasm membrane phospholipids is main "target" for the polycation molecules of PHMG. A differential sensitivity of the microorganisms to this drug is primarily determined by relative amount of lipids in membrane and their accessibility. Such trends exist: increase the relative contents of anionic lipids and more negative surface electric potential of membrane, and reduction of the sizes fat acid remainder of lipids bring to increase of microorganism sensitivity. Types of anion salt PHMG just have a certain value. Biocide activity of PHMG chloride is more, than its salts with organic acid. Feasibility of combining PHMG with other biocides in the multicomponent disinfectants studied and analyzed. This combination does not lead to a significant increase in the sensitivity of microorganisms tested in most cases. Most species of pathogenic bacteria can be quickly neutralized by aqueous solutions of PHMG in less than 1% concentrations. PMID:26638480

  9. Mechanism of inactivating microorganisms with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inactivation of microorganisms with a high dose of ionizing radiation is characterized by the exponential function of the dose N/sub D/=N0exp(-kD) where N0 is the number of microorganisms before irradiation and N/sub D/ the number of microorganisms after irradiation with dose D and k is the constant characterizing the strain resistance. Microorganisms differ by their sensitivity to radiation. Important for their inactivation are irradiation conditions (the presence of O2, temperature, pressure, pH, etc.). The efficiency of sterilization is assessed by the inactivation coefficient, t.e., the relation between the initial and the final concentration of cells irradiated with the given dose. The value of this coefficient is usually 104 to 108. For routine control of the sterilization process biological indicators are used, i.e., monitors, contaminated with a high number of germs of the standard resistant strain Bacillus sphaericus C/sub I/A. (E.F.)

  10. The genomics of probiotic intestinal microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Seppo; Nurmi, Jussi; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    An intestinal population of beneficial commensal microorganisms helps maintain human health, and some of these bacteria have been found to significantly reduce the risk of gut-associated disease and to alleviate disease symptoms. The genomic characterization of probiotic bacteria and other commensal intestinal bacteria that is now under way will help to deepen our understanding of their beneficial effects.

  11. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  12. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  13. Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective of Investigations: Development and creation of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms which allows to evaluate, in a real temporal scale, variations in the state of water suspension of micro-organisms under the effect of chemical, physical and other external actions. Statement of the Problem The main problem is absence of reliable, accessible for users and simple, in view of application, Doppler speedometers for micro-organisms. Nevertheless, correlation Doppler spectrometry in the regime of heterodyning the supporting and cell-scattered laser radiation is welt known. The main idea is that the correlation function of photo-current pulses bears an information on the averages over the assembly of cell velocities. For solving the biological problems, construction of auto-correlation function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, nearly, 100 me (10 khz) or higher is needed. Computers of high class manage this problem using but the program software. Due to this, one can simplify applications of the proposed techniques provided he creates the Doppler speedometer for micro-organism on a base of the Pentium. Expected Result Manufactured operable mock-up of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms in a form of the auxiliary computer block which allows to receive an information, in the real time scale, on the results of external effects of various nature on the cell assembly in transparent medium with a small volume of the studied cell suspension

  14. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  15. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) proposes to develop a miniaturized Airborne Chemical Microsensor Instrument (ACMI) suitable for real-time, airborne measurements of...

  16. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide open-quotes stand-offclose quotes capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected

  17. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  18. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  19. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  20. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan;

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) systems have already demonstrated that elevation maps can be generated rapidly with single pass airborne across-track interferometry systems (XTT), and satellite repeat track interferometry (RTT) techniques have been used to map both elevation and......) the status of the airborne interferometry activities at DCRS, including the present system configuration, recent results, and some scientific applications of the system....

  1. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems - Part III: Airborne bacteria concentrations and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Zhao, D; Ma, H; Liu, K; Atilgan, A; Xin, H

    2016-07-01

    Airborne microorganism level is an important indoor air quality indicator, yet it has not been well documented for laying-hen houses in the United States. As a part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) environmental monitoring project, this study comparatively monitored the concentrations and emissions of airborne total and Gram-negative (Gram(-)) bacteria in three types of commercial laying-hen houses, i.e., conventional cage (CC), aviary (AV), and enriched colony (EC) houses, over a period of eight months covering the mid and late stages of the flock cycle. It also delineated the relationship between airborne total bacteria and particulate matter smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10). The results showed airborne total bacteria concentrations (log CFU/m(3)) of 4.7 ± 0.3 in CC, 6.0 ± 0.8 in AV, and 4.8 ± 0.3 in EC, all being higher than the level recommended for human environment (3.0 log CFU/m(3)). The much higher concentrations in AV arose from the presence of floor litter and hen activities on it, as evidenced by the higher concentrations in the afternoon (with litter access) than in the morning (without litter access). The overall means and standard deviation of airborne total bacteria emission rates, in log CFU/[h-hen] (or log CFU/[h-AU], AU = animal unit or 500 kg live weight) were 4.8 ± 0.4 (or 7.3 ± 0.4) for CC, 6.1 ± 0.7 (or 8.6 ± 0.7) for AV, and 4.8 ± 0.5 (or 7.3 ± 0.5) for EC. Both concentration and emission rate of airborne total bacteria were positively related to PM10 Gram(-) bacteria were present at low concentrations in all houses; and only 2 samples (6%) in CC, 7 (22%) samples in AV, and 2 (6%) samples in EC out of 32 air samples collected in each house were found positive with Gram(-) bacteria. The concentration of airborne Gram(-) bacteria was estimated to be <2% of the total bacteria. Total bacteria counts in manure on belt (in all houses) and floor litter (only in AV) were similar; however, the manure had

  2. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    reduce the risk of contaminations. Cold- and alkaline-active enzymes can be found in microorganisms adapted to living in natural environments with these conditions, which are extremely rare but found in the unique ikaite columns from SW Greenland (4-6 °C, pH >10). It is estimated that less than 1% of the......Many industrial and biotechnological processes make use of cold-active enzymes or could benefit from the use, as the reduced temperature can be beneficial in multiple ways. Such processes may save energy and production costs, improve hygiene, maintain taste and other organoleptic properties, and...... on the diversity of microorganisms from the ikaite columns as well as bioprospecting for enzyme activities using both culture dependent and independent methods. Two cold-active β-galactosidases and one extremely cold-active α-amylase, all related to Clostridia, were characterized in more details....

  3. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  4. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts

  5. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh;

    2012-01-01

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on “the history of use”, “traditional food”, or “general recognition of safety”. Authoritative lists of microorganisms...... with a documented use in food have therefore come into high demand. One such list was published in 2002 as a result of a joint project between the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the European Food and Feed Cultures Association (EFFCA). The “2002 IDF inventory” has become a de facto reference for food...... cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables...

  6. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  7. Magnetotaxy in microorganisms of Rio de Janeiro region: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some characteristics of several magnetotactic microorganisms found in sediments collected in Rio de Janeiro region are presented. The study of magnetic characteristics of these microorganisms indicate some general properties of the magnetotaxy phenomenons. (L.C.)

  8. ESTIMATING MICROORGANISM DENSITIES IN AEROSOLS FROM SPRAY IRRIGATION OF WASTEWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes current knowledge about estimating the density of microorganisms in the air near wastewater management facilities, with emphasis on spray irrigation sites. One technique for modeling microorganism density in air is provided and an aerosol density estimati...

  9. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina Louise; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  10. Influence of near ultraviolet light on microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results and the recent literature data on the biological action of near ultraviolet light (300-380 nm) are examined in the review. Factual material is presented on the principles governing the manifestation of the following effects of near ultraviolet light in microorganisms: inactivation, delayed growth, photoreactivation, photoprotection, photoinduced sporulation (in fungi), and carotene synthesis. The mature and possible mechanisms of the effects examined are discussed

  11. Rapid Evolution of Novel Traits in Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Selifonova, Olga; Valle, Fernando; Schellenberger, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The use of natural microorganisms in biotransformations is frequently constrained by their limited tolerance to the high concentrations of metabolites and solvents required for effective industrial production. In many cases, more robust strains have to be generated by random mutagenesis and selection. This process of directed evolution can be accelerated in mutator strains, which carry defects in one or more of their DNA repair genes. However, in order to use mutator strains, it is essential ...

  12. Consolidated bioprocessing method using thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2016-02-02

    The present invention is directed to a method of converting biomass to biofuel, and particularly to a consolidated bioprocessing method using a co-culture of thermophilic and extremely thermophilic microorganisms which collectively can ferment the hexose and pentose sugars produced by degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses at high substrate conversion rates. A culture medium therefor is also provided as well as use of the methods to produce and recover cellulosic ethanol.

  13. Biodiversity of deep-sea microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Fengping Wang; Yueheng Zhou; Xinxu Zhang; Xiang Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The oceans, with an average depth of 3,800 meters and an average pressure about 38 MPa, cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth. Geological structures under the seawater, such as marine sediments, oceanic crust, hydrothermal vents, and the cold seeps, vary significantly with regard to physical and chemical properties. In combination, these diverse environments contain the largest microbial ecosystem in the world. In deep seawater, the major microorganism groups are Alpha-& Gammaproteobact...

  14. Phylogenetic conservatism of functional traits in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Martiny, Adam C.; Treseder, Kathleen; Pusch, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A central question in biology is how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning. Underlying this is the relationship between organismal phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. The relationship is complicated by gene loss and convergent evolution, resulting in the polyphyletic distribution of many traits. In microorganisms, lateral gene transfer can further distort the linkage between phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. To identify the phylogenetic co...

  15. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results

  16. Airborne fourier infrared spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer has been interfaced to a 35 cm aperture telescope and a digital data processing and display system and flown in a downward-viewing configuration on a Queen Air aircraft. Real-time spectral analysis and display software were developed to provide the means to direct aircraft flight operations based on atmospheric and/or surface features identified on 1 to 8 cm-1 resolution infrared spectra. Data are presented from ground-based tests consisting of simultaneous horizontal path measurements by the FTIR system and an infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL) observing gas volumes generated in an open-ended chamber. Airborne FUR data are presented on the tracking of a surface-released puff of SF6 gas to a downwind distance of 45 km in a time period of 1.5 hours. The experiment demonstrated the real time tracking of a gas tracer cloud to provide atmospheric transport and diffusion information and for directing airborne in-situ sensors for optimum cloud sampling. 5 refs., 5 figs

  17. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  18. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors. PMID:22722910

  19. Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms. PMID:23793914

  20. Genomics, metagenomics and proteomics in biomining microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Lissette; Chi, An; Beard, Simon; Orell, Alvaro; Guiliani, Nicolas; Shabanowitz, Jeff; Hunt, Donald F; Jerez, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    The use of acidophilic, chemolithotrophic microorganisms capable of oxidizing iron and sulfur in industrial processes to recover metals from minerals containing copper, gold and uranium is a well established biotechnology with distinctive advantages over traditional mining. A consortium of different microorganisms participates in the oxidative reactions resulting in the extraction of dissolved metal values from ores. Considerable effort has been spent in the last years to understand the biochemistry of iron and sulfur compounds oxidation, bacteria-mineral interactions (chemotaxis, quorum sensing, adhesion, biofilm formation) and several adaptive responses allowing the microorganisms to survive in a bioleaching environment. All of these are considered key phenomena for understanding the process of biomining. The use of genomics, metagenomics and high throughput proteomics to study the global regulatory responses that the biomining community uses to adapt to their changing environment is just beginning to emerge in the last years. These powerful approaches are reviewed here since they offer the possibility of exciting new findings that will allow analyzing the community as a microbial system, determining the extent to which each of the individual participants contributes to the process, how they evolve in time to keep the conglomerate healthy and therefore efficient during the entire process of bioleaching. PMID:16288845

  1. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Maartje A H J; Speth, Daan R; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Kartal, Boran; Jetten, Mike S M; Lücker, Sebastian

    2015-12-24

    Nitrification is a two-step process where ammonia is first oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and/or archaea, and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Already described by Winogradsky in 1890, this division of labour between the two functional groups is a generally accepted characteristic of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in one organism (complete ammonia oxidation; comammox) is energetically feasible, and it was postulated that this process could occur under conditions selecting for species with lower growth rates but higher growth yields than canonical ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Still, organisms catalysing this process have not yet been discovered. Here we report the enrichment and initial characterization of two Nitrospira species that encode all the enzymes necessary for ammonia oxidation via nitrite to nitrate in their genomes, and indeed completely oxidize ammonium to nitrate to conserve energy. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes are phylogenetically distinct from currently identified AMOs, rendering recent acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms unlikely. We also found highly similar amoA sequences (encoding the AMO subunit A) in public sequence databases, which were apparently misclassified as methane monooxygenases. This recognition of a novel amoA sequence group will lead to an improved understanding of the environmental abundance and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Furthermore, the discovery of the long-sought-after comammox process will change our perception of the nitrogen cycle. PMID:26610025

  2. Selection of mesophilic microorganisms with biodesulfuration capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of bio desulfurization (BDS) processes for hydrocarbons requires fast and reliable methods for the screening of microorganisms. This work shows the results of the screening process for indigenous Colombian strains with a BDS potential capacity. The main criteria for the screening were the qualitative and quantitative determination of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) as the typical metabolite of the 4S specific pathway. Microorganisms were cultured by two methodologies, A and B, using DBT as the model compound. The quantitative determination of metabolites was made by HPLC. Thirteen strains were evaluated, including the strain Rhodococcus rhodocrous IGTS8, by methods A and B. In method A, the inoculum was exposed to DBT since the beginning of the culture. Method B, employed two stages: (i) Growth period under limiting sulfur conditions, (ii) Transforming period, in which the pre-grown inoculum was exposed to the organic sulfur substrate. The culture of mesophilic microorganisms isolated by method B, served to find a mechanism for the organic sulfur metabolism, and the evaluation of the sulfur removal capability of five indigenous strains. In the cultures of these strains, 2- hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) was detected as a byproduct of DBT metabolism, both qualitatively and quantitatively

  3. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  4. Paenibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov., an airborne xylanolytic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2005-01-01

    During a search for xylan-degrading micro-organisms, a sporulating bacterium was recovered from xylan-containing agar plates exposed to air in a research laboratory (Salamanca University, Spain). The airborne isolate (designated strain XIL14T) was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as representing a Paenibacillus species most closely related to Paenibacillus illinoisensis JCM 9907T (99.3 % sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus pabuli DSM 3036T (98 % sequence similarity). Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA hybridization data indicated that the isolate belongs to a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus. Cells of strain XIL14T were motile, sporulating, rod-shaped, Gram-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0). The DNA G+C content of strain XIL14T was 50.5 mol%. Growth was observed with many carbohydrates, including xylan, as the only carbon source and gas production was not observed from glucose. Catalase was positive and oxidase was negative. The airborne isolate produced a variety of hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanases, amylases, gelatinase and beta-galactosidase. DNA-DNA hybridization levels between strain XIL14T and P. illinoisensis DSM 11733T and P. pabuli DSM 3036T were 43.3 and 36.3 %, respectively. According to the data obtained, strain XIL14T is considered to represent a novel species for which the name Paenibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov. is proposed (=LMG 21957T=CECT 5839T). PMID:15653909

  5. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Airborne synthetic aperture acoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumekh, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a system model and inversion for airborne synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) imaging. The system model accurately represents the intercation of the acoustic source and the target region at near range values. Moreover, the model incorporates the fact that the relative speed of the vehicle's (transmitter/receiver) with respect to the target region is comparable to the acoustic wave propagation speed. The inversion utilizes the principle of spectral decomposition of spherical phase functions to develop a wavefront reconstruction method from SAA data. Processing issues and selection of appropriate acoustic FM-CW sources are discussed. Results are provided that exhibit the superior accuracy of the proposed SAA system model and inversion over their synthetic aperture radar (SAR) counterpart in which the vehicle's speed is assumed to be much smaller than the wave propagation speed. PMID:18282912

  7. Predictors of airborne endotoxin in the home.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J. H.; Spiegelman, D L; Gold, D R; Burge, H A; Milton, D K

    2001-01-01

    We identified home characteristics associated with the level of airborne endotoxin in 111 Boston-area homes enrolled in a cohort study of home exposures and childhood asthma, and we developed a predictive model to estimate airborne endotoxin. We measured endotoxin in family-room air and in dust from the baby's bed, family room, bedroom, and kitchen floor. Level of airborne endotoxin was weakly correlated (r < 0.3) with level of endotoxin in each of the four types of dust samples and was signi...

  8. Increased radiosensitivity of microorganisms by vacuum treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of dehydration by vacuum (down to 10-7 to r) on radiobiological processes was studied on stationary phase cells of Escherichia coli B/r and Bacillus subtilis 168, and on spores of the latter strain. X-rays of 145 kV with a dose-rate of 1 krad/min and ultraviolet irradiation of 254 nm wavelength were applied. When the microorganisms were irradiated during vacuum exposure, their radiation sensitivity had increased, compared with the wet controls, irradiated at 760 torr. For the inactivation of E. coli cells by X-rays, the slope of the dose effect curve was increased by a factor of approximately 4. This supersensitivity to X-rays was not observed in cells which were exposed in multicellular layers or in the presence of salts (PO4-buffer), 5% glucose or nutrient broth. Likewise, the sensitivity to UV-irradiation of vegetative cells and spores was increased when irradiation was applied in vacuo. It was found that specific photoproducts of the DNA, such as DNA-protein, cross-links, 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothyminine-, and trans-syn thymine dimer were formed under vacuum treatment. Since these lesions are not - or only less - repairable by cell-owned enzymatic repair processes, at least one of them may be responsible for the increased UV-sensitivity in vacuo. The formation of trans-syn thymine by UV requires an at least partially denatured DNA. Therefore, it is suggested that vacuum treatment of microorganisms could induce structural changes in their DNA, such as partial denaturation of the polymer. This effect might also be responsible for the increased sensitivity of microorganisms to ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. Increased Radiosensitivity of Microorganisms by Vacuum Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of dehydration by vacuum (down to 10-7 torr) on radiobiological processes was studied on stationary phase cells of Escherichia coli B/r and Bacillus subtilis 168, and on spores of the latter strain. X-rays of 145 kV with a dose-rate of 1 krad/min and ultraviolet irradiation of 254 nm wavelength were applied. When the microorganisms were irradiated, during vacuum exposure, their radiation sensitivity had increased, compared with the wet controls, irradiated at 760 torr. For the inactivation of E. coli cells by X-rays, the slope of the dose effect curve was increased by a factor of approximately 4. This super sensitivity to X-rays was not observed in cells which were exposed in multicellular layers or in the presence of salts (Po4-buffer), 5% glucose or nutrient broth. Likewise, the sensitivity to UV-irradiation of vegetative cells and spores was increased when irradiation was applied in vacuo. It was found that specific photoproducts of the DNA, such as DNA-protein, cross-links, 5-thyminyl-, 5,6-dihydrothyminme-, and trans-syn thymine dimer were formed under vacuum treatment. Since these lesions are not - or only less - repairable by cell-owned enzymatic repair processes, at least one of them may be responsible for the increased UV-sensitivity in vacuo. The formation of trans-syn thymine dimer by UV requires an at least partially denatured DNA. Therefore, it is suggested that vacuum treatment of microorganisms could induce structural changes in their DNA, such as partial denaturation of the polymer. This effect might also be responsible for the increased sensitivity of microorganisms to ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  11. Microorganisms and biomolecules in space hard environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microorganisms and biomolecules exposed to space vacuum and to different intensities of selected wavelengths of solar ultraviolet radiation is studied. The influence of these factors, applied singly or simultaneously, on the integrity of microbial systems and biomolecules is measured. Specifically, this experiment will study in Bacillus subtilis spores (1) disturbances in subsequent germination, outgrowth, and colony formation; (2) photochemical reactions of the DNA and protein in vivo and in vitro and their role in biological injury; and (3) the efficiency of repair processes in these events.

  12. Mixing by microorganisms in stratified fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Gregory L; Lauga, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examine the vertical mixing induced by the swimming of microorganisms at low Reynolds and P\\'eclet numbers in a stably stratified ocean, and show that the global contribution of oceanic microswimmers to vertical mixing is negligible. We propose two approaches to estimating the mixing efficiency, $\\eta$, or the ratio of the rate of potential energy creation to the total rate-of-working on the ocean by microswimmers. The first is based on scaling arguments and estimates $\\eta$ in terms of the ratio between the typical organism size, $a$, and an intrinsic length scale for the stratified flow, $\\ell = \\left ( \

  13. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kessel, Maartje A. H. J.; Speth, Daan R.; Albertsen, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    unlikely. We also found highly similar amoA sequences (encoding the AMO subunit A) in public sequence databases, which were apparently misclassified as methane monooxygenases. This recognition of a novel amoA sequence group will lead to an improved understanding of the environmental abundance and...... nitrate in their genomes, and indeed completely oxidize ammonium to nitrate to conserve energy. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes are phylogenetically distinct from currently identified AMOs, rendering recent acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms...

  14. Microorganisms in human milk: lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Elisa; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Paolillo, Piermichele; Bollani, Lina; Stronati, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn. PMID:24059550

  15. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed. PMID:23028016

  16. Morphology, chemical composition, and bacterial concentration of airborne particulate matter in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock houses are major sources of airborne particulate matter (PM, which can originate from manure, feed, feathers, skin and bedding and may contain and transport microorganisms. Improved knowledge of particle size, morphology, chemical and microbiological composition of PM in livestock houses can help identify major sources of PM and contribute to the development of appropriate source-specific reduction techniques. In rabbit production systems, however, there is limited information on specific particle characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise airborne PM in rabbit farms in terms of morphology, chemical compositions and bacterial concentration in different size fractions. Size-fractioned PM was sampled in the air of 2 rabbit farms, 1 for fattening rabbits and 1 for reproductive does, using a virtual cascade impactor, which simultaneously collected total suspended PM (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions. Airborne PM samples were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Representative samples from potential sources of PM were also collected and examined. Additionally, a methodology to extract bacteria from the collected samples of airborne PM was developed to determine the bacterial concentration per PM size fraction. Results showed that airborne PM in rabbit farms is highly complex in particle morphology, especially in size. Broken skin flakes, disintegrated particles from feed or faecal material from mechanical fracture are the main sources of airborne PM in rabbit farms. Major elements found in rabbit airborne PM were S, Ca, Mg, Na and Cl. Bacterial concentrations ranged from 1.7×104 to 1.6×106 colony forming units (CFU/m3 (TSP; from 3.6×103 to 3.0×104 CFU/m3 (PM10; and from 3.1×103 to 1.6×104 CFU/m3 (PM2.5. Our results will improve the knowledge on essential particle characteristics necessary to understand PM’s origin in rabbit farms and

  17. Airborne Digital Camera. A digital view from above; Airborne Digital Camera. Der digitale Blick von oben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, H.P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumsensorik und Planetenerkundung

    1999-09-01

    The Airborne Digital Camera is based on the WAOSS camera of the MARS-96 mission. The camera will provide a new basis for airborne photogrammetry and remote exploration. The ADC project aims at the development of the first commercial digital airborne camera. [German] Die Wurzeln des Projektes Airborne Digital Camera (ADC) liegen in der Mission MARS-96. Die hierfuer konzipierte Marskamera WAOSS lieferte die Grundlage fuer das innovative Konzept einer digitalen Flugzeugkamera. Diese ist auf dem Weg, die flugzeuggestuetzte Photogrammetrie und Fernerkundung auf eine technologisch voellig neue Basis zu stellen. Ziel des Projektes ADC ist die Entwicklung der ersten kommerziellen digitalen Luftbildkamera. (orig.)

  18. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  19. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  20. Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mesa Photonics proposes to develop an Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor (AMUGS) based upon two-tone, frequency modulation spectroscopy (TT-FMS). Mesa Photonics has...

  1. Software for airborne radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System monitors radioactive contamination in the air or on the ground. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. This system is composed of two major parts: Airborne Unit carried by a helicopter, and Ground Station carried by a truck. The Airborne software is intended to be the core of a computerized airborne station. The software is written in C++ under MS-Windows with object-oriented methodology. It has been designed to be user-friendly: function keys and other accelerators are used for vital operations, a help file and help subjects are available, the Human-Machine-Interface is plain and obvious. (authors)

  2. Reconfigurable Weather Radar for Airborne Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc (IAI) and its university partner, University of Oklahoma (OU), Norman, propose a forward-looking airborne environment sensor based on...

  3. Voxel inversion of airborne EM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;

    2013-01-01

    jointly inverting airborne and ground-based geophysical data. Furthermore, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid not correlated to the geophysical model space, and incorporating the geophysical data into the geological/hydrological modelling grids is problematic. We...... of prior information. Inversion of geophysical data usually refers to a model space being linked to the actual observation points. For airborne surveys the spatial discretization of the model space reflects the flight lines. Often airborne surveys are carried out in areas where other ground......-based geophysical data are available. The model space of geophysical inversions is usually referred to the positions of the measurements, and ground-based model positions do not generally coincide with the airborne model positions. Consequently, a model space based on the measuring points is not well suited for...

  4. Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of...

  5. Airborne Infrared Search and Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Srivastava

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared search and track (IRST systems are required for fighter aircraft to enable them to passively search, detect, track, classify, and prioritise multiple airborne targets under all aspects, look-up, look-down, and co-altitude conditions and engage them at as long ranges as possible. While the IRST systems have been proven in performance for ground-based and naval-based platforms, it is still facing some technical problems for airborne applications. These problems arise from uncertainty in target signature, atmospheric effects, background clutter (especially dense and varying clouds, signal and data processing algorithms to detect potential targets at long ranges and some hardware limitations such as large memory requirement to store and process wide field of view data. In this paper, an overview of airborne IRST as a system has been presented with detailed comparative simulation results of different detectionitracking algorithms and the present status of airborne IRSTs

  6. Contribution of airborne microbes to bacterial production and N2 fixation in seawater upon aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahav, Eyal; Ovadia, Galit; Paytan, Adina; Herut, Barak

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol deposition may supply a high diversity of airborne microbes, which can affect surface microbial composition and biological production. This study reports a diverse microbial community associated with dust and other aerosol particles, which differed significantly according to their geographical air mass origin. Microcosm bioassay experiments, in which aerosols were added to sterile (0.2 µm filtered and autoclaved) SE Mediterranean Sea (SEMS) water, were performed to assess the potential impact of airborne bacteria on bacterial abundance, production, and N2 fixation. Significant increase was observed in all parameters within a few hours, and calculations suggest that airborne microbes can account for one third in bacterial abundance and 50-100% in bacterial production and N2-fixation rates following dust/aerosol amendments in the surface SEMS. We show that dust/aerosol deposition can be a potential source of a wide array of microorganisms, which may impact microbial composition and food web dynamics in oligotrophic marine systems such as the SEMS.

  7. Detection of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi in food storage refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Sandikci Altunatmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiological air quality (psychrotrophic bacteria and airborne fungi and distribution of fungi in different types of ready-to-eat (RTE food-storage refrigerators (n=48 at selected retail stores in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Refrigerators were categorized according to the type of RTE food-storage: meat products, vegetables, desserts, or a mix of food types. Microbiological quality of air samples was evaluated by using a Mas-100 Eco Air Sampler. Four refrigerators (all containing meat products, 8.3% produced air samples with undetectable microorganisms. The highest detected mean value of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi was 82.3 CFU/m³ and 54.6 CFU/m³, respectively and were found in mixed-food refrigerators. The dominant airborne fungal genera found were Penicillium (29.0%, Aspergillus (12.0%, Mucor (9%, Cladosporium (8%, Botyrtis (7%, and Acremonium (6%. By definition, RTE food does not undergo a final treatment to ensure its safety prior to consumption. Therefore, ensuring a clean storage environment for these foods is important to prevent food-borne disease and other health risks.

  8. Identification of periodontopathogen microorganisms by PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth and is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. The onset and progression of periodontal disease is attributed to the presence of elevated levels of a consortium of pathogenic bacteria. Gram negative bacteria, mainly strict anaerobes, play the major role. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to assess the presence of the main types of microorganisms involved in the aetiopathogenesis of periodontal disease: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia in different samples collected from the oral cavity of 90 patients diagnosed with periodontitis. METHOD Bacterial DNA detection was performed in diverse biological materials, namely in dental plaque, gingival tissue and saliva, by means of multiplex PCR, a technique that allows simultaneous identification of two different bacterial genomes. RESULTS In the dental plaque of the periodontitis patients, Treponema denticola dominated. In the gingival tissue, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were the microbiota most frequently detected, whilst in saliva Treponema denticola and Eikenella corrodens were found with the highest percentage. CONCLUSION The identification of microorganisms by multiplex PCR is specific and sensitive. Rapid and precise assessment of different types of periodontopathogens is extremely important for early detection of the infection and consequently for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. In everyday clinical practice, for routine bacterial evaluation in patients with periodontal disease, the dental plaque is the most suitable biological material, because it is the richest in periodontal bacteria.

  9. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  10. Soil:An Extreme Habitat for Microorganisms?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.BOLTER

    2004-01-01

    The question is asked whether soils can be regarded as extreme environments with respect to microorganisms. After defining some extreme environments in a general sense, special properties of extreme environments are compared to soil habitats, with special emphasis laid on time frame and localities. In relation to water availability, nutrients and other properties, such places as aggregates can show properties of extreme habitats. These features, which can act at different levels of the system from the community level down to the cellular level, are summarized as stress factors. The latter,where many switches are located leading to different strategies of survival, is described as the most important one. This raises the question of how organisms have adapted to such conditions. The soil system demands a broad spectrum of adaptations and/or adjustments for a highly variable environment.The soil microorganisms'adaptation can thus be seen as the highest kind of flexibility and is more useful than any other special adaptation.

  11. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE ZhengFang; YU HongYan; WEN LiLi; NI JinRen

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl's method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L-1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L-1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L-1, At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  12. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl’s method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L?1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L?1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L?1. At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  13. Nonenzymatic microorganism identification based on ribosomal RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jeffrey T.; Pierini, Alicia M.; Stokes, Jeffrey A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.; Read, Betsy; Bechtel, James H.; Bronk, Burt V.

    1999-11-01

    Effective defense against biological warfare (BW) agents requires rapid, fieldable and accurate systems. For micro- organisms like bacteria and viruses, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a valuable target with multiple advantages of species specificity and intrinsic target amplification. Vegetative and spore forms of bacteria contain approximately 104 copies of rRNA. Direct detection of rRNA copies can eliminate some of the interference and preparation difficulties involved in enzymatic amplification methods. In order to apply the advantages of rRNA to BW defense, we are developing a fieldable system based on 16S rRNA, physical disruption of the micro-organism, solid phase hybridization, and fluorescence detection. Our goals include species-specific identification, complete operation from raw sample to identification in 15 minutes or less, and compact, fieldable instrumentation. Initial work on this project has investigated the lysis and hybridization steps, the species-specificity of oligonucleotides probes, and the development of a novel electromagnetic method to physically disrupt the micro- organisms. Target bacteria have been Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). Continuing work includes further development of methods to rapidly disrupt the micro-organisms and release the rRNA, improved integration and processing, and extension to bacterial and mammalian viruses like MS2 and vesicular stomatitis virus.

  14. Diversity of Thermophilic Microorganisms within Hawaiian Fumaroles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, C. A.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for thermophilic microorganisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent. We used metagenomics to detect 16S rDNA from archaeal and bacterial thermophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. The fumaroles sampled exist along elevation and precipitation gradients; varying from sea level to 4,012ft and annual rainfall from less than 20in to greater than 80in. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (including temperature, pH, elevation, and precipitation) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, we obtained 22 samples from 7 fumaroles over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperature variations within individual fumaroles vary from 2.3oC to 35oC and the pH variances that range from 0.4 to 2.0. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 29.9oC to greater than 105oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93. Further data on the microbial diversity within fumaroles and among fumaroles will be determined once the sequencing of the microbial 16S rDNA regions is completed. We are currently assembling and sequencing clone libraries of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA fragments from fumaroles.

  15. Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisha A. M. Harper

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and afternoon at each site on each sampling day. The rooms were divided into two groups: Group 1, in which morning sampling was post-cleaning and afternoon sampling was during activity, and Group 2, in which morning sampling was pre-cleaning and afternoon sampling was post-cleaning. The total aerobic bacterial plate counts per m3 and bacterial identification were done using standard microbiological methods. Results: A total of 14 bacterial genera were isolated with the most frequent being Micrococcus spp. followed by species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. There was a significant interaction between location and time for rooms in Group 1 (p=0.0028 but not in Group 2 (p>0.05. Microbial counts for rooms in Group 2 were significantly greater in the mornings than in the afternoon (p=0.0049. The microbial counts were also significantly different between some rooms (p=0.0333. Conclusion: The detection of significantly higher airborne microbial loads in different rooms at different times of the day suggests that the probability of acquiring nosocomial infections is higher at these times and locations.

  16. The JAC airborne EM system : AEM-05

    OpenAIRE

    Levaniemi, H.; Beamish, D; Hautaniemi, H.; Kurimo, M.; Suppala, I.; Vironmaki, J.; Cuss, R.J.; Lahti, M; Tartaras, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system operated by the Joint Airborne geoscience Capability (JAC), a partnership between the Finnish and British Geological Surveys. The system is a component of a 3-in-1, fixed-wing facility acquiring magnetic gradiometer and full spectrum radiometric data alongside the wing-tip, frequency-domain AEM measurements. The AEM system has recently (2005) been upgraded from 2 to 4 frequencies and now provides a bandwidth from 900 Hz to 25 kHz....

  17. Airborne infections and modern building technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaForce, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last 30 yr an increased appreciation of the importance of airborne infection has evolved. The concept of droplet nuclei, infectious particles from 0.5 to 3 ..mu.. which stay suspended in air for long periods of time, has been accepted as an important determinant of infectivity. Important airborne pathogens in modern buildings include legionella pneumophila, Aspergillus sp., thermophilic actinomycetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles, varicella and rubella. Perhaps, the most important microbiologic threat to most buildings is L. pneumophila. This organism can multiply in water cooling systems and contaminate effluent air which can be drawn into a building and efficiently circulated throughout by existing ventilation systems. Hospitals are a special problem because of the concentration of immunosuppressed patients who are uniquely susceptible to airborne diseases such as aspergillosis, and the likelihood that patients ill from diseases that can be spread via the airborne route will be concentrated. Humidifiers are yet another problem and have been shown to be important in several outbreaks of allergic alveolitis and legionellosis. Control of airborne infections is largely an effort at identifying and controlling reservoirs of infection. This includes regular biocide treatment of cooling towers and evaporative condensers and identification and isolation of patients with diseases that may be spread via the airborne route.

  18. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  19. Biosorption of 241Am by microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of 241Am on A. niger, R. arrihizus and Candida albicans from aqueous solution, and the effects of the experimental conditions on the biosorption are investigated by the batch technique. The experimental results show that all the microorganism above are very efficient as the sorbent. The biosorption equilibrium time is 2 h and the optimum pH ranges 1-3. No significant differences on 241Am biosorption are observed at the temperature of 15-45 degree C, or in the presence and absence of Au3+ or Ag+. The relationship between concentrations of 241Am in aqueous solutions and adsorption capacities of 241Am can be described by the Freundlich adsorption equation on A. niger and R. arrihizus, while as it can be done by the Langmuir adsorption equation on Candida albicans

  20. Role of effective microorganism in unfertile soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasotha Chandramohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluvate the effect of Effective microorganisms (EM.The EM isolation is very important for agricultural fields. For this study used the different kinds of natural ingrediends such as banana, papaya, pumpkin, egg, cane molasses and neem powder to added and mixed and wait for the fermentation. After 45 days the samples were collected.The collected sample were identified using plating technique, microscopic studies and Biochemical test. The identified effective organism was Bacillus megaterium. These Effective organisms acting against the pathogen. The results concluded miximum zone of inhibition against the pathogen Such as E.coil (16mm, P.aeruginosa (18mm, K.pneumoniae (19mm, S.aureus (17mm, S.epidermis (16mm

  1. Microorganism billiards in closed plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Madison S

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that many species of microorganisms leave a solid surface at a fixed angle determined by steric interactions and near-field hydrodynamics. This angle is completely independent of the incoming angle. For several collisions in a closed body this determines a unique type of billiard system, an aspecular billiard in which the outgoing angle is fixed for all collisions. We analyze such a system using numerical simulation of this billiard for varying tables and outgoing angles, and also utilize the theory of one-dimensional maps and wavefront dynamics. When applicable we cite results from and compare our system to similar billiard systems in the literature. We focus on examples from three broad classes: the ellipse, the Bunimovich billiards, and the Sinai billiards. The effect of a noisy outgoing angle is also discussed.

  2. Laboratory studies of ocean mixing by microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-11-01

    Ocean mixing plays a major role in nutrient and energy transport and is an important input to climate models. Recent studies suggest that the contribution of fluid transport by swimming microorganisms to ocean mixing may be of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. An experimental setup has been designed in order to study the mixing efficiency of vertical migration of plankton. To this end, a stratified water column is created to model the ocean's density gradient. The vertical migration of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) within the water column is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. By fluorescently labelling portions of the water column, the stirring of the density gradient by the animals is visualized and quantified. Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms produces enhanced mixing relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present.

  3. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  4. Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, J

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms have a long history of use in food production, e.g. in the production of sausages, cheeses, etc. Roughly one quarter of all food products rely on microbiological processes, and the safe use of microorganisms for food production is essential. The transfer of novel traits to food microorganisms through recombinant gene technology will result in new potential food safety issues. This requires the elaboration of criteria for safety assessment of foods derived from genetic microorga...

  5. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    RUTH MELLIAWATI; ROHMATUSSOLIHAT; FERRA OCTAVINA

    2006-01-01

    Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast) were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Ins...

  6. Multiorganismal Insects: Diversity and Function of Resident Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contr...

  7. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  8. Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteria isolated from ground water samples taken from 31 springs during 1993 were collected and processed according to procedures described in earlier reports. These procedures required aseptic collection of surface water samples in sterile screw-capped containers, transportation to the HRC microbiology laboratory, and culture by spread plating onto R2A medium. The isolates were further processed for identification using a gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) extracted from cell membranes. This work generated a presumptive identification of 113 bacterial species distributed among 45 genera using a database obtained from Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, Delaware (MIDI). A preliminary examination of the FAME data was accomplished using cluster analysis and principal component analysis software obtained from MIDI. Typically, bacterial strains that cluster at less than 10 Euclidian distance units have fatty acid patterns consistent among members of the same species. Thus an organism obtained from one source can be recognized if it is isolated again from the same or any other source. This makes it possible to track the distribution of organisms and monitor environmental conditions or fluid transport mechanisms. Microorganisms are seldom found as monocultures in natural environments. They are more likely to be closely associated with other genera with complementary metabolic requirements. An understanding of the indigenous microorganism population is useful in understanding subtle changes in the environment. However, classification of environmental organisms using traditional methods is not ideal because differentiation of species with small variations or genera with very similar taxonomic characteristics is beyond the capabilities of traditional microbiological methods

  9. High-pressure inactivation of dried microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinasse, V; Perrier-Cornet, J-M; Marecat, A; Gervais, P

    2008-01-01

    Dried microorganisms are particularly resistant to high hydrostatic pressure effects. In this study, the survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied under pressure applied in different ways. Original processes and devices were purposely developed in our laboratory for long-term pressurization. Dried and wet yeast powders were submitted to high-pressure treatments (100-150 MPa for 24-144 h at 25 degrees C) through liquid media or inert gas. These powders were also pressurized after being vacuum-packed. In the case of wet yeasts, the pressurization procedure had little influence on the inactivation rate. In this case, inactivations were mainly due to hydrostatic pressure effects. Conversely, in the case of dried yeasts, inactivation was highly dependent on the treatment scheme. No mortality was observed when dried cells were pressurized in a non-aqueous liquid medium, but when nitrogen gas was used as the pressure-transmitting fluid, the inactivation rate was found to be between 1.5 and 2 log for the same pressure level and holding time. Several hypotheses were formulated to explain this phenomenon: the thermal effects induced by the pressure variations, the drying resulting from the gas pressure release and the sorption and desorption of the gas in cells. The highest inactivation rates were obtained with vacuum-packed dried yeasts. In this case, cell death occurred during the pressurization step and was induced by shear forces. Our results show that the mechanisms at the origin of cell death under pressure are strongly dependent on the nature of the pressure-transmitting medium and the hydration of microorganisms. PMID:17573691

  10. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L.

    1971-01-01

    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  11. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.; Miller, A.

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a...

  12. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelter, Thomas; Meinhold, Peter; Feldman, Reid M. Renny; Hawkins, Andrew C.; Urano, Jun; Bastian, Sabine; Arnold, Frances

    2012-01-17

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  13. Collective motion of micro-organisms from field theoretical viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, M; Kawamura, Masako; Sugamoto, Akio

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the collective motion of micro-organisms in the fluid and consider the problem of the red tide. The red tide is produced by the condensation of the micro-organisms, which might be a similar phenomenon to the condensation of the strings. We propose a model of the generation of the red tide. By considering the interaction between the micro-organisms mediated by the velocity fields in the fluid, we derive the Van der Waals type equation of state, where the generation of the red tide can be regarded as a phase transition from the gas of micro-organisms to the liquid.

  14. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.;

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor...

  15. Mapping permafrost with airborne electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, B. J.; Ball, L. B.; Bloss, B. R.; Kass, A.; Pastick, N.; Smith, B. D.; Voss, C. I.; Walsh, D. O.; Walvoord, M. A.; Wylie, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost is a key characteristic of cold region landscapes, yet detailed assessments of how the subsurface distribution of permafrost impacts the environment, hydrologic systems, and infrastructure are lacking. Data acquired from several airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys in Alaska provide significant new insight into the spatial extent of permafrost over larger areas (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers) than can be mapped using ground-based geophysical methods or through drilling. We compare several AEM datasets from different areas of interior Alaska, and explore the capacity of these data to infer geologic structure, permafrost extent, and related hydrologic processes. We also assess the impact of fires on permafrost by comparing data from different burn years within similar geological environments. Ultimately, interpretations rely on understanding the relationship between electrical resistivity measured by AEM surveys and the physical properties of interest such as geology, permafrost, and unfrozen water content in the subsurface. These relationships are often ambiguous and non-unique, so additional information is useful for reducing uncertainty. Shallow (upper ~1m) permafrost and soil characteristics identified from remotely sensed imagery and field observations help to constrain and aerially extend near-surface AEM interpretations, where correlations between the AEM and remote sensing data are identified using empirical multivariate analyses. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) measurements quantify the contribution of unfrozen water at depth to the AEM-derived electrical resistivity models at several locations within one survey area. AEM surveys fill a critical data gap in the subsurface characterization of permafrost environments and will be valuable in future mapping and monitoring programs in cold regions.

  16. Airborne laser communication technology and flight test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li-xin; Zhang, Li-zhong; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, Ying-chao; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2015-11-01

    Reconnaissance aircraft is an important node of the space-air-ground integrated information network, on which equipped with a large number of high-resolution surveillance equipment, and need high speed communications equipment to transmit detected information in real time. Currently RF communication methods cannot meet the needs of communication bandwidth. Wireless laser communication has outstanding advantages high speed, high capacity, security, etc., is an important means to solve the high-speed information transmission of airborne platforms. In this paper, detailed analysis of how the system works, the system components, work processes, link power and the key technologies of airborne laser communication were discussed. On this basis, a prototype airborne laser communications was developed, and high-speed, long-distance communications tests were carried out between the two fixed-wing aircraft, and the airborne precision aiming, atmospheric laser communication impacts on laser communication were tested. The experiments ultimately realize that, the communication distance is 144km, the communication rate is 2.5Gbps. The Airborne laser communication experiments provide technical basis for the application of the conversion equipment.

  17. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ''cold,'' or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications

  18. Protein expression on Cr resistant microorganism using electrophoresis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJIDAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatmawati U, Suranto, Sajidan. 2009. Protein expression on Cr resistant microorganism using electrophoresis method. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 31-37. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI is known as toxic heavy metals, so the need is reduced to Cr(III is much less toxicity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are resistant Cr(VI microorganism and have ability to reduce Cr(VI. The aim of this research is to know ability of microorganism to reduce Cr(VI and to know protein band pattern between Cr(VI resistant microorganism and non resistant microorganism which inoculated on LB broth. SDS-PAGE was used to indentify protein expression. While, Cr(VI concentration was identified by 1.5 diphenylcarbazide method. The quantitative data was analyzed by two factorial ANOVA that continued with DMRT at 1% level test. The qualitative data i.e. protein expression analyzed by relative mobility (Rf. The results showed that the ability of microorganisms to reduce Cr(VI at initial concentration of 0.5 ppm, 1 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm may vary, the average percentage of the ability of each microorganism in reducing Cr(VI is P. putida (65% > S. cerevisiae (64.45% >. P. aeruginosa (60.73% > Pantoea sp. (50.22% > K. pneumoniae (47.82% > without microorganisms (34.25%. The adding microorganisms have significantly influenced toward reduction of Cr(VI. The SDS-PAGE shows that protein expression between resistant and not resistant microorganisms are no different, but resistant microorganisms have more protein (protein band is thicker.

  19. Airborne Biogenic Particles in the Snow of the Cities of the Russian Far East as Potential Allergic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill S. Golokhvast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm–1 mm found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010–2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods. In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk, the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms.

  20. Airborne biogenic particles in the snow of the cities of the Russian Far East as potential allergic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm-1 mm) found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010-2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves) followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods). In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk), the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms. PMID:25140327

  1. Nitrogen utilization pathways of soil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinggera, J.; Geisseler, D.; Merbach, I.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. In terrestrial ecosystems N occurs predominantly in the form of organic matter. Here, soil microorganisms can use two possible mechanisms for the uptake of organic N: the direct route and the mobilization-immobilization-turnover (MIT) route. In the direct route simple organic molecules are taken up directly into the cell. The deamination occurs inside the cell and only the surplus N is released into the soil solution. In the second route, the deamination occurs outside the cell and all N is mineralized before assimilation. To determine the importance of the different N uptake pathways of soil microorganisms an incubation experiment (21 days, 20°C) is currently being carried out. Corn leaves with different C to N ratios (20, 40) and (NH4)2SO4 have been added to three soils (Haplic Chernozem, FAO) with different fertilization histories (300dt/ha farmyard manure every second year, mineral NPK fertilizer, no fertilization) from the long-term experiment at Bad Lauchstädt. Contents of NH4+, NO3- and microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic), CO2 production, potential protease activity, gross N mineralization and mineralization of added amino acids will be determined after 3, 7 and 21 days. Preliminary results show that the protease activity (without addition of corn residues) decreased in the order manure-fertilized soil (18.26 mg tyrosine kg-1 soil h-1) > Soil with mineral NPK fertilizer (17.45 mg tyrosine kg-1 soil h-1) > unfertilized soil (11.34 mg tyrosine kg-1 oven dry soil h-1). The turnover of amino acids after 24h was higher for the manure-fertilized soil (99.5% of the added amino acids were consumed) than for the NPK- fertilized and unfertilized soils (76%). The effects of the fertilization histories on the temporal dynamics of the different biological properties (Cmic, Nmic), CO2 production, protease activity and N mineralization rates will be presented.

  2. Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

    1986-01-01

    A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

  3. Microorganisms in Food--Their Significance and Methods of Enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S.

    1980-01-01

    Described are laboratory methods for enumerating microorganisms in food. These methods are utilized to determine if foods are potentially hazardous to the consumer due to high concentrations of microorganisms. Discussed are indicator organisms, including coliforms, interococci, yeasts, and molds; food poisoning organisms (staphylococci and…

  4. Microorganisms in the Coloured Rain of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-02-01

    A variety of pigmented microorganisms have been identified in the red, yellow, blue and black rain that fell over Sri Lanka in December 2012 and January 2013. There is tentative evidence for the presence of similar organisms, including diatoms, in meteorites falling over the same time period. These microorganisms are likely to have served as nuclei for the condensation of rain drops.

  5. Modelling and application of the inactivation of microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention of consuming contaminated food with toxic microorganisms causing infections and consideration of food protection and new microbial inactivation methods are obligatory situations. Food microbiology is mainly related with unwanted microorganisms spoiling foods during processing and transporting stages and causing diseases. Determination of pathogen microorganisms is important for human health to define and prevent dangers and elongate shelf life. Inactivation of pathogen microorganisms can provide food security and reduce nutrient losses. Microbial inactivation which is using methods of food protection such as food safety and fresh. With this aim, various methods are used such as classical thermal processes (pasteurisation, sterilisation), pressured electrical field (PEF), ionised radiation, high pressure, ultrasonic waves and plasma sterilisation. Microbial inactivation modelling is a secure and effective method in food production. A new microbiological application can give useful results for risk assessment in food, inactivation of microorganisms and improvement of shelf life. Application and control methods should be developed and supported by scientific research and industrial applications

  6. Tracking microorganisms and gene in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been conducted to determine the sensitivities and limitations of various methods for determining the fate of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) and their genes in the environment. Selective viable plate count procedures can be designed to detect the introduced organisms with high sensitivity; but they are restricted by potential mutations affecting the expression of the selective characteristic in the introduced organism, the occurrence of the particular selective characteristic in the indigenous organisms, and the need to culture the organism. The accuracy of this approach is greatly improved by colony hybridization procedures that use a specific gene probe to detect the introduced genes, but this approach is still only as sensitive as the plating procedure. Direct extraction of DNA from environmental samples, coupled with dot blot hybridization with radiolabeled probe DNA or solution hybridization, gives a high degree of both sensitivity and precision. This approach does not require culturing of the organism; and even if an introduced gene moves into a new organism or if the introduced organism is viable but nonculturable, the gene probe methods will detect the persistence of the introduced genes in the environment. Efficient direct DNA extraction methods have been developed and tested following in vitro experimental additions of GEMs to sediment and water samples

  7. Snow as a habitat for microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoham, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    There are three major habitats involving ice and snow, and the microorganisms studied from these habitats are most eukaryotic. Sea ice is inhabited by algae called diatoms, glacial ice has sparse populations of green algai cal desmids, and the temporary and permanent snows in mountainous regions and high latitudes are inhabited mostly by green algal flagellates. The life cycle of green algal flagellates is summarized by discussing the effects of light, temperature, nutrients, and snow melts. Specific examples of optimal conditions and environmental effects for various snow algae are given. It is not likely that the eukaryotic snow algae presented are candidated for life on the planet Mars. Evolutionally, eukaryotic cells as know on Earth may not have had the opportunity to develop on Mars (if life evolved at all on Mars) since eukaryotes did not appear on Earth until almost two billion years after the first prokaryotic organisms. However, the snow/ice ecosystems on Earth present themselves as extreme habitats were there is evidence of prokaryotic life (eubacteria and cyanbacteria) of which literally nothing is known. Any future surveillances of extant and/or extinct life on Mars should include probes (if not landing sites) to investigate sites of concentrations of ice water. The possibility of signs of life in Martian polar regions should not be overlooked.

  8. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  9. Separation of rare earth elements by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective accumulation of rare earth elements in Gram-positive bacteria and actinomycetes was examined. The resting cells of 18 strains having high capacities to accumulate rare earth elements were screened for selectivity using a solution containing 5 elements: Y, La, Sm, Er, and Lu. Among the strains tested, Bacillus megaterium accumulated Sm, Streptomyces albus accumulated Lu, and Arthrobacter nicotianae accumulated both Sm and Lu in higher quantities than the other metals. Similar results were also obtained from a solution containing Y and 14 rare elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu). The amount of Sm accumulated in B. megaterium and that of Lu accumulated in S. albus increased as the initial metal concentration increased. S. albus and B. megaterium cells show the highest capacity to accumulate Lu and Sm, respectively, from a solution containing 5 elements, Y, La, Sm, Er, and Lu when each metal concentration ranged from 20 to 100 μM. These results suggest that the separation of these two rare earth elements using microorganisms should be possible. (author)

  10. Titanium photocatalyst against human pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional methods of disinfection are not effective in the longer term. They are time and staff intensive and use aggressive chemicals. Photocatalytic oxidation on surfaces coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) might offer a possible alternative. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 powder P25 and thin films of TiO2 on glass slides against representative strains of microorganisms associated with hospital-acquired infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) was investigated in vitro. High efficiency has been found in the case of the studied bacterial strains, particularly for the P. aeruginosa. It was shown that it is possible to disinfect surfaces coated with TiO2 and stimulated by UV-A light. The reduction efficiencies for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans were 3.19, 2.32 and 1.22. In all cases sublethal UV-A doses provoked an important lethality in the presence of TiO2. (authors)

  11. Enrichment of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihu; Zeng, Raymond J; Burow, Luke C; Lant, Paul; Keller, Jurg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-10-01

    The microorganisms responsible for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to denitrification have not been clearly elucidated. Three recent publications suggested it can be achieved by a denitrifying bacterium with or without the involvement of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea. A key factor limiting the progress in this research field is the shortage of enrichment cultures performing denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO). In this study, DAMO cultures were enriched from mixed inoculum including sediment from a freshwater lake, anaerobic digester sludge and return activated sludge from a sewage treatment plant. Two reactors, operated at 35°C and at 22°C, respectively, showed simultaneous methane oxidation and nitrate reduction after several months of operation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the 35°C enrichment showed the presence of an archaeon closely related to other DAMO archaea and a dominated bacterium belonging to the yet uncultivated NC10 phylum. This culture preferred nitrite to nitrate as the electron acceptor. The present study suggests that the archaea are rather methanotrophs than methanogens. The highest denitrification rate achieved was 2.35 mmol NO3 (-) -N gVSS(-1)  day(-1) . The culture enriched at 22°C contained the same NC10 bacterium observed in the culture enriched at 35°C but no archaea. PMID:23765890

  12. Hydrodynamic theory of swimming of flagellated microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, J G; Bloomfield, V A

    1977-10-01

    A theory of the type commonly used in polymer hydrodynamics is developed to calculate swimming properties of flagellated microorganisms. The overall shape of the particle is modeled as an array of spherical beads which act, at the same time, as frictional elements. The fluid velocity field is obtained as a function of the forces acting at each bead through Oseen-type, hydrodynamic interaction tensors. From the force and torque equilibrium conditions, such quantities as swimming velocity, angular velocity, and efficiency can be calculated. Application is made to a spherical body propelled by a helical flagellum. A recent theory by Lighthill, and earlier formulations based on tangential and normal frictional coefficients of a curved cylinder, CT and CN, are analyzed along with our theory. Although all the theories predict similar qualitative characteristics, such as optimal efficiency and the effect of fluid viscosity, they lead to rather different numerical values. In agreement with Lighthill, we found the formalisms based on CN and CT coefficients to be somewhat inaccurate, and head-flagellum interactions are shown to play an important role. PMID:901902

  13. Microorganisms in nuclear waste disposal. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives information about the structure of the multi-author review. Block I contains a general introduction on the possible effects of microorganisms in nuclear waste disposal, a summary of basic information on how a repository is planned and constructed, and on the type and composition of waste deposited. In Block II some important basic topics of microbial ecology relevant to repository conditions are presented; subsoil microbiology, adhesion to surfaces, starvation and survival in oligotrophic environments, and bioenergetics. Block III reviews some examples of general metabolic behaviour relevant to microrganisms in nuclear waste disposal such as tolerance to heavy metals, transformation of elements or gas formation. In block IV experimental data are presented which have been obtained in applied research directed to specific questions emerging from safety assessments, such as examination of microbial population in future repository sites, degradation of bitumen or sorption of nuclides. In the final block V, an attempt is made via modelling and computer simulation to foresee the behaviour of a complex system 'repository' in the future, on the basis of our present knowledge. (author) 1 fig

  14. Uses of irradiation for inactivation of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal effects of radiation on microorganisms was noted soon after the discovery of X rays in 1895. In 1904, it was shown that vegetative bacteria are more sensitive than spores; however, no industrial applications could be made as the radiation sources were too expensive. In the mid-1950s, it became economical and practical to sterilize medical products, and ever since sterilization has been a growing industry. Radiation sterilization technology has made possible users of new materials, such as plastics. Food irradiation is about to take off. Just as there was a resistance to pasteurization of milk when it was first introduced, there will be resistance to radpasteurization. Irradiated foods have been proven safe beyond reasonable doubt. Safety has been established through two independent methods: (1) through the most extensive multigeneration animal feeding studies ever carried out, and (2) by analyzing the radiolytic products formed and the chemical changes that take place when food is irradiated. The possible toxicity of these products has been evaluated by an independent group of toxicologists, who based their evaluation on the results of exposure of these products in large quantities either to humans or to animals

  15. Airborne radioactivity surveys in geologic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, R.M.

    1958-01-01

    The value of airborne radioactivity surveys in guiding uranium exploration has been well established. Recent improvements in circuitry and development of semiquantitative analytical techniques permit a more comprehensive evaluation of the geologic distribution of radioactive materials that may prove useful in exploration for other minerals and in regional geologic studies. It is shown that placer deposits of heavy minerals can be detected from the air, and that the geometric configuration and average grade of the surficial part of the deposit can be approximated. Uranium-bearing phosphorite deposits may be similarly evaluated. Airborne surveys over the Coastal Plain area, Texas, show that

  16. Sandia Multispectral Airborne Lidar for UAV Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.W.; Hargis,Jr. P.J.; Henson, T.D.; Jordan, J.D.; Lang, A.R.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1998-10-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated the development of an airborne system for W laser remote sensing measurements. System applications include the detection of effluents associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the detection of biological weapon aerosols. This paper discusses the status of the conceptual design development and plans for both the airborne payload (pointing and tracking, laser transmitter, and telescope receiver) and the Altus unmanned aerospace vehicle platform. Hardware design constraints necessary to maintain system weight, power, and volume limitations of the flight platform are identified.

  17. Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m3 closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approx. 1000 g/m3), high turbulence, and high temperature (approx. 20000C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that little, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building

  18. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  19. Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m3 closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approximately 1,000 g/m3), high turbulence, and high temperature (approximately 20000C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that tittle, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building. (author)

  20. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from airborne wind energy system developers and the public related to these systems so that the FAA...

  1. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a... conditions that can be detected with airborne weather radar equipment, may reasonably be expected along...

  2. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  3. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  4. 40 CFR 725.239 - Use of specific microorganisms in activities conducted outside a structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of specific microorganisms in... MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.239 Use of specific microorganisms in...: (1) Characteristics of recipient microorganism. The recipient microorganism is limited to strains...

  5. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Airborne Gravity Data for AN01 (2009-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2009-2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  6. Application of microorganisms in coal cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure energy supply is one of the basic pre-requisites for a sound economic system, sustained standard and quality of life and eventually for the social well-being of each individual. For a progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which given the relatively large resources available, is considered to be one of the major options for the next few hundred years. Bioprocessing of coal in an emerging technology which has started to receive considerable research attention. Recent research activities involving coal cleaning, direct coal conversion, and indirect conversion of coal-derived materials have generated a plethora of facts regarding biochemistry, chemistry, and thermodynamic behavior of coal, in that its bioprocessing is on the verge of becoming and acceptable means to great coals. In this research report, investigations pertaining to the various aspects of coal bio processing, including desulfurization and depyritization are discussed. Bituminous coals varying in total sulfur contents of 3-6% were depyritized more than 90% by mesophilic acidophiles like Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio oxidans and thermophilic Sulfolobus brierleyi. The archaebacterium, Sulfolobus brierleyi was found to desulfurize inorganic and organic sulfur components of the coal. Conditions were established under which it can remove more than 30% of the organic sulfur present in the coals. Heterotrophic microorganisms including oxenic and soil isolates were also employed for studying sulfurization. A soil isolate, Oil-2, was found to remove more than 70% dibenzothiophenic sulfur present in an oil-water emulsion (1:20 ratio). Pseudomonas putida and the bacterium oil-2 also remove 60-70% organic sulfur present in the shale-oil. Preliminary results indicate the presence of putatively known Kodama's pathway in the oil-2. The mass balance for sulfate indicated the possibility of the presence

  7. Formation of methylamine by rumen microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unknown ninhydrin positive peak on the chromatograms of amino acid analyzer of alkalified rumen fluid distillate of goats was isolated as DNP-derivative and identified as methylamine. Under normal feeding condition, its concentration in the rumen ranged 0.1-3.9 mgN/100 ml of rumen fluid and the proportion of methylamine in total volatile base, or apparent ammonia, ranged 0.5-13% during post-feeding. When ammonium salt was administered into the rumen with hay-concentrate ration, these values were increased up to 8.1 mgN/100 ml and 25.8% respectively. Concentrations of ammonia and methylamine when aspartic acid or alanine was administered into the rumen in place of concentrate mixture (control) were not markedly different from the control. In the case of arginine, glutamic acid or glycine administration, these concentrations were depressed as compared to the control. There were no distinct differences in the concentration of methylamine between the faunated and unfaunated goats. 14C from 14C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, U-14C-alanine, 2-14C-glycine or 14C-sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into methylamine in invitro incubation with rumen micro-organisms. When the washed suspensions of rumen bacteria or protozoa were incubated with 14C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, the radioactivity in methylamine appeared only in the case of bacteria suspensions. After the addition of 15N-ammonium citrate into the rumen, the incorporation of 15N into methylamine was observed during 1-9 hr. (auth.)

  8. Single cell genomics of subsurface microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanauskas, R.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C.; Kieft, T. L.; Woyke, T.; Rinke, C.; Sczyrba, A.; van Heerden, E.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed unexpected abundance and diversity of microorganisms in terrestrial and marine subsurface, providing new perspectives over their biogeochemical significance, evolution, and the limits of life. The now commonly used research tools, such as metagenomics and PCR-based gene surveys enabled cultivation-unbiased analysis of genes encoded by natural microbial communities. However, these methods seldom provide direct evidence for how the discovered genes are organized inside genomes and from which organisms do they come from. Here we evaluated the feasibility of an alternative, single cell genomics approach, in the analysis of subsurface microbial community composition, metabolic potential and microevolution at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), South Dakota, and the Witwaterstrand Basin, South Africa. We successfully recovered genomic DNA from individual microbial cells from multiple locations, including ultra-deep (down to 3,500 m) and low-biomass (down to 10^3 cells mL^-1) fracture water. The obtained single amplified genomes (SAGs) from SURF contained multiple representatives of the candidate divisions OP3, OP11, OD1 and uncharacterized archaea. By sequencing eight of these SAGs, we obtained the first genome content information for these phylum-level lineages that do not contain a single cultured representative. The Witwaterstrand samples were collected from deep fractures, biogeochemical dating of which suggests isolation from tens of thousands to tens of millions of years. Thus, these fractures may be viewed as "underground Galapagos", a natural, long-term experiment of microbial evolution within well-defined temporal and spatial boundaries. We are analyzing multiple SAGs from these environments, which will provide detailed information about adaptations to life in deep subsurface, mutation rates, selective pressures and gene flux within and across microbial populations.

  9. Autecology of microorganisms of typical Ecuador biotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashyrev, O B; Pidgorskyi, V S; Toro, Miguel Naranjo; Gualoto, Miguel; Gladka, G V; Tashyreva, H O; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaya, V A

    2014-01-01

    34 strains of aerobic chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were isolated from 23 soil and plant samples selected from highland biotopes of Ecuador-Andes massif (Papallacta, 4020 m), ash at the foot of the volcano Tungurahua, mountainous jungle (La Favorita, 1600 m), as well as in humid tropic botanical garden (state Puyo, 950 m). In mountain jungle samples the high number of bacteria--10(5)-10(7) CFU/g of sample were represented by 2-5 morphotypes. In highland (4020 m) samples the bacterial counts made from 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/g of sample. The current study describes resistance of isolated strains to high salinity, UV radiation and toxic metal ions. The majority of isolated strains were halotolerant. Isolates from volcanic ash showed high resistance level to UV radiation--LD99,99 made 1000-1440 J/m2; resistance level for isolates from the soil of Puyo Botanical Garden and isolates from rock lichen (Papallacta) LD99,99 made 1160 and 800 J/m2 respectively. Strains isolated from mountain jungle (La Favorita) showed lower UV-resistance. In highland biotopes of Ecuador occurred bacteria resistant to toxic metal ions. The highest resistance to Hg2+ was shown by isolate of lichen from mountain jungle, the maximal growth concentration was 0.025 g/L; to Cr(VI)--by isolate from lichen rock massif--3,0 g/L. Correlation between metal-resistance, halotolerace and UV resistance for studied strains was not detected, probably because of different microbial cell damage/repair mechanisms under the action of these factors. PMID:25639037

  10. Topology optimized cloak for airborne sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Directional acoustic cloaks that conceal an aluminum cylinder for airborne sound waves are presented in this paper. Subwavelength cylindrical aluminum inclusions in air constitute the cloak design to aid practical realizations. The positions and radii of the subwavelength cylinders are determined...

  11. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan; Woelders, Kim; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    1996-01-01

    perturbations of the surface of the Earth. The Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) has experimented with airborne INSAR since 1993. Multiple track data are collected in a special mode in which the radar directly steers the aircraft which allows for very precise control of the flight path. Such data sets...

  12. The National Airborne Field Experiment Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, J. P.; Balling, Jan E.; Bell, M.; Berg, A.; Berger, M.; Biasoni, D.; Botha, E.; Boulet, G.; Chen, Y.; Christen, E.; deJeu, R.; Derosnay, P.; Dever, C.; Draper, C.; Fenollar, J.; Gomez, C.; Grant, J. P.; Hacker, J.; Hafeez, M.; Hancock, G.; Hansen, D.; Holz, L.; Hornbuckle, J.; Hurkmans, R.; Jackson, T.; Johanson, J.; Jones, P.; Jones, S.; Kalma, J.; Kerr, Y.; Kim, E.; Kuzmin, V.; Lakshmi, V.; Lopez, E.; Maggioni, V.; Maisongrande, P.; Martinez, C.; McKee, L.; Merlin, O.; Mladenova, I.; O'Neill, P.; Panciera, R.; Paruscio, V.; Pipunic, R.; Rawls, W.; Rinaldi, M.; Ruediger, C.; Saco, P.; Saleh, K.; Savstrup-Kristensen, S.; Shoemark, V.; Skou, N.; Soebjaerg, S.; Summerell, G.; Teuling, A. J.; Thompson, H.; Thyer, M.; Toyra, J.; Tsang, A.; Wells, T.; Wursteisen, P.; Young, R.

    The National Airborne Field Experiment's (NAFE) were a series of intensive experiments recently conducted in different parts of Australia. These hydrologic-focused experiments have been designed to answer a range of questions which can only be resolved through carefully planned and executed field...

  13. Materiel requirements for airborne minefield detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsche, Karl A.; Huegle, Helmut

    1997-07-01

    Within the concept study, Material Requirements for an airborne minefield detection systems (AMiDS) the following topics were investigated: (i) concept concerning airborne minefield detection technique sand equipment, (ii) verification analysis of the AMiDS requirements using simulation models and (iii) application concept of AMiDS with regard o tactics and military operations. In a first approach the problems concerning unmanned airborne minefield detection techniques within a well-defined area were considered. The complexity of unmanned airborne minefield detection is a result of the following parameters: mine types, mine deployment methods, tactical requirements, topography, weather conditions, and the size of the area to be searched. In order to perform the analysis, a simulation model was developed to analyze the usability of the proposed remote controlled air carriers. The basic flight patterns for the proposed air carriers, as well as the preparation efforts of military operations and benefits of such a system during combat support missions were investigated. The results of the conceptual study showed that a proposed remote controlled helicopter drone could meet the stated German MOD scanning requirements of mine barriers. Fixed wing air carriers were at a definite disadvantage because of their inherently large turning loops. By implementing a mine detection system like AMiDS minefields can be reconnoitered before an attack. It is therefore possible either to plan, how the minefields can be circumvented or where precisely breaching lanes through the mine barriers are to be cleared for the advancing force.

  14. Experimental airborne transmission of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Bøtner, Anette; Takai, H.; Nielsen, J.P.; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    A series of three experiments, differing primarily in airflow volume, were performed to evaluate the likelihood of airborne transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) from infected to non-infected pigs. Pigs were housed in two units (unit A and unit B) located 1 m...

  15. Use of airborne vehicles as research platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Gratton, GB

    2012-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following chapter: Gratton, G. 2012. Use of Airborne Vehicles as Research Platforms. Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470686652.eae604/full. Copyright @ John Wiley & Sons 2012.

  16. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  17. Fate of indicator microorganisms under nutrient management plan conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Segal, Eran

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient management plans (NMPs) for application of wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations are designed to meet crop water and nutrient requirements, but implicitly assume that pathogenic microorganisms in the wastewater will be retained and die-off in the root zone. A NMP was implemented on a field plot to test this assumption by monitoring the fate of several fecal indicator microorganisms (Enterococcus, fecal coliforms, somatic coliphage, and total Escherichia coli). When well-water and wastewater were applied to meet measured evapotranspiration (ET), little advective transport of the indicator microorganisms occurred below the root zone and the remaining microorganisms rapidly died-off (within 1 mo). Additional experiments were conducted in the laboratory to better quantify microorganism transport and survival in the field soil. Batch survival experiments revealed much more rapid die-off rates for the bacterial indicator microorganisms in native than in sterilized soil, suggesting that biotic factors controlled survival. Saturated column experiments with packed field soil, demonstrated much greater transport potential for somatic coliphage than bacterial indicators (Enterococcus and total E. coli) and that the retention rates for the indicator microorganisms were not log-linear with depth. A worst case transport scenario of ponded infiltration on a large undistributed soil column from the field was also initiated and indicator microorganisms were not detected in the column outflow or in the soil at a depth of 65 cm. All of these observations support the hypothesis that a NMP at this site will protect groundwater supplies from microorganism contamination, especially when applied water and wastewater meet ET. PMID:19549950

  18. Reducing airborne pathogens and dust in commercial hatching cabinets with an electrostatic space charge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B W; Waltman, W D

    2003-01-01

    Commercial hatcheries typically infuse hydrogen peroxide or formaldehyde gas into hatching cabinets to reduce airborne pathogens that may lead to disease transmission during the hatch. A nonchemical option, an electrostatic space charge system (ESCS), was customized for full-sized commercial hatching cabinets and was tested extensively in broiler hatcheries. The ESCS cleans air by transferring a strong negative electrostatic charge to dust and microorganisms that are aerosolized during the hatch and collecting the charged particles on grounded plates or surfaces. In studies with three poultry companies, the ESCS resulted in significant (P or = 0.05) from those with formaldehyde, and in 93%-96% lower Enterobacteriaceae than with no treatment or with hydrogen peroxide treatment (P hatchery. PMID:12887184

  19. Participation of microorganisms in processes of waste biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kolomoets

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is shown, that microorganisms can be used for utilisation of products of waste degradation. The influence of microelements small doses on the ability of secured cultures of soil microorganisms to grow on poor nutrient medium was studied. The cultures simulate the relationship of the end products of waste pyrolysis. The positive influence of MnCl2, K2HPO4, NH4NО3 as well as the complex of microelements on the ability of secured microorganisms to accumulate the biomass and assimilate the substrate is shown. Among two secured and studied germ culturesthe genus of –Bacillus is more promising.

  20. Effective dynamics of microorganisms that interact with their own trail

    CERN Document Server

    Kranz, W Till; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Like ants, some microorganisms are known to leave trails on surfaces to communicate. Using a simple phenomenological model for an actively moving particle, we explore how trail-mediated self-interaction could affect the behaviour of individual microorganisms. The effective dynamics of each microorganism takes on the form of a delayed stochastic dynamical equation with the trail interaction appearing in the form of short-term memory. Depending on the strength of the coupling, the dynamics exhibits effective diffusion in both orientation and position, orientational oscillations, and a localization transition with a divergent orientational correlation time.

  1. Influence of microorganisms on the alteration of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under specific conditions, microorganisms may enhance the alteration process of basaltic glass. However bacterial activity in the near field of a glass container would be possible only in environmental conditions provide nutrients and energetic substrates for bacterial growth. Depending of these conditions, microorganisms can: - modify the pH or the medium, - consume or produce soluble organic acids. To qualify the long term behaviour of glass, in presence of microorganisms, a qualitative and quantitative estimation of microbial activity potentialities and their consequences is needed. This must be achieved in studying the availability of the chemical species in the environment. (authors)

  2. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  3. Potential Marine Organisms Affecting Airborne Primary Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, J. Y.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The oceans cover 70% of earth with the marine environment contributing ~50% of the global biomass. Particularly during periods of high biological activity associated with phytoplankton blooms, primary emitted aerosol particles dominated by organic compounds in the submicron size range, are ejected from surface waters increasing in concentration exponentially with overlying wind speeds. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, where seawater concentrations of biogenic particles can reach 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms, and even 106 cells per ml in winter when empty frustules and fragments of diatoms are resuspensed from shallow shelf sediments by strong winds, and mix with living pico- and nanoplankton in surface sea waters. This organic aerosol fraction can have a significant impact on the ability of ocean derived aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei. It has been shown that small insoluble organic particles are aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer (SML) via bubble bursting. The exact composition and complexity of the SML varies spatially and temporally but includes phytoplankton cells, microorganisms, organic debris, and a complex mixture of proteins, polysaccharides, humic-type material and waxes, microgels and colloidal nanogels, and strong surface active lipids. The specific chemical composition is dependent on the fractionation of organic matter which originates from in-situ production, from underlying water and even from atmospheric deposition. These conditions will most likely determine the nature of the organic and biogenic material. Here we review the types, sizes, and properties of ocean-derived particles and organic material which present potential candidates for airborne biogenic and organic particles.

  4. Marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Nam, Seung Yun; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-11-01

    The use of marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is a relatively new field of research with considerable prospects. This method is eco-friendly, time saving, and inexpensive and can be easily scaled up for large-scale synthesis. The increasing need to develop simple, nontoxic, clean, and environmentally safe production methods for nanoparticles and to decrease environmental impact, minimize waste, and increase energy productivity has become important in this field. Marine microorganisms are tiny organisms that live in marine ecosystems and account for >98% of biomass of the world's ocean. Marine microorganisms synthesize metallic nanoparticles either intracellularly or extracellularly. Marine microbially-produced metallic nanoparticles have received considerable attention in recent years because of their expected impact on various applications such as medicine, energy, electronic, and space industries. The present review discusses marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their potential applications. PMID:26920850

  5. Indigenous microorganisms production and the effect on composting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, Nurul-Ain; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    In this study, production of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) and effect on addition of IMO in composting process were done. Production of IMO was done in a series of steps to allow propagation of beneficial microorganisms. Effect of IMO addition in composting process was investigated by having 4 treatments; 1) rice straw without IMO nor manure and rice bran, 2) rice straw with IMO only, 3) rice straw with manure and rice bran, 4) rice straw with IMO, manure and rice bran. Production of IMO using cooked rice yields white molds. Addition of IMO during composting did not affect temperature increment. However, there were differences in numbers of microorganisms found during each stages of composting. Initial composting stage was dominated by mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes, followed by thermophilic bacteria and later by actinomycetes upon composting completion. In conclusion, this study showed that IMO addition in composting increased microorganisms which are responsible in organic decomposition.

  6. Anisotropic structures of some microorganisms studied by polarization microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižka, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2014), s. 363-368. ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polarization microscopy * microorganism Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  7. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhakal; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kwang-Hyun Baek

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and als...

  8. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhakal; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kwang-Hyun Baek

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has...

  9. The microorganisms as a renewable source of ecological clean fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five families of microorganisms (Bacillaceae, Rhodospirillaceae, Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae) as hydrogen producers were tested and the conditions that are necessary for hydrogen photoproduction were investigated. It was shown, that the most effective producers of hydrogen were Rhodobacter spheroides, Clostridium sp.; Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Addition of glucose, iron and vanadium salts resulted in the increase of hydrogen production. Polycultures consisted of two or three microorganisms were more effective hydrogen producers compared to separate monocultures. (authors)

  10. Rotary Apparatus Concentrates And Separates Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus concentrates and separates swimming micro-organisms of different species into concentric rings in fluid. Fluid containing high concentration of desired species removed by use of small scoop placed into fluid at radius of one of rings formed by that species. Micro-organisms concentrated into concentric rings by combined dynamic effects of upward and horizontal components of swimming, rotation of dish, gravitation, and viscosity.

  11. Investigation of heavy metal stress on chemoheterotrophic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Monballiu, Annick; Chiang, Yi Wai; Cardon, Nele; Cornelly, Christel; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching uses microorganisms to extract valuable metals from minerals. It has risen as a sustainable alternative to conventional metal recovery processes for low grade ores and industrial waste materials such as incineration ashes as it could be more economical and environmentally friendly [1-2]. However, inherently to these materials is the presence of the hazardous heavy metals that can become toxic to the bioleaching microorganisms when released from its solid form, and potentially can ...

  12. Microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to inhibitors and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Shihui

    2014-07-29

    The present invention provides genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced tolerance to stress and/or inhibitors such as sodium acetate and vanillin. The enhanced tolerance can be achieved by increasing the expression of a protein of the Sm-like superfamily such as a bacterial Hfq protein and a fungal Sm or Lsm protein. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using the genetically modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  13. Diversity and adaptations of deep-sea microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    from moderately barophilic or barotolerant microorganisms. The effect of pressure on cell membrane, protein and gene expression are studied in detail in some of these microorganisms. Cold temperatures and high pressures decrease membrane fluidity... and affect a number of membrane-associated processes including ion and nutrient flux and DNA replication (Bartlett, 1992). A barotolerant strain of Alteromonas isolated from 4033 m in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench, Japan showed an increase in the proportion...

  14. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  15. Metal resistance in acidophilic microorganisms and its significance for biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S

    2014-10-01

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms have an optimal pH of biomining for sulfide mineral dissolution, biosulfidogenesis to produce sulfide that can selectively precipitate metals from process streams, treatment of acid mine drainage, and bioremediation of acidic metal-contaminated milieux. This review describes how acidophilic microorganisms tolerate extremely high metal concentrations in biotechnological processes and identifies areas of future work that hold promise for improving the efficiency of these applications. PMID:25104030

  16. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  17. Microorganisms -indicators of the level of soil pollution with lead

    OpenAIRE

    Stavreva Veselinovska, Snezana

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution with heavy metals present a real threat to wildlife because the metals cannot be naturally decomposed as is the case with organic pollutants, and as such they can survive in the environment while accumulating the heavy metals in different parts. Pollution with metals can affect different organisms in the environment, such as microorganisms, plants and animals, but the degree of toxicity depends on the species. Microorganisms have different mechanisms of coping with...

  18. Interactions between novel micro-organisms and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, P; Franciosa, G

    2002-09-01

    Microbial strains traditionally used to ferment food have a long history of safe use and are, therefore, considered as generally recognised as safe. Many of these micro-organisms have also functional attributes and are included among probiotics. New species and strains of bacteria with desirable technological and functional properties are constantly being identified; in addition, micro-organisms can be engineered by recently developed biotechnological tools in order to accelerate strain improvement. Although the potentialities of novel micro-organisms with better probiotic and technological properties are promising, it cannot be assumed that they share the safety record of traditional micro-organisms, since they may pose unique challenges for human health. The risk assessment and safety evaluation of novel micro-organisms must focus, primarily, on their potential harmful effects, both direct and indirect, upon host resident intestinal microflora. Genetically modified micro-organisms need further assessment for the complete characterisation of the DNA rearrangement and of the final product, in order to establish the "substantial equivalence" with the parental strain. PMID:12408436

  19. Volatilization of Po by microorganisms at laboratory culture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previous experiments proved the volatility of polonium form culture medium in which microorganisms were propagated from seed of seawater, river water or pond water, therefore we did not know what kind of species are responsible to Po volatility. To search microorganisms, which concerned with Po emission we carried out culture experiments using known microorganisms. Three microorganisms were examined; Escherichia coli K-12, Bacillus subtilis and Chromobacterium violaceum. The microorganisms were pre-cultured in LB medium at 30 degree C and a small portion of the pre-cultured was transferred to a culture bottle in which LB medium and 208Po tracer were contained. The culture was done at 30 degree C with shaking the culture bottle and air passed through a filter was introduced. The Po volatilized was transferred into the trap vials in which scintillator for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was contained. The Po activity was measured by LSC. All of the microorganisms examined volatilized Po but their ability was quite different each other. Highest ability was observed on Chromobacterium violaceum and then Escherichia coli K-12 followed by Bacillus subtilis, the relative magnitude of the ability was 102, 10, 1, respectively. Chromobacterium violaceum and Escherichia coli K-12 showed high volatility for the first 24 h but Escherichia coli K-12 showed a decrease thereafter. However high volatility was continued on Chromobacterium violaceum during the culture. The low culture temperature suppressed Po volatility, supporting biologically mediated Po emission from the culture.

  20. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  1. Comprehensive characterization of indoor airborne bacterial profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.L.Chan; P.H.F.Yu; Y.W.Cheng; C.Y.Chan; P.K.Wong

    2009-01-01

    This is the first detailed characterization of the air-borne bacterial profiles in indoor environments and two restaurants were selected for this study.Fifteen genera of bacteria were isolated from each restaurant and identified by three different bacterial identification systems including MIDI, Biolog and Riboprinter?.The dominant bacteria of both restaurants were Gram-positive bacteria in which Micrococcus and Bacillus species were the most abundant species.Most bacteria identified were representative species of skin and respiratory tract of human, and soil.Although the bacterial levels in these restaurants were below the limit of the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objective (HKIAQO) Level 1 standard (i.e., < 500 cfu/m3), the majority of these bacteria were opportunistic pathogens.These results suggested that the identity of airborne bacteria should also be included in the IAQ to ensure there is a safety guideline for the public.

  2. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði;

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  3. First airborne transient em survey in antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Mikucki, J. J.; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.;

    2012-01-01

    A first airborne transient electromagnetic survey was flown in Antarctica in December 2011 with the SkyTEM system. This transient airborne EM system has been optimized in Denmark for almost ten years and was specially designed for ground water mapping. The SkyTEM tool is ideal for mapping...... conductive targets, and the transient AEM method provides a better understanding of the saline ground water system for microbiology, paleoclimate studies, or geothermal potential. In this study we present preliminary results from our field survey which resulted in more than 1000 km of flight lines. The...... are presented here, the Taylor Valley demonstrating the promising capabilities of the geophysical method to map permafrost and the saline ground water systems....

  4. Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

  5. Forage: a sensitive indicator of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of using Ge(Li) γ-ray spectroscopy to measure radioactivity concentration of forage in the vicinity of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Houston County, AL., over a 31/2 yr period. The report period includes 2 yr of pre-operational and 11/2 yr of operational sampling. Although the objective of forage sampling was the measurement of manmade airborne fallout radioactivity, several natural radioisotopes were also found to be present. A summary of natural radioactivity data for all samples measured during the period from August 1975 to December 1978 is given. Approximately 10 days after each of four Chinese atmospheric nuclear tests conducted during the sampling period fresh fission product fallout was measured on the forage. The information from these nuclear tests shows forage sampling to be a convenient and sensitive monitoring tool for airborne fallout radioactivity. (author)

  6. Long-term sampling of airborne bacteria and fungi into a non-evaporating liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuejun; Reponen, Tiina A.; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Foarde, Karin K.; Ensor, David S.

    Conventional sampling of bioaerosols into liquid impingers can only be performed with water or another low-viscosity liquid as the collection medium. Since these liquids evaporate quickly, sampling is generally limited to short-time periods of 15-30 min. In this study, our recently developed "BioSampler", has been used with a non-evaporating, higher viscosity liquid that does not kill nor grow microorganisms, and thus has been used to sample airborne bacteria and fungi for several hours. In side-by-side comparisons with the conventional AGI-30 impinger, sampling indoor air environments over short-time periods, the BioSampler yielded equivalent or higher culturable counts for bacteria and fungi than the AGI-30 when both samplers were operated for 30 min with 20 ml of phosphate buffer as the collection medium. The bio-efficiency of the AGI-30 decreased rapidly with sampling time until the liquid had evaporated after about 1 1/2 h. When the BioSampler was operated for 4 h with non-evaporating heavy white mineral oil, the collection efficiency decreased only moderately due to minimal reaerosolization of collected particles and gentle collection of the viable microorganisms. Samples obtained through long-term sampling with the BioSampler may detect culturable bacteria and fungi at lower ambient concentration levels than is possible through conventional liquid impingement sampling over short-time periods.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events su...

  8. The impact of fireworks on airborne particles

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vecchi; Bernardoni, V.; Cricchio, D; A. D'Alessandro; P. Fermo; F. Lucarelli(Agenzia Spaziale Italiana); S. Nava; Piazzalunga, A.; Valli, G.

    2008-01-01

    Fireworks are one of the most unusual sources of pollution in atmosphere; although transient, these pollution episodes are responsible for high concentrations of particles (especially metals and organic compounds) and gases. In this paper, results of a study on chemical-physical properties of airborne particles (elements, ions, organic and elemental carbon and particles size distributions) collected during a fireworks episode in Milan (Italy) are reported. Elements typically emitted during py...

  9. Simulating city-level airborne infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, S.; Chen, B; Zhu, Y; Lees, M.H.; Boukhanovsky, A.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the possible impact of outbreaks of epidemics on cities is increasing, especially in high-density urban areas such as public transportation and transfer points. The volume and proximity of people in these areas can lead to an observed dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. Due to the critical role these areas play in transmission, it is vital that we have ...

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbacher, F.; M. Pfennigbauer; M. Aufleger; Ullrich, A

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperati...

  11. Wavelet Based Fractal Analysis of Airborne Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Degaudenzi, M. E.; Arizmendi, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self protection of pollen allergy is possible through the information of future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pol len concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of the daily pollen forecasts have resulted in failures. Previous analysis of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen tim...

  12. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  13. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  14. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of topography can provide a wealth of information on landscape properties for managing hydrologic and geologic systems and conserving natural and agricultural resources. This article discusses the application of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and other landscape surface properties. The airborne laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical recording resolution of 5 cm. Data are collected digitally with a personal computer. A video camera, borehole sighted with the laser, records an image for locating flight lines. GPS data are used to locate flight line positions on the landscape. Laser data were used to measure vegetation canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution and to measure microtopography of the land surface and gullies with depths of 15–20 cm. Macrotopography of landscape profiles for segments up to 4 km were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Larger gullies with and without vegetation, and stream channel cross sections and their associated floodplains have also been measured and reported in other publications. Landscape segments for any length could be measured for either micro- or macrotopography. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on landscape properties or specific needs that will allow better decisions on the design and location of structures (i.e., roads, pipe, and power lines) and for improving the management and conservation of natural and agricultural landscapes. (author)

  15. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Roy; Neil, George

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  16. Airborne EM applied to environmental geoscience in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Beamish, D

    2002-01-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been highlighting the need for modern, multi-sensor airborne geophysical data in the UK. Here David Beamish, geophysicist with the BGS, describes the first trial airborne electromagnetic data acquired and its relevance to environmental geoscience. The lack of modern, multi-sensor (magnetic, radiometric and electromagnetic) data represents one of the most serious gaps in the geoscience knowledge base of the UK, and a national, high resolution airborne su...

  17. Identification and Characterization of Extremophile Microorganisms with Significance to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bej, Asim K.

    2003-01-01

    It is now well recognized that microorganisms thrive in extreme ecological conditions such as geothermal vents, polar region, acid and alkaline lakes, and the cold pressurized depth of the ocean floor of this planet. Morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic adaptations to extreme environments by these extremophile microorganisms have generated immense interest amongst astrobiologists who increasingly believe in the existence of extraterrestrial life. The evidence collected by NASA's space probe Galileo suggested the presence of liquid water and volcanic activity on Mars and Jupiter's satellite Europa. Volcanic activity provides some of the heat necessary to keep the water on Europa from freezing that could provide important dissolved chemicals needed by living organisms. The possibility of the existence of hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters on Mars, and a layer of liquid water under the ice on Europa provide sufficient 'raison d'etre' to study microorganisms in similar extreme environments on Earth, which could provide us with a model that would help establish the existence of extraterrestrial life on other planetary bodies. The objectives of the summer research project were as follows: (1) application of molecular approaches to help establish new species of extremophile microorganisms isolated from a hypersaline alkaline lake; and (2) identification of a major cold-shock gene (cspA) homolog from a psychrotolerant microorganism, PmagG1.

  18. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP, Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  19. Towards airborne nanoparticle mass spectrometry with nanomechanical string resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Kurek, Maksymilian; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    airborne nanoparticle sensors. Recently, nanomechanical mass spectrometry was established. One of the biggest challenges of nanomechanical sensors is the low efficiency of diffusion-based sampling. We developed an inertial-based sampling method that enables the efficient sampling of airborne nanoparticles...... first bending mode. Mass spectrometry of airborne nanoparticles requires the simultaneous operation in the first and second mode, which can be implemented in the transduction scheme of the resonator. The presented results lay the cornerstone for the realization of a portable airborne nanoparticle mass...

  20. High-Performance Airborne Optical Carbon Dioxide Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental species measurement on airborne atmospheric research craft is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer...

  1. Isolation and evaluation of microorganisms for MEOR process; Yuyo biseibutsu no tansaku to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M.; Asaumi, H.; Yonebayashi, E. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    JNOC has been carrying out isolation of microorganisms for MEOR since 1988. This process strongly depends on abilities of microorganisms. To increase temperature criterion for MEOR, a survey of thermophilic microorganisms has been carried out. As a result, five microorganisms which can survive at 80-85 degree C and produce gas and/or show emulsification were isolated. (author)

  2. 40 CFR 725.12 - Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of microorganisms for... MICROORGANISMS General Provisions and Applicability § 725.12 Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes. To identify and list microorganisms on the Inventory, both...

  3. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups ("phylotypes") may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  4. Multispecies Swarms of Social Microorganisms as Moving Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Finkelshtein, Alin; Ariel, Gil; Ingham, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Microorganisms use collective migration to cross barriers and reach new habitats, and the ability to form motile swarms offers a competitive advantage. Traditionally, dispersal by microbial swarm propagation has been studied in monoculture. Microorganisms can facilitate other species' dispersal by forming multispecies swarms, with mutual benefits. One party (the transporter) moves a sessile partner (the cargo). This results in asymmetric associations ranging from temporary marriages of convenience to long-term fellow travellers. In the context of the 'microbial market', the parties offer very different services in exchange. We discuss bacteria transporting bacteria, eukaryotic microorganisms moving bacteria, and bacteria facilitating the spread of eukaryotes - and ask what the benefits are, the methods of study, and the consequences of multispecies, swarming logistics networks. PMID:26822253

  5. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microorganisms that can vary their shape and their preferential orientation.

  6. Optical Biosensors for the Detection of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms are causative agents of various infectious diseases that are becoming increasingly serious worldwide. For the successful treatment of pathogenic infection, the rapid and accurate detection of multiple pathogenic microorganisms is of great importance in all areas related to health and safety. Among various sensor systems, optical biosensors allow easy-to-use, rapid, portable, multiplexed, and cost-effective diagnosis. Here, we review current trends and advances in pathogen-diagnostic optical biosensors. The technological and methodological approaches underlying diverse optical-sensing platforms and methods for detecting pathogenic microorganisms are reviewed, together with the strengths and drawbacks of each technique. Finally, challenges in developing efficient optical biosensor systems and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:26506111

  7. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  8. Radiation resistance of microorganisms from radiation sterilization processing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation resistance of microorganisms was examined on the samples of dust collected from the radiation sterilization processing environments including assembly, storage, and sterilization plant areas. The isolation of radiation resistant strains was performed by irradiation with screening doses ranging from 10 to 35 kGy and test pieces containing 106 to 108 CFU in dried serum-broth, representing 100 to 5000 colonies of primary cultures of microorganisms from 7 different sites. In an examination of 16900 colonies of aerobic microorganisms from 3 hygienically controlled production sites and 4 uncontrolled ones, 30 strains of bacteria were isolated. Of those 15 were classified as genus Bacillus, 9 as Micrococcus and 6 as Sarcina. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Use of Probiotic Microorganisms for Bio-Protective Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz YANGILAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was known that some diseases can be treated as the result of the use of antibiotics in certain periods and at certain dosages while inactivating and deteriorating normal microorganisms performing useful activities in human metabolism (in especially intestinal flora. It was occured that after the use of antibiotics, some defects can be seen resulting from antibiotics (such as allergy, diarrhea, gas formation etc. With this aim, nutraceutics and functional food have gained importance over the last years and consumers began to be interested in probiotics, natural antioxidants, dietary fibres, products with low calorie and cholesterol contents, especially the products containing probioticbacteria. Bacteriocins produced by probiotic bacteria can play important roles as food protective and safeguarding since they can compete with unwanted or pathogen microorganisms survive in the media and colonize in intestines. In this review, is aimed to emphasis bioprotective compounds, advantages and disadvantages of biopreservation method and the importance of the mechanisms of probiotic microorganisms.

  10. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  11. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment. PMID:26857464

  12. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on motile microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of slightly increased UV-B radiation was studied in four taxonomically very different microorganisms: the gliding prokaryotic cyanobacterium, Phormidium, the unicellular green alga Cosmarium, the flagellate Euglena and the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. UV-B doses which can be expected as a result of a slight decrease of the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere, do not kill or damage the microorganisms visibly. However, such UV-B doses impair the development, motility and photoorientation of these organisms. Due to the inhibition of these physiological important parameters the organisms cannot respond adequately to the changing factors in their environment, which prevents the survival of the populations. (orig.)

  13. An Ecological Survey of Microorganisms Associated with Plantain Roots (Rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Bello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Micro-organisms are more predominant around root zone and as such play a vital role to plant. Micro-organisms are diverse and have property modification which are beneficial to plant growth and root development. Approach: The lack of knowledge on the specific microorganisms associated with plantain roots in Cross River State soils (which inturn leads to an avoidable loss of crop if appropriate management methods were employed led to the need for this study. Different ecological zones have different population of micro-organisms. The purpose of this study is to: to enumerate the rhizosphere microorganisms (bacteria and fungi associated with plantain roots at different locations across the ecological zones of the state and to identify the rhizosphere microorganisms associated with plantain roots of different location representing the ecological zones of the state. Results: To ascertain this, it was necessary to isolate micro-organisms from the roots of plantain in order to determine the different populations of microorganisms in different ecological zones across Cross River State, Nigeria. The isolation of bacteria and fungi colonizing the root of plantain were determined at six locations across the state, as follows: Obanliku, Boki, Etung, Obubra Biase and Odukpani Local Government Area. The activity growing roots of plantain were removed with the attached suckers and transferred to the laboratory for microbial analysis. Serial dilution method was used to determine the population of bacteria and fungi present in the root samples collected. Also, staining reaction as well as biochemical taste were carried out to identify the types of bacteria present and their biochemical reactions. Conclusion/Recommendations: The result showed that several types of bacteria and fungi were present around the roots of plantain. The types of bacteria and fungi are listed below; Bacteria: Micrococus, Rhizobium, Azomonas-agilis, Pseudomonads

  14. Effects of heat-activated persulfate oxidation on soil microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsitonaki, Aikaterini; Smets, Barth F.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2008-01-01

    The effects of heat-activated persulfate on indigenous microorganisms and microcosms augmented with Pseudomonas putida KT2440 were studied in laboratory batch reactors with aquifer material. Microscopic enumeration was used to measure the changes in cell density, and acetate consumption was used to....../L). The results emphasize the necessity of using multiple toxicity assays and indigenous cultures in order to realistically assess the potential effects of in situ chemical oxidation on soil microorganisms. A comparison to other studies suggests that the effects of activated persulfate on soil...

  15. Trapping of swimming microorganisms at lower surfaces by increasing buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ilyong; Guevorkian, Karine; Valles, James M

    2014-11-21

    Models suggest that mechanical interactions alone can trap swimming microorganisms at surfaces. Testing them requires a method for varying the mechanical interactions. We tuned contact forces between Paramecia and surfaces in situ by varying their buoyancy with nonuniform magnetic fields. Remarkably, increasing their buoyancy can lead to ∼100% trapping at lower surfaces. A model of Paramecia in surface contact passively responding to external torques quantitatively accounts for the data implying that interactions with a planar surface do not engage their mechanosensing network and illuminating how their trapping differs from other smaller microorganisms. PMID:25479523

  16. Antimicrobial activity of magnolol and honokiol against periodontopathic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B; Lee, Y; Ku, Y; Bae, K; Chung, C

    1998-05-01

    Magnolol (1) and honokiol (2), main compounds from the stem bark of Magnolia obovata Thunb., were evaluated for an antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic microorganisms, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, and Veillonella disper, and a cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that magnolol and honokiol, although less potent than chlorhexidine, show a significant antimicrobial activity against these microorganisms, and a relatively low cytotoxic effect on human gingival cells. Thus, it is suggested that magnolol and honokiol may have a potential therapeutic use as a safe oral antiseptic for the prevention and the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:9619121

  17. Gut Microorganisms Found Necessary for Successful Cancer Therapy | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Humans play host to trillions of microorganisms that help our bodies perform basic functions, like digestion, growth, and fighting disease. In fact, bacterial cells outnumber the human cells in our bodies by 10 to 1.1 The tens of trillions of microorganisms thriving in our intestines are known as gut microbiota, and those that are not harmful to us are referred to as commensal microbiota. In a recent paper in Science, NCI scientists described their discovery that, in mice, the presence of commensal microbiota is needed for successful response to cancer therapy.

  18. Pathogenic Microorganisms from Raw Milk of Different Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letiţia Oprean

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an ideal environment for microbial growth and for this reason the separation of some pathogens is very important. The analysis of milk regarding pathogenic microorganisms is a clear indicator of hygienic quality and this influences the dairy production. Samples of raw milk from cow, goat and sheep were analyzed for pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The microorganisms found in milk directly affect the human health and can cause a public illness if the unpasteurized milk is used in the food industry.

  19. Stringy and membranic theory of swimming of micro-organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, M; Kawamura, Masako; Sugamoto, Akio

    1996-01-01

    When the swimming of micro-organisms is viewed from the string and membrane theories coupled to the velocity field of the fluid, a number of interesting results are derived; 1) importance of the area (or volume) preserving algebra, 2) usefulness of the N-point Reggeon (membranic) amplitudes, and of the gas to liquid transition in case of the red tide issues, 3) close relation between the red tide issue and the generation of Einstein gravity, and 4) possible understanding of the three different swimming ways of micro-organisms from the singularity structure of the shape space.

  20. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms and their polymer-hidrolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Carolina M.M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms are found as normal inhabitants of continental and submarine volcanic areas, geothermally heated sea-sediments and hydrothermal vents and thus are considered extremophiles. Several present or potential applications of extremophilic enzymes are reviewed, especially polymer-hydrolysing enzymes, such as amylolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. The purpose of this review is to present the range of morphological and metabolic features among those microorganisms growing from 70oC to 100°C and to indicate potential opportunities for useful applications derived from these features.

  1. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  2. Forage: A sensitive indicator for airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the radiological environmental monitoring program at the Joseph M. Parley Nuclear Plant to meet the requirements of NRC Regulations 10 CRF 50, Appendix I, routine sampling of forage was implemented. Indicator plots of forage (grass) were established at the plant site boundary in the two Meteorological sectors having the highest X/Q values for ground-level dispersion of airborne radioactivity. Likewise, a control plot was established in a sector having a significantly lower X/Q value at a distance of 18 miles. Procedures for maintenance of the grass plots, sampling of forage, and sample preparation for measurement of gamma radioactivity with a Ge (Li) detector were developed during the reported three year measurement period. Three atmospheric nuclear tests by the Peoples Republic of China in 1976 and 1977 has proven forage sampling to be convenient, sensitive, and in the judgement of the authors gives results which are superior to most other media sampled for airborne radioactivity. Typical measured levels of radioactivity from 150 to greater than 10,000 pCi/kg (dry weight) were obtained for the principal fission products in the Chinese bomb fallout, which included 95Zr-95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 140Ba-140La, 141Ce, and 144Ce. On a unit weight basis the level of radioactivity measured was consistently higher for forage than for green leafy vegetables. This was attributed to the higher surface area for the forage. For comparison, plots of airborne concentrations for gross beta and particulate gamma emitters are shown during the time periods that include the Chinese nuclear tests. (author)

  3. 1. Airborne 2. Hangár

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Hangár, Bakelit Multi Art Center 7th L1 Dance Festival, Budapest, Hungary Installation, 2008 AIRBORNE (projection-sound-monitor installation) was sited in the Hangár, B.A.C. as part of the 7th L1 Dance Festival in Budapest, Hungary (March 2008). This work continues Johnson's interest in and use of 'found' material (16mm wind tunnel footage), and performative methods (sound recording of Channel 9 on United Airlines). This immersive work explores the turbulence of suspension and sets ...

  4. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Denizli

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENSEN, Aykut; ÇELİK, Ali; TOPUZ, Bülent; ÖZTÜRK, Münir

    2013-01-01

    Airborne pollen distribution in Denizli Province was measured volumetrically during 2 consecutive years, 2005 and 2006, on a weekly basis. A total of 11,981 pollen grains/m3 belonging to 42 taxa were determined. In 2005 the total was 5368 pollen grains/m3 and in 2006 it was 6613 pollen grains/m3. Among the taxa recorded, 26 belonged to arboreal and 16 to nonarboreal taxa. At the end of the 2 years total pollen counts comprised 79.68% arboreal, 19.48% nonarboreal, and 0.84% unidentified taxa. ...

  5. Using globally available soil moisture indicators for flood modelling in Mediterranean catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Massari, C.; L. Brocca; S. Barbetta; Papathanasiou, C.; M. Mimikou; T. Moramarco

    2013-01-01

    Floods are one of the most dangerous natural hazards in Mediterranean regions. Flood forecasting tools and early warning systems can be very beneficial to reduce flood risk. Event-based rainfall runoff models are frequently employed for operational flood forecasting purposes because of their simplicity and the reduced number of parameters involved with respect to continuous models. However, the advantages that are related with the reduced parameterization face against the need for a correct i...

  6. Using globally available soil moisture indicators for flood modelling in Mediterranean catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Massari, C.; L. Brocca; S. Barbetta; Papathanasiou, C.; M. Mimikou; T. Moramarco

    2014-01-01

    Floods are one of the most dangerous natural hazards in Mediterranean regions. Flood forecasting tools and early warning systems can be very beneficial to reducing flood risk. Event-based rainfall–runoff models are frequently employed for operational flood forecasting purposes because of their simplicity and the reduced number of parameters involved with respect to continuous models. However, the advantages related to the reduced parameterization oppose to the need of a corr...

  7. Using globally available soil moisture indicators for flood modelling in Mediterranean catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Massari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Floods are one of the most dangerous natural hazards in Mediterranean regions. Flood forecasting tools and early warning systems can be very beneficial to reduce flood risk. Event-based rainfall runoff models are frequently employed for operational flood forecasting purposes because of their simplicity and the reduced number of parameters involved with respect to continuous models. However, the advantages that are related with the reduced parameterization face against the need for a correct initialization of the model, especially in areas affected by strong climate seasonality. On the other hand, the use of continuous models may be very problematic in poorly gauged areas. This paper introduces a simplified continuous rainfall-runoff model, which uses globally available soil moisture retrievals to identify the initial wetness condition of the catchment, and, only event rainfall data to simulate discharge hydrographs. The model calibration involves only 3 parameters. For soil moisture, beside in situ and modelled data, satellite products from the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth observation (AMSR-E sensors are employed. Additionally, the ERA-LAND reanalysis soil moisture product of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF is used. The model was tested in the small catchment of Rafina, 109 km2 located in the Eastern Attica region, Greece. Specifically, fifteen rainfall-runoff events were modelled by considering different configurations for the initial soil moisture conditions. Comparing the performance of the different soil moisture products, it was found that all global indicators allow reproducing fairly well the selected flood events providing much better results than the situation where a constant initial condition is provided. ERA-LAND slightly outperforms the satellite soil moisture products and in general, all the indicators give the same performance obtained by ground and continuously simulated soil moisture data. Due to the wide diffusion of globally available soil moisture retrievals and the small amount of parameters used, the proposed modelling approach is very suitable for runoff prediction in poorly gauged areas.

  8. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. 56... Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5001 Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. Except...

  9. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. 57... Underground § 57.5001 Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. Except as permitted by § 57.5005— (a)...

  10. Adaptive Restoration of Airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM Thermal Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images

  11. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  12. Decontamination of airborne bacteria in meat processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air has been established as a source of bacterial contamination in meat processing facilities. Airborne bacteria may affect product shelf life, and have food safety implications. The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in...

  13. Monitoring of airborne radioactivity (radon, thoron and daughters; radioactive dust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes resulting in airborne radioactivity from uranium and thorium ores are discussed. Measurement methods for radioactive dust, radon and thoron gas and radon and thoron daughters are described and assessed. The monitoring equipment required for measurement of airborne radioactivity is described

  14. Decontamination of airborne bacteria in meat processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in a meat processing environment was determined. Bacterial strains found in ground beef were used to artificially contaminate the air using a 6-jet Collison nebulizer. Airborne bact...

  15. Moving Target Indication for Multi-channel Airborne Radar Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.

    2010-01-01

    Moving target indication (MTI) using radar is of great interest in civil and military applications. Its uses include airborne or space-borne surveillance of ground moving vehicles (cars, trains) or ships at sea, for instance. Airborne (space-borne) radar offers several advantages when compared to op

  16. SOFIA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors: An External Evaluation of Cycle 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a partnership between NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The observatory itself is a Boeing 747 SP that has been modified to serve as the world's largest airborne research observatory. The SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a component of SOFIA's…

  17. UAVSAR: An Airborne Window on Earth Surface Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates that UAVSAR's precision autopilot and electronic steering have allowed for the reliable collection of airborne repeat pass radar interferometric data for deformation mapping. Deformation maps from temporal scales ranging from hours to months over a variety of signals of geophysical interest illustrate the utility of UAVSAR airborne repeat pass interferometry to these studies.

  18. Method and apparatus for detecting micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the presence and quantity of micro-organisms, such as bacteria, fungi and yeast, in a given sample. The apparatus includes two sealed containers, a portion of which may be penetrated by a sharp instrument, as for example, glass vials with flexible septum tops. One container includes a radioactive nutrient medium which is capable of supporting the life process of the micro-organism whose presence is being tested. The second container includes a liquid scintillation solution which absorbs the product of metabolism of the organisms. The sample is introduced into the first sealed container, for example, by means of a standard syringe. Any micro-organisms present will consume the radioactive nutrient and as a result produce radioactive waste. Means are then applied to penetrate the containers and allow the flow of the radioactive metabolic product from the first container to the second container while preventing any contamination from the ambient. The liquid scintillation solution will emit light in proportion to the amount of the product of metabolism collected from the first container. This light may be detected by standard liquid scintillation counters, thus providing a qualitative and quantitative measure of the micro-organism in the tested sample

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Gel-entrapped catechins toward oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Muneaki; Saito, Hideo; Kikuchi, Kuniyoshi; Ishigami, Tomohiko; Toyama, Yoshio; Takami, Masao; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2011-01-01

    The oral cavity contains almost half of the commensal bacterial population present in the human body. An increase in the number of these microorganisms may result in systemic diseases such as infective endocarditis and aspiration pneumonia as well as oral infections. It is essential to control the total numbers of these microorganisms in order to suppress disease onset. Thus, we examined the antimicrobial activity of a newly developed gel-entrapped catechin (GEC) preparation against oral microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GEC was determined based on the relationship between a modified agar diffusion method and a broth microdilution method. GEC inhibited the growth of the Actinomyces, periodontopathic bacteria and Candida strains tested, but did not inhibit the growth of the oral streptococci that are important in the normal oral flora. Commercially available moisture gels containing antimicrobial components showed antimicrobial activity against all of the tested strains. After a series of washes and after a 24-h incubation, GEC retained the antimicrobial activity of the catechins. Catalase prevented GEC-induced growth inhibition of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans suggesting that hydrogen peroxide may be involved in the antimicrobial activity of catechins. These results suggest that GEC may be useful for controlling oral microorganism populations and reducing the accumulation of dental plaque, thereby helping to prevent periodontal disease and oral candidiasis. PMID:21532150

  20. Biodiversity of the oleaginous microorganisms in Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Lin Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial lipids, which are also known as single cell oils (SCO, are produced by oleaginous microorganisms including oleaginous bacteria, yeast, fungus and algae through converting carbohydrates into lipids under certain conditions. Due to its unique environment having extremely low temperature and anoxia, the Tibetan Plateau is amongst the regions with numerous rare ecotypes such as arid desert, salt marsh, alpine permafrost, hot spring, and lawn. By using a rapid, convenient screening method, we identified 31 strains of oleaginous microorganisms from different habitats in the Tibetan Plateau, which include wetlands, lawn, hot spring, alpine permafrost, and saline-alkali soil. Molecular identity analysis showed that they belong to 15 different species, 7 of which are reported for the first time as lipid-producing microorganisms, that is, Cladosporium sp., Gibberella fujikuro, Ochrobactrum sp., Plectosphaerella sp., Tilletiopsis albescens, Backusella ctenidia, and Davidiella tassiana. The distribution of the oleaginous microorganisms varies with habitats. 11 strains were found in hot spring (35.5%, 10 in farmland (32.3%, 6 in lawn (19.4%, 2 in sand (6.4%, 1 in wetland (3.2%, and 1 in permafrost (3.2%. Carbon utilization analysis indicated that most of these filamentous fungi can use xylose and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC as carbon source, where Backusella ctenidia, Fusarium sp. and Gibberella fujikuroi have the strongest capability.

  1. Screening of microorganisms for microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Japan Food Research Laboratiories, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Microbiology; Ono, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to screen effective microorganisms for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process (or simply as MEOR). Samples of drilling cuttings, formation water, and soil were collected from domestic drilling sites and oil fields. Moreover, samples of activated-sludge and compost were collected from domestic sewage treatment facility and food treatment facility. At first, microorganisms in samples were investigated by incubation with different media; then they were isolated. By two stage-screening based on metabolizing ability, 4 strains (Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322, Bacillus subtilis TRC-4118, and Bacillus subtilis TRC-4126) were isolated as effective microorganisms for oil recovery. B. licheniformis TRC-18-2-a is a multifunctional microorganism possessing excellent surfactant productivity, and in addition it has gas, acid and polymer productivities. E. cloacae TRC-332 has gas and acid producing abilities. B. subtilis TRC-4118 and TRC-4126 are effective biosurfactant producers, and they reduce the interfacial tension to 0.04 and 0.12 dyne/cm, respectively. (author)

  2. Sugarcane residue decomposition by white and brown rot microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvesting sugarcane with chopper harvesters results in up to 10 tons of field crop residue per acre. Residue management by soil microorganism decomposition offers numerous ecological and economical benefits to growers; however, this natural process is dependent on the biotic density, diversity and...

  3. Children's Anthropomorphic and Anthropocentric Ideas about Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jenny; Grace, Marcus; Hanley, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Different views exist about whether anthropomorphic ideas assist or hinder learning in biology. This paper discusses the anthropomorphic and anthropocentric ideas children have about micro-organisms, and whether they affect their understanding. The research was carried out in primary and secondary schools in the South of England and involved 414…

  4. Evidence that microorganisms cause inactivation of viruses in activated sludge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L

    1982-01-01

    Virus loss in activated sludge appeared to be caused by microorganisms. This conclusion is supported by the finding that poliovirus infectivity decreased during incubation in mixed-liquor suspended solids, primarily because of a sedimentable, heat-sensitive component. Furthermore, broth spiked with mixed-liquor suspended solids acquired antiviral activity during incubation.

  5. Isolation of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in Mediterranean waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Elgheit, M.A.; Yusef, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two species or strains of Penicillium were isolated by the enrichment technique from areas exposed to oil seepage. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that, after eight days of treatment, these microorganisms were capable of degrading paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in media made with Mediterranean waters. They could not, however, degrade crude oil.

  6. Fossil Microorganisms and Formation of Early Precambrian Weathering Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, A. Yu; Astafieva, M. M.; Vrevsky, A. B.; Alfimova, N. A.; Matrenichev, V. A.; Hoover, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Weathering crusts are the only reliable evidences of the existence of continental conditions. Often they are the only source of information about exogenous processes and subsequently about conditions under which the development of the biosphere occurred. A complex of diverse fossil microorganisms was discovered as a result of Scanning Electron Microscope investigations. The chemical composition of the discovered fossils is identical to that of the host rocks and is represented by Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg. Probably, the microorganisms fixed in rocks played the role of catalyst. The decomposition of minerals comprising the rocks and their transformation into clayey (argillaceous) minerals, most likely occurred under the influence of microorganisms. And may be unique weathering crusts of Early Precambrian were formed due to interaction between specific composition of microorganism assemblage and conditions of hypergene transformations. So it is possible to speak about colonization of land by microbes already at that time and about existence of single raw from weathering crusts (Primitive soils) to real soils.

  7. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean deposits of Northern Karelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafieva, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Rozanov, A. Y.; Vrevskiy, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Newly found biomorphic microstructures from the Upper Archaean (lopian) rocks from Northern Karelia are described. The presence of various microorganisms of bacterial nature and even cyanobacteria (and possibly eukaryotic forms) is suggested. The necessity of employing methods of electron microscopy, as well as traditional methods, while studying the very early manifestations of life in Archaean and Early Proterozoic is noted.

  8. Method and apparatus for detecting micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the presence and quantity of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and yeast, in a given sample. The apparatus includes two sealed containers, a portion of which may be penetrated by a sharp instrument, as for example, glass vials with flexible septum tops. One container includes a radioactive nutrient medium which is capable of supporting the life process of the microorganism whose presence is being tested. The second container includes a liquid scintillation solution which absorbs the product of metabolism of the organisms. The sample is introduced into the first sealed container, for example, by means of a standard syringe. Any microorganisms present will consume the radioactive nutrient and as a result produce radioactive waste. Means are then applied to penetrate the containers and allow the flow of the radioactive metabolic product from the first container to the second container while preventing any contamination from the ambient. The liquid scintillation solution will emit light in proportion to the amount of the product of metabolism collected from the first container. This light may be detected by standard liquid scintillation counters, thus providing a qualitative and quantitative measure of the microorganism in the tested sample

  9. Electron microscopy and ultrastructure of a magnetotactic microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy of magnetotactic microorganisms with diameter in the order of 6 μm show a complex internal structure indicating that they are a colony or aggregate of similar cells, with a large number of high density regions responsable for the observed magnetotaxis. (Author)

  10. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Holmes, B.; Nichols, S.A.; Blanch, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were ide

  11. Organic compatible solutes of halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Mary F.

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms that adapt to moderate and high salt environments use a variety of solutes, organic and inorganic, to counter external osmotic pressure. The organic solutes can be zwitterionic, noncharged, or anionic (along with an inorganic cation such as K+). The range of solutes, their diverse biosynthetic pathways, and physical properties of the solutes that effect molecular stability are reviewed.

  12. Alkalizing reactions streamline cellular metabolism in acidogenic microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Arioli

    Full Text Available An understanding of the integrated relationships among the principal cellular functions that govern the bioenergetic reactions of an organism is necessary to determine how cells remain viable and optimise their fitness in the environment. Urease is a complex enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbonic acid. While the induction of urease activity by several microorganisms has been predominantly considered a stress-response that is initiated to generate a nitrogen source in response to a low environmental pH, here we demonstrate a new role of urease in the optimisation of cellular bioenergetics. We show that urea hydrolysis increases the catabolic efficiency of Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium that is widely used in the industrial manufacture of dairy products. By modulating the intracellular pH and thereby increasing the activity of β-galactosidase, glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase, urease increases the overall change in enthalpy generated by the bioenergetic reactions. A cooperative altruistic behaviour of urease-positive microorganisms on the urease-negative microorganisms within the same environment was also observed. The physiological role of a single enzymatic activity demonstrates a novel and unexpected view of the non-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that govern the bioenergetics of a bacterial cell, highlighting a new role for cytosol-alkalizing biochemical pathways in acidogenic microorganisms.

  13. Alkalizing Reactions Streamline Cellular Metabolism in Acidogenic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Stefania; Ragg, Enzio; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Fessas, Dimitrios; Signorelli, Marco; Karp, Matti; Daffonchio, Daniele; De Noni, Ivano; Mulas, Laura; Oggioni, Marco; Guglielmetti, Simone; Mora, Diego

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the integrated relationships among the principal cellular functions that govern the bioenergetic reactions of an organism is necessary to determine how cells remain viable and optimise their fitness in the environment. Urease is a complex enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbonic acid. While the induction of urease activity by several microorganisms has been predominantly considered a stress-response that is initiated to generate a nitrogen source in response to a low environmental pH, here we demonstrate a new role of urease in the optimisation of cellular bioenergetics. We show that urea hydrolysis increases the catabolic efficiency of Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium that is widely used in the industrial manufacture of dairy products. By modulating the intracellular pH and thereby increasing the activity of β-galactosidase, glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase, urease increases the overall change in enthalpy generated by the bioenergetic reactions. A cooperative altruistic behaviour of urease-positive microorganisms on the urease-negative microorganisms within the same environment was also observed. The physiological role of a single enzymatic activity demonstrates a novel and unexpected view of the non-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that govern the bioenergetics of a bacterial cell, highlighting a new role for cytosol-alkalizing biochemical pathways in acidogenic microorganisms. PMID:21152088

  14. Fungal Metabolites for Microorganism Classification by Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Vladimír; Lemr, Karel

    Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 2011 - (Fenselau, C.; Demirev, P.), s. 51-60 ISBN 978-0-8412-2612-8 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Microorganism * mass spectrometry * biomarker Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Azizur, E-mail: Mohammad.Rahman@uts.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Hassler, Christel [Marine and Lake Biogeochemistry, Institute F. A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 rte de Suisse, Versoix, 1290 Switzerland (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As{sup V}, which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As{sup III}, which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As{sup V}, biotransform it to As{sup III}, then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As{sup III} is more toxic than As{sup V}, As{sup III} is much more easily excreted from the cells than As{sup V}. Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As{sup V} to As{sup III} as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA{sup V}, dimethylarsonate; DMA{sup V}, and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO{sup V}) and trimethylarsine (TMAO{sup III}). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsenite (DMA{sup III}), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data.

  16. The metabolism and biotechnological application of betaine in microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huibin; Chen, Ningning; Shi, Mengxun; Xian, Mo; Song, Yimin; Liu, Junhong

    2016-05-01

    Glycine betaine (betaine) is widely distributed in nature and can be found in many microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, and fungi. Due to its particular functions, many microorganisms utilize betaine as a functional chemical and have evolved different metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis and catabolism of betaine. As in animals and plants, the principle role of betaine is to protect microbial cells against drought, osmotic stress, and temperature stress. In addition, the role of betaine in methyl group metabolism has been observed in a variety of microorganisms. Recent studies have shown that betaine supplementation can improve the performance of microbial strains used for the fermentation of lactate, ethanol, lysine, pyruvate, and vitamin B12, during which betaine can act as stress protectant or methyl donor for the biosynthesis of structurally complex compounds. In this review, we summarize the transport, synthesis, catabolism, and functions of betaine in microorganisms and discuss potential engineering strategies that employ betaine as a methyl donor for the biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolites such as a variety of vitamins, coenzymes, and antibiotics. In conclusion, the biocompatibility, C/N ratio, abundance, and comprehensive metabolic information of betaine collectively indicate that this molecule has great potential for broad applications in microbial biotechnology. PMID:27005411

  17. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  18. Effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Aoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet holds approximately 10% of the fresh water on earth. If it melts all, sea level rises about 7.2meter. It is reported that mass of Greenland ice sheet is decreasing with temperature rising of climate change. Melting of the coastal area is particularly noticeable. It is established that 4 to 23% of the sea level rising from 1993 to 2005 is caused by the melting of Greenland ice sheet. In 2010, amount of melting per year became the largest than the past. However many climate models aren't able to simulate the recent melting of snow and ice in the Arctic including Greenland. One of the possible causes is albedo reduction of snow and ice surface by light absorbing snow impurities such as black carbon and dust and by glacial microorganisms. But there are few researches for effect of glacial microorganism in wide area. So it is important to clarify the impact of glacial microorganisms in wide area. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using satellite images of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared wavelength range and observation carried out in northwestern Greenland. We use MODIS Land Surface Temperature Product as ice sheet surface temperature. It estimates land surface temperature based on split window method using thermal infrared bands. MODIS data is bound to cover the whole of Greenland, and calculated the ratio of the temperature change per year. Analysis period is from December 2002 to November 2010. Results of calculating Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using the MODIS data, our analysis shows that it is upward trend in the whole region. We find a striking upward trend in northern and western part of Greenland. The rate is 0.33±0.03 degree Celsius per a year from 47.5°W to 49°W. While in the coastal area from 49°W to 50.7°W, the rate is 0.26±0.06 degree Celsius per a year. This large upward trend area is the same area as dark region

  19. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Ito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been

  20. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  1. Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.

  2. Airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiming; Wang, Jianyu; Shu, Rong; He, Zhiping; Ma, Yanhua

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system that consists of an imaging spectrometer, a three-line scanner, a laser ranger, a position & orientation subsystem and a stabilizer PAV30. The imaging spectrometer is composed of two sets of identical push-broom high spectral imager with a field of view of 22°, which provides a field of view of 42°. The spectral range of the imaging spectrometer is from 420nm to 900nm, and its spectral resolution is 5nm. The three-line scanner is composed of two pieces of panchromatic CCD and a RGB CCD with 20° stereo angle and 10cm GSD(Ground Sample Distance) with 1000m flying height. The laser ranger can provide height data of three points every other four scanning lines of the spectral imager and those three points are calibrated to match the corresponding pixels of the spectral imager. The post-processing attitude accuracy of POS/AV 510 used as the position & orientation subsystem, which is the aerial special exterior parameters measuring product of Canadian Applanix Corporation, is 0.005° combined with base station data. The airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system was implemented successfully, performed the first flying experiment on April, 2005, and obtained satisfying data.

  3. Determination of leachable uranium in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium content of airborne particulates collected on cellulose filters was investigated. As a case study, filter samples from the large area of Thessaloniki, Greece, were used. For the uranium determination instrumental neutron activation analysis was used. To obtain equal counting conditions for all samples after irradiation, independent from the initial matrix, uranium was leached from the filter by using a 0.1M NH4HCO3 solution, forming a stable uranyl complex [UO2(CO3)3]. This complex was absorbed in a batch process on a small amount of chelating ion exchanger Srafion NMRR, which was directly irradiated in the reactor of the NCSR Demokritos. Over the investigated time period in 1997 the mean concentration was found to be 0.047 ng U/m3. In relation to the collected amount of airborne particulates having a mean concentration of 0.52 μg/gU. It can be assumed as a natural uranium level in the environment. (author)

  4. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  5. Laser Systems For Use With Airborne Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsky, Joseph

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes a family of airborne laser systems in use for terrain profiling, surveying, mapping, altimetry, collision avoidance and shipboard landing systems using fixed and rotary wing aircraft as the platforms. The laser altimeter has also been used in systems compatible with the Army T-16 and. T-22 carrier missiles (platform). Both pulsed gallium arsenide and Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped, yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser rangefinders have been used for these applications. All of these systems use ACCI's advanced measurement techniques that permit range accuracies of 8 cm, single shot, 1 cm averaged, to be achieved. Pulse rates up to 4 Khz are employed for airborne profiling. This high data density rate provides 1 data point every 2" along the aircraft flight line at aircraft speed of 500 knots. Scanning modes for some applications are employed. Systems have been integrated with all current inertial navigation systems (Litton, Ferranti and Honeywell), as well as a number of microwave positioning systems. Removal of aircraft motion from the laser range measurements by use of an accelerometer is described. Flight data from a number of program performed by U.S. and Canadian Federal Agencies, in addition to those of commercial surveying and mapping companies are described.

  6. Architecture and Algorithms for an Airborne Network

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Arunabha; Silva, Tiffany; Das, Nibedita; Kundu, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force currently is in the process of developing an Airborne Network (AN) to provide support to its combat aircrafts on a mission. The reliability needed for continuous operation of an AN is difficult to achieve through completely infrastructure-less mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper we first propose an architecture for an AN where airborne networking platforms (ANPs - aircrafts, UAVs and satellites) form the backbone of the AN. In this architecture, the ANPs can be viewed as mobile base stations and the combat aircrafts on a mission as mobile clients. The combat aircrafts on a mission move through a space called air corridor. The goal of the AN design is to form a backbone network with the ANPs with two properties: (i) the backbone network remains connected at all times, even though the topology of the network changes with the movement of the ANPs, and (ii) the entire 3D space of the air corridor is under radio coverage at all times by the continuously moving ANPs. In addition to proposing an...

  7. Auxiliary DCP data acquisition system. [airborne system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, R. V.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne DCP Data Aquisition System has been designed to augment the ERTS satellite data recovery system. The DCP's are data collection platforms located at pertinent sites. With the appropriate sensors they are able to collect, digitally encode and transmit environmental parameters to the ERTS satellite. The satellite in turn relays these transmissions to a ground station for processing. The satellite is available for such relay duty a minimum of two times in a 24-hour period. The equipment is to obtain continuous DCP data during periods of unusual environmental activity--storms, floods, etc. Two circumstances contributed to the decision to design such a system; (1) Wallops Station utilizes surveillance aircraft in support of rocket launches and also in support of earth resources activities; (2) the area in which Wallops is located, the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay areas, are fertile areas for DCP usage. Therefore, by developing an airborne DCP receiving station and installing it on aircraft more continuous DCP data can be provided from sites in the surrounding areas at relatively low cost.

  8. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  9. Plants and microorganisms as drivers of mineral weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsova, K.; Chorover, J.; Maier, R.; Hunt, E.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Plants and microorganisms play important role in mineral weathering and soil formation modifying their environment to make it more hospitable for life. This presentation summarizes several collaborative studies that focused on understanding how interactions between plants and microorganisms, where plants provide the energy through photosynthesis, drive mineral weathering and result in soil formation. Plants influence weathering through multiple mechanisms that have been previously established, such as increase in CO2 concentration in the soil through root respiration and degradation of plant residues and exudates by heterotrophic microorganisms, release of organic acids that promote mineral dissolution, removal of weathering products from soil solution through uptake, and water redistribution. Weathering processes result in nutrient release that satisfies immediate needs of the plants and microorganisms, as well as precipitation of secondary phases, that provide surfaces for retention of nutrients and organic carbon accumulation. What makes understanding contribution of plants and microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, to mineral weathering challenging is the fact that they closely interact, enhancing and amplifying each other's contribution. In order to address multiple processes that contribute to and result from biological weathering a combination of chemical, biological, mineralogical, and computational techniques and methodologies is needed. This complex array of methodologies includes bulk techniques, such as determination of total dissolved organic and inorganic carbon and nitrogen, ion chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography to characterize amount and composition of exuded organic acids, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine concentrations of lithogenic elements in solution, X-ray diffraction to characterize changes in mineral composition of the material, DNA extraction to characterize community structure, as well

  10. Models of Micro-Organisms: Children's Knowledge and Understanding of Micro-Organisms from 7 to 14 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the expressed models that children aged 7, 11, and 14 years have about micro-organisms and microbial activity. These were elicited using a variety of data collection techniques that complemented each other, resulting in a rich dataset, and provided information about the level of knowledge and progression of ideas across the…

  11. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-08-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers-Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  12. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers–Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  13. Assessment of composition and origin of airborne bacteria in the free troposphere over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Yamada, Maromu; Matsuki, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2013-08-01

    Long-range transport of airborne microorganisms through the free troposphere significantly impacts biological ecosystems, human life, and atmospheric processes in downwind areas. However, microbial communities in the free troposphere have rarely been investigated because the direct collection of microbial cells at high altitudes requires sophisticated sampling techniques. In this study, tropospheric air sampling was performed using a balloon and an aircraft at 800 m and 3000 m, respectively, over the Noto Peninsula in Japan (37.5°N, 137.4°E) where free tropospheric winds carry aerosols from continental areas. The air samples were collected during four different sampling periods when air masses came from desert regions of Asian continent (west samples) and from Siberia of Russia North Asia (north samples). The west samples contained higher levels of aerosols, and bacteria from the west samples grew in culture media containing up to 15% NaCl. In contrast, bacteria from the north samples could not be cultured in the same media. All isolates obtained from the NaCl-amended cultures were similar to Bacillus subtilis and classified as Firmicutes. A 16S rDNA clone library prepared from the west samples was mainly composed of one phylotype of Firmicutes that corresponded to the cultured B. subtilis sequence. A clone library prepared from the north samples consisted primarily of two phyla, i.e., Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which are known to dominantly inhabit low-temperature environments of North Asia. Our results suggest that airborne bacterial communities at high altitudes include several species that vary by the direction and interaction of free tropospheric winds.

  14. Microbial and 'de novo' transformation of dicarboxylic acids by three airborne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-organisms and organic compounds of biogenic or anthropogenic origins are important constituents of atmospheric aerosols, which are involved in atmospheric processes and climate change. In order to investigate the role of fungi and their metabolisation activity, we collected airborne fungi using a biosampler in an urban location of Montreal, Quebec, Canada (45o 28' N, 73o 45' E). After isolation on Sabouraud dextrose agar, we exposed isolated colonies to dicarboxylic acids (C2-C7), a major group of organic aerosols and monitored their growth. Depending on the acid, total fungi numbers varied from 35 (oxalic acid) to 180 CFU/mL (glutaric acid). Transformation kinetics of malonic acid, presumably the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.00 mM for isolated airborne fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Thysanophora with the fastest transformation rate are presented. The initial concentration was halved within 4.5 and 11.4 days. Other collected fungi did not show a significant degradation and the malonic acid concentration remained unchanged (0.25 and 1.00 mM) within 20 days. Degradation of acid with formation of metabolites was followed using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as monitoring of 13C labelled malonic acid degradation with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Using GC/MS we identified two processes driving chemical modifications of organic aerosol solutions: (I) formation of metabolites within several days, and (II) rapid release (≤ 2 min) of organic molecules from fungal species upon the insertion of taxa in organic aerosol solutions. Metabolites included aromatic compounds and alcohols (e.g. trimethylbenzene and butanol). Potential atmospheric implications of our results are discussed

  15. Airborne laser: a tool to study landscape surface features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landscape surface features related to erosion and hydrology were measured using an airborne laser profiler. The airborne laser profiler made 4,000 measurements per second with a recording accuracy of 5 cm (1.9 inches) on a single measurement. Digital data from the laser are recorded and analyzed with a personal computer. These airborne laser profiles provide information on surface landscape features. Topography and canopy heights, cover, and distribution of natural vegetation were determined in studies in South Texas. Laser measurements of shrub cover along flightlines were highly correlated (R2 = 0.98) with ground measurements made with line-intercept methods. Stream channel cross sections on Goodwin Creek in Mississippi were measured quickly and accurately with airborne laser data. Airborne laser profile data were used to measure small gullies in a level fallow field and in field with mature soybeans. While conventional ground-based techniques can be used to make these measurements, airborne laser profiler techniques allow data to be collected quickly, at a high density, and in areas that are essentially inaccessible for ground surveys. Airborne laser profiler data can quantify landscape features related to erosion and runoff, and the laser proler has the potential to be a useful tool for providing other data for studying and managing natural resources

  16. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  17. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elall, Amr M M; Mohamed, Mohamed E M; Awadallah, Maysa A I

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers) were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds) located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes). The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds): Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%), S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%), S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%), Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%), Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%), K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%), Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%), P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%), P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%), Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%), respectively). Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%), A. niger (20% vs 36.7%), A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%), Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%), P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%), P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%), Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%), Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%), Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%), Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%), Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%), Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%), Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%), Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%), Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4%) and yeast (13.3% vs 20%), respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and

  18. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  19. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  20. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

  1. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, GuoQiang; Li, Chen; Tan, ChengJun; Ge, LiangQuan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energy calibration. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, effectively measuring energy from 20keV to 10MeV is possible.

  2. NASA Airborne Science Program: NASA Stratospheric Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducts a wide variety of remote sensing projects using several unique aircraft platforms. These vehicles have been selected and modified to provide capabilities that are particularly important for geophysical research, in particular, routine access to very high altitudes, long range, long endurance, precise trajectory control, and the payload capacity to operate multiple, diverse instruments concurrently. While the NASA program has been in operation for over 30 years, new aircraft and technological advances that will expand the capabilities for airborne observation are continually being assessed and implemented. This presentation will review the current state of NASA's science platforms, recent improvements and new missions concepts as well as provide a survey of emerging technologies unmanned aerial vehicles for long duration observations (Global Hawk and Predator). Applications of information technology that allow more efficient use of flight time and the ability to rapidly reconfigure systems for different mission objectives are addressed.

  3. The National Airborne Field Experiment Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, J. P.; Balling, Jan E.; Bell, M.;

    2007-01-01

    experiments in well instrumented basins together with intensive ground and airborne measurements of the appropriate type and spatial/temporal resolution. While the data collected have a specific focus on soil moisture, they are applicable to a wide range of hydrologic activities. The NAFE'05 experiment was...... undertaken in the Goulburn River catchment (New South Wales, Australia) during November 2005, with the objective of providing high resolution data for process level understanding of soil moisture retrieval, scaling and data assimilation. The NAFE'06 experiment was undertaken in the Murrumbidgee catchment...... (NSW, Australia) during November 2006, with the objective of providing data for SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity; a dedicated soil moisture satellite to be launched in 2008) like soil moisture retrieval, downscaling and data assimilation. To meet these objectives, the Polarimetric L...

  4. Wavelet Based Fractal Analysis of Airborne Pollen

    CERN Document Server

    Degaudenzi, M E

    1999-01-01

    The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self protection of pollen allergy is possible through the information of future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pol len concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of the daily pollen forecasts have resulted in failures. Previous analysis of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen time series indicate that the system can be described by a low dimensional chaotic map. We apply the wavelet transform to study the multifractal characteristics of an a irborne pollen time series. We find the persistence behaviour associated to low pollen concentration values and to the most rare events of highest pollen co ncentration values. The information and the correlation dimensions correspond to a chaotic system showing loss of information with time evolution.

  5. Identifying Airborne Pathogens in Time to Respond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-25

    Among the possible terrorist activities that might threaten national security is the release of an airborne pathogen such as anthrax. Because the potential damage to human health could be severe, experts consider 1 minute to be an operationally useful time limit for identifying the pathogen and taking action. Many commercial systems can identify airborne pathogenic microbes, but they take days or, at best, hours to produce results. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other U.S. government agencies are interested in finding a faster approach. To answer this national need, a Livermore team, led by scientist Eric Gard, has developed the bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) system--the only instrument that can detect and identify spores at low concentrations in less than 1 minute. BAMS can successfully distinguish between two related but different spore species. It can also sort out a single spore from thousands of other particles--biological and nonbiological--with no false positives. The BAMS team won a 2005 R&D 100 Award for developing the system. Livermore's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program funded the biomedical aspects of the BAMS project, and the Department of Defense's Technical Support Working Group and Defense Advanced Research Project Agency funded the biodefense efforts. Developing a detection system that can analyze small samples so quickly has been challenging. Livermore engineer Vincent Riot, who worked on the BAMS project, explains, ''A typical spore weighs approximately one-trillionth of a gram and is dispersed in the atmosphere, which contains naturally occurring particles that could be present at concentrations thousands of times higher. Previous systems also had difficulty separating benign organisms from those that are pathogenic but very similar, which has resulted in false alarms''.

  6. Air sampling system for airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air sampling system has been designed for installation on the Beechcraft King Air A-100 aircraft as a part of the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). It is intended for both particle and whole gas sampling. The sampling probe is designed for isokinetic sampling and is mounted on a removable modified escape hatch cover, behind the co-pilot's seat, and extends about two feet forward of the hatch cover in the air stream lines. Directly behind the sampling probe inside the modified hatch cover is an expansion chamber, space for a 5-inch diameter filter paper cassette, and an optional four-stage cascade impactor for particle size distribution measurements. A pair of motors and blower pumps provide the necessary 0.5 atmosphere pressure across the type MSA 1106 B glass fiber filter paper to allow a flow rate of 50 cfm. The MSA 1106 B filter paper is designed to trap sub-micrometer particles with a high efficiency; it was chosen to enable a quantitative measurement of airborne radon daughters, one of the principal sources of background signals when radiological surveys are being performed. A venturi section and pressure gauges allow air flow rate measurements so that airborne contaminant concentrations may be quantified. A whole gas sampler capable of sampling a cubic meter of air is mounted inside the aircraft cabin. A nuclear counting system on board the aircraft provides capability for α, β and γ counting of filter paper samples. Design data are presented and types of survey missions which may be served by this system are described

  7. NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Instrument Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David B.; Cook, Anthony; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John W.; Mack, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) recently developed the LaRC Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make measurements of aerosol and cloud distribution and optical properties. The Airborne HSRL has undergone as series of test flights and was successfully deployed on the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field mission in March 2006 (see Hair et al. in these proceedings). This paper provides an overview of the design of the Airborne HSRL and descriptions of some key subsystems unique to this instrument.

  8. Airborne system for mapping and tracking extended gamma ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne system was developed for mapping and tracking extended sources of airborne or terrestrially distributed γ-ray emitters. The system records 300 channel γ-ray spectral data every three seconds on magnetic tape. Computer programs have been written to isolate the contribution from the particular radionuclide of interest. Aircraft position as sensed by a microwave ranging system is recorded every second on magnetic tape. Measurements of airborne stack releases of 41A concentrations versus time or aircraft position agree well with computer code predictions

  9. The survival and growth of microorganisms in mascara during use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L A; Julian, A J; Ahearn, D G

    1975-04-01

    Over 150 mascaras representing eight popular brands were examined for their susceptibility to microbial contamination during their use by study group members. Additional mascaras from patients with symptoms and clinical findings of long-term blepharitis also were investigated. Early in the study, two brands without preservatives supported reproducing populations of microorganisms, including potential eye pathogens. These products, as currently manufactured, were recalcitrant to microbial attack. Microbes associated with the facial skin and fingers of the study group users were typically isolated from mascaras after use. Initial microorganisms isolated from mascaras were usually transients. Establishment of reproducing populations within the cosmetics appeared related to the number of uses, personal habits of the user, and the formulation of the product. Four patients with staphylococcal blepharitis and cosmetics heavily laden with Staphylococcus epidermidis showed marked clinical improvement when they stopped using the contaminated cosmetics. The application of used eye area makeup prior to and following ocular surgery should be avoided. PMID:1119519

  10. Release of marine sedimentary microorganisms by enzymes-antibiotic association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisou, J.F. (Hopital d' Instruction des Armees, Ecole d' Application des Medecins de la Marine, Sainte-Anne, 83 - Toulon (France)); Makhlouf, B. (Institut Pasteur, Alger (Algeria))

    1982-12-06

    Polysaccharases release microorganisms from their natural seat, marine sediments for example. The enzymatic activity works both on the microbial adherence polysaccharides and on the support surfaces (cellulose, pectine, etc.). Dosages of glucose confirm polysaccharase activity. An association of bacitracine, thiophenicol and a few enzymes: cellulase, pectinase, amyloglucosidase, alpha amylase, hyaluronidase, release a considerable number of bacteria. The culture on specific mediums confirm the specificity of this release. E. coli polyresistant strain where isolated by amylo-glucosidase, glucuronidase association in a mixture of thiophenicol and bacitracine. Bacillus and other Gram positif bacteria are frequently isolated by this method. The number of colonizer microorganisms on solid media are considerably higher with sediments treated by enzymes, or by enzyme, antibiotic mixtures, than with untreated ones.

  11. Identification and characterization of microorganisms: DNA-fingerprinting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fakruddin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification and classification of the microorganisms are of utmost importance in the field of environmental, industrial,medical and agricultural microbiology, and microbial ecology. Traditional phenotype-based methods encounter manychallenges and shortcomings which limit their usability. Molecular methods offer better solutions in identifying and characterizing microorganisms. Several DNA fingerprinting methods have been developed and are in use already. In principle, mostof these methods are based on PCR and restriction site analysis. Some of these methods are still not economic in use andrequire huge set-up cost. Continuous research is going on around the world to improve the methodology and applicability ofthese methods as well as to make them economic in use.

  12. Direct measurement of the flow field around swimming microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Marco; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Michel, Nicolas; Tuval, Idan

    2010-11-01

    Swimming microorganisms create flows that influence their mutual interactions and modify the rheology of their suspensions. While extensively studied theoretically, these flows have not been measured in detail around any freely-swimming microorganism. We report such measurements for the microphytes Volvox carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The minute (˜0.3%) density excess of V. carteri over water leads to a strongly dominant Stokeslet contribution, with the widely-assumed stresslet flow only a correction to the subleading source dipole term. This implies that suspensions of V. carteri have features similar to suspensions of sedimenting particles. The flow in the region around C. reinhardtii where significant hydrodynamic interaction is likely to occur differs qualitatively from a "puller" stresslet, and can be described by a simple three-Stokeslet model.

  13. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Caijuan; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microor...

  14. Direct measurement of the flow field around swimming microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    Drescher, Knut; Michel, Nicolas; Polin, Marco; Tuval, Idan

    2010-01-01

    Swimming microorganisms create flows that influence their mutual interactions and modify the rheology of their suspensions. While extensively studied theoretically, these flows have not been measured in detail around any freely-swimming microorganism. We report such measurements for the microphytes Volvox carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The minute ~0.3% density excess of V. carteri over water leads to a strongly dominant Stokeslet contribution, with the widely-assumed stresslet flow only a correction to the subleading source dipole term. This implies that suspensions of V. carteri have features similar to suspensions of sedimenting particles. The flow in the region around C. reinhardtii where significant hydrodynamic interaction is likely to occur differs qualitatively from a "puller" stresslet, and can be described by a simple three-Stokeslet model.

  15. Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles by Microorganisms and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of eco-friendly technologies in material synthesis is of considerable importance to expand their biological applications. Nowadays, a variety of inorganic nanoparticles with well-defined chemical composition, size, and morphology have been synthesized by using different microorganisms, and their applications in many cutting-edge technological areas have been explored. This paper highlights the recent developments of the biosynthesis of inorganic nanoparticles including metallic nanoparticles, oxide nanoparticles, sulfide nanoparticles, and other typical nanoparticles. Different formation mechanisms of these nanoparticles will be discussed as well. The conditions to control the size/shape and stability of particles are summarized. The applications of these biosynthesized nanoparticles in a wide spectrum of potential areas are presented including targeted drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy and DNA analysis, antibacterial agents, biosensors, enhancing reaction rates, separation science, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The current limitations and future prospects for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles by microorganisms are discussed.

  16. Experimental studies of biodegradation of asphalt by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the geological disposal system of the radioactive wastes, the activities of the microorganisms that could degrade the asphalt might be significant for the assessment of the system performance. As the main effects of the biodegradation of the asphalt, the fluctuation of leaching behavior of the nuclides included in asphalt waste has been indicated. In this study, the asphalt biodegradation test was carried out. The microorganism of which asphalt degradation ability was comparatively higher under aerobic condition and anaerobic condition was used. The asphalt biodegradation rate was calculated and it was evaluated whether the asphalt biodegradation in this system could occur. The results show that the asphalt biodegradation rate under anaerobic and high alkali condition will be 300 times lower than under aerobic and neutral pH. (author)

  17. Degradation of crude oil by indigenous microorganisms supplemented with nutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Wen-xiang; ZHENG Xi-lai; LI Jin-cheng; SONG Zhi-wen; ZHOU Li; SUN Hao-fen

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of mineral nutrients( NO3-N, NH4-N and PO4-P) were applied in the simulated oil-polluted seawater for enhancing oil biodegradation in the N/P ratio 10:1 and 20: 1. Although indigenous microorganisms have the ability to degrade oil, adding nutrients accelerated biodegradation rates significantly. For the group amended with NO3-N and PO4-P in the ratio 10:1, the reaction rate coefficient was 4 times higher than the natural biodegradation. Chemical and microbiological analysis showed that the optimal N/P ratio in the system is 10:1, and microorganisms tend to utilize nitrate rather than ammonium as N source.

  18. Effect of effective microorganisms on soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective Microorganisms solution is being used in various parts of Sindh as fertilizer substitute in the agriculture fields since years. Soils of two locations at Bozdar Wada Khairpur Mir's and Nawazabad farm Mirpurkhas were surveyed. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.6 and 6-12 inches. Using analytical methods, given in the Laboratory manual for Soil Analysis, carried out the Physico-chemical analysis. The comparative study of 20-Acre land area of both soils, the one treated with EM (Effective Microorganisms) technology and the other without treatment was carried out. The soil color, soil texture/Particle size analysis, soil moisture, bulk density, soil pH, Electric conductivity, and organic matter were determined. The analysis showed positive results, and it is observed that the quality of the soil was improved by using EM technology. (author)

  19. [Ecological relationships between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its companion microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue-liang; Mao, Zhen-chuan; Chen, Guo-hua; Xie, Bing-yan

    2011-03-01

    Pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a notorious invasive species from North America, which can kill a large amount of pine trees and causes economic losses and ecosystem destruction. There is a close relationship and ecological interaction between B. xylophilus and its companion microorganisms. This paper listed the species of companion microorganisms, reviewed their important ecological roles in the propagation and pathogenicity of the nematode, and discussed the pine wilt disease from the viewpoint of microecosystem. The companion fungi can supply food for B. xylophilus, hold the cycle of second infection of the nematode, increase the proportions of dauer juveniles, and benefit the infection and distribution of B. xylophilus. The companion bacteria can enhance the pathogenicity of B. xylophilus, promote the propagation of the nematode, benefit the pinene degradation, and thereby, promote the adaptability of the nematode. PMID:21657042

  20. Food environments select microorganisms based on selfish energetic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiegoMora

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient richness, and specifically the abundance of mono- and disaccharides that characterize several food matrixes, such as milk and grape juice, has allowed the speciation of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts with a high fermentation capacity instead of energetically favorable respiratory metabolism. In these environmental contexts, rapid sugar consumption and lactic acid or ethanol production, accumulation and tolerance, together with the ability to propagate in the absence of oxygen, are several of the ‘winning’ traits that have apparently evolved and become specialized to perfection in these fermenting microorganisms. Here, we summarize and discuss the evolutionary context that has driven energetic metabolism in food-associated microorganisms, using the dairy species Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus among prokaryotes and the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among eukaryotes as model organisms.

  1. Impacts of Triclosan in Grey water on Soil Microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of grey water for irrigation is becoming a common practice in arid regions such as the Southwestern US, the Middle East, Australia, and China. While grey water supplies nutrients to soil ecosystems, the possible impact of trace contaminants, particularly pharmaceuticals and personal care products, has not been determined. This paper examined the impact of triclosan, an antibacterial agent commonly added to consumer products, on microbial populations and microbial diversity in soil irrigated with grey water. While there was no change in the total number of heterotrophic microorganisms in the soil, both the types and the antibiotic resistance of the microorganisms were significantly influenced by triclosan. The proportion of the microbial isolates resistant to antibiotics increased while at the same time, overall diversity of the microbial community decreased.

  2. Influence of swimming strategy on microorganism separation by asymmetric obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Berdakin, I; Moshchalkov, V V; Venken, L; Dierckx, S; Vanderleyden, S J; Silhanek, A V; Condat, C A; Marconi, V I

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that a nanoliter chamber separated by a wall of asymmetric obstacles can lead to an inhomogeneous distribution of self-propelled microorganisms. Although it is well established that this rectification effect arises from the interaction between the swimmers and the non-centrosymmetric pillars, here we demonstrate numerically that its efficiency is strongly dependent on the detailed dynamics of the individual microorganism. In particular, for the case of run-and-tumble dynamics, the distribution of run lengths, the rotational diffusion and the partial preservation of run orientation memory through a tumble are important factors when computing the rectification efficiency. In addition, we optimize the geometrical dimensions of the asymmetric pillars in order to maximize the swimmer concentration and we illustrate how it can be used for sorting by swimming strategy in a long array of parallel obstacles.

  3. Influence of swimming strategy on microorganism separation by asymmetric obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdakin, I.; Jeyaram, Y.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Venken, L.; Dierckx, S.; Vanderleyden, S. J.; Silhanek, A. V.; Condat, C. A.; Marconi, V. I.

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that a nanoliter chamber separated by a wall of asymmetric obstacles can lead to an inhomogeneous distribution of self-propelled microorganisms. Although it is well established that this rectification effect arises from the interaction between the swimmers and the noncentrosymmetric pillars, here we demonstrate numerically that its efficiency is strongly dependent on the detailed dynamics of the individual microorganism. In particular, for the case of run-and-tumble dynamics, the distribution of run lengths, the rotational diffusion, and the partial preservation of run orientation memory through a tumble are important factors when computing the rectification efficiency. In addition, we optimize the geometrical dimensions of the asymmetric pillars in order to maximize the swimmer concentration and we illustrate how it can be used for sorting by swimming strategy in a long array of parallel obstacles.

  4. Microorganisms inactivation by electron beam irradiation and microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative results obtained by applying separate beam irradiation, separate microwave heating and combined electron beam irradiation and microwave heating (successive and simultaneous) to reduction of viable cells of Staphylococcus intermedius and Pseudomaonas aeruginosa are presented. Simultaneous irradiation results in a more dramatic reduction of microorganisms than by either microwave or electron beam irradiation alone. The tests demonstrated that irradiation time and the upper limit of required absorbed dose which ensures a complete sterilization effect of the studied microorganisms could be reduced of about six times by additional use of microwave energy to electron beam irradiation. Experiments were carried out using an electron linear accelerator ALIN-10 of 6 MeV and 180 W maximum output power and 2.45 GHz microwave source of controlled power up to 0.85 kW. (authors)

  5. In vivo investigations of genetically modified microorganisms using germ-free rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund jacobsen, Bodil

    Risk evaluation of genetically modified microorganism (GMMO) in relation to human health effects brings into consideration the ability of the microorganism to survive and colonise the gastrointestinal tract and the potential gene transfer to the resident microbiota. Different biological containment...

  6. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignmen...

  7. Preparation and characterization of gelatin scaffold containing microorganism fermented cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang; Lee, Byeong Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Yeong; Lee, Jong Dae; Song, Sung Gi [Quegenbiotech, Co., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cellulose, chitin, chitosan and hyaluronic acid are well known as polysaccharides. These polysaccharides have many effects on cell growth and differentiation. Cell activation increases with increasing the polysaccharides concentration. In this study, gelatin scaffold containing microorganism fermented cellulose, citrus gel were prepared by using irradiation technique. Physical properties of the scaffolds were investigated as a function of the concentrations of gelatin and citrus gel and the cell attachment, cell morphology and inflammation of the scaffolds also were characterized for regeneration of skin tissue.

  8. Interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in freshwater sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Widenfalk, Anneli

    2005-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems sediment microbial communities provide many important functions, such as organic matter decomposition and by constituting a major food source for organisms at higher trophic levels. Sediments are also sites were pesti-cides have been frequently detected. In this thesis, laboratory microcosm experi-ments on the interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in fresh-water sediments were performed. Natural microbial communities were exposed to both environmentally rele...

  9. DNA fingerprinting of medically important microorganisms by use of PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    van Belkum, A

    1994-01-01

    Selected segments of any DNA molecule can be amplified exponentially by PCR. This technique provides a powerful tool to detect and identify minimal numbers of microorganisms. PCR is applicable both in diagnosis and in epidemiology. By amplification of hypervariable DNA domains, differences can be detected even among closely related strains. PCR fingerprinting is a valuable tool for medical microbiologists, epidemiologists, and microbial taxonomists. The current state of PCR-mediated genotypin...

  10. Mitigating abiotic stress in crop plants by microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Nada A.; Marinković Jelena B.; Tintor Branislava B.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms could play an important role in adaptation strategies and increase of tolerance to abiotic stresses in agricultural plants. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mitigate most effectively the impact of abiotic stresses (drought, low temperature, salinity, metal toxicity, and high temperatures) on plants through the production of exopolysaccharates and biofilm formation. PGPR mitigate the impact of drought on plants through a process so-called induced systemic tolera...

  11. Diversity of cultivable microorganisms isolated from ixodid ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Masaříková, J.; Švec, P.; Nováková, D.; Sedláček, I.; Mendel, Jan; Papoušek, Ivo

    Istanbul: International Union of Microbiological Societies, 2008. s. 153-154. [International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : ticks * diversity * microorganisms * bacteria * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.iums2008.org/BAM_pdf.pdf

  12. Tolerance of sewage treatment plant microorganisms to mosquitocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, N S; Olson, M A; Hester, P G; Moore, J J

    1993-12-01

    Beneficial protozoa and rotifers collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Panama City, FL, were tested for tolerance to 11 commonly used mosquito larvicides and adulticides in the laboratory. The acute effects were assessed using selected concentrations of the adulticides fenthion, malathion, naled, permethrin, and resmethrin; and the larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, diflubenzuron, larviciding oil, methoprene, and temephos for the following microorganism taxa: ameoboids, flagellates, free-swimming ciliates, stalked ciliates, and rotifers. PMID:8126488

  13. Electric DNA chips for determination of pathogenic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanling

    2008-01-01

    Silicon-based electric DNA chip arrays were utilized to fast identify pathogenic microorganisms with respect to the capacity to produce toxins involved in foodborne poisoning and infections. Bacteria of the B. cereus and the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) groups contain different set-ups of various virulence factors that are encoded by the corresponding genes. The purpose of this work was to develop a fast and simple method for determination of the presence of these virulence genes in a col...

  14. Impact of Endophytic Microorganisms on Plants, Environment and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Dhanya N.; Padmavathy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes) that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They pr...

  15. Reducing of microorganisms in meat products - effect of storage temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Záhorová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I deal with the influence of storage temperature on reducing the number of microorganisms in meat products. In this work is analyzed cooling and freezing storage of meat and meat products. The next section provides an overview of the major contributors to food-borne illness (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, etc.). At the end of research is the mention of the HACCP system. The research was focused on the refrigerated storage o...

  16. Photodynamic/photocatalytic effects on microorganisms processed by nanodyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy uses laser, LED or lamp light sources in combination with dyes - exogenous photosensitizers for the enhancement and localization of photodynamic effects within the human body. We are developing a new approach of improvement of the efficiency of antimicrobial phototherapy via combined application of photosensitizers and the photocatalysts to pathogenic microorganisms. The main goal of the paper is to conduct experiments to study the action of nanodyes, based on mixtures of nanoparticles and photosensitizers, in combination with LED irradiation of pathogens.

  17. Metabolic shifts in microorganisms: the case of Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, A.

    2013-01-01

      A commonly observed organismal response to changing growth rate is a metabolic shift from one mode of metabolism to another. This phenomenon is potentially interesting from a fundamental and industrial perspective because it can influence cellular choices and can limit the capacity of industrial microorganisms to channel nutrients to desired products. The mechanistic cause of the metabolic shift may vary between species, but the presence of such shifts from bacteria to man suggests fun...

  18. Biotransformation of citrus aromatics nootkatone and valencene by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-11-01

    Biotransformations of the sesquiterpene ketone nootkatone from the crude drug Alpiniae Fructus and grapefruit oil, and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon valencene from Valencia orange oil were carried out with microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Fusarium culmorum to afford structurally interesting metabolites. Their stereostructures were established by a combination of high-resolution NMR spectral and X-ray crystallographic analysis and chemical reaction. Metabolic pathways of compounds and by A. niger are proposed. PMID:16272725

  19. Screening of lipid degrading microorganisms for wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmurzina, Z. S.; Kozhakhmetov, S. S.; Anuarbekova, S. S.; Shaikhin, S. M.; Almagambetov, K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fats, oils and greases (FOG) are poorly removable materials in wastewater treatment systems. The aim of this work is to find the most suitable strain(s) for a biological treatment technology of FOGs polluted wastewaters. Methodology and results: The 142 microorganisms from polluted environment were screened for lipase activity (LA) by sequentially using assays on agar-Tween 80, agar-fats, and turbidimetrically measuring the quantity of calcium salts with fatty acids. The isolates G23, G...

  20. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Ageeva N. M.; Suprun I. I.; Prakh A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire s...

  1. Store data from experiments with microorganisms used in food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bosakova-Ardenska, Atanaska

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present results from collaboration of computer engineers and experimenters in microbiology working with molecular-genetic methods. The experimenters in microbiological laboratory at the University of Food Technologies use ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) analyses and DNA sequencing processed with BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) algorithm to identify some microorganisms. Their results have been accumulated in designed database. This wil...

  2. Selective Antibacterial Properties of Lysozyme for Oral Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Iacono, Vincent J.; MacKay, Bruce J.; DiRienzo, Sharon; Pollock, Jerry J.

    1980-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of lysozyme were investigated with oral microorganisms representing the seven serotypes (a through g) of Streptococcus mutans, Veillonella alcalescens, and the virulent (V) and avirulent (AV) strains of Actinomyces viscosus T14. Growth of bacteria in defined medium was monitored spectrophotometrically after the addition of various amounts (25 μg to 5 mg/ml) of enzyme. No growth inhibition of V. alcalescens was observed. Inhibition of A. viscosus T14(V) and A. visc...

  3. Cell surface hydrophobicity of dental plaque microorganisms in situ.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, M.; Judes, H; Weiss, E

    1983-01-01

    The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria obtained directly from human tooth surfaces was assayed by measuring their adherence to liquid hydrocarbons. Fresh samples of supragingival dental plaque were washed and dispersed in buffer. Adherence of the plaque microorganisms to hexadecane, octane, and xylene was tested turbidimetrically and by direct microscopic observation. The results clearly show that the vast majority of bacteria comprising dental plaque exhibit pronounced cell surface hydr...

  4. Isolation of microorganisms for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M J; Nichols, N N; Dien, B S; Moreno, J; Bothast, R J

    2004-03-01

    Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass releases furan and phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms used for subsequent fermentation. In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid (5 mM), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 15 mM), and furfural (20 mM) as the carbon and energy sources, followed by an additional transfer into a corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) prepared using dilute acid. Subsequently, based on stable growth on these substrates, six isolates--including five bacteria related to Methylobacterium extorquens, Pseudomonas sp, Flavobacterium indologenes, Acinetobacter sp., Arthrobacter aurescens, and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria--were chosen. All six isolates depleted toxic compounds from defined medium, but only C. ligniaria C8 (NRRL 30616) was effective at eliminating furfural and 5-HMF from CSH. C. ligniaria NRRL 30616 may be useful in developing a bioprocess for inhibitor abatement in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. PMID:12908085

  5. Development of Novel Drugs from Marine Surface Associated Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhelen Egan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (“bioactives” to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds (“antimicrobials”, may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta- genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future.

  6. The diversity of microorganisms associated with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biological techniques are dramatically changing our view of microbial diversity in almost any environment that has so far been investigated. This study presents a systematic survey of the microbial diversity associated with a population of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants. In contrast to previous studies on social insects, which targeted specific groups of symbionts occurring in the gut (termites, Tetraponera ants or in specialised cells (Camponotus ants the objective of our present study was to do a total screening of all possible micro-organisms that can be found inside the bodies of these leafcutter ants. Results We amplified, cloned and sequenced SSU rRNA encoding gene fragments from 9 microbial groups known to have insect-associated representatives, and show that: (1 representatives of 5 out of 9 tested groups are present, (2 mostly several strains per group are present, adding up to a total of 33 different taxa. We present the microbial taxa associated with Acromymex ants in a phylogenetic context (using sequences from GenBank to assess and illustrate to which known microorganisms they are closely related. The observed microbial diversity is discussed in the light of present knowledge on the evolutionary history of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants and their known mutualistic and parasitic symbionts. Conclusions The major merits of the screening approach documented here is its high sensitivity and specificity, which allowed us to identify several microorganisms that are promising candidates for further study of their interactions with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants or their gardens.

  7. Microorganisms as potential vectors of the migration of radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of our work are the study of the sorption of radionuclides by bacteria as the first step in the microorganism-metal interaction. The latter involves the fixation of ions on a surface layer and it results in the immobilization of the metal, thus possibly being the primary step of bioaccumulation. After a rapid presentation of the direct and indirect mechanisms of the interactions, we shall present our experiments of radionuclide biosorption by bacteria. A salient feature of biosorption is the selectivity of the adsorption of some radionuclides from a composed solution. For example, Andres et al. (1993, 1995) have shown that Mycobacterium smegmatis, from a composed solution containing uranium, thorium, lanthanum, europium and ytterbium, selectively adsorbs thorium ions. The sequence of preferential fixation is: Th4+ > UO22+ > La3+ = Eu3+ = Yb3+. This selectivity is a function of the cell wall organization and of the speciation of the metal in the solution. Yet, each species of bacteria has characteristic and specific cell wall layer composition and organization. Moreover, the culture and the environmental conditions change the surface layer properties. Another parameter in the migration of radionuclides is the transfer from the soil to the microorganisms. In column experiments, Gd, and likely the rare earths, in general, adsorbed on sand can be removed with a suspension of bacteria (Thouand and Andres 1997). These examples will be discussed and serve as a basis to illustrate the diversity of the interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides

  8. Preparation of microorganism free carrier for biofertilizer product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative or complementary to chemical fertilizer to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. Biofertilizers are products containing living cells of different types of known microorganisms that may increase crop productivity through N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization or stimulation of plant growth by synthesising phytohormones. A good biofertilizer product needs a good carrier or substrate. A good carrier is free from microbial contamination and can optimise the growth of the biofertilizer microorganisms. Compost is commonly used as carrier or substrate for biofertilizer microorganisms. In the present study, compost produced by Nuclear Malaysia using the Natural Farming was used as a carrier for the biofertilizer products. Gamma irradiation has been used to produce a ?clean? or sterile carrier. The sterilization effect of the carrier was checked by using serial dilution technique. Carriers that were irradiated at 50 kGy of gamma irradiation were found to be sterile. The shelf life of the sterile carriers was also determined. After six months the compost carriers were still free from microbial contamination. (Author)

  9. Detection of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane Beatriz Vermelho

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available We present herein an improved assay for detecting the presence of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates. Using different substrates (gelatin, BSA, hemoglobin incorporated into the agar and varying the culture medium composition, we were able to detect proteolytic activities from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Serratia marcescens as well as the influence that these components displayed in the expression of these enzymes. For all microorganisms tested we found that in agar-BHI or yeast extract medium containing gelatin the sensitivity of proteinase detection was considerably greater than in BSA-agar or hemoglobin-agar. However, when BSA or hemoglobin were added to the culture medium, there was an increase in growth along with a marked reduction in the amount of proteinase production. In the case of M. luteus the incorporation of glycerol in BHI or yeast extract gelatin-agar induced protease liberation. Our results indicate that the technique described here is of value for detecting extracellular proteases directly in the culture medium, by means of a qualitative assay, simple, inexpensive, straight forward method to assess the presence of the proteolytic activity of a given microorganism colony with great freedom in substrate selection.

  10. Hydrocarbon degradation potential of salt marsh plant-microorganisms associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Hugo; Mucha, Ana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Bordalo, Adriano A

    2011-07-01

    Estuaries are often considered sinks for contaminants and the cleanup of salt marshes, sensitive ecosystems with a major ecological role, should be carried out by means of least intrusive approaches, such as bioremediation. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of plant-microorganisms associations on petroleum hydrocarbons fate in salt marshes of a temperate estuary (Lima River, NW Portugal). Sediments un-colonized and colonized (rhizosediments) by different plants (Juncus maritimus, Phragmites australis, Triglochin striata and Spartina patens) were sampled in four sites of the lower and middle estuary for hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms (HD), total cell counts (TCC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) assessment. In general, TPHs, HD and TCC were significantly higher (P maritimus maritimus and T. striata. Moreover, strong positive correlations-0.81 and 0.84 (P < 0.05), between biotic (HD) and abiotic (organic matter content) parameters and TPHs concentrations were also found. Our data clearly suggest that salt marsh plants can influence the microbial community, by fostering the development of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations in its rhizosphere, an effect observed for all plants. This effect, combined with the plant capability to retain hydrocarbons around the roots, points out that salt marsh plant-microorganisms associations may actively contribute to hydrocarbon removal and degradation in estuarine environments. PMID:21188477

  11. [Secretion of proteolytic enzymes by three phytopathogenic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteinases from three phytopathogenic microorganisms that belong to different fungal families and cause diseases in potatoes were studied and characterized. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and the fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum were shown to secrete serine proteinases. An analysis of the substrate specificity of these enzymes and their sensitivity to synthetic and protein inhibitors allowed us to refer them to trypsin- and subtilisin-like proteinases. The correlation between the trypsin- and subtilisin-like proteinases depended on the composition of the culture medium, particularly on the form of the nitrogen source. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out. In contrast to basidiomycetes R. solani, ascomycetes F. culmorum and oomycetes P. infestans produced a similar set of exoproteinases, although they had more distant phylogenetic positions. This indicated that the secretion of serine proteinases by various phytopathogenic microorganisms also depended on their phylogenetic position. These results allowed us to suggest that exoproteinases from phytopathogenic fungi play a different role in pathogenesis. They may promote the adaptation of fungi if the range of hosts is enlarged. On the other hand, they may play an important role in the survival of microorganisms in hostile environements outside their hosts. PMID:25508654

  12. Isolated microorganisms from Iranian grapes and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maulani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objective of this study was to monitor the microorganisms isolated from grapes and its derivative traditional products produced in Iran.Material and Methods: Four kinds of grapes cultivated summer of 2010 in vineyard of Takestan and also grape derived products from Shahrod, Hamedan and Takestan were used for this study. The samples were cultured in specific media to isolate the microorganisms that might grow on or pollute the products.Results: Species of bacteria and fungi isolated from 4 kinds of grapes cultivated in Takestan graveyards and also from 2 kinds of derived traditional products; grape sap and sour grape (abe-ghure locally named, were taken from Takestan, Shahrod and Hamedan cities. Also, bacteria Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., Clostridium spp., and fungus of Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were isolated.Conclusion: The isolated bacteria were common microorganisms that grow in soil or in the organic fertilizer and may appear from the environments that samples were collected. These bacteria were not pathogenic to human. The fungus isolated from the grapes may harm humans as they produce toxin. The results suggested that bacterial diversity on grapes and its derived traditional products are expected to be monitored and described in all Iranian graveyards as Iran has been known as one of the world’s biggest grape producers.

  13. Diversity of Phosphate-Dissolving Microorganisms in Corn Rhizosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-rong; LIN Qi-mei; LI Bao-guo

    2003-01-01

    Rhizosphere and nonrhizopshere soils were sampled during corn growth. Total, inorganic phosphate-dissolving and lecithin-mineralizing bacteria, fungi and actinomyctes were determined by plate counting method. Generally, the rhizosphere soil contained around 5 to 100 times more of these bacteria and fungi than the non-rhizosphere soil. However, the actinomycetes in the rhizosphere soil were significantly lower than those in the non-rhizosphere soil. The numbers of these microorganisms didnt significantly change during corn growth in the soils. However, the proportion of the phosphate-dissolving microorganisms in the total changed markedly during corn growth. Generally there were much higher percentages of phosphate-dissolving bacteria and phosphate-dissolving fungi in the rhizosphere soil than the nonrhizosphere soil. More than 90% of the fungi in rhizosphere dissolved inorganic phosphate at the seedling period, but this proportion declined to 20 %at the harvesting time. The community of phosphate-dissolving microorganisms also changed during corn growth. Bacillus was dominant in the nonrhizosphere soil. However, in the rhizosphere, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter became predominant. Penicillium and Streptomyces were the main fungi and actinomycetes capable of dissolving phosphate.

  14. Nickel-titanium alloy: Cytotoxicity evaluation on microorganism culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity nickel (Ni) and titanium (Ti) targets have been used to form well-defined thin films of nitinol on Ti substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Their chemical composition, crystalline structure and surface properties have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We have shown that by varying the deposition parameters such as laser fluence and number of laser pulses, we are able to control the film thickness as well as film's uniformity and roughness. Cytocompatibility tests have been performed through in vitro assays using microorganisms culture cells such as yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacteria (Escherichia coli), in order to determine the thin film's toxic potential at the in vitro cellular level. Microorganism's adhesion on the nitinol surface was observed and the biofilm formation has been analyzed and quantified. Our results have shown no reactivity detected in cell culture exposed to NiTi films in comparison with the negative controls and a low adherence of the microorganisms on the nitinol surface that is an important factor for biofilm prevention. We can, therefore, conclude that NiTi is a good candidate material to be used for implants and medical devices

  15. Biosorption and recycling of gold using various microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Takehiko

    2004-08-01

    In order to obtain basic information on the biosorption and recycling of gold from aqueous systems using microbial cells, the biosorption of gold by various microorganisms was investigated. Of 75 strains of microorganisms tested (25 bacteria, 19 actinomycetes, 17 fungi and 14 yeasts), high abilities of gold biosorption from a solution containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) were found in some gram-negative bacterial strains, such as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and P. maltophilia. Most of the gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and yeasts had a lower ability for gold biosorption than gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, all of the microorganisms tested adsorbed far smaller amounts of gold from a solution containing gold dicyanoaurate (I). The biosorption of gold from a solution containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) using P. maltophilia having a high adsorbing ability for gold was very rapid and was affected by the pH of the solution, external gold concentration, and cell amounts. P. maltophilia cells immobilized with polyacrylamide gel also have a high ability for gold biosorption. The gold adsorbed on the immobilized cells is easily desorbed with 0.1 M thiourea solution. The immobilized P. maltophilia cells can be used repeatedly in biosorption-desorption cycles. PMID:15754248

  16. Pseudallescheria angusta, A LIGNINOLYTIC MICROORGANISM FOR WOOD FIBRES BIOMODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Guisado,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the discovery of lignocellulolytic microorganisms that are better adapted to operational conditions while exhibiting the strong degrading activities is highly desired for successful lignocellulose biotransformation processes. In this study, microorganisms were isolated from lignocellulose-rich composting materials by selective methods. A screening of isolates known to have lignocellulolytic abilities was performed using several tests. Seven microorganisms showed ligninolytic potential and were subjected for further analysis according to their degrading activity. The fungus Pseudallescheriaangusta MF4 demonstrated high decolorization rates for three aromatic dyes: Poly R-478, Poly S-119, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R. In addition, the fungus showed a high production rate of ligninolytic enzymes in the presence of inducers. This fungus achieved the highest values of growth after 21 days of incubation on sawdust without any additional nutrients. Owing to its proven ligninolytic activity and capability of growing on a lignocellulosic substrate, the application of this isolate could be of interest in different biotechnological applications, particularly in biological treatment of wood fibres in order to improve the production of wood-based composites.

  17. The plastic-associated microorganisms of the North Pacific Gyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microorganisms mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic. • North Pacific Gyre (NPG) plastics were examined with scanning-electron microscopy. • Bacillus bacteria and pennate diatoms dominated the NPG plastic fouling community. • Bacterial abundance was patchily distributed but increased on foamed polystyrene. • Diatom abundance increased on rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic density. -- Abstract: Microorganisms likely mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic pollution, including degradation, chemical adsorption, and colonization or ingestion by macroorganisms. We investigated the relationship between plastic-associated microorganism communities and factors such as location, temperature, salinity, plankton abundance, plastic concentration, item size, surface roughness, and polymer type. Small plastic items from the surface of the North Pacific Gyre in 2011 were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Bacillus bacteria (mean 1664 ± 247 individuals mm−2) and pennate diatoms (1097 ± 154 mm−2) were most abundant, with coccoid bacteria, centric diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and radiolarians present. Bacterial abundance was patchy, but increased on foamed polystyrene. Diatom abundance increased on items with rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic concentrations. Morphotype richness increased slightly on larger fragments, and a biogeographic transition occurred between pennate diatom groups. Better characterizing this community will aid in understanding how it interacts with plastic pollution

  18. Magnetization of microorganism cells by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Microorganism cells could be used as templates during fabrication of magnetic or conductive microstructures in different standard shapes. In this paper, feasibility of magnetizing microorganism cells by sol-gel method, which is to coat cells of Spirulina (a type of natural micro-helical microorganism) with the ferrite (a kind of magnetic material), was discussed and investigated. Then the cell form, components and the phase structure were observed and analyzed using various tools including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that spirulina cells could be coated with ferrite after the sol-gel process, with the shape of natural helixes well kept, that the components of different sampling points on the surface layer were consistent and the thickness of layer was uniform, and that the type of the surface ferrite layer formed was cubic Fe3O4. It was also observed that there were nano-particles yielded in the cells and certain deposit on the walls between cells. The kinetics of the cell magnetization technology by sol-gel was also discussed.

  19. Removal and Recovery of Uranium using Microorganisms Isolated from North American Uranium Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Takehiko Tsuruta

    2007-01-01

    Some attempts were made to remove and recover uranium that may be present in nuclear fuel effluents and mine tailings using microorganisms isolated from North American uranium deposits. To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, hundreds strains of microorganisms were screened. Of these strains of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium accumulating ability was found in some bacteria isolated from North American uranium deposits. These bacterial strains, such as Arth...

  20. The yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the denitrification unit biocenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Sláviková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic studies of the yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the denitrification unit biocenosis were carried out. A set of 13 strains of these microorganisms were examined for their morphological and physiological characters. Considering their special features and some relation to the known species, the isolated microorganisms were classified to the 3 genera: Candida, Geotrichium and Hansenula.

  1. 9 CFR 114.5 - Micro-organisms used as seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Micro-organisms used as seed. 114.5 Section 114.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.5 Micro-organisms used as seed. Micro-organisms used in the preparation...

  2. DMPD: Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17303405 Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Curr ...Opin Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;19(2):185-91. Epub 2007 Feb 15. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signaling pathwa...ys activated by microorganisms. PubmedID 17303405 Title Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Auth

  3. 40 CFR 725.92 - Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... microorganisms. 725.92 Section 725.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.92 Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms....

  4. Classification of root canal microorganisms using electronic-nose and discriminant analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Özbilge Hatice; Kaya Esma; Er Özgür; Kahraman Yasemin; Asyalı Musa H; Aksebzeci Bekir H; Kara Sadık

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Root canal treatment is a debridement process which disrupts and removes entire microorganisms from the root canal system. Identification of microorganisms may help clinicians decide on treatment alternatives such as using different irrigants, intracanal medicaments and antibiotics. However, the difficulty in cultivation and the complexity in isolation of predominant anaerobic microorganisms make clinicians resort to empirical medical treatments. For this reason, identific...

  5. Advances and perspectives in bathymetry by airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Chenxi; Li, Mingyan; Wang, Yuefeng; Ye, Siqi; Han, Caiyun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the history of the airborne lidar and the development stages of the technology are reviewed. The basic principle of airborne lidar and the method of processing point-cloud data were discussed. At present, single point laser scanning method is widely used in bathymetric survey. Although the method has high ranging accuracy, the data processing and hardware system is too much complicated and expensive. For this reason, this paper present a kind of improved dual-frequency method for bathymetric and sea surface survey, in this method 176 units of 1064nm wavelength laser has been used by push-broom scanning and due to the airborne power limits still use 532nm wavelength single point for bathymetric survey by zigzag scanning. We establish a spatial coordinates for obtaining the WGS-84 of point cloud by using airborne POS system.

  6. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced airborne imaging system for fire detection/mapping is proposed. The goal of the project is to improve control and management of wildfires in order to...

  7. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An autonomous airborne imaging system for earth science research, disaster response, and fire detection is proposed. The primary goal is to improve information to...

  8. A Web-Based Airborne Remote Sensing Telemetry Server Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Web-based Airborne Remote Sensing Telemetry Server (WARSTS) is proposed to integrate UAV telemetry and web-technology into an innovative communication, command,...

  9. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES03 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia, Delaware, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data...

  10. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN04 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Michigan and Lake Huron collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...

  11. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...

  12. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN05 (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  13. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS06 (2012 & 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2012 & 2013 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  14. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES01 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida, the Bahamas, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition...

  15. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for PN01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for California and Oregon collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  16. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS02 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  17. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN03 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2014 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  18. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  19. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS03 (2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas and Louisiana collected in 2009 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  20. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  1. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN09 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set...

  2. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alabama and Florida collected in 2008 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  3. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  4. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  5. Airborne software tests on a fully virtual platform

    OpenAIRE

    Randimbivololona, Famantanantsoa; Brahmi, Abderrahmane; Meur, Philippe Le

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the early deployment of a fully virtual platform to perform the tests of certified airborne software. This is an alternative to the current approach based on the use of dedicated hardware platforms.

  6. Thermal Mapping Airborne Simulator for Small Satellite Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance, inexpensive, airborne simulator that will serve as the prototype for a small satellite based imaging system capable of mapping thermal anomalies...

  7. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN10 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the...

  8. Airborne Magnetic Trackline and Survey Data (Vector and Scalar Observations)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receive airborne magnetic survey data from US and non-US...

  9. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN02 (2013 & 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  10. Research on airborne infrared leakage detection of natural gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xu, Xu; Wang, Hongchao; Yu, Dongliang; Tian, Shengjie

    2011-12-01

    An airborne laser remote sensing technology is proposed to detect natural gas pipeline leakage in helicopter which carrying a detector, and the detector can detect a high spatial resolution of trace of methane on the ground. The principle of the airborne laser remote sensing system is based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The system consists of an optical unit containing the laser, camera, helicopter mount, electronic unit with DGPS antenna, a notebook computer and a pilot monitor. And the system is mounted on a helicopter. The principle and the architecture of the airborne laser remote sensing system are presented. Field test experiments are carried out on West-East Natural Gas Pipeline of China, and the results show that airborne detection method is suitable for detecting gas leak of pipeline on plain, desert, hills but unfit for the area with large altitude diversification.

  11. AirborneWind Energy: Airfoil-Airmass Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zanon, Mario; Gros, Sebastien; Meyers, Johan; Diehl, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The Airborne Wind Energy paradigm proposes to generate energy by flying a tethered airfoil across the wind flow at a high velocity. While Airborne Wind Energy enables flight in higher-altitude, stronger wind layers, the extra drag generated by the tether motion imposes a significant limit to the overall system efficiency. To address this issue, two airfoils with a shared tether can reduce overall system drag. A study proposed in Zanon et al. (2013) confirms this claim by showing that, in the ...

  12. Airborne geophysical mapping of environmental features - examples from Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michael; Appleton, James; Beamish, David; Cuss, Robert; Van Dam, Christiaan; Jones, David; Lahti, Mari; Miles, Jon; Rawlins, Barry; Scheib, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Northern Ireland completed a low-level regional airborne geophysical survey of Northern Ireland during 2005-6 as part of the Tellus Project. The survey was flown by the Joint Airborne Geoscience Capability, a partnership of the British Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Finland. The aircraft, a De Havilland Twin Otter, was equipped with two magnetometer sensors, a four-frequency electromagnetic system and a 256-channel gamma-ray spectrometer. The traverse-...

  13. User definition and mission requirements for unmanned airborne platforms, revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhner, M. B.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The airborne measurement requirements of the scientific and applications experiment user community were assessed with respect to the suitability of proposed strawman airborne platforms. These platforms provide a spectrum of measurement capabilities supporting associated mission tradeoffs such as payload weight, operating altitude, range, duration, flight profile control, deployment flexibility, quick response, and recoverability. The results of the survey are used to examine whether the development of platforms is warranted and to determine platform system requirements as well as research and technology needs.

  14. Passive dust collectors for assessing airborne microbial material

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Rachel I.; Tian, Yilin; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Thomas D.; Hyvärinen, Anne; Täubel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Settled airborne dust is used as a surrogate for airborne exposure in studies that explore indoor microbes. In order to determine whether detecting differences in dust environments would depend on the sampler type, we compared different passive, settled dust sampling approaches with respect to displaying qualitative and quantitative aspects of the bacterial and fungal indoor microbiota. Results Settled dust sampling approaches—utilizing plastic petri dishes, TefTex material, and el...

  15. On the Atmospheric Correction of Antarctic Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Black; Andrew Fleming; Teal Riley; Graham Ferrier; Peter Fretwell; John McFee; Stephen Achal; Alejandra Umana Diaz

    2014-01-01

    The first airborne hyperspectral campaign in the Antarctic Peninsula region was carried out by the British Antarctic Survey and partners in February 2011. This paper presents an insight into the applicability of currently available radiative transfer modelling and atmospheric correction techniques for processing airborne hyperspectral data in this unique coastal Antarctic environment. Results from the Atmospheric and Topographic Correction version 4 (ATCOR-4) package reveal absolute reflectan...

  16. Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia; Imam, Asif Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-s...

  17. The next generation airborne polarimetric Doppler weather radar

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekanandan, J.; W.-C. Lee; E. Loew; Salazar, J. L.; Grubišić, V.; J. Moore; Tsai, P

    2014-01-01

    Results from airborne field deployments emphasized the need to obtain concurrently high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of 3-D winds and microphysics. A phased array radar on an airborne platform using dual-polarization antenna has the potential for retrieving high resolution, collocated 3-D winds and microphysical measurements. Recently, ground-based phased array radar (PAR) demonstrated the high time resolution estimation of accurate Doppler velocity and reflecti...

  18. The next generation airborne polarimetric Doppler weather radar

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekanandan, J.; W.-C. Lee; E. Loew; Salazar, J. L.; Grubišić, V.; J. Moore; Tsai, P

    2014-01-01

    Results from airborne field deployments emphasized the need to obtain concurrently high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of 3-D winds and microphysics. A phased array radar on an airborne platform using dual-polarization antenna has the potential for retrieving high-resolution, collocated 3-D winds and microphysical measurements. Recently, ground-based phased array radar (PAR) has demonstrated the high time-resolution estimation of accurate Doppler velocity and...

  19. Modeling radiometric effects on airborne multispectral videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert L., Jr.

    Observing the Earth through remote technologies allows for the extraction of synoptic data that is difficult to match with ground-based measurements. Over time, remote sensing instruments and associated processing algorithms have improved in both spectral and spatial resolution. Currently, commercial spaceborne and airborne imaging systems are capable of producing data at one-meter spatial resolution. To fully utilize these improved data sources, it is critical that processing and analysis algorithms keep pace with instrument advances. This dissertation describes models and algorithms used to correct high spatial resolution airborne imagery for radiometric effects. These radiometric effects include topography and view-angle (also termed bidirectional reflectance). Also studied were radiometric and geometric calibration issues. The sensor used for this study was a four camera off-the-shelf system which is capable of collecting imagery in the visible through near-infrared (0.4-1.0 μm) spectral region. Three topographic correction models were applied to one- meter spatial resolution imagery collected over Fort Huachuca, Arizona, in October 1998. The model proposed by Ekstrand (1996) was successful in reducing topographic effects found in the semidesert grassland and Madrean forest communities. Spectral signature coefficient of variation, histogram range, and histogram normality all showed improvement after correction for both classes. Additionally, the optimal spatial resolution of the supporting Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was found to be 40 meters. This disagrees with previous research stating that the imagery to be corrected and the supporting DEM should be the same spatial resolution. Two bidirectional reflectance models were applied to 1.5 meter spatial resolution imagery collected over Parramore Island, Virginia, in May 1999. A modified version of a model proposed by Irons et al. (1991) was found to substantially reduce bidirectional reflectance effects over

  20. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  1. Source identification of airborne Escherichia coli of swine house surroundings using ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huiyong; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Jianzhu; Zhang, Xingxiao; Qi, Chunhua; Gao, Jing; Wang, Yaling; Cai, Yumei; Miao, Zengmin; Yao, Meiling; Schlenker, Gerd

    2009-07-01

    Evidence is mounting that microorganisms originating from livestock impact the air quality of the animal houses themselves and the public in the surrounding neighborhoods. The aim of this study was to develop efficient bacterial source tracking capabilities to identify sources of Escherichia coli aerosol pollution caused by pigs. Airborne E. coli were isolated from indoor air, upwind air (10 and 50 m away) and downwind air samples (10, 50, 100, 200 and 400 m away) for five swine houses using six-stage Andersen microbial samplers and Reuter-Centrifugal samplers (RCS). E. coli strains from pig fecal samples were also collected simultaneously. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerize chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP-PCR) approaches were used to study the genetic variability and to determine the strain relationships among E. coli isolated from different sites in each swine house. Results showed that 35.1% (20/57) of the bacterial DNA fingerprints from the fecal isolates matched with the corresponding strains isolated from indoor and downwind air samples (similarity > or = 90%). E. coli strains from the indoor and downwind air samples were closely related to the E. coli strains isolated from feces, while those isolated from upwind air samples (swine house C) had low similarity (61-69%). Our results suggest that some strains isolated from downwind and indoor air originated in the swine feces. Effective hygienic measures should be taken in animal farms to prevent or minimize the downwind spread of microorganism aerosol. PMID:19349045

  2. The Origin And Spread Of Airborne Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Begg, S. K.; Moffett, B. F.

    2009-12-01

    wind speed and direction, marine organisms would have been airborne for at least 16 hours in the Thursley sample and for at least 4 hours in the East London sample. The origin and spread of airborne organisms warrants further investigation.

  3. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  4. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATIREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two f light series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of supersaturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor. This presentation

  5. Air-borne geophysical prospecting using Helicopter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air-borne geophysical prospecting can investigate geological properties widely and quickly. In this investigation, we applied 3-types of geophysical prospecting, those were Electro-magnetic, Magnetic, and Radiometric method. We can measure apparent resistivity of ground on Electro-magnetic method, radioactivity on Radiometric method, and magnetization on Magnetic method. We can measure also resistivity distribution in the depth direction by measuring electro magnetic response to various frequencies. Conducting measurement, analysis and interpretation of above-mentioned 3-geophysical properties, we solved the geological structure from the distribution of geophysical properties in this area. We also tried to study and discuss comparison and correspondence with the present geological map. The air-borne Electro-magnetic method showed that the regions distributed with Sarabetsu Formation and Isachi Formation, which mainly consists of sandstone and conglomerate, have high apparent resistivity about 30-500 Ω·m. The regions distributed with Kowama Formation, Wakkanai Formation and Mashihoro Formation (Upper Mudstone Layer), which mainly consists of mudrock, have low resistivity 1-10 Ω·m in the depth over than dozens of meters, though some area dozens of meter below the surface have high resistivity about 50-200 Ω·m. Magnetic method showed that magnetization tends to decrease from southwest to northeast and this result corresponded with previous large scale magnetic intensity map (Geological Survey of Japan, 1992). High magnetic anomaly area, which spread from north-northwest to south-southeast, is found on a boundary between Sarabetsu and Isachi formation. Mashihoro formation, which is located east side of Nukanan fault, has also high magnetic anomaly area. Radiometric method showed that high radioactivity areas are distributed in alluvial depressions along Tenshio river and small river in the hill, while low radioactivity area are distributed in Tertiary

  6. Potential of Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy at Czechglobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Fabiánek, T.; Fajmon, L.

    2016-06-01

    Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS). Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences). CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy). FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600) that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out with all

  7. EUFAR – European Facility for Airborne Research: Easy and Open Access to the Airborne Research Facilities and Expert Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Holzwarth, Stefanie; Reusen, Ils; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gerard, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The European Facility for Airborne Research, EUFAR, is an Integrating Activity of the 7th Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Commission with funding covering the period 2014-2018. The current EUFAR follows three previous contracts under FP5, FP6 and FP7, and currently represents a consortium of 24 European institutions and organisations involved in airborne research. 18 small and medium size aircraft equipped with a multitude of different sensor systems are available to the European sc...

  8. Barberton-Phalaborwa airborne geophysical survey (25/78) - preliminary report on airborne radiometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two uranium and mixed uranium and thorium anomalies were selected from the analogue radiometric records generated during theBarberton-Phalaborwa airborne geophysical survey. Thirty-eight of the anomalies plotted over rocks of the Timeball Hill and Daspoort Formations, and ground follow-up work is recommended for these anomalies. Two more anomalies probably originate from rocks of the Palabora Igneous Complex, another anomaly overlies a diabase intrusive, and the remaining anomaly appears related to an outlier of Ecca Group rocks

  9. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V.A.; Ott, C.M.; Garcia, V.M.; John, J.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Pierson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including the concentration and the characteristics of the infectious agent. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the microorganisms aboard spacecraft is essential in mitigating infectious disease risk to the crew. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The translation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria from the SWAB experiment to nominal operations has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to previous conventional methodology. The incorporation of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) into the capabilities of the laboratory has provided a methodology to track microorganisms between crewmembers and their environment. Both 16S ribosomal DNA

  10. Role of microRNAs in insect host-microorganism interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SassanAsgari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have appeared as important regulators of various biological processes including development, cancer, immunity and host-microorganism interactions. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the differential expression of host miRNAs upon infection by various microorganisms and the involvement of microorganism-encoded miRNAs in host manipulation. Some of these alterations could be part of a host response to an infection to limit replication and dissemination of the microorganism or, conversely, due to manipulation of the host miRNA pathway by the microorganism to facilitate its replication. Insights into the role of miRNAs in host defence responses and host manipulation by microorganisms will enable a better understanding of host-microorganism interactions.

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  12. Surfactant producing TNT-degrading microorganisms for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobyov, A.; Marchenko, A.; Rudneva, O.; Borovick, R. [Research Center for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Serpukhov, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Radosevich, M. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Sciences

    2003-07-01

    In general the biodegradation of nitroaromatic hydrocarbons is influenced by their bioavailability. 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene is very poorly soluble in water. TNT is easily adsorbed to clay or humus fractions in the soil, and pass very slowly to the aqueous phase, where microorganisms metabolize it. Biosurfactants that increase TNT solubility and improve its bioavailability can thereby accelerate degradation. Pure cultures of microorganisms-TNT degraders were isolated by the method of enrichment cultures from samples of different-type soil contaminated by TNT (soddy-podzol, black earth, and gray forest ones). From 28 soil samples 35 isolates of microorganisms degrading TNT were taken. The isolated soil samples had been tested for availability of microbial activity towards TNT. By10 g of air-dried soil, 10 ml of distilled water, and 2 mg of TNT were placed into 750 ml shaken flasks. The flasks were incubated at 150 rev/min and 24 C. Glucose, sodium succinate or sodium acetate had been used as co-substrates. The ability of the strains to produce surfactants was studied by drop collapsing test and direct measuring of surface tension of cultural liquid after cultivation with TNT. Cells of the strains were cultivated on solid and liquid nutrient media. For drop collapsing test the cells were cultivated on solid nutrient media; the separated colonies were suspended in distilled water. Drop sustainability test ws conducted on a standard 96-well plates coated with a thin layer of vaseline oil. Surface tension of cultural liquid ws measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of TNT with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. (orig.)

  13. Enhanced Characterization of Microorganisms in the Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Patricia; Stetzenbach, Linda D.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the space shuttles are enclosed environments where crewmembers may spend long periods of time. Currently, crewmembers spend approximately a period of 6 months in the ISS. It is known that these prolonged stays in space may result in weakening of the immune system. Therefore, exposure to opportunistic pathogens or high concentrations of environmental microorganisms may compromise the health of the crew. The detection of biocontaminants in spacecraft environments utilizes culture-based methodology, omitting greater than 90% of all microorganisms including pathogens such as Legionella and Cryptosporidium. Culturable bacteria and fungi have been the only allergens studied; the more potent allergens, such as those from dust mites, have never been tested for in spacecraft environments. In addition, no attempts have been made to monitor microbial toxins in spacecrafts. The present study utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) as a novel approach for monitoring microorganisms in the spacecraft environment. QPCR is a molecular biology technique that does not rely on the physiological state of the organisms for identification, thereby enabling detection of both culturable and non-culturable organisms. In this project, specific molecular primers and probes were utilized for the detection and quantitation of two fungi of concern in indoor environments, Aspergillus fumigatus and Stachybotrys chartarum. These organisms were selected because of the availability of PCR primers and probes, and to establish the sample processing and analysis methodology that may be employed with additional organisms. Purification methods and QPCR assays were optimized for the detection of these organisms in air, surface, and water; and sample processing and analysis protocols were developed. Preliminary validation of these protocols was conducted in the laboratory with air, surface, and water samples seeded with known

  14. Effects of high CO2 concentrations on ecophysiologically different microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effect of increasing CO2 concentrations on the growth and viability of ecophysiologically different microorganisms to obtain information for a leakage scenario of CO2 into shallow aquifers related to the capture and storage of CO2 in deep geological sections. CO2 concentrations in the gas phase varied between atmospheric conditions and 80% CO2 for the aerobic strains Pseudomonas putida F1 and Bacillus subtilis 168 and up to 100% CO2 for the anaerobic strains Thauera aromatica K172 and Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Increased CO2 concentrations caused prolonged lag-phases, and reduced growth rates and cell yields; the extent of this effect was proportional to the CO2 concentration. Additional experiments with increasing CO2 concentrations and increasing pressure (1–5000 kPa) simulated situations occurring in deep CO2 storage sites. Living cell numbers decreased significantly within 24 h at pressures ≥1000 kPa, demonstrating a severe lethal effect for the combination of high pressure and CO2. - Highlights: ► Influence of high CO2 concentration on ecophysiologically different (aerobic, nitrate-reducing, sulphate-reducing) microorganisms. ► Investigation of growth and viability of two aerobic and two anaerobic model organisms. ► CO2 treatment also at elevated pressure up to 5000 kPa. ► Reduction of growth and viability at high CO2 concentrations. ► Sterilization at high pressure and high CO2 concentrations. - Increased CO2 concentrations, combined also with high pressure, adversely affected the growth and viability of four ecophysiological different microorganisms.

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  16. A multiprocessor airborne lidar data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. W.; Bailey, S. A.; Heath, G. E.; Piazza, C. R.

    A new multiprocessor data acquisition system was developed for the existing Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL). This implementation simultaneously utilizes five single board 68010 microcomputers, the UNIX system V operating system, and the real time executive VRTX. The original data acquisition system was implemented on a Hewlett Packard HP 21-MX 16 bit minicomputer using a multi-tasking real time operating system and a mixture of assembly and FORTRAN languages. The present collection of data sources produce data at widely varied rates and require varied amounts of burdensome real time processing and formatting. It was decided to replace the aging HP 21-MX minicomputer with a multiprocessor system. A new and flexible recording format was devised and implemented to accommodate the constantly changing sensor configuration. A central feature of this data system is the minimization of non-remote sensing bus traffic. Therefore, it is highly desirable that each micro be capable of functioning as much as possible on-card or via private peripherals. The bus is used primarily for the transfer of remote sensing data to or from the buffer queue.

  17. Airborne silica levels in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the exposure levels of the general population we studied the concentrations of silica particles in the inhalable particulate fraction (PM10) in different meteorological-climate periods in an urban area of Rome. In order to determine the concentration and the granulometric spectrum of silica particles, PM10 sampled by a cascade impactor was analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Over the period September 2004-October 2005 the abundance of silica particles as evaluated by SEM/EDX ranged from 1.6 to 10.4% of the total PM10 particulate, with a weight concentration of free crystalline silica, evaluated by XRD, in the range 0.25-2.87 μg/m3. The mean diameter of silica particles ranged from 0.3 to 10.5 μm, with more than 87% of particles having a diameter of less than 2.5 μm. The correlations between SEM/EDX and XRD data seem to suggest that the airborne silica particles in the urban location studied were mainly in the form crystalline silica. A strong relationship was found between the meteorological-climate conditions and the concentration level of free crystalline silica. This result suggests that the Southern winds from the Sahara desert carry an important amount of silica particles into Mediterranean Europe

  18. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals. PMID:14762640

  19. Palinocam Network: airborne pollen vigilance in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cervigón Morales

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma Regional Programme started to give up in 1992 with four big areas. Palinocam network project was first set up in Madrid as a part of Asthma Regional Programme, comprised in a wider Environmental Subprogram: Palynological Network of Madrid Region (PALINOCAM NETWORK.Palynological network is a multidisciplinary organization which has been working since 1993. In that moment an Experts Committee was created with This Experts Committee is coordinated by the Public Health Institute, under the technical Direction of Faculty of Pharmacy and is integrated by all of the involved institutions. This juridical framework is completed with individual agreements signed between the Councils and the Public Health Department, and with a Collaboration Agreement signed with the Madrid ́s Complutense University Faculty of Pharmacy.This network main aim is to watch for aerobiological content in Madrid's air, for a best knowledge of patients expositions in each geographical area in en different moment. This information has a great interest for Public Health.Palinocam Network is a useful tool in Public Health for offering information of aerobiological levels by Internet and Telephonic Service yearly .In this way allergic patients, sanitarians and media can know the most frequent pollen types in each season and its airborne level.

  20. Multiple model adaptive tracking of airborne targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Over the past ten years considerable work has been accomplished at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) towards improving the ability of tracking airborne targets. Motivated by the performance advantages in using established models of tracking environment variables within a Kalman filter, an advanced tracking algorithm has been developed based on adaptive estimation filter structures. A multiple model bank of filters that have been designed for various target dynamics, which each accounting for atmospheric disturbance of the Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor data and mechanical vibrations of the sensor platform, outperforms a correlator tracker. The bank of filters provides the estimation capability to guide the pointing mechanisms of a shared aperture laser/sensor system. The data is provided to the tracking algorithm via an (8 x 8)-pixel tracking Field of View (FOV) from the FLIR image plane. Data at each sample period is compared by an enhanced correlator to a target template. These offsets are measurements to a bank of linear Kalman filters which provide estimates of the target's location in azimuth and elevation coordinates based on a Gauss-Markov acceleration model, and a reduced form of the atmospheric jitter model for the disturbance in the IR wavefront carrying future measurements.

  1. AIRBORNE HIGH-RESOLUTION DIGITAL IMAGING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado-Molina, J.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost airborne digital imaging system capable to perform aerial surveys with small-format cameras isintroduced. The equipment is intended to obtain high-resolution multispectral digital photographs constituting so aviable alternative to conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery. Monitoring software handles all theprocedures involved in image acquisition, including flight planning, real-time graphics for aircraft position updatingin a mobile map, and supervises the main variables engaged in the imaging process. This software also creates fileswith the geographical position of the central point of every image, and the flight path followed by the aircraftduring the entire survey. The cameras are mounted on a three-axis stabilized platform. A set of inertial sensorsdetermines platform's deviations independently from the aircraft and an automatic control system keeps thecameras at a continuous nadir pointing and heading, with a precision better than ± 1 arc-degree in three-axis. Thecontrol system is also in charge of saving the platform’s orientation angles when the monitoring software triggersthe camera. These external orientation parameters, together with a procedure for camera calibration give theessential elements for image orthocorrection. Orthomosaics are constructed using commercial GIS software.This system demonstrates the feasibility of large area coverage in a practical and economical way using smallformatcameras. Monitoring and automatization reduce the work while increasing the quality and the amount ofuseful images.

  2. An intercomparison of airborne VOC measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) 2000 ambient air samples were analyzed on-board the NSF/NCAR ELECTRA research aircraft by two VOC measurement techniques: 1) an in-situ gas chromatograph named TACOH (Tropospheric Airborne Chromatograph for Oxy-hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbons), operated by NOAA's Aeronomy Laboratory, and 2) a chemical ionization mass spectrometer named PTR-MS (Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer) and operated by the University of Innsbruck. The sample protocols were quite different for the two methods: the TACOH system collected air samples for 15-60 sec (depending upon altitude) every 15 min, the PTR-MS system monitored selected VOCs on a time-shared basis for 2 sec respectively, once every 4-20 sec, depending upon the number of monitored species. Simultaneous measurements of acetaldehyde, isoprene, the sum of acetone and propanal, the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (PTR-MS does not distinguish between isobaric species) and toluene show good agreement despite being performed in the complex and highly polluted Houston air matrix. (author)

  3. Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, B.J.; Abraham, J.D.; Smith, B.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Voss, C.I.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Walvoord, M.A.; Wylie, B.K.; Anderson, L.; Ball, L.B.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Wellman, T.P.; Ager, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of permafrost in cold regions is inextricably connected to hydrogeologic processes, climate, and ecosystems. Permafrost thawing has been linked to changes in wetland and lake areas, alteration of the groundwater contribution to streamflow, carbon release, and increased fire frequency. But detailed knowledge about the dynamic state of permafrost in relation to surface and groundwater systems remains an enigma. Here, we present the results of a pioneering ???1,800 line-kilometer airborne electromagnetic survey that shows sediments deposited over the past ???4 million years and the configuration of permafrost to depths of ???100 meters in the Yukon Flats area near Fort Yukon, Alaska. The Yukon Flats is near the boundary between continuous permafrost to the north and discontinuous permafrost to the south, making it an important location for examining permafrost dynamics. Our results not only provide a detailed snapshot of the present-day configuration of permafrost, but they also expose previously unseen details about potential surface-groundwater connections and the thermal legacy of surface water features that has been recorded in the permafrost over the past ???1,000 years. This work will be a critical baseline for future permafrost studies aimed at exploring the connections between hydrogeologic, climatic, and ecological processes, and has significant implications for the stewardship of Arctic environments. ?? 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Sedimentation behavior of indoor airborne microparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; WU Chao; PAN Wei

    2008-01-01

    Experiments on the behavior of airborne microparticle sediments and their adhesion on glass slides were conducted in a laboratory located on the first floor of a teaching building. Clean tiles and glass slides were placed at different angles (0°, 45° and 90°) with respect to the horizontal plane in the laboratory. The sedimentation of microparticles was investigated at certain time intervals (1 d, 3 d, 10 d and 30 d). The results of testing, at day 30, show that the diameters of particles on the horizontal tiles varied from 20 to 80 μm; few particles with diameter less than 0.5 μm or greater than 100 μm were found. The amount of particle sediment on all the slides increased along over time, while the average diameter of particles was not correlated with time, nor with the angle of placement. The maximum particle size, the total particle surface area, the total perimeter of all particles and the cover ratio of light (the proportion of total area of particles to the observed area of the slides surfaces) did not change significantly within the first 10 days. Inspection of all the samples for the last 20 days, however, showed that these variables increased substantially with the passage of time and were in reverse proportion to the placement angles, which indicates a concentration of particles, as well as physical and chemical changes.

  5. An intercomparison of airborne VOC measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) 2000 ambient air samples were analyzed on-board the NSF/NCAR ELECTRA research aircraft by two VOC measurement techniques: 1) an in-situ gas chromatograph named TACOH (Tropospheric Airborne Chromatograph for Oxy-hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbons), operated by NOAA' Aeronomy Laboratory, and 2) a chemical ionization mass spectrometer named PTR-MS (Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer) and operated by the University of Innsbruck. The sample protocols were quite different for the two methods: the TACOH system collected air samples for 15-60 sec (depending upon altitude) every 15 min, the PTR-MS system monitored selected VOCs on a time-shared basis for 2 sec respectively, once every 4-20 sec, depending upon the number of monitored species. Simultaneous measurements of acetaldehyde, isoprene, the sum* of acetone and propanal, the sum* of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (* PTR-MS does not distinguish between isobaric species) and toluene show good agreement despite being performed in the complex and highly polluted Houston air matrix. (author)

  6. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, C., E-mail: balducci@iia.cnr.it [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Nervegna, G.; Cecinato, A. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ({Delta}{sup 9}-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm{sup -3} of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  7. Airborne radiometric: Data evaluation and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne geophysical system of the BGR (German Geological Survey) consists of a helicopter equipped with an electromagnetic system with two transmittors and two receivers, a proton resonance magnetometer and a 16 L NaJ-crystal with four channel recording. All these data together with navigation data and flight altitude above ground are recorded each second on a nine track magnetic tape for further data evaluation. Different corrections have to be applied to the rough data such as: smoothing by means of a digital filter to reduce statistical noise, altitude correction, Compton-correction, and drift correction (cross-profile evaluation). Then the corrected measuring data are combined with the navigation data in order to be able to produce iso-line maps. The final results are presented as: line plots for U, Th, and K (and EM-data and magnetometer data); actual flight line plots; iso-line maps for U, Th, and K; iso-line maps for conductivity; depth of conducting layer; and magnetometry maps. The procedures of correction and evaluation of the above mentioned data as well as the calibration of the NaJ-detector in terms of ppm U, Th, and %K are dicussed in the paper. (author)

  8. Airborne radioiodine in northern Serbia from Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained with the monitoring system set up to assess the impact of the Fukushima accident on the environment of Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia) are presented and discussed. Aerosol, rain, fresh milk and spinach samples were collected daily in the weeks following the accident. In the aerosol samples, 131I activity concentrations of several mBq m−3 were measured, while in rain, milk and spinach samples, 131I levels had values in a range of (0.3–1.7) Bq kg−1. These are the first results on the impact of the Fukushima accident on the Pannonian basin region. Our results are compared with the reported values from other parts of the world. - Highlights: ► I-131 from the Fukushima power plant was detected in the northern part of Serbia. ► In the aerosol samples the activity concentration of 131I has been measured to be of mBq m−3 order of magnitude. ► The concentrations of 131I in the rain, milk and spinach samples were in the range of (0.3–1.7) Bq kg−1. ► The time distributions of airborne I-131 during March–April of 2011 in the USA, Germany, Serbia and Greece are compared.

  9. Helicopter Airborne Laser Positioning System (HALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppel, Joseph C.; Christiansen, Howard; Cross, Jeffrey; Totah, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The theory of operation, configuration, laboratory, and ground test results obtained with a helicopter airborne laser positioning system developed by Princeton University is presented. Unfortunately, due to time constraints, flight data could not be completed for presentation at this time. The system measures the relative position between two aircraft in three dimensions using two orthogonal fan-shaped laser beams sweeping across an array of four detectors. Specifically, the system calculates the relative range, elevation, and azimuth between an observation aircraft and a test helicopter with a high degree of accuracy. The detector array provides a wide field of view in the presence of solar interference due to compound parabolic concentrators and spectral filtering of the detector pulses. The detected pulses and their associated time delays are processed by the electronics and are sent as position errors to the helicopter pilot who repositions the aircraft as part of the closed loop system. Accuracies obtained in the laboratory at a range of 80 ft in the absence of sunlight were + or - 1 deg in elevation; +0.5 to -1.5 deg in azimuth; +0.5 to -1.0 ft in range; while elevation varied from 0 to +28 deg and the azimuth varied from 0 to + or - 45 deg. Accuracies in sunlight were approximately 40 deg (+ or - 20 deg) in direct sunlight.

  10. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm-3 of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  11. Rhamnolipids as active protective agents for microorganisms against toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbial biosurfactants decreases the toxicity of chlorophenols towards Pseudomonas putida 2A cells. The rhamnolipid-originating micelles selectively entrapped chlorophenol molecules, which resulted in their lower bioavailability to microbial cells. It was observed that the effective concentrations causing 50% growth inhibition increased by 0.5, 0.35 and 0.15 for phenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2.4-dichlorophenol, accordingly. The application of surfactants as protective agents for microorganisms brings about new possibilities of using this phenomenon in bioremediation techniques.

  12. Swimming fluctuations of micro-organisms due to heterogeneous microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Hyon, YunKyong; Fu, Henry C.

    2014-10-01

    Swimming microorganisms in biological complex fluids may be greatly influenced by heterogeneous media and microstructure with length scales comparable to the organisms. A fundamental effect of swimming in a heterogeneous rather than homogeneous medium is that variations in local environments lead to swimming velocity fluctuations. Here we examine long-range hydrodynamic contributions to these fluctuations using a Najafi-Golestanian swimmer near spherical and filamentous obstacles. We find that forces on microstructures determine changes in swimming speed. For macroscopically isotropic networks, we also show how the variance of the fluctuations in swimming speeds are related to density and orientational correlations in the medium.

  13. Analysis of bioremediation of pesticides by soil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruml, Tomas; Klotz, Dietmar; Tykva, Richard

    1995-10-01

    The application of new pesticides requires careful monitoring of their distribution in the environment. The effect of the soil microflora on the stability of the [14C]- labelled juvenoid hormone analogue W-328 was estimated. The micro-organisms from two different soil samples were isolated and tested for their ability to decompose W-328. One bacterial strain, yeast and mold isolates, exhibited the degradation activity. The growth characteristics such as pH and temperature optima were determined. The degradation products were estimated using HPLC.

  14. Volcanism and soil mercury on Mars - Consequences for terrestrial microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    An earth-Mars depletion formula proposed by Anders and Owen for volatiles is used to calculate a range of putative Hg levels for Martian volcanic soils based upon analyzed samples from Hawaii. The range is about 50-150 microgram per kg. When applied either in conventional or special media (e.g., basalt powder), these levels of Hg are effective inhibitors of the growth of earth microorganisms. Taken together with other hostile chemical and physical factors, volcanic toxicants would appear to provide a further deterrent to the accidental establishment of terrestrial microbiota on Mars.

  15. Model suicide vector for containment of genetically engineered microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Bej, A K; Perlin, M H; Atlas, R M

    1988-01-01

    A model suicide vector (pBAP19h), designed for the potential containment of genetically engineered microorganisms, was made by constructing a plasmid with the hok gene, which codes for a lethal polypeptide, under the control of the lac promoter. The vector plasmid also codes for carbenicillin resistance. In the absence of carbenicillin, induction of the hok gene in vitro caused elimination of all detectable cells containing the suicide vector; pBAP19h-free cells of the culture survived and gr...

  16. Early concepts of the role of microorganisms in hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogeologists and geochemists have made great progress in the past few decades in understanding the water/rock interaction that are major controls on the chemical character of ground water. We also recognize that, for many reactions, we do not understand the specific mechanisms generating these reactions, such as those involved in the generation of gases, dissolution of some minerals, and some aspects of isotopic fractionation. Additional understanding will be gained only by study of the interaction of organic material, minerals, and microorganisms in the water and in the pore space of the aquifer material.

  17. Purification of soil contaminated by oil with microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Kazankapova; N. Toleukhanova; Mikhail Nauryzbayev

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studying the influence of strains of Pseudomonas mendoсina H-3 and Oscillatoria С-3 on soil contaminated with petroleum and hydrocarbons. The changes in chemical composition of hydrocarbons were determined. The influence of strain on the soil was studied by IR spectroscopy and chromatography. It was found that microorganisms can break down paraffinic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

  18. Purification of soil contaminated by oil with microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Kazankapova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying the influence of strains of Pseudomonas mendoсina H-3 and Oscillatoria С-3 on soil contaminated with petroleum and hydrocarbons. The changes in chemical composition of hydrocarbons were determined. The influence of strain on the soil was studied by IR spectroscopy and chromatography. It was found that microorganisms can break down paraffinic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

  19. Phenomenological modeling of the motility of self-propelled microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    Zaoli, Silvia; Formentin, Marco; Azaele, Sandro; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2014-01-01

    The motility of microorganisms in liquid media is an important issue in active matter and it is not yet fully understood. Previous theoretical approaches dealing with the microscopic description of microbial movement have modeled the propelling force exerted by the organism as a Gaussian white noise term in the equation of motion. We present experimental results for ciliates of the genus Colpidium, which do not agree with the Gaussian white noise hypothesis. We propose a new stochastic model that goes beyond such assumption and displays good agreement with the experimental statistics of motion, such as velocity distribution and velocity autocorrelation.

  20. Microbial and biochemical studies on phytase enzyme in some microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed calcium and magnesium salts of phytic acid myoinositol hexa phosphoric acid are widely distributed in food stuffs of plant origin, they may bind essential proteins, phospholipids and microelements to form indigestible compounds. In this concern, destruction of phytic acid and its salts by different methods is very important, one of them is by using microbial phytase. This study aims to produce phytase enzyme from microorganisms and study the best conditions of production and purification and also the properties of the partially purified phytase. 22 figs., 29 tabs., 61 refs