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Sample records for airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms

  1. Association of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms withbuilding-related symptoms and water damage in 100 U.S. office buildings:Analyses of the U.S. EPA BASE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Lei, Quanhong; Cozen, Myrna O.; Shendell, DerekG.; Macher, Janet M.; Tsai, Feng C.

    2003-10-01

    Metrics of culturable airborne microorganisms for either total organisms or suspected harmful subgroups have generally not been associated with symptoms among building occupants. However, the visible presence of moisture damage or mold in residences and other buildings has consistently been associated with respiratory symptoms and other health effects. This relationship is presumably caused by adverse but uncharacterized exposures to moisture-related microbiological growth. In order to assess this hypothesis, we studied relationships in U.S. office buildings between the prevalence of respiratory and irritant symptoms, the concentrations of airborne microorganisms that require moist surfaces on which to grow, and the presence of visible water damage. For these analyses we used data on buildings, indoor environments, and occupants collected from a representative sample of 100 U.S. office buildings in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (EPA BASE) study. We created 19 alternate metrics, using scales ranging from 3-10 units, that summarized the concentrations of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms (AMIMOs) as indicators of moisture in buildings. Two were constructed to resemble a metric previously reported to be associated with lung function changes in building occupants; the others were based on another metric from the same group of Finnish researchers, concentration cutpoints from other studies, and professional judgment. We assessed three types of associations: between AMIMO metrics and symptoms in office workers, between evidence of water damage and symptoms, and between water damage and AMIMO metrics. We estimated (as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals) the unadjusted and adjusted associations between the 19 metrics and two types of weekly, work-related symptoms--lower respiratory and mucous membrane--using logistic regression models. Analyses used the original AMIMO metrics and were

  2. Analysis of Membrane Lipids of Airborne Micro-Organisms

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    MacNaughton, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A method of characterization of airborne micro-organisms in a given location involves (1) large-volume filtration of air onto glass-fiber filters; (2) accelerated extraction of membrane lipids of the collected micro-organisms by use of pressurized hot liquid; and (3) identification and quantitation of the lipids by use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. This method is suitable for use in both outdoor and indoor environments; for example, it can be used to measure airborne microbial contamination in buildings ("sick-building syndrome"). The classical approach to analysis of airborne micro-organisms is based on the growth of cultureable micro-organisms and does not provide an account of viable but noncultureable micro-organisms, which typically amount to more than 90 percent of the micro-organisms present. In contrast, the present method provides an account of all micro-organisms, including cultureable, noncultureable, aerobic, and anaerobic ones. The analysis of lipids according to this method makes it possible to estimate the number of viable airborne micro-organisms present in the sampled air and to obtain a quantitative profile of the general types of micro-organisms present along with some information about their physiological statuses.

  3. Measuring airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

      Airborne transmission has been suspected to be responsible for epidemics of highly infectious disease in livestock production. In such transmission, the pathogenic microorganisms may associate with dust particles. However, the extent to which airborne transmission plays a role in the spread

  4. Personal exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms in agricultural environments.

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    Lee, Shu-An; Adhikari, Atin; Grinshpun, Sergey A; McKay, Roy; Shukla, Rakesh; Reponen, Tiina

    2006-03-01

    Airborne dust and microorganisms are associated with respiratory diseases and increased mortality and morbidity. Farmers are at high risk of exposure to both of these hazards. Very limited information, however, is available on the combined exposures to both hazards on different types of farms. Moreover, most of the previous studies have measured the mass concentration of particles ignoring the particle size. In this study, farmers' exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms was studied using our newly developed personal sampling system. Particle number concentration and size distribution were measured with an optical particle counter. Simultaneously, particles were collected on a filter and analyzed for microorganisms. The field measurements were conducted in animal confinements (swine, poultry, and dairy) and during grain harvesting (corn and soybean). The results show the following average concentrations on the workers' breathing zone: 1.7 x 10(6) to 2.9 x 10(7) particles/m(3) for total dust, 0.9 x 10(3) to 3.9 x 10(4) spores/m(3) for total fungal spores, 0.3 x 10(3) to 3.6 x 10(4)CFU/m(3) for culturable fungal spores, 0.3 x 10(4) to 3.3 x 10(8) CFU/m(3) for culturable bacteria, and limit of detection (LOD) to 2.8 x 10(3) CFU/m(3) for culturable actinomycetes in animal confinements. The respective concentrations were 4.4 x 10(6) to 5.8 x 10(7) particles/m(3), 3.4 x 10(4) to 6.1 x 10(6) spores/m(3), 8.2 x 10(4) to 7.4 x 10(6) CFU/m(3), 0.4 x 10(5) to 1.4 x 10(6) CFU/m(3), and LOD to 2.6 x 10(4) CFU/m(3) during grain harvesting. The highest contribution of large particles (3-10 microm) in total particles was found during grain harvesting, whereas the size distribution was dominated by smaller particles (particles between 2-10 microm was found to be fungal spores. The results indicate that an increase in the concentration of large dust particles (2-10 microm) during grain harvesting was partially attributed to the increase in the concentration of the fungal spores

  5. Assessment of electrical charge on airborne microorganisms by a new bioaerosol sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-An; Willeke, Klaus; Mainelis, Gediminas; Adhikari, Atin; Wang, Hongxia; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2004-03-01

    Bioaerosol sampling is necessary to monitor and control human exposure to harmful airborne microorganisms. An important parameter affecting the collection of airborne microorganisms is the electrical charge on the microorganisms. Using a new design of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for bioaerosol sampling, the polarity and relative strength of the electrical charges on airborne microorganisms were determined in several laboratory and field environments by measuring the overall physical collection efficiency and the biological collection efficiency at specific precipitation voltages and polarities. First, bacteria, fungal spores, and dust dispersed from soiled carpets were sampled in a walk-in test chamber. Second, a simulant of anthrax-causing Bacillus anthracis spores was dispersed and sampled in the same chamber. Third, bacteria were sampled in a small office while four adults were engaged in lively discussions. Fourth, bacteria and fungal spores released from hay and horse manure were sampled in a horse barn during cleanup operations. Fifth, bacteria in metalworking fluid droplets were sampled in a metalworking simulator. It was found that the new ESP differentiates between positively and negatively charged microorganisms, and that in most of the tested environments the airborne microorganisms had a net negative charge. This adds a signature to the sampled microorganisms that may assist in their identification or differentiation, for example, in an anti-bioterrorism network.

  6. Removal of airborne microorganisms emitted from a wastewater treatment oxidation ditch by adsorption on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Min Gao; Junxin Liu; Xuesong Guo

    2011-01-01

    Bioaerosol emissions from wastewater and wastewater treatment processes are a significant subgroup of atmospheric aerosols.Most previous work has focused on the evaluation of their biological risks.In this study, however, the adsorption method was applied to reduce airborne microorganisms generated from a pilot scale wastewater treatment facility with oxidation ditch.Results showed adsorption on granule activated carbon (GAC) was an efficient method for the purification of airborne microorganisms.The GAC itself had a maximum adsorption capacity of 2217 CFU/g for airborne bacteria and 225 CFU/g for fungi with a flow rate of 1.50 m3/hr.Over 85%of airborne bacteria and fungi emitted from thc oxidation ditch were adsorbed within 80 hr of continuous operation mode.Most of them had a particle size of 0.65-4.7 μm.Those airborne microorganisms with small particle size were apt to be adsorbed.The SEM/EDAX,BET and Boehm's titration methods were applied to analyse the physicochemical characteristics of the GAC.Relationships between GAC surface characteristics and its adsorption performance demonstrated that porous structure, large surface area, and hydrophobicity rendered GAC an effective absorber of airborne microorganisms.Two regenerate methods, ultraviolet irradiation and high pressure vapor, were compared for the regeneration of used activated carbon.High pressure vapor was an effective technique as it totally destroyed the microorganisms adhered to the activated carbon.Microscopic observation was also carried out to investigate original and used adsorbents.

  7. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  8. Airborne microorganisms associated with waste management and recovery: biomonitoring methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Coccia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from a year-long indoor bioaerosol monitoring performed in three working environments of a municipal composting facility treating green and organic waste. Composting, whereby organic matter is stabilized through aerobic decomposition, requires aeration, causing the dispersion of microbial particles (microorganisms and associated toxins. Waste can, therefore, become a potential source of biological hazard. Bioaerosol samples were collected on a monthly basis. Through a comparison of results obtained using two samplers - the Surface Air System DUO SAS 360 and the BioSampler - the study aimed at assessing the presence of biological pollutants, and at contributing to the definition of standard sampling methods for bioaerosols leading, eventually, to the establishment of exposure limits for these occupational pollutants.

  9. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples

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    An, Hey Reoun; Mainelis, Gediminas; White, Lori

    This manuscript describes the coupling of bioaerosol collection and the use of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify the airborne bacteria. The quantity of collected bacteria determined by RT-PCR is compared with conventional quantification techniques, such as culturing, microscopy and airborne microorganism counting by using optical particle counter (OPC). Our data show that an experimental approach used to develop standard curves for use with RT-PCR is critical for accurate sample quantification. Using universal primers we generated 12 different standard curves which were used to quantify model organism Escherichia coli (Migula) Catellani from air samples. Standard curves prepared using a traditional approach, where serially diluted genomic DNA extracted from pure cultured bacteria were used in PCR reaction as a template DNA yielded significant underestimation of sample quantities compared to airborne microorganism concentration as measured by an OPC. The underestimation was especially pronounced when standard curves were built using colony forming units (CFUs). In contrast, the estimate of cell concentration in an air sample by RT-PCR was more accurate (˜60% compared to the airborne microorganism concentration) when the standard curve was built using aerosolized E. coli. The accuracy improved even further (˜100%) when air samples used to build the standard curves were diluted first, then the DNA extracted from each dilution was amplified by the RT-PCR—to mimic the handling of air samples with unknown and possibly low concentration. Therefore, our data show that standard curves used for quantification by RT-PCR needs to be prepared using the same environmental matrix and procedures as handling of the environmental sample in question. Reliance on the standard curves generated with cultured bacterial suspension (a traditional approach) may lead to substantial underestimation of microorganism quantities in environmental samples.

  10. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during flax scutching on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Skórska, Czesława; Prazmo, Zofia; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed on 5 flax farms located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the concentrations of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin were collected in barns during machine scutching of flax stems by the farmers. The concentrations of mesophilic bacteria ranged from 203.5-698.8 x 10(3) cfu/m3, of Gram-negative bacteria from 27.2-123.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3, of thermophilic actinomycetes from 0.5-2.6 x 10(3) cfu/m3, and of fungi from 23.4-99.8 x 10(3) cfu/m3. The concentrations of total airborne microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) were within a range of 245.0-741.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3. The values of the respirable fraction of total airborne microflora on the examined farms were between 45.5-98.3%. Corynebacteria (irregular Gram-positive rods, mostly Corynebacterium spp.) were dominant at all sampling sites, forming 46.8-67.8% of the total airborne microflora. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most numerous species was Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans), known to have strong endotoxic and allergenic properties. Among fungi, the allergenic species Alternaria alternata prevailed. Altogether, 25 species or genera of bacteria and 10 species or genera of fungi were identified in the farm air during flax scutching; of these, 11 and 6 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 43.7-648.1 mg/m3 (median 93.6 mg/m3), exceeding on all farms the Polish OEL value of 4 mg/m3. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin ranged within 16.9-172.1 microg/m3 (median 30.0 microg/m3), exceeding at all sampling sites the suggested OEL value of 0.2 microg/m). In conclusion, flax farmers performing machine scutching of flax could be exposed to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin, posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. PMID:15627342

  11. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers

  12. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Palmer Drought and Crop Moisture Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Palmer Drought Severity and Crop Moisture Indices are computed for the 344 U.S. Climate Divisions on a weekly basis based on a...

  13. Scrubber capabilities to remove airborne microorganisms and other aerial pollutants from the exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Zhao, Y.; Ploegaert, J.P.M.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess the efficiency of air scrubbers to reduce airborne microorganisms in the exhaust air from animal houses. First, in a field study, the effects of a bio-scrubber and an acid scrubber on total bacterial counts were assessed. Higher bacterial counts were found in the

  14. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  15. Characterization of mold and moisture indicators in the home.

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    Mahooti-Brooks, Negar; Storey, Eileen; Yang, Chin; Simcox, Nancy J; Turner, William; Hodgson, Michael

    2004-12-01

    As studies increasingly support the presence of health risks associated with mold and moisture, understanding fungal concentrations and physical measurements as they relate to the microenvironment becomes more important. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the homes of 64 subjects. The primary objective of this study was to use trained inspectors' list of indicators in rooms (bathroom, bedroom, and basement) and determine whether these indicators are associated with higher fungal levels or physical measurements. A new category for combining the concentrations of fungal species, referred to as moisture indicator fungi (MIF), is used in the analysis. Our results show that basements with a musty odor, efflorescence, water sources, or mold have a two- to threefold increase in fungal concentrations over basements without these indicators. The regression model for the basement was highly predictive of indoor MIF concentrations (r2 = .446, p = .017). Basement water sources are substantial predictors of indoor total fungi, MIF, and Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. MIF concentrations are higher in homes with basement water sources, and most notably, the increase in MIF concentrations is significant in other living spaces (bathroom and bedroom) of the dwelling. Basement water sources are important moisture/mold indicators for epidemiologists to use in exposure assessments performed in residential dwellings.

  16. Distribution and identification of culturable airborne microorganisms in a Swiss milk processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Helmut; Fricker-Feer, Claudia; Ziegler, Dominik; Mandal, Jyotshna; Stephan, Roger; Lehner, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Airborne communities (mainly bacteria) were sampled and characterized (concentration levels and diversity) at 1 outdoor and 6 indoor sites within a Swiss dairy production facility. Air samples were collected on 2 sampling dates in different seasons, one in February and one in July 2012 using impaction bioaerosol samplers. After cultivation, isolates were identified by mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight) and molecular (sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes) methods. In general, total airborne particle loads and total bacterial counts were higher in winter than in summer, but remained constant within each indoor sampling site at both sampling times (February and July). Bacterial numbers were generally very low (airborne microflora, with Bacillus and Staphylococcus being the most frequent genera identified. Overall, the culturable microflora community showed a composition typical and representative for the specific location. Bacterial counts were highly correlated with total airborne particles in the size range 1 to 5 µm, indicating that a simple surveillance system based upon counting of airborne particles could be implemented. The data generated in this study could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the dairy plant's sanitation program and to identify potential sources of airborne contamination, resulting in increased food safety.

  17. Particle Size Distribution of Airborne Microorganisms and Pathogens during an Intense African Dust Event in the Eastern Mediterranean

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    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    Background The distribution of microorganisms, and especially pathogens, over airborne particles of different sizes has been ignored to a large extent, but it could have significant implications regarding the dispersion of these microorganisms across the planet, thus affecting human health. Objectives We examined the microbial quality of the aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region during an African storm to determine the size distribution of microorganisms in the air. Methods We used a five-stage cascade impactor for bioaerosol collection in a coastal city on the eastern Mediterranean Sea during a north African dust storm. Bacterial communities associated with aerosol particles of six different size ranges were characterized following molecular culture–independent methods, regardless of the cell culturability (analysis of 16S rRNA genes). Results All 16S rDNA clone libraries were diverse, including sequences commonly found in soil and marine ecosystems. Spore-forming bacteria such as Firmicutes dominated large particle sizes (> 3.3 μm), whereas clones affiliated with Actinobacteria (found commonly in soil) and Bacteroidetes (widely distributed in the environment) gradually increased their abundance in aerosol particles of reduced size (< 3.3 μm). A large portion of the clones detected at respiratory particle sizes (< 3.3 μm) were phylogenetic neighbors to human pathogens that have been linked to several diseases. Conclusions The presence of aerosolized bacteria in small size particles may have significant implications to human health via intercontinental transportation of pathogens. PMID:18335093

  18. Observations on the use of membrane filtration and liquid impingement to collect airborne microorganisms in various atmospheric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Gonzalez, C.; Teigell, N.; Petrosky, T.; Northup, D.E.; Lyles, M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sample-collection-time on the recovery of culturable airborne microorganisms using a low-flow-rate membrane-filtration unit and a high-flow-rate liquid impinger were investigated. Differences in recoveries were investigated in four different atmospheric environments, one mid-oceanic at an altitude of ~10.0 m, one on a mountain top at an altitude of ~3,000.0 m, one at ~1.0 m altitude in Tallahassee, Florida, and one at ~1.0 m above ground in a subterranean-cave. Regarding use of membrane filtration, a common trend was observed: the shorter the collection period, the higher the recovery of culturable bacteria and fungi. These data also demonstrated that lower culturable counts were common in the more remote mid-oceanic and mountain-top atmospheric environments with bacteria, fungi, and total numbers averaging (by sample time or method categories) count noted was 3.5 bacteria CFU m-3, and the highest averaged 140.4 total CFU m-3. When atmospheric temperature allowed use, the high-volume liquid impinger utilized in this study resulted in much higher recoveries, as much as 10?? greater in a number of the categories (bacterial, fungal, and total CFU). Together, these data illustrated that (1) the high-volume liquid impinger is clearly superior to membrane filtration for aeromicrobiology studies if start-up costs are not an issue and temperature permits use; (2) although membrane filtration is more cost friendly and has a 'typically' wider operational range, its limits include loss of cell viability with increased sample time and issues with effectively extracting nucleic acids for community-based analyses; (3) the ability to recover culturable microorganisms is limited in 'extreme' atmospheric environments and thus the use of a 'limited' methodology in these environments must be taken into account; and (4) the atmosphere culls, i.e., everything is not everywhere. ?? 2010 US Government.

  19. Collection and survival of airborne microorganisms in fibrous filters; Abscheidung und Ueberlebensrate von luftgetragenen Mikroorganismen in technischen Tiefenfiltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maus, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik; Goppelsroeder, A. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik; Umhauer, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik

    1997-02-01

    Experimental studies revealed that coarse dust filter media employed for general ventilation purposes do not show high fractional efficiencies (<80%) for airborne microorganisms and pollens. Only fine dust filter media showed sufficiently high efficiencies that guarantee ample protection from biological contaminants (bacteria, mold spores). Microbiological in vitro test showed that no fiber materials of unused filter media (synthetic and glass fibers) served as nutrients for microbial growth. In addition no growth could be detected in used and unused filter media while challenged with air flow. However, the viability of hardy species (bacterial and mold spores) was unaffected in trials up to 5 days. (orig.) [Deutsch] In experimentellen Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass insbesondere Grobstaubfilter der Klassen G1 bis G4 relative niedrige Trenngrade (kleiner 80%) fuer luftgetragene Mikroorganismen und Pollen besitzen. Lediglich Filtermedien, die mindestens der Filterklasse F7 zuzuordnen sind, wiesen hohe Trenngrade (groesser 80%) fuer biologische Partikeln auf. Daher kann davon ausgegangen werden, dass nur Feinstaub- oder Schwebstoffiltermedien einen wirksamen Schutz vor luftgetragenen biologischen Partikeln (Bakterien, Schimmelpilzsporen, Pollen) gewaehrleisten. Untersuchungen zum Ueberlebensverhalten von Mikroorganismen in neuwertigen Filtermedien zeigten, dass die in der Filtertechnik ueblichen Fasermaterialien (Glas- und Synthetikfasern) nicht als Naehrstoffquelle dienen. Ebenso konnte in durchstroemten neuwertigen und gebrauchten Filtermedien kein mikrobielles Wachstum nachgewiesen werden. Widerstandsfaehige Formen zeigten auch hier in Zeitraeumen bis zu 5 Tagen keine Beeintraechtigung in ihrer Vitalitaet. (orig.)

  20. Effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating system for control of airborne microorganisms in meat processing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in a meat processing environment was determined. Serratia marcescens and lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were used to artificiall...

  1. 盐城市空气微生物调查与评价%Investigation and Evaluation on Airborne Microorganisms in Yancheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛伟; 蔡琨; 马晶晶

    2015-01-01

    To learn about the airborne microorganism pollution in Yancheng,four urban functional area sites and one suburban refer-ence site were settled from 2009 to 2013.Atmospheric bacteria and Martin's fungi were collected using natural precipitation method. The results indicated that the traffic area had the highest content of atmospheric bacteria,followed by the cultural district,industrial area,residential area,and reference site.The traffic area had the highest content of Martin's fungi,followed by the industrial area, residential area,cultural district,and reference site.Airborne microorganism condition of all functional areas except traffic area in Yancheng was fairly clean or lightly polluted.Years of continuous monitoring results showed that the pollution level of Yancheng was decreasing year by year with slight fluctuations.%为了解盐城市空气微生物污染状况,于2009—2013年在盐城市布设了4个城市主要功能区点位和1个市郊清洁参照点,采用自然沉降法采集空气中细菌和马丁霉菌样品进行分析。结果表明,盐城市空气中细菌数量最多的为交通区,其次依次为文教区、工业区、居民区,清洁参照点最少;马丁霉菌数量最多的是交通区,其次依次为工业区、居民区、文教区,清洁参照点最少。盐城市空气微生物污染级别除交通区外,其他功能区均处于较清洁或轻微污染,污染程度呈逐年波动下降趋势。

  2. Microorganism Billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Colin; Spagnolie, Saverio E; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that certain types of microorganisms "reflect" off of a flat surface at a critical angle of departure, independent of the angle of incidence. The nature of the reflection may be active (cell and flagellar contact with the surface) or passive (hydrodynamic) interactions. We explore the billiard-like motion of such a body inside a regular polygon and show that the dynamics can settle on a stable periodic orbit, or can be chaotic, depending on the swimmer's departure angle and the domain geometry. The dynamics are often found to be robust to the introduction of weak random fluctuations. The Lyapunov exponent of swimmer trajectories can be positive or negative, can have extremal values, and can have discontinuities depending on the degree of the polygon. A passive sorting device is proposed that traps swimmers of different departure angles into separate bins. We also study the external problem of a microorganism swimming in a patterned environment of square ...

  3. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, H.

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  5. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  6. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  7. Concentration, spatial and size distribution of airborne aerobic mesophilic bacteria in broiler farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adell, E.; Moset, V.; Yang Zhao, Yang; Cerisuelo, A.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2011-01-01

    In livestock houses, particulate matter (PM) and airborne microorganism are two of the most relevant air pollutants. Particulate matter may carry microorganisms, the inhalation of which can cause detrimental health effects. The aim of this study was to study the spatial distribution of airborne aero

  8. Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms (microbes) are those life forms too small to be seen by the naked eye; that is, those that require a microscope or other form of magnification in order to be observed. The term microorganism is thus a functional description rather than a taxonomic one, and the grouping includes a w...

  9. Airborne microorganisms associated with packaging glass sorting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marta Jorge de Vasconcelos; Veiga, José Miguel; Fernandes, Paulo; Ramos, Carla; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Velho, Maria Manuela Lemos Vaz; Guerreiro, Joana Santos

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, efforts have been undertaken to reduce the volume of residual waste through sorting and recycling. The waste management and recycling sector is thriving and the number of workers there is increasing. In this context, prior knowledge of the risks to which workers may be exposed is of crucial importance, and preventive measures need to be put in place to accurately identify and quantify those risks. This study aimed to assess occupational risk of exposure to biological agents (viable bacteria and fungi) in a Portuguese waste packaging glass sorting plant. Air samples were collected from selected locations in waste sorting cabins (critical area, CA), administrative services (noncritical area, NCA) and outdoors (control point, CP). Duplicate air samples were collected through an impaction method. The investigation was carried out over an 8-mo period with two collection periods, autumn/winter (AW) and spring/summer (SS), in order to access the influence of any seasonal variation. In the 36 air samples collected, 319 bacterial and 196 mold identifications were performed. Air samples revealed existence of high environmental contamination by bacteria (1.6 × 10(4) colony forming units [cfu]/m(3)) and fungi (1.5 × 10(4) cfu/m(3)). The predominant bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) with values ranging from 29.6 to 60% of the total count of bacteria. Genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) were also present at all sampling sites, regardless of the season. However, the counts of these genera, in the CA, were higher in warmer seasons. The genus Penicillium was the most frequent genus present with an approximate value of 95% of total fungal count in the CA. Seasonal variation was a significant factor for total bacteria and fungi, except for NCA versus CP. Overall, the highest levels of bacterial and fungal species (10(4) cfu/m(3)) were found in the waste sorting cabin (CA). These results highlight the importance of proper design and risk evaluation when planning a new waste facility, such that working conditions minimize proliferation of biological agents in the workplace.

  10. Rumen microorganisms and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Castillo-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rumen consists of a complex ecosystem where nutrients consumed by ruminants are digested by fermentation process, which is executed by diverse microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. A symbiotic relationship is found among different groups of microorganisms due to the diverse nature of these microbial species and their adaptability and interactions also coexist. The ruminant provides the necessary environment for the establishment of such microorganisms, while the microorganisms obtain energy from the host animal from microbial fermentation end products. Within the ruminal ecosystem, the microorganisms coexist in a reduced environment and pH remains close to neutral. Rumen microorganisms are involved in the fermentation of substrates contained in thedietof the animals (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. However, the fermentation process is not 100% effective because there are energy losses mainly in the form of methane gas (CH4, which is a problem for the environment since it is a greenhouse gas. In order to improve the efficiency of ruminant production systems, nutritional strategies that aim to manipulate ruminal fermentation using additives in the diet such as monensin, tallow, buffers, nitrogen compounds, probiotics, and others have been used. These additives allow changing the ruminal fermentation process in ways that produce better growth efficiency while decreasing energy loss. The purpose of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the fermentation processes taking place in the rumen, providing information that can be applied in the development of new nutritional strategies for the improvement of the digestion process to achieve maximum production.

  11. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  12. Attaching substances to microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Leenhouts Cornelis, J.; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The invention relates to surface display of proteins on microorganisms via the targeting and anchoring of heterologous proteins to the outer surface of cells such as yeast, fungi, mammalian, plant cells, and bacteria. The invention provides a proteinaceous substance comprising a reactive group and a

  13. Modelling microorganisms in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Gerwen, van S.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the growth and behaviour of microorganisms in food has long been an aim in food microbiology research. In recent years, microbial models have evolved to become more exact and the discipline of quantitative microbial ecology has gained increasing importance for food safety management, part

  14. Airborne wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on 'Fundamentals' contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, o

  15. Informative communication of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Kremenchutskу

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroorganism in combination with microbiota is considered as a “superorganism”. Microorganisms, belonging to the microbiota, are in dynamic equilibrium with a macroorganism. This balance is achieved through a molecular “language” of communication between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Molecular communication between cells leads to positive and negative results. A large number of metabolites of microorganisms that carry the information load: autoinducers is revealed. Autoinducer affect on the immune systems, and variety of metabolic processes. This affects on practically all organs and systems of maсroorganism. Studied metabolites of aerococci affect on the immune system, regenerative cycles and other processes of macroorganism. The problem of informative communication between prokaryotes and eukaryotes provides new insights about vital functions of “superorganisms”.

  16. Properties of thermophilic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms are called thermophilic or extreme thermophilic (caldo-active) if they grow and reproduce over 470C and 700C, respectively. A survey of growth characteristics of thermophiles is presented and it includes those which also live at extreme pH. The prevalent but not completely emcompassing theory of the ability of thermophiles to grow at high temperatures is that they have macromolecules and cell organelles with high thermostability. Work on some proteins and cell organelles from thermophiles is reviewed. The thermostabilities of these components are compared with those of the living cells, and factors which may govern optimum as well as minimum growth temperatures of microorganisms are discussed. Examples are from the literature but also include enzymes involved in tetrahydrofolate metabolism and other proteins of acetogenic therhmophilic bacteria which are presently studied in the author's laboratory

  17. Harmonic 'signatures' of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake-Coleman, B C; Hutchings, M J; Silley, P

    1994-01-01

    The frequency/amplitude effect of various microorganisms exposed to periodic (time varying) electric fields, when proximate to immersed electrodes, has been studied using a novel analytical instrument. The harmonic distribution, in complex signals caused by cells exposed to harmonic free waveforms and occupying part of the electrode/suspension interface volume, was shown to be almost entirely due to the change in the standing interfacial transfer function by the (dielectrically nonlinear) presence of cells. Thus, the characteristic interfacial non-linearity is viewed as variable, being uniquely modulated by the presence of particular cells in the interfacial region. Little can be attributed to bulk (far field) effects. The tendency for subtle (characteristic) signal distortion to occur as a function of particulate (cell or molecular) occupancy of the near electrode interfacial region under controlled current conditions leads to the method of sample characterisation by harmonic (Fourier) analysis. We report here, as a sequel to our original studies (Hutchings et al., 1993; Hutchings and Blake-Coleman, 1993), preliminary results of the harmonic analysis of microbial suspensions under controlled signal conditions using a three-electrode configuration. These data provide three-dimensional graphical representations producing harmonic 'surfaces' for various microorganisms. Thus, cell type differences are characterised by their 'harmonic signature'. The visual distinction provided by these 'surface' forming three-dimensional plots is striking and gives a convincing impression of the ability to identify and enumerate specific microorganisms by acquisition of cell-modulated electrode interfacial Fourier spectra. PMID:8060593

  18. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  19. Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    FARKOVÁ, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis and description of microorganisms occurring in meat products. The work is by definition enter the search character, so the method chosen as the research literature analysis and the subsequent description of findings. The first chapter focuses on the characteristics of microorganisms and their distribution in several respects. Chapter 2 is already covered by specific genera of microorganisms that have been using a wide range of literary sources characterize...

  20. Thermophilic microorganisms in biomining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Edgardo Rubén; Castro, Camila; Urbieta, María Sofía

    2016-11-01

    Biomining is an applied biotechnology for mineral processing and metal extraction from ores and concentrates. This alternative technology for recovering metals involves the hydrometallurgical processes known as bioleaching and biooxidation where the metal is directly solubilized or released from the matrix for further solubilization, respectively. Several commercial applications of biomining can be found around the world to recover mainly copper and gold but also other metals; most of them are operating at temperatures below 40-50 °C using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic microorganisms. Although biomining offers an economically viable and cleaner option, its share of the world´s production of metals has not grown as much as it was expected, mainly considering that due to environmental restrictions in many countries smelting and roasting technologies are being eliminated. The slow rate of biomining processes is for sure the main reason of their poor implementation. In this scenario the use of thermophiles could be advantageous because higher operational temperature would increase the rate of the process and in addition it would eliminate the energy input for cooling the system (bioleaching reactions are exothermic causing a serious temperature increase in bioreactors and inside heaps that adversely affects most of the mesophilic microorganisms) and it would decrease the passivation of mineral surfaces. In the last few years many thermophilic bacteria and archaea have been isolated, characterized, and even used for extracting metals. This paper reviews the current status of biomining using thermophiles, describes the main characteristics of thermophilic biominers and discusses the future for this biotechnology. PMID:27628339

  1. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  2. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  3. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  4. Technetium in micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of experimental work on the interaction of technetium with the following aquatic micro-organisms and untreated and sterilised sediments: Flavobacterium halmephilum, Uronema marinum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella bioculata, Mytilus edulis, and marine sediments, collected near Coxyde, containing a mixed population of micro-organisms, and sterilised by autoclaving. (UK)

  5. MLS airborne antenna research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  6. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  7. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  8. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  9. Airborne field strength monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bredemeyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  10. Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 μg/m(3) and 60 μg/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 μg/m(3), 38.1μg/m(3) and 52.5 μg/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ≤ 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality.

  11. Airborne monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete system for tracking, mapping, and performing a composition analysis of a radioactive plume and contaminated area was developed at the NRCN. The system includes two major units : An airborne unit for monitoring and a ground station for analyzing. The airborne unit is mounted on a helicopter and includes file following. Four radiation sensor, two 2'' x 2'' Nal (Tl) sensors horizontally separated by lead shield for mapping and spectroscopy, and two Geiger Mueller (GM) tubes as part of the safety system. A multichannel analyzer card is used for spectroscopy. A navigation system, based on GPS and a barometric altitude meter, is used to locate the plume or ground data. The telemetry system, consisting of a transceiver and a modem, transfers all the data in real time to the ground station. An industrial PC (Field Works) runs a dedicated C++ Windows application to manage the acquired data. An independent microprocessor based backup system includes a recorder, display, and key pad. The ground station is based on an industrial PC, a telemetry system, a color printer and a modem to communicate with automatic meteorology stations in the relevant area. A special software controls the ground station. Measurement results are analyzed in the ground station to estimate plume parameters including motion, location, size, velocity, and perform risk assessment. (authors)

  12. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  13. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  14. Compositae dermatitis from airborne parthenolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    suspected of causing airborne contact allergy, and its most important allergen is the sesquiterpene lactone (SQL) parthenolide (PHL). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to (i) assess the allergenicity of feverfew-derived monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and their oxidized products in feverfew......-allergic patients and (ii) re-assess the role of PHL and other SQLs in airborne contact allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Feverfew-allergic patients were patch tested with extracts and fractions containing volatile monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as well as extracts of airborne particles from flowering feverfew plants...

  15. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  16. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  17. [Redox-sensors of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchak, V I

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes available literature data on the existence and operation of redox sensors of microorganisms. It is partially focused on the activation by hyrdrogen peroxide OxyR protein and by superoxide anion SoxR protein in bacteria Escherichia coli and the activation by hyrdrogen peroxide and superoxide anion of Orp1-Yap1 protein system in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The similarities and peculiarities of redox signal sensing in pro- and eukaryotes have been discussed. PMID:19140447

  18. Transformation of the insecticide teflubenzuron by microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkelstein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, J.; Golovleva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Transformation of teflubenzuron, the active component in the insecticide commercialized as Nomolt, by soil microorganisms was studied. It was shown that microorganisms, belonging to Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera are capable to perform the hydrolytic cleavage of the phen

  19. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  20. PROBIOTICS BASED ON TRANSGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. А. Starovoitova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of recombinant microorganisms creation for obtaining on their basis a new effective biopreparations (probiotics with wider spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties were considered. A lot of attention was focused on the main genera of perspective bacteria for creation of recombinant probiotics particularly: Lactococcus, Bifidobac terium,Bacillus, Escherichia. The main created Ukrainian and foreign gene-modified strains, that are widely used today in creation of effective recombinant biopreparations were characterized. Some fundamental directions and methods of gene-modified strains obtaining, which are used in getting effective biopreparations that used for therapy and prophylactic illness were reported, under which this group of pharmaceutical drugs were not used earlier. The safety matters of probiotics using on basis of genemodified strains were examined. Medical and veterinary biopreparations on basis of recombinant microorganisms could be used directly and effectively for therapy and prophylaxis of different illness, beginning from disbacteriosis up to cardiovascular diseases. It is related with some probiotic microorganisms ability for lowering of serum cholesterol at the host organism.

  1. South African Airborne Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne operations entail the delivery of ground troops and their equipment by air to their area of operations. They can also include the subsequent support of these troops and their equipment by air. Historically, and by definition, this would encompass delivery by fixed-wing powered aircraft, by glider, by parachute or by helicopter. Almost any troops can be delivered by most of these means. However, the technical expertise and physical as well as psychological demands required by parachuting have resulted in specialist troops being selected and trained for this role. Some of the material advantages of using parachute troops, or paratroops, are: the enormous strategic reach provided by the long-distance transport aircraft used to convey them; the considerable payload which these aircraft are capable of carrying; the speed with which the parachute force can deploy; and the fact that no infrastructure such as airfields are required for their arrival. Perhaps most attractively to cash-strapped governments, the light equipment scales of parachute units’ makes them economical to establish and maintain. There are also less tangible advantages: the soldiers selected are invariably volunteers with a willingness or even desire to tackle challenges; their selection and training produces tough, confident and aggressive troops, psychologically geared to face superior odds and to function independently from other units; and their initiative and self-reliance combined with a high level of physical fitness makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles.

  2. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only...

  3. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Almeida, S. M.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, and are thus outside extreme environments, accounting for up to ~10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of archaea in the atmosphere. By means of DNA analysis and Sanger sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA (435 sequences) and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over 1 year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea. The detected archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase in bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly predicted methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands (72 sequences) and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role in the dispersal of archaea, including assumed ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens.

  4. A preliminary study of airborne microbial biodiversity over Peninsular Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K A; McCartney, H A; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Pearce, D A

    2004-07-01

    This study used PCR-based molecular biological identification techniques to examine the biodiversity of air sampled over Rothera Point (Antarctic Peninsula). 16S rDNA fragments of 132 clones were sequenced and identified to reveal a range of microorganisms, including cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, diatom plastids and other uncultivated bacterial groups. Matches for microorganisms that would be considered evidence of human contamination were not found. The closest matches for many of the sequences were from Antarctic clones already in the databases or from other cold environments. Whilst the majority of the sequences are likely to be of local origin, back trajectory calculations showed that the sampled air may have travelled over the Antarctic Peninsula immediately prior to reaching the sample site. As a result, a proportion of the detected biota may be of non-local origin. Conventional identification methods based on propagule morphology or culture are often inadequate due to poor preservation of characteristic features or loss of viability during airbome transfer. The application of molecular biological techniques in describing airbome microbial biodiversity represents a major step forward in the study of airborne biota over Antarctica and in the distribution of microorganisms and propagules in the natural environment.

  5. Metagenomics: Application of Genomics to Uncultured Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Handelsman, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Metagenomics (also referred to as environmental and community genomics) is the genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from an assemblage of microorganisms. The development of metagenomics stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. This evidence was derived from analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the environment, an approach that ...

  6. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengsheng Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion. Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1 the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2 an (unsurprising bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less

  7. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  8. Biocorrosion produced by Thiobacillus-like microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A I; Marín, I; Amils, R

    1994-01-01

    Biocorrosion can be produced by many different microorganisms through diverse mechanisms. The biocorrosion produced by acidophilic microorganisms of the genus Thiobacillus is based on the production of sulfuric acid and ferric ion from pyrites or related mineral structures, as a result of the chemolithotrophic metabolism of these microorganisms. The products of this aerobic respiration are also powerful oxidant elements, which can produce chemical oxidations of other metallic structures. The Tinto River, a very unusual extremophilic habitat (pH around 2, and high concentration of ferric ion), product of the growth of strict chemolithotrophic microorganisms, is discussed as a model case.

  9. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  10. Airborne microorganisms cultivable on naturally ventilated document repositories of the National Archive of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Sofía; Perdomo, Ivette

    2016-02-01

    The quality of the indoor air can provide very useful information for the artwork conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial concentration inside six document repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in two months of 1 year. The repositories are large, high, and have a natural cross-ventilation system. The microbial sampling was done in July 2010 (summer or rainy month) and February 2011 (winter or dry month) using the SAS Super 100 biocollector at 100 L/min. An appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. A high total microbial concentration on the north side of the building in two studied months was observed. The fungal concentrations were significantly higher in July 2010 in all repositories, while the bacterial concentrations were significantly higher mostly in February 2011 only in repositories located on the first and second floor of the building. Eight fungal genera in the indoor air of all environments were isolated. Regardless of the side of the analyzed building, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the species isolated in almost all of the analyzed repositories in the studied months. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed among bacterial groups isolated from indoor air repositories, and some percentages corresponded to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. In Cuba, the temperature and relative humidity are high during the whole year but the natural ventilation plays an important role in retarding microbial growth on materials.

  11. Controlling the levels of airborne pollen: can heterogeneous photocatalysis help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2013-10-15

    Airborne pollen is a worldwide problem because is a very important allergenic agent; it can be altered only by certain microorganisms and by some oxidizers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, heterogeneous photocatalysis (HPC) arose as a promising technology for reducing the level of contaminants in the air, based on their degradation by the production of ROS. In this paper, study of the feasibility of HPC to diminish the counts of pollen is undertaken. The research has been carried out at different levels, from solutions to mortar specimens with the evidence that HPC is able to reduce the amount of pollen grains. This is a major breakthrough that opens the door to a whole field of research, already full of gaps, whose implications could be quite controversial.

  12. Microorganisms in bioaerosol emissions from wastewater treatment plants during summer at a Mediterranean site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2007-03-01

    Measurements were conducted at a Mediterranean site (latitude 35 degrees 31' north and longitude 24 degrees 03' east) during summer, to study the concentration of microorganisms emitted from a wastewater treatment plant under intensive solar radiation (520-840 W/m2) and at elevated air temperatures (25-31 degrees C). Air samples were taken with the Air Sampler MAS 100 (Merck) at each stage of an activated-sludge wastewater treatment (pretreatment, primary settling tanks, aeration tanks, secondary settling tanks, chlorination, and sludge processors). Cultivation methods based on the viable counts of mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria, as well as of indicator microorganisms of faecal contamination (total and faecal coliforms and enterococci), and fungi were performed. During air sampling, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind speed were measured. The highest concentrations of airborne microorganisms were observed at the aerated grit removal of wastewater at the pretreatment stage. A gradual decrease of bioaerosol emissions was observed during the advanced wastewater treatment from the pretreatment to the primary, secondary and tertiary treatment (97.4% decrease of mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria, and 100% decrease of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and enterococci), 95.8% decrease of fungi. The concentration of the airborne microorganisms at the secondary and tertiary treatment of the wastewater was lower than in the outdoor control. At the same time, the reduction of the microbial load at the waste sludge processors was 19.7% for the mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria, 99.4% for the total coliforms, and 100% for the faecal coliforms and the enterococci, 84.2% for the fungi. The current study concludes that the intensive solar radiation, together with high ambient temperatures, as well as optimal wastewater treatment are the most important factors for low numbers of microbes in the air.

  13. Siderophores from Marine Microorganisms and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junfeng; CHI Zhenming

    2004-01-01

    In view of the fact that siderophores from microorganisms in different environments have received much attention in recent years because of their potential applications and diverse physiological functions, this review deals with siderophore-producing marine microorganisms and the detection, chemical structure and potential applications of siderophores.

  14. Microorganisms interacting in a bio filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba-Avila, M. D.; Flores-Tene, F. J.; Moreno-Terrazas, R.; Ramirez-Lopez, E. M.

    2009-07-01

    Biofilm microorganisms developed on a bio filter support media allow the metabolism of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to carbon dioxide and water. VOCs are present in polluted gaseous streams for varied industrial activities. The main objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms present in the biofilm developed on a bio filter support media using molecular biology techniques. (Author)

  15. Biofouling of marbles by oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Zeki; Öztürk, Ayten; Çolak, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms disfigure the surfaces of different types of stone. Stone structure is damaged by the activity of photoautotrophic and other microorganisms. However, to date few, investigations have been undertaken into the relationship between microorganisms and the properties of different types of marble. In this study, biological activity of photoautotrophic microorganisms on three types of marble (Yatagan White, Giallo Anticato and Afyon White) was investigated under laboratory conditions over a short period of time. The three types of marble supported the growth of phototrophic microbial communities on their outer and inner layers, turning their original colour from white to a yellowish green colour. The porosity of the marble types facilitated filamentous microbial growth in the presence of water. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the accumulation of aggregates such as small spherical, fibrillar, calcified globular bodies on the inner surfaces of the marbles. This suggests that the microscopic characteristics of particular marble types may stimulate the growth of certain types of microorganisms.

  16. FUNCTIONAL POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES SYNTHESIZED BY MICROORGANISMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qiang Chen; Qiong Wu; Kai Zhao; Peter H.Yu

    2000-01-01

    Many bacteria have been found to synthesize a family of polyesters termed polyhydroxyalkanoate, abbreviated as PHA. Some interesting physical properties of PHAs such as piezoelectricity, non-linear optical activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability offer promising applications in areas such as degradable packaging, tissue engineering and drug delivery.Over 90 PHAs with various structure variations have been reported and the number is still increasing. The mechanical property of PHAs changes from brittle to flexible to elastic, depending on the side-chainlength of PHA. Many attempts have been made to produce PHAs as biodegradable plastics using various microorganisms obtained from screening natural environments, genetic engineering and mutation. Due to the high production cost, PHAs still can not compete with the nondegradable plastics, such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Various processes have been developed using low cost raw materials for fermentation and an inorganic extraction process for PHA purification. However, a super PHA production strain may play the most critical role for any large-scale PHA production. Our recent study showed that PHA synthesis is a common phenomenon among bacteria inhabiting various locations, especially oil-contaminated soils. This is very important for finding a suitable bacterial strain for PHA production. In fact, PHA production strains capable of rapid growth and rapid PHA synthesis on cheap molasses substrate have been found on molasses contaminated soils. A combination of novel properties and lower cost will allow easier commercialization of PHA for many applications.

  17. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  18. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  19. Aerogene in kapljične okužbe v zobozdravstvu: Airborne and droplet infections in dentistry:

    OpenAIRE

    Lešničar, Gorazd; Žerdoner, Danijel

    2003-01-01

    Background. In dental care institutions, patients as well as dentistry workersthemselves are at risk of being exposed to various bacteria while on the other hand they both represent a source of such microorganisms. Apart fromthe infected patients and dental care personnel, modern apparatures used in dentistry along with inadequate and poorly maintained air conditioning appliances are the most significant agents of airborne and droplet infection spread. The paper preserats recommendations on p...

  20. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  1. Astrobiology studies of microorganisms in simulated interplanetary and planetary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    For laboratory studies on the responses of resistant life forms to simulated interplanetary space conditions, testbeds are available that simulate the parameters of space, such as vacuum, solar electromagnetic and cosmic ionizing radiation, temperature extremes and reduced gravity that can be applied separately, or in selected combinations. Appropriate biological test systems are extremophiles, i.e. microorganisms that are adapted to grow, or survive in extreme conditions of our biosphere. Examples are airborne microbes, epilithic, endolithic or endoevaporitic microbial communities, or bacterial endospores. Such studies contribute to answer several questions pertinent to astrobiology, such as (i) the role of solar UV radiation in genetic stability, (ii) the role of gravity in basic biological functions, (iii) the probability and limits for interplanetary transfer of life, (iv) strategies of adaptation to environmental extremes, and (v) the needs for planetary protection. In addition, studies on the responses of extremophile microbial communities to simulated planetary surface and subsurface conditions are an essential prerequisite in preparation of space missions to Mars, icy moons or asteroids, searching for signature of life.

  2. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry ( 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  3. Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S J; Hong, J T; Choi, S J; Kim, H S; Park, W K; Han, S T; Park, J Y; Lee, S; Kim, D S; Ahn, Y H

    2014-05-16

    Microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria cause many human diseases and therefore rapid and accurate identification of these substances is essential for effective treatment and prevention of further infections. In particular, contemporary microbial detection technique is limited by the low detection speed which usually extends over a couple of days. Here we demonstrate that metamaterials operating in the terahertz frequency range shows promising potential for use in fabricating the highly sensitive and selective microbial sensors that are capable of high-speed on-site detection of microorganisms in both ambient and aqueous environments. We were able to detect extremely small amounts of the microorganisms, because their sizes are on the same scale as the micro-gaps of the terahertz metamaterials. The resonant frequency shift of the metamaterials was investigated in terms of the number density and the dielectric constants of the microorganisms, which was successfully interpreted by the change in the effective dielectric constant of a gap area.

  4. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Hermosin Bernardo; Boiron Patrick; Rodriguez-Nava Veronica; Laiz Leonila; Jurado Valme; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo

    2010-01-01

    With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  5. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh;

    2012-01-01

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on “the history of use”, “traditional food”, or “general recognition of safety”. Authoritative lists of microorganism......, legumes, cereals, beverages, and vinegar). We have also reviewed and updated the taxonomy of the microorganisms used in food fermentations in order to bring the taxonomy in agreement with the current standing in nomenclature....

  6. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  7. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  8. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  9. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) proposes to develop a miniaturized Airborne Chemical Microsensor Instrument (ACMI) suitable for real-time, airborne measurements of...

  10. SIMULATION STUDY ON AIRBORNE SAR ECHO SIGNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Houbing; Liu Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Through analyzing the influence on echo signal by factors of kinematical parameters of airborne SAR platform and radar antenna direction, this letter, on the basis of classical SAR echo signal analogue algorithm, puts forward certain airborne SAR echo signal analogue algorithm of distance directional frequency domain pulse coherent accumulation, and goes through simulation. The simulation results have proved the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  11. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  12. Resuscitation effects of catalase on airborne bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Marthi, B; Shaffer, B. T.; Lighthart, B; Ganio, L

    1991-01-01

    Catalase incorporation into enumeration media caused a significant increase (greater than 63%) in the colony-forming abilities of airborne bacteria. Incubation for 30 to 60 min of airborne bacteria in collection fluid containing catalase caused a greater than 95% increase in colony-forming ability. However, catalase did not have any effects on enumeration at high relative humidities (80 to 90%).

  13. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  14. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan;

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) systems have already demonstrated that elevation maps can be generated rapidly with single pass airborne across-track interferometry systems (XTT), and satellite repeat track interferometry (RTT) techniques have been used to map both elevation......) the status of the airborne interferometry activities at DCRS, including the present system configuration, recent results, and some scientific applications of the system....

  15. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods. PMID:20830633

  16. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  17. Recovery of germanium from lignite by microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The recovery of Ge from lignite by microorganism includes two stages: (1) the breaking-down of Ge complex of humus in lignite into simple compounds assisted by microorganism; (2) the desorption of Ge compounds from the lignite. The recovery rate of Ge has been enhanced by 14% since the discovery of adsorption and desorption of Ge from coal. The effects of pH, leaching agents, and coal size on the recovery of Ge were experimentally investigated, and the optimized process parameters were obtained. The reaction heat of Ge adsorption and desorption in lignite was determined. It is about 23-53 kJ/mol, which reveals that the adsorption belongs to physical process. The recovery rate of Ge from lignite with direct microorganism leaching can reach about 85%, which is higher than that of 60% reported elsewhere. A potential process for leaching Ge in lignite was suggested.

  18. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review.

  19. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences......The rapid development of recombinant DNA techniques for food organisms urges for an ongoing discussion on the risk assessment of both new as traditional use of microorganisms in food production. This report, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is the result of a workshop where people from...

  1. [Metagenomics in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Yunjuan; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-12-01

    Animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. The gut microbial community of humans and animals has received significant attention from researchers because of its association with health and disease. The application of metagenomics technology enables researchers to study not only the microbial composition but also the function of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, combined with our own findings, we summarized advances in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism with metagenomics and the bioinformatics technology.

  2. Predictors of airborne endotoxin in the home.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J. H.; Spiegelman, D L; Gold, D R; Burge, H A; Milton, D K

    2001-01-01

    We identified home characteristics associated with the level of airborne endotoxin in 111 Boston-area homes enrolled in a cohort study of home exposures and childhood asthma, and we developed a predictive model to estimate airborne endotoxin. We measured endotoxin in family-room air and in dust from the baby's bed, family room, bedroom, and kitchen floor. Level of airborne endotoxin was weakly correlated (r < 0.3) with level of endotoxin in each of the four types of dust samples and was signi...

  3. Airborne Digital Camera. A digital view from above; Airborne Digital Camera. Der digitale Blick von oben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, H.P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumsensorik und Planetenerkundung

    1999-09-01

    The Airborne Digital Camera is based on the WAOSS camera of the MARS-96 mission. The camera will provide a new basis for airborne photogrammetry and remote exploration. The ADC project aims at the development of the first commercial digital airborne camera. [German] Die Wurzeln des Projektes Airborne Digital Camera (ADC) liegen in der Mission MARS-96. Die hierfuer konzipierte Marskamera WAOSS lieferte die Grundlage fuer das innovative Konzept einer digitalen Flugzeugkamera. Diese ist auf dem Weg, die flugzeuggestuetzte Photogrammetrie und Fernerkundung auf eine technologisch voellig neue Basis zu stellen. Ziel des Projektes ADC ist die Entwicklung der ersten kommerziellen digitalen Luftbildkamera. (orig.)

  4. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.;

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  5. Attaching substances to micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Leenhouts, Cornelis Johannes; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to surface display of proteins on micro-organisms via the targeting and anchoring of heterologous proteins to the outer surface of cells such as yeast, fungi, mammalian and plant cells, and bacteria. The invention provides a proteinaceous substance comprising a reactive group a

  6. Biodiversity of deep-sea microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengping Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The oceans, with an average depth of 3,800 meters and an average pressure about 38 MPa, cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth. Geological structures under the seawater, such as marine sediments, oceanic crust, hydrothermal vents, and the cold seeps, vary significantly with regard to physical and chemical properties. In combination, these diverse environments contain the largest microbial ecosystem in the world. In deep seawater, the major microorganism groups are Alpha-& Gammaproteobacteria, and Marine Group I. In deep-sea sediments, the abundance of microbes is related to the content of organic matter and distance from land. Methane Oxidizing Archaea (ANME and sulfate reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria are common in deep-sea cold seep environments; while in hydrothermal vents, the richness and dynamics of chemical substances have led to highly diversified archaeal and bacterial groups. In contrast, the oceanic crust is mainly composed of basic and ultrabasic rocks rich in minerals, and as a result houses microorganisms that are mainly autotrophic, utilizing iron, manganese and sulfur. Because more than 99% of deep-sea microorganisms cannot be cultured, an understanding of their diversity, physiological features, and biogeochemical roles remains to be fully achieved. In this article, we review and summarize what is known about the distribution and diversity of deep-sea microorganisms in diverse habitats. It is emphasized that there is much to learn about these microbes.

  7. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  8. Radiation sensitivity of hyperthermal composting microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kim, Geun Joong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    In the space station and vehicles designed for long human mission, high-temperature compost is a promising technology for decomposing organic waste and producing the fertilizers. In space, the microorganisms could have the changed biological activities or even be mutated by ionizing irradiation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the sensitivity of bacteria in hyperthermal composting was investigated. The sequence analysis of the amplified 16s rDNA genes and amoA gene were used for the identification of composting microorganisms. Viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly visualized with LIVE/DEAD Baclight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera are Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp. and fungus genera are Metschnikowia bicuspidate and Pichia guilliermondii, respectively. By the gamma irradiation up to the dose of 1 kGy, the microbial population was not changed. Also, the enzyme activities of amylase and cellulose were sustained by the gamma irradiation. These results show that these hyperthermia microorganisms might have the high resistance to gamma radiation and could be used for agriculture in the Space Station.

  9. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  10. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  11. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  12. Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of...

  13. Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mesa Photonics proposes to develop an Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor (AMUGS) based upon two-tone, frequency modulation spectroscopy (TT-FMS). Mesa Photonics has...

  14. Reconfigurable Weather Radar for Airborne Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc (IAI) and its university partner, University of Oklahoma (OU), Norman, propose a forward-looking airborne environment sensor based on...

  15. Software for airborne radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System monitors radioactive contamination in the air or on the ground. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. This system is composed of two major parts: Airborne Unit carried by a helicopter, and Ground Station carried by a truck. The Airborne software is intended to be the core of a computerized airborne station. The software is written in C++ under MS-Windows with object-oriented methodology. It has been designed to be user-friendly: function keys and other accelerators are used for vital operations, a help file and help subjects are available, the Human-Machine-Interface is plain and obvious. (authors)

  16. Airborne Infrared Search and Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Srivastava

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared search and track (IRST systems are required for fighter aircraft to enable them to passively search, detect, track, classify, and prioritise multiple airborne targets under all aspects, look-up, look-down, and co-altitude conditions and engage them at as long ranges as possible. While the IRST systems have been proven in performance for ground-based and naval-based platforms, it is still facing some technical problems for airborne applications. These problems arise from uncertainty in target signature, atmospheric effects, background clutter (especially dense and varying clouds, signal and data processing algorithms to detect potential targets at long ranges and some hardware limitations such as large memory requirement to store and process wide field of view data. In this paper, an overview of airborne IRST as a system has been presented with detailed comparative simulation results of different detectionitracking algorithms and the present status of airborne IRSTs

  17. Morphology, chemical composition, and bacterial concentration of airborne particulate matter in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock houses are major sources of airborne particulate matter (PM, which can originate from manure, feed, feathers, skin and bedding and may contain and transport microorganisms. Improved knowledge of particle size, morphology, chemical and microbiological composition of PM in livestock houses can help identify major sources of PM and contribute to the development of appropriate source-specific reduction techniques. In rabbit production systems, however, there is limited information on specific particle characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise airborne PM in rabbit farms in terms of morphology, chemical compositions and bacterial concentration in different size fractions. Size-fractioned PM was sampled in the air of 2 rabbit farms, 1 for fattening rabbits and 1 for reproductive does, using a virtual cascade impactor, which simultaneously collected total suspended PM (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions. Airborne PM samples were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Representative samples from potential sources of PM were also collected and examined. Additionally, a methodology to extract bacteria from the collected samples of airborne PM was developed to determine the bacterial concentration per PM size fraction. Results showed that airborne PM in rabbit farms is highly complex in particle morphology, especially in size. Broken skin flakes, disintegrated particles from feed or faecal material from mechanical fracture are the main sources of airborne PM in rabbit farms. Major elements found in rabbit airborne PM were S, Ca, Mg, Na and Cl. Bacterial concentrations ranged from 1.7×104 to 1.6×106 colony forming units (CFU/m3 (TSP; from 3.6×103 to 3.0×104 CFU/m3 (PM10; and from 3.1×103 to 1.6×104 CFU/m3 (PM2.5. Our results will improve the knowledge on essential particle characteristics necessary to understand PM’s origin in rabbit farms and

  18. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems - Part III: Airborne bacteria concentrations and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Zhao, D; Ma, H; Liu, K; Atilgan, A; Xin, H

    2016-07-01

    Airborne microorganism level is an important indoor air quality indicator, yet it has not been well documented for laying-hen houses in the United States. As a part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) environmental monitoring project, this study comparatively monitored the concentrations and emissions of airborne total and Gram-negative (Gram(-)) bacteria in three types of commercial laying-hen houses, i.e., conventional cage (CC), aviary (AV), and enriched colony (EC) houses, over a period of eight months covering the mid and late stages of the flock cycle. It also delineated the relationship between airborne total bacteria and particulate matter smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10). The results showed airborne total bacteria concentrations (log CFU/m(3)) of 4.7 ± 0.3 in CC, 6.0 ± 0.8 in AV, and 4.8 ± 0.3 in EC, all being higher than the level recommended for human environment (3.0 log CFU/m(3)). The much higher concentrations in AV arose from the presence of floor litter and hen activities on it, as evidenced by the higher concentrations in the afternoon (with litter access) than in the morning (without litter access). The overall means and standard deviation of airborne total bacteria emission rates, in log CFU/[h-hen] (or log CFU/[h-AU], AU = animal unit or 500 kg live weight) were 4.8 ± 0.4 (or 7.3 ± 0.4) for CC, 6.1 ± 0.7 (or 8.6 ± 0.7) for AV, and 4.8 ± 0.5 (or 7.3 ± 0.5) for EC. Both concentration and emission rate of airborne total bacteria were positively related to PM10 Gram(-) bacteria were present at low concentrations in all houses; and only 2 samples (6%) in CC, 7 (22%) samples in AV, and 2 (6%) samples in EC out of 32 air samples collected in each house were found positive with Gram(-) bacteria. The concentration of airborne Gram(-) bacteria was estimated to be hen houses, especially in AV houses. PMID:26994201

  19. The JAC airborne EM system : AEM-05

    OpenAIRE

    Levaniemi, H.; Beamish, D; Hautaniemi, H.; Kurimo, M.; Suppala, I.; Vironmaki, J.; Cuss, R.J.; Lahti, M; Tartaras, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system operated by the Joint Airborne geoscience Capability (JAC), a partnership between the Finnish and British Geological Surveys. The system is a component of a 3-in-1, fixed-wing facility acquiring magnetic gradiometer and full spectrum radiometric data alongside the wing-tip, frequency-domain AEM measurements. The AEM system has recently (2005) been upgraded from 2 to 4 frequencies and now provides a bandwidth from 900 Hz to 25 kHz....

  20. Airborne infections and modern building technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaForce, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last 30 yr an increased appreciation of the importance of airborne infection has evolved. The concept of droplet nuclei, infectious particles from 0.5 to 3 ..mu.. which stay suspended in air for long periods of time, has been accepted as an important determinant of infectivity. Important airborne pathogens in modern buildings include legionella pneumophila, Aspergillus sp., thermophilic actinomycetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles, varicella and rubella. Perhaps, the most important microbiologic threat to most buildings is L. pneumophila. This organism can multiply in water cooling systems and contaminate effluent air which can be drawn into a building and efficiently circulated throughout by existing ventilation systems. Hospitals are a special problem because of the concentration of immunosuppressed patients who are uniquely susceptible to airborne diseases such as aspergillosis, and the likelihood that patients ill from diseases that can be spread via the airborne route will be concentrated. Humidifiers are yet another problem and have been shown to be important in several outbreaks of allergic alveolitis and legionellosis. Control of airborne infections is largely an effort at identifying and controlling reservoirs of infection. This includes regular biocide treatment of cooling towers and evaporative condensers and identification and isolation of patients with diseases that may be spread via the airborne route.

  1. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  2. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  3. Detection of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi in food storage refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Sandikci Altunatmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiological air quality (psychrotrophic bacteria and airborne fungi and distribution of fungi in different types of ready-to-eat (RTE food-storage refrigerators (n=48 at selected retail stores in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Refrigerators were categorized according to the type of RTE food-storage: meat products, vegetables, desserts, or a mix of food types. Microbiological quality of air samples was evaluated by using a Mas-100 Eco Air Sampler. Four refrigerators (all containing meat products, 8.3% produced air samples with undetectable microorganisms. The highest detected mean value of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi was 82.3 CFU/m³ and 54.6 CFU/m³, respectively and were found in mixed-food refrigerators. The dominant airborne fungal genera found were Penicillium (29.0%, Aspergillus (12.0%, Mucor (9%, Cladosporium (8%, Botyrtis (7%, and Acremonium (6%. By definition, RTE food does not undergo a final treatment to ensure its safety prior to consumption. Therefore, ensuring a clean storage environment for these foods is important to prevent food-borne disease and other health risks.

  4. Contribution of airborne microbes to bacterial production and N2 fixation in seawater upon aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahav, Eyal; Ovadia, Galit; Paytan, Adina; Herut, Barak

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol deposition may supply a high diversity of airborne microbes, which can affect surface microbial composition and biological production. This study reports a diverse microbial community associated with dust and other aerosol particles, which differed significantly according to their geographical air mass origin. Microcosm bioassay experiments, in which aerosols were added to sterile (0.2 µm filtered and autoclaved) SE Mediterranean Sea (SEMS) water, were performed to assess the potential impact of airborne bacteria on bacterial abundance, production, and N2 fixation. Significant increase was observed in all parameters within a few hours, and calculations suggest that airborne microbes can account for one third in bacterial abundance and 50-100% in bacterial production and N2-fixation rates following dust/aerosol amendments in the surface SEMS. We show that dust/aerosol deposition can be a potential source of a wide array of microorganisms, which may impact microbial composition and food web dynamics in oligotrophic marine systems such as the SEMS.

  5. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  6. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  7. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    Many industrial and biotechnological processes make use of cold-active enzymes or could benefit from the use, as the reduced temperature can be beneficial in multiple ways. Such processes may save energy and production costs, improve hygiene, maintain taste and other organoleptic properties......, and reduce the risk of contaminations. Cold- and alkaline-active enzymes can be found in microorganisms adapted to living in natural environments with these conditions, which are extremely rare but found in the unique ikaite columns from SW Greenland (4-6 °C, pH >10). It is estimated that less than 1...... on the diversity of microorganisms from the ikaite columns as well as bioprospecting for enzyme activities using both culture dependent and independent methods. Two cold-active β-galactosidases and one extremely cold-active α-amylase, all related to Clostridia, were characterized in more details....

  8. Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R D

    1994-11-01

    Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

  9. Consolidated bioprocessing method using thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2016-02-02

    The present invention is directed to a method of converting biomass to biofuel, and particularly to a consolidated bioprocessing method using a co-culture of thermophilic and extremely thermophilic microorganisms which collectively can ferment the hexose and pentose sugars produced by degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses at high substrate conversion rates. A culture medium therefor is also provided as well as use of the methods to produce and recover cellulosic ethanol.

  10. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina Louise; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  11. Boosting plant defence by beneficial soil microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Maria J. Pozo; Loon, L. C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Plants in their environment face potential deleterious organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, etc. Many of them are able to cause plant diseases, responsible of important losses in crop production worldwide. But often the outcome of these interactions is not disease, since plants have developed multiple mechanisms to protect themselves against pathogens attack. Moreover, beneficial microorganisms are common in the soil, improving plant growth and reducing the effects of delete...

  12. Biodiversity of deep-sea microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Fengping Wang; Yueheng Zhou; Xinxu Zhang; Xiang Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The oceans, with an average depth of 3,800 meters and an average pressure about 38 MPa, cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth. Geological structures under the seawater, such as marine sediments, oceanic crust, hydrothermal vents, and the cold seeps, vary significantly with regard to physical and chemical properties. In combination, these diverse environments contain the largest microbial ecosystem in the world. In deep seawater, the major microorganism groups are Alpha-& Gammaproteobact...

  13. Magnetotaxy in microorganisms of Rio de Janeiro region: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some characteristics of several magnetotactic microorganisms found in sediments collected in Rio de Janeiro region are presented. The study of magnetic characteristics of these microorganisms indicate some general properties of the magnetotaxy phenomenons. (L.C.)

  14. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  15. Prokaryotic silicon utilizing microorganisms in the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although a little study has been done to determine the silicon utilizing prokaryotes, our previous experiments indicated that almost all Gram-positive bacteria are silicon utilizing; one of them, Streptococci survived exposure on the lunar surface for a long period in experiment done by others. Our initial experiments with these Gram positive microorganisms showed that there were limited growths of these microorganisms on carbon free silicate medium probably with the help of some carry over carbon and nitrogen during cultivation procedures. However, increase in growth rate after repeated subcultures could not be explained at present. The main groups of prokaryotes which were found silicon utilizing microorganisms were Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium. In a another previous study by us when silicon level was studied in such grown up cells on carbon "free" silicate medium by electron prove microanalyser, it was found that silicon in cells grown on carbon "free" silicate medium was much higher (24.9%) than those grown on conventional carbon based medium (0.84%). However, these initial findings are encouraging for our future application of this group of organisms on extraterrestrial surfaces for artificial micro-ecosystem formation. It was found that when electropositive elements are less in extraterrestrial situation, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen profusion may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the rocky worlds of the Universe.

  16. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors. PMID:22722910

  17. Surface transport of microorganisms by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J A

    1991-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the quality of runoff from land that has received either an application of livestock waste or been utilized as a pasture for livestock. Unfortunately, these studies have not directed their efforts to understanding and developing the relationships among several of the important parameters that influence runoff quality. One of the reasons for this deficiency is that the list of influencing parameters is quite long. Nevertheless, it is important to identify the parameters and their probable impact on movement of organisms in water. The microbiological aspects are influenced by the fate of organisms in the environment. Radiant energy (sunlight), temperature, available nutrients, presence of toxic materials, available moisture (precipitation and humidity), and soil pH all influence the death/growth rate of the organisms in question. Site characteristics, such as slope, vegetative cover, antecedent moisture content, soil type, organic matter content, infiltration rate, and surface condition of the soil, all influence microorganism movement. Hydrologic factors, such as frequency, duration, and intensity of rainfall, are very critical in determining the characteristics of runoff events that provide the transportation to move introduced organisms from their application site. There are very few models today that can be used to calculate the microorganism population in runoff. While many of the influencing parameters have been identified, there has been little research on the surface transport of microorganisms. PMID:2009386

  18. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  19. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Maartje A H J; Speth, Daan R; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Kartal, Boran; Jetten, Mike S M; Lücker, Sebastian

    2015-12-24

    Nitrification is a two-step process where ammonia is first oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and/or archaea, and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Already described by Winogradsky in 1890, this division of labour between the two functional groups is a generally accepted characteristic of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in one organism (complete ammonia oxidation; comammox) is energetically feasible, and it was postulated that this process could occur under conditions selecting for species with lower growth rates but higher growth yields than canonical ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Still, organisms catalysing this process have not yet been discovered. Here we report the enrichment and initial characterization of two Nitrospira species that encode all the enzymes necessary for ammonia oxidation via nitrite to nitrate in their genomes, and indeed completely oxidize ammonium to nitrate to conserve energy. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes are phylogenetically distinct from currently identified AMOs, rendering recent acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms unlikely. We also found highly similar amoA sequences (encoding the AMO subunit A) in public sequence databases, which were apparently misclassified as methane monooxygenases. This recognition of a novel amoA sequence group will lead to an improved understanding of the environmental abundance and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Furthermore, the discovery of the long-sought-after comammox process will change our perception of the nitrogen cycle. PMID:26610025

  20. Mapping permafrost with airborne electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, B. J.; Ball, L. B.; Bloss, B. R.; Kass, A.; Pastick, N.; Smith, B. D.; Voss, C. I.; Walsh, D. O.; Walvoord, M. A.; Wylie, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost is a key characteristic of cold region landscapes, yet detailed assessments of how the subsurface distribution of permafrost impacts the environment, hydrologic systems, and infrastructure are lacking. Data acquired from several airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys in Alaska provide significant new insight into the spatial extent of permafrost over larger areas (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers) than can be mapped using ground-based geophysical methods or through drilling. We compare several AEM datasets from different areas of interior Alaska, and explore the capacity of these data to infer geologic structure, permafrost extent, and related hydrologic processes. We also assess the impact of fires on permafrost by comparing data from different burn years within similar geological environments. Ultimately, interpretations rely on understanding the relationship between electrical resistivity measured by AEM surveys and the physical properties of interest such as geology, permafrost, and unfrozen water content in the subsurface. These relationships are often ambiguous and non-unique, so additional information is useful for reducing uncertainty. Shallow (upper ~1m) permafrost and soil characteristics identified from remotely sensed imagery and field observations help to constrain and aerially extend near-surface AEM interpretations, where correlations between the AEM and remote sensing data are identified using empirical multivariate analyses. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) measurements quantify the contribution of unfrozen water at depth to the AEM-derived electrical resistivity models at several locations within one survey area. AEM surveys fill a critical data gap in the subsurface characterization of permafrost environments and will be valuable in future mapping and monitoring programs in cold regions.

  1. Airborne exposure and estimated bioavailability of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yager, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Madison, WI (United States); Clewell, H.J. III [ICF Consulting, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hicks, J. [Geomatrix, (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A pilot group of workers were used in a study to determine the relationship between exposure to arsenic present in fly ash particles and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during full shift work schedules and daily urine samples were collected to determine the concentration of arsenic and its metabolites. Airborne particle size distribution samples were collected on six-stage personal cascade impactors. Previous studies of airborne exposure to arsenic in copper smelters predict urinary values nearly three times higher than those seen in exposure to arsenic in fly ash. The results suggest that differences in biological uptake of airborne arsenic probably depend on characteristics such as solubility, particle size and distribution and matrix composition of the arsenic compounds.

  2. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Sylvie V M; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  3. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  4. Sandia Multispectral Airborne Lidar for UAV Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.W.; Hargis,Jr. P.J.; Henson, T.D.; Jordan, J.D.; Lang, A.R.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1998-10-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated the development of an airborne system for W laser remote sensing measurements. System applications include the detection of effluents associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the detection of biological weapon aerosols. This paper discusses the status of the conceptual design development and plans for both the airborne payload (pointing and tracking, laser transmitter, and telescope receiver) and the Altus unmanned aerospace vehicle platform. Hardware design constraints necessary to maintain system weight, power, and volume limitations of the flight platform are identified.

  5. Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m3 closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approximately 1,000 g/m3), high turbulence, and high temperature (approximately 20000C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that tittle, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building. (author)

  6. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  7. Airborne radioactivity surveys in geologic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, R.M.

    1958-01-01

    The value of airborne radioactivity surveys in guiding uranium exploration has been well established. Recent improvements in circuitry and development of semiquantitative analytical techniques permit a more comprehensive evaluation of the geologic distribution of radioactive materials that may prove useful in exploration for other minerals and in regional geologic studies. It is shown that placer deposits of heavy minerals can be detected from the air, and that the geometric configuration and average grade of the surficial part of the deposit can be approximated. Uranium-bearing phosphorite deposits may be similarly evaluated. Airborne surveys over the Coastal Plain area, Texas, show that

  8. Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m3 closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approx. 1000 g/m3), high turbulence, and high temperature (approx. 20000C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that little, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building

  9. Biodeterioration Risk Threatens the 3100 Year Old Staircase of Hallstatt (Austria: Possible Involvement of Halophilic Microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Piñar

    Full Text Available The prosperity of Hallstatt (Salzkammergut region, Austria is based on the richness of salt in the surrounding mountains and salt mining, which is documented as far back as 1500 years B.C. Substantial archaeological evidence of Bronze and Iron Age salt mining has been discovered, with a wooden staircase (1108 B.C. being one of the most impressive and well preserved finds. However, after its discovery, fungal mycelia have been observed on the surface of the staircase, most probably due to airborne contamination after its find.As a basis for the further preservation of this valuable object, the active micro-flora was examined to investigate the presence of potentially biodegradative microorganisms.Most of the strains isolated from the staircase showed to be halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms, due to the saline environment of the mine. Results derived from culture-dependent assays revealed a high fungal diversity, including both halotolerant and halophilic fungi, the most dominant strains being members of the genus Phialosimplex (synonym: Aspergillus. Additionally, some typical cellulose degraders, namely Stachybotrys sp. and Cladosporium sp. were detected. Numerous bacterial strains were isolated and identified as members of 12 different genera, most of them being moderately halophilic species. The most dominant isolates affiliated with species of the genera Halovibrio and Marinococcus. Halophilic archaea were also isolated and identified as species of the genera Halococcus and Halorubrum. Molecular analyses complemented the cultivation assays, enabling the identification of some uncultivable archaea of the genera Halolamina, Haloplanus and Halobacterium. Results derived from fungi and bacteria supported those obtained by cultivation methods, exhibiting the same dominant members in the communities.The results clearly showed the presence of some cellulose degraders that may become active if the requirements for growth and the environmental

  10. Effects of Heavy Metals on Activated Sludge Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bing; XI Dan-li; CHEN Ji-hua

    2002-01-01

    The efforts of heavy metals on activated sludge microorganisms are reviewed. Although some heavy metals play an important role in the life of microorganism, heavy metals concentrations above toxic levels inhibit biological processes. Copper, zinc, nickel,cadmium and chromium were mostly studied because of their toxicity and widely used, regardless of single or combination. The microorganism response to these heavy metals varied with species and concentrations of metals,factors such as pH, sludge age, MLSS etc. also affect toxicity on the microorganism. The acclimation could extend the microorganism tolerance of heavy metals. The effects of heavy metals on sludge microorganisms could be described with different models, such as Sigmoidal and Monod equation. The kinetic constants are the useful indexes to estimate the heavy metals inhibition on activated sludge system. Methods to measure the toxicity and effects on microorganism community were also reviewed.

  11. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a... conditions that can be detected with airborne weather radar equipment, may reasonably be expected along...

  12. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  13. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  14. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed. PMID:23028016

  15. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed.

  16. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kessel, Maartje A. H. J.; Speth, Daan R.; Albertsen, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    but higher growth yields than canonical ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms3. Still, organisms catalysing this process have not yet been discovered. Here we report the enrichment and initial characterization of two Nitrospira species that encode all the enzymes necessary for ammonia oxidation via nitrite...... unlikely. We also found highly similar amoA sequences (encoding the AMO subunit A) in public sequence databases, which were apparently misclassified as methane monooxygenases. This recognition of a novel amoA sequence group will lead to an improved understanding of the environmental abundance...

  17. Airborne Biogenic Particles in the Snow of the Cities of the Russian Far East as Potential Allergic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill S. Golokhvast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm–1 mm found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010–2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods. In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk, the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms.

  18. Airborne biogenic particles in the snow of the cities of the Russian Far East as potential allergic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm-1 mm) found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010-2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves) followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods). In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk), the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms. PMID:25140327

  19. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Airborne Gravity Data for AN01 (2009-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2009-2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  20. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl’s method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L?1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L?1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L?1. At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  1. Microorganisms resistant to free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2004-04-01

    Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human "Troy," and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens.

  2. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE ZhengFang; YU HongYan; WEN LiLi; NI JinRen

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl's method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L-1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L-1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L-1, At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  3. Soil:An Extreme Habitat for Microorganisms?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.BOLTER

    2004-01-01

    The question is asked whether soils can be regarded as extreme environments with respect to microorganisms. After defining some extreme environments in a general sense, special properties of extreme environments are compared to soil habitats, with special emphasis laid on time frame and localities. In relation to water availability, nutrients and other properties, such places as aggregates can show properties of extreme habitats. These features, which can act at different levels of the system from the community level down to the cellular level, are summarized as stress factors. The latter,where many switches are located leading to different strategies of survival, is described as the most important one. This raises the question of how organisms have adapted to such conditions. The soil system demands a broad spectrum of adaptations and/or adjustments for a highly variable environment.The soil microorganisms'adaptation can thus be seen as the highest kind of flexibility and is more useful than any other special adaptation.

  4. Venturing into new realms? Microorganisms in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Cockell, Charles; Rettberg, Petra

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges of science is the determination of whether extraterrestrial life exists. Although potential habitable areas might be available for complex life, it is more likely that microbial life could exist in space. Many extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes have been found to be able to withstand numerous, combined environmental factors, such as high or low temperatures and pressures, high-salt conditions, high doses of radiation, desiccation or nutrient limitations. They may even survive the transit from one planet to another. Terrestrial Mars-analogue sites are one focus of researchers, in order to understand the microbial diversity in preparation for upcoming space missions aimed at the detection of life. However, such missions could also pose a risk with respect to contamination of the extraterrestrial environment by accidentally transferred terrestrial microorganisms. Closer to the Earth, the International Space Station is the most enclosed habitat, where humans work and live-and with them numerous microorganisms. It is still unknown how microbes adapt to this environment, possibly even creating a risk for the crew. Information on the microbiology of the ISS will have an impact on the planning and implementation of long-term human spaceflights in order to ensure a safe, stable and balanced microbiome on board. PMID:27354346

  5. Nonenzymatic microorganism identification based on ribosomal RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jeffrey T.; Pierini, Alicia M.; Stokes, Jeffrey A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.; Read, Betsy; Bechtel, James H.; Bronk, Burt V.

    1999-11-01

    Effective defense against biological warfare (BW) agents requires rapid, fieldable and accurate systems. For micro- organisms like bacteria and viruses, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a valuable target with multiple advantages of species specificity and intrinsic target amplification. Vegetative and spore forms of bacteria contain approximately 104 copies of rRNA. Direct detection of rRNA copies can eliminate some of the interference and preparation difficulties involved in enzymatic amplification methods. In order to apply the advantages of rRNA to BW defense, we are developing a fieldable system based on 16S rRNA, physical disruption of the micro-organism, solid phase hybridization, and fluorescence detection. Our goals include species-specific identification, complete operation from raw sample to identification in 15 minutes or less, and compact, fieldable instrumentation. Initial work on this project has investigated the lysis and hybridization steps, the species-specificity of oligonucleotides probes, and the development of a novel electromagnetic method to physically disrupt the micro- organisms. Target bacteria have been Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). Continuing work includes further development of methods to rapidly disrupt the micro-organisms and release the rRNA, improved integration and processing, and extension to bacterial and mammalian viruses like MS2 and vesicular stomatitis virus.

  6. Identification of periodontopathogen microorganisms by PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth and is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. The onset and progression of periodontal disease is attributed to the presence of elevated levels of a consortium of pathogenic bacteria. Gram negative bacteria, mainly strict anaerobes, play the major role. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to assess the presence of the main types of microorganisms involved in the aetiopathogenesis of periodontal disease: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia in different samples collected from the oral cavity of 90 patients diagnosed with periodontitis. METHOD Bacterial DNA detection was performed in diverse biological materials, namely in dental plaque, gingival tissue and saliva, by means of multiplex PCR, a technique that allows simultaneous identification of two different bacterial genomes. RESULTS In the dental plaque of the periodontitis patients, Treponema denticola dominated. In the gingival tissue, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were the microbiota most frequently detected, whilst in saliva Treponema denticola and Eikenella corrodens were found with the highest percentage. CONCLUSION The identification of microorganisms by multiplex PCR is specific and sensitive. Rapid and precise assessment of different types of periodontopathogens is extremely important for early detection of the infection and consequently for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. In everyday clinical practice, for routine bacterial evaluation in patients with periodontal disease, the dental plaque is the most suitable biological material, because it is the richest in periodontal bacteria.

  7. Precision Rectification of Airborne SAR Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Liao, M.; Zhang, Zhe;

    1997-01-01

    A simple and direct procedure for the rectification of a certain class of airborne SAR data is presented. The relief displacements of SAR data are effectively removed by means of a digital elevation model and the image is transformed to the ground coordinate system. SAR data from the Danish EMISAR...

  8. Experimental airborne transmission of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Bøtner, Anette; Takai, H.;

    2004-01-01

    A series of three experiments, differing primarily in airflow volume, were performed to evaluate the likelihood of airborne transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) from infected to non-infected pigs. Pigs were housed in two units (unit A and unit B) located 1 m...

  9. Topology optimized cloak for airborne sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Directional acoustic cloaks that conceal an aluminum cylinder for airborne sound waves are presented in this paper. Subwavelength cylindrical aluminum inclusions in air constitute the cloak design to aid practical realizations. The positions and radii of the subwavelength cylinders are determined...

  10. Airborne Soil Organic Particles Generated by Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Henning T.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique` Y.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in the Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. These particles exist in liquid, amorphous semi-solid, or solid (glassy) phase states depending on their composition and ambient conditions5. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi- solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Here we report field evidence for airborne solid organic particles generated by a “raindrop” mechanism7 pertinent to atmosphere – land surface interactions (Fig. 1). We find that after rain events at Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA, submicron solid particles, with a composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles in number. Subsequent experiments indicate that airborne soil organic particles are ejected from the surface of soils caused by intensive rains or irrigation. Our observations suggest that formation of these particles may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events such as agricultural systems and grasslands8. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of their physico-chemical properties suggests that airborne soil organic particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation and hence, are an important type of particles.

  11. Use of airborne vehicles as research platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Gratton, GB

    2012-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following chapter: Gratton, G. 2012. Use of Airborne Vehicles as Research Platforms. Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470686652.eae604/full. Copyright @ John Wiley & Sons 2012.

  12. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  13. Regional airborne flux measurements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Vaccari, F. P.; Zaldei, A.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the subject of considerable scientific and political debate. Even if it is now possible to estimate within reasonable accuracy the sink strength of European forests at the local scale, difficulties still exist in determining the partitioning of the sinks at the global and regional scales. The aim of the EU-project RECAB (Regional Assessment of the Carbon Balance in Europe) that is coordinated by Alterra, Wageningen (NL), is to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements and continental scale inversion models by a generic modelling effort and measurement program, focussing on a limited number of selected regions in Europe for which previous measurements exists. This required the establishment of a European facility for airborne measurement of surface fluxes of CO2 at very low altitude, and a research aircraft capable of performing airborne eddy covariance measurements has been acquired by this project and used on several occasions at the different RECAB sites. The aircraft is the italian Sky Arrows ERA (Environmental Research Aircraft) equipped with the NOAA/ARA Mobile Flux Platform (MFP), and a commercial open-path infrared gas analyser. Airborne eddy covariance measurements were made from June 2001 onwards in Southern Spain near Valencia (June and December 2001), in Central Germany near Jena (July 2001), in Sweden near Uppsala (August 2001), in The Netherlands near Wageningen (January and July 2002) and in Italy near Rome (June 2002). Flux towers were present at each site to provide a validation of airborne eddy covariance measurements. This contribution reports some validation results based on the comparison between airborne and ground based flux measurements and some regional scale results for different locations and different seasons, in a wide range of meteorological and ecological settings.

  14. Biosorption of 241Am by microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of 241Am on A. niger, R. arrihizus and Candida albicans from aqueous solution, and the effects of the experimental conditions on the biosorption are investigated by the batch technique. The experimental results show that all the microorganism above are very efficient as the sorbent. The biosorption equilibrium time is 2 h and the optimum pH ranges 1-3. No significant differences on 241Am biosorption are observed at the temperature of 15-45 degree C, or in the presence and absence of Au3+ or Ag+. The relationship between concentrations of 241Am in aqueous solutions and adsorption capacities of 241Am can be described by the Freundlich adsorption equation on A. niger and R. arrihizus, while as it can be done by the Langmuir adsorption equation on Candida albicans

  15. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples.

  16. Microorganism billiards in closed plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Madison S

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that many species of microorganisms leave a solid surface at a fixed angle determined by steric interactions and near-field hydrodynamics. This angle is completely independent of the incoming angle. For several collisions in a closed body this determines a unique type of billiard system, an aspecular billiard in which the outgoing angle is fixed for all collisions. We analyze such a system using numerical simulation of this billiard for varying tables and outgoing angles, and also utilize the theory of one-dimensional maps and wavefront dynamics. When applicable we cite results from and compare our system to similar billiard systems in the literature. We focus on examples from three broad classes: the ellipse, the Bunimovich billiards, and the Sinai billiards. The effect of a noisy outgoing angle is also discussed.

  17. Breakdown of plastics and polymers by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, F

    1995-01-01

    The interest in environmental issues is still growing and there are increasing demands to develop materials which do not burden the environment significantly. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-miscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires both biochemical insight and understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms. It is now widely requested that polymeric materials come from renewable resources instead of petrochemical sources. The microbial production of polymeric and oligomeric materials is also described. PMID:7484358

  18. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  19. High-cell-density cultivation of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenberg, D; Guthke, R

    1999-04-01

    High-cell-density cultivation (HCDC) is required to improve microbial biomass and product formation substantially. An overview of HCDC is given for microorganisms including bacteria, archae and eukarya (yeasts). Problems encountered by HCDC and their possible solutions are discussed. Improvements of strains, different types of bioreactors and cultivation strategies for successful HCDC are described. Stirred-tank reactors with and without cell retention, a dialysis-membrane reactor, a gas-lift reactor and a membrane cyclone reactor used for HCDC are outlined. Recently modified traditional feeding strategies and new ones are included, in particular those for unlimited growth to very dense cultures. Emphasis is placed on robust fermentation control because of the growing industrial interest in this field. Therefore, developments in the application of multivariate statistical control, artificial neural networks, fuzzy control and knowledge-based supervision (expert systems) are summarized. Recent advances using Escherichia coli--the pioneer organism for HCDC--are outlined. PMID:10341426

  20. Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, J

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms have a long history of use in food production, e.g. in the production of sausages, cheeses, etc. Roughly one quarter of all food products rely on microbiological processes, and the safe use of microorganisms for food production is essential. The transfer of novel traits to food microorganisms through recombinant gene technology will result in new potential food safety issues. This requires the elaboration of criteria for safety assessment of foods derived from genetic microorga...

  1. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    RUTH MELLIAWATI; ROHMATUSSOLIHAT; FERRA OCTAVINA

    2006-01-01

    Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast) were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Ins...

  2. Multiorganismal Insects: Diversity and Function of Resident Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contr...

  3. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  4. Reducing airborne pathogens and dust in commercial hatching cabinets with an electrostatic space charge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B W; Waltman, W D

    2003-01-01

    Commercial hatcheries typically infuse hydrogen peroxide or formaldehyde gas into hatching cabinets to reduce airborne pathogens that may lead to disease transmission during the hatch. A nonchemical option, an electrostatic space charge system (ESCS), was customized for full-sized commercial hatching cabinets and was tested extensively in broiler hatcheries. The ESCS cleans air by transferring a strong negative electrostatic charge to dust and microorganisms that are aerosolized during the hatch and collecting the charged particles on grounded plates or surfaces. In studies with three poultry companies, the ESCS resulted in significant (P or = 0.05) from those with formaldehyde, and in 93%-96% lower Enterobacteriaceae than with no treatment or with hydrogen peroxide treatment (P hatchery. PMID:12887184

  5. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.;

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor...

  6. Collective motion of micro-organisms from field theoretical viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, M; Kawamura, Masako; Sugamoto, Akio

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the collective motion of micro-organisms in the fluid and consider the problem of the red tide. The red tide is produced by the condensation of the micro-organisms, which might be a similar phenomenon to the condensation of the strings. We propose a model of the generation of the red tide. By considering the interaction between the micro-organisms mediated by the velocity fields in the fluid, we derive the Van der Waals type equation of state, where the generation of the red tide can be regarded as a phase transition from the gas of micro-organisms to the liquid.

  7. Airborne bacteria transported with Sahara dust particles from Northern Africa to the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, A.; Meola, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Sahara Desert is the most important source of aerosols transported across the Mediterranean towards Europe. Airborne microorganisms associated with aerosols may be transported over long distances and act as colonizers of distant habitats. However, little is known on the composition and viability of such microorganisms, due to difficulties related to their detection, collection and isolation. Here we describe an in-depth assessment of the bacterial communities associated with Sahara dust (SD) particles deposited on snow. Two distinct SD events reaching the European Alps in February and May 2014 were preserved as distinct ochre-coloured layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples from a snow profile at 3621 m a.s.l. close to the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps). SD particles were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Backward trajectories were calculated using the NOAA HYSPLIT model. Bacterial communities were charac-terized by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial physiological profiles were assessed by incubation of samples on BIOLOG plates. The SD-layers were generally enriched in illite and kaolinite particles as compared to the adjacent snow layers. The source of SD could be traced back to Algeria. We observed distinct bacterial community structures in the SD-layers as compared to the clean snow layers. While sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers, low abundant (Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bioindicators for SD. Both phyla are adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation and thus are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-distance airborne transport. Our results show that bacteria are viable and metabolically active after the trek to the European Alps.

  8. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  9. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði;

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  10. Comprehensive characterization of indoor airborne bacterial profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.L.Chan; P.H.F.Yu; Y.W.Cheng; C.Y.Chan; P.K.Wong

    2009-01-01

    This is the first detailed characterization of the air-borne bacterial profiles in indoor environments and two restaurants were selected for this study.Fifteen genera of bacteria were isolated from each restaurant and identified by three different bacterial identification systems including MIDI, Biolog and Riboprinter?.The dominant bacteria of both restaurants were Gram-positive bacteria in which Micrococcus and Bacillus species were the most abundant species.Most bacteria identified were representative species of skin and respiratory tract of human, and soil.Although the bacterial levels in these restaurants were below the limit of the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objective (HKIAQO) Level 1 standard (i.e., < 500 cfu/m3), the majority of these bacteria were opportunistic pathogens.These results suggested that the identity of airborne bacteria should also be included in the IAQ to ensure there is a safety guideline for the public.

  11. Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

  12. Protein expression on Cr resistant microorganism using electrophoresis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJIDAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatmawati U, Suranto, Sajidan. 2009. Protein expression on Cr resistant microorganism using electrophoresis method. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 31-37. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI is known as toxic heavy metals, so the need is reduced to Cr(III is much less toxicity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are resistant Cr(VI microorganism and have ability to reduce Cr(VI. The aim of this research is to know ability of microorganism to reduce Cr(VI and to know protein band pattern between Cr(VI resistant microorganism and non resistant microorganism which inoculated on LB broth. SDS-PAGE was used to indentify protein expression. While, Cr(VI concentration was identified by 1.5 diphenylcarbazide method. The quantitative data was analyzed by two factorial ANOVA that continued with DMRT at 1% level test. The qualitative data i.e. protein expression analyzed by relative mobility (Rf. The results showed that the ability of microorganisms to reduce Cr(VI at initial concentration of 0.5 ppm, 1 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm may vary, the average percentage of the ability of each microorganism in reducing Cr(VI is P. putida (65% > S. cerevisiae (64.45% >. P. aeruginosa (60.73% > Pantoea sp. (50.22% > K. pneumoniae (47.82% > without microorganisms (34.25%. The adding microorganisms have significantly influenced toward reduction of Cr(VI. The SDS-PAGE shows that protein expression between resistant and not resistant microorganisms are no different, but resistant microorganisms have more protein (protein band is thicker.

  13. Simulating city-level airborne infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, S.; Chen, B; Zhu, Y; Lees, M.H.; Boukhanovsky, A.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the possible impact of outbreaks of epidemics on cities is increasing, especially in high-density urban areas such as public transportation and transfer points. The volume and proximity of people in these areas can lead to an observed dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. Due to the critical role these areas play in transmission, it is vital that we have ...

  14. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  15. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of topography can provide a wealth of information on landscape properties for managing hydrologic and geologic systems and conserving natural and agricultural resources. This article discusses the application of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and other landscape surface properties. The airborne laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical recording resolution of 5 cm. Data are collected digitally with a personal computer. A video camera, borehole sighted with the laser, records an image for locating flight lines. GPS data are used to locate flight line positions on the landscape. Laser data were used to measure vegetation canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution and to measure microtopography of the land surface and gullies with depths of 15–20 cm. Macrotopography of landscape profiles for segments up to 4 km were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Larger gullies with and without vegetation, and stream channel cross sections and their associated floodplains have also been measured and reported in other publications. Landscape segments for any length could be measured for either micro- or macrotopography. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on landscape properties or specific needs that will allow better decisions on the design and location of structures (i.e., roads, pipe, and power lines) and for improving the management and conservation of natural and agricultural landscapes. (author)

  16. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  17. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  18. Cryospheric Applications of Modern Airborne Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. Lower-cost equipment, more powerful software, and simplified methods have lowered the barriers-to-entry significantly and now allow repeat-mapping of cryospheric dynamics that were previously too expensive to consider. The current state-of-the-art is the ability to use an airborne equipment package costing less than $20,000 to make topographic maps on landscape-scales at 10 cm pixel size with a vertical repeatability of about 10 cm. Nearly any surface change on the order of decimeters can be measured using these techniques through analysis of time-series of such maps. This presentation will discuss these new methods and their application to cryospheric dynamics such as the measurement of snow depth, coastal erosion, valley-glacier volume-change, permafrost thaw, frost heave of infrastructure, river bed geomorphology, and aufeis melt. Because of the expense of other airborne methods, by necessity measurements of these dynamics are currently most often made on the ground along benchmark transects that are then extrapolated to the broader scale. The ability to directly measure entire landscapes with equal or higher accuracy than transects eliminates the need to extrapolate them and the ability to do so at lower costs than transects may revolutionize the way we approach studying change in the cryosphere, as well as our understanding of the cryosphere itself.

  19. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Roy; Neil, George

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  20. Nitrogen utilization pathways of soil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinggera, J.; Geisseler, D.; Merbach, I.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. In terrestrial ecosystems N occurs predominantly in the form of organic matter. Here, soil microorganisms can use two possible mechanisms for the uptake of organic N: the direct route and the mobilization-immobilization-turnover (MIT) route. In the direct route simple organic molecules are taken up directly into the cell. The deamination occurs inside the cell and only the surplus N is released into the soil solution. In the second route, the deamination occurs outside the cell and all N is mineralized before assimilation. To determine the importance of the different N uptake pathways of soil microorganisms an incubation experiment (21 days, 20°C) is currently being carried out. Corn leaves with different C to N ratios (20, 40) and (NH4)2SO4 have been added to three soils (Haplic Chernozem, FAO) with different fertilization histories (300dt/ha farmyard manure every second year, mineral NPK fertilizer, no fertilization) from the long-term experiment at Bad Lauchstädt. Contents of NH4+, NO3- and microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic), CO2 production, potential protease activity, gross N mineralization and mineralization of added amino acids will be determined after 3, 7 and 21 days. Preliminary results show that the protease activity (without addition of corn residues) decreased in the order manure-fertilized soil (18.26 mg tyrosine kg-1 soil h-1) > Soil with mineral NPK fertilizer (17.45 mg tyrosine kg-1 soil h-1) > unfertilized soil (11.34 mg tyrosine kg-1 oven dry soil h-1). The turnover of amino acids after 24h was higher for the manure-fertilized soil (99.5% of the added amino acids were consumed) than for the NPK- fertilized and unfertilized soils (76%). The effects of the fertilization histories on the temporal dynamics of the different biological properties (Cmic, Nmic), CO2 production, protease activity and N mineralization rates will be presented.

  1. Microorganisms in the Coloured Rain of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-02-01

    A variety of pigmented microorganisms have been identified in the red, yellow, blue and black rain that fell over Sri Lanka in December 2012 and January 2013. There is tentative evidence for the presence of similar organisms, including diatoms, in meteorites falling over the same time period. These microorganisms are likely to have served as nuclei for the condensation of rain drops.

  2. Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

    1986-01-01

    A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

  3. Effectiveness of ozone against periodontal pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Karin C; Quirling, Martina; Lenzke, Stefanie; Paschos, Ekaterini; Kamereck, Klaus; Brand, Korbinian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2011-06-01

    Ozone has been proposed as an adjunct antiseptic in periodontitis therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effectiveness of gaseous/aqueous ozone, in comparison with that of the established antiseptic chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), against periodontal microorganisms. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Parvimonas micra in planktonic or biofilm cultures were exposed, for 1 min, to gaseous ozone, aqueous ozone, CHX, or phosphate-buffered saline (control). None of the agents was able to substantially reduce the A. actinomycetemcomitans count in biofilm cultures. In contrast, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. micra could be eliminated by 2% CHX or by ozone gas at 53 gm(-3) . Significantly greater antimicrobial effects were observed against planktonic cultures than against biofilm-associated bacteria. The rate of killing was influenced by the species of bacteria, and by the type and concentration of agent. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of aqueous ozone (20 μg ml(-1) ) or gaseous ozone (≥ 4 gm(-3) ) compared with 2% CHX but they were more effective than 0.2% CHX. Therefore, high-concentrated gaseous and aqueous ozone merit further investigation as antiseptics in periodontitis therapy. A safe system for applying gaseous ozone into the periodontal pocket that avoids inhalation still needs to be developed.

  4. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  5. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  6. Hydrodynamic theory of swimming of flagellated microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, J G; Bloomfield, V A

    1977-10-01

    A theory of the type commonly used in polymer hydrodynamics is developed to calculate swimming properties of flagellated microorganisms. The overall shape of the particle is modeled as an array of spherical beads which act, at the same time, as frictional elements. The fluid velocity field is obtained as a function of the forces acting at each bead through Oseen-type, hydrodynamic interaction tensors. From the force and torque equilibrium conditions, such quantities as swimming velocity, angular velocity, and efficiency can be calculated. Application is made to a spherical body propelled by a helical flagellum. A recent theory by Lighthill, and earlier formulations based on tangential and normal frictional coefficients of a curved cylinder, CT and CN, are analyzed along with our theory. Although all the theories predict similar qualitative characteristics, such as optimal efficiency and the effect of fluid viscosity, they lead to rather different numerical values. In agreement with Lighthill, we found the formalisms based on CN and CT coefficients to be somewhat inaccurate, and head-flagellum interactions are shown to play an important role. PMID:901902

  7. Tracking microorganisms and gene in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been conducted to determine the sensitivities and limitations of various methods for determining the fate of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) and their genes in the environment. Selective viable plate count procedures can be designed to detect the introduced organisms with high sensitivity; but they are restricted by potential mutations affecting the expression of the selective characteristic in the introduced organism, the occurrence of the particular selective characteristic in the indigenous organisms, and the need to culture the organism. The accuracy of this approach is greatly improved by colony hybridization procedures that use a specific gene probe to detect the introduced genes, but this approach is still only as sensitive as the plating procedure. Direct extraction of DNA from environmental samples, coupled with dot blot hybridization with radiolabeled probe DNA or solution hybridization, gives a high degree of both sensitivity and precision. This approach does not require culturing of the organism; and even if an introduced gene moves into a new organism or if the introduced organism is viable but nonculturable, the gene probe methods will detect the persistence of the introduced genes in the environment. Efficient direct DNA extraction methods have been developed and tested following in vitro experimental additions of GEMs to sediment and water samples

  8. Snow as a habitat for microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoham, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    There are three major habitats involving ice and snow, and the microorganisms studied from these habitats are most eukaryotic. Sea ice is inhabited by algae called diatoms, glacial ice has sparse populations of green algai cal desmids, and the temporary and permanent snows in mountainous regions and high latitudes are inhabited mostly by green algal flagellates. The life cycle of green algal flagellates is summarized by discussing the effects of light, temperature, nutrients, and snow melts. Specific examples of optimal conditions and environmental effects for various snow algae are given. It is not likely that the eukaryotic snow algae presented are candidated for life on the planet Mars. Evolutionally, eukaryotic cells as know on Earth may not have had the opportunity to develop on Mars (if life evolved at all on Mars) since eukaryotes did not appear on Earth until almost two billion years after the first prokaryotic organisms. However, the snow/ice ecosystems on Earth present themselves as extreme habitats were there is evidence of prokaryotic life (eubacteria and cyanbacteria) of which literally nothing is known. Any future surveillances of extant and/or extinct life on Mars should include probes (if not landing sites) to investigate sites of concentrations of ice water. The possibility of signs of life in Martian polar regions should not be overlooked.

  9. Titanium photocatalyst against human pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional methods of disinfection are not effective in the longer term. They are time and staff intensive and use aggressive chemicals. Photocatalytic oxidation on surfaces coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) might offer a possible alternative. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 powder P25 and thin films of TiO2 on glass slides against representative strains of microorganisms associated with hospital-acquired infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) was investigated in vitro. High efficiency has been found in the case of the studied bacterial strains, particularly for the P. aeruginosa. It was shown that it is possible to disinfect surfaces coated with TiO2 and stimulated by UV-A light. The reduction efficiencies for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans were 3.19, 2.32 and 1.22. In all cases sublethal UV-A doses provoked an important lethality in the presence of TiO2. (authors)

  10. Airborne EM applied to environmental geoscience in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Beamish, D

    2002-01-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been highlighting the need for modern, multi-sensor airborne geophysical data in the UK. Here David Beamish, geophysicist with the BGS, describes the first trial airborne electromagnetic data acquired and its relevance to environmental geoscience. The lack of modern, multi-sensor (magnetic, radiometric and electromagnetic) data represents one of the most serious gaps in the geoscience knowledge base of the UK, and a national, high resolution airborne su...

  11. High-Performance Airborne Optical Carbon Dioxide Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental species measurement on airborne atmospheric research craft is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer...

  12. Screening of microorganisms from Antarctic surface water and cytotoxicity metabolites from Antarctic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lanhong; Yang, Kangli; Liu, Jia; Sun, Mi; Zhu, Jiancheng; Lv, Mei; Kang, Daole; Wang, Wei; Xing, Mengxin; Li, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The Antarctic is a potentially important library of microbial resources and new bioactive substances. In this study, microorganisms were isolated from surface water samples collected from different sites of the Antarctic. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay-based cytotoxicity-tracking method was used to identify Antarctic marine microorganism resources for antitumor lead compounds. The results showed that a total of 129 Antarctic microorganism strains were isolated. Twelve strains showed potent cytotoxic activities, among which a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as N11-8 was further studied. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that N11-8 belongs to the genus Bacillus. Fermented active products of N11-8 with molecular weights of 1-30 kDa had higher inhibitory effects on different cancaer cells, such as BEL-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, U251 human glioma cells, RKO human colon carcinoma cells, A549 human lung carcinoma cells, and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. However, they displayed lower cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. However, they displayed lower cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. Microscopic observations showed that the fermented active products have inhibitory activity on BEL-7402 cells similar to that of mitomycin C. Further studies indicated that the fermented active products have high pH and high thermal stability. In conclusion, most strains isolated in this study may be developed as promising sources for the discovery of antitumor bioactive substances. The fermented active products of Antarctic marine Bacillus sp. N11- 8 are expected to be applied in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  13. Application of microorganisms in coal cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure energy supply is one of the basic pre-requisites for a sound economic system, sustained standard and quality of life and eventually for the social well-being of each individual. For a progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which given the relatively large resources available, is considered to be one of the major options for the next few hundred years. Bioprocessing of coal in an emerging technology which has started to receive considerable research attention. Recent research activities involving coal cleaning, direct coal conversion, and indirect conversion of coal-derived materials have generated a plethora of facts regarding biochemistry, chemistry, and thermodynamic behavior of coal, in that its bioprocessing is on the verge of becoming and acceptable means to great coals. In this research report, investigations pertaining to the various aspects of coal bio processing, including desulfurization and depyritization are discussed. Bituminous coals varying in total sulfur contents of 3-6% were depyritized more than 90% by mesophilic acidophiles like Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio oxidans and thermophilic Sulfolobus brierleyi. The archaebacterium, Sulfolobus brierleyi was found to desulfurize inorganic and organic sulfur components of the coal. Conditions were established under which it can remove more than 30% of the organic sulfur present in the coals. Heterotrophic microorganisms including oxenic and soil isolates were also employed for studying sulfurization. A soil isolate, Oil-2, was found to remove more than 70% dibenzothiophenic sulfur present in an oil-water emulsion (1:20 ratio). Pseudomonas putida and the bacterium oil-2 also remove 60-70% organic sulfur present in the shale-oil. Preliminary results indicate the presence of putatively known Kodama's pathway in the oil-2. The mass balance for sulfate indicated the possibility of the presence

  14. Autecology of microorganisms of typical Ecuador biotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashyrev, O B; Pidgorskyi, V S; Toro, Miguel Naranjo; Gualoto, Miguel; Gladka, G V; Tashyreva, H O; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaya, V A

    2014-01-01

    34 strains of aerobic chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were isolated from 23 soil and plant samples selected from highland biotopes of Ecuador-Andes massif (Papallacta, 4020 m), ash at the foot of the volcano Tungurahua, mountainous jungle (La Favorita, 1600 m), as well as in humid tropic botanical garden (state Puyo, 950 m). In mountain jungle samples the high number of bacteria--10(5)-10(7) CFU/g of sample were represented by 2-5 morphotypes. In highland (4020 m) samples the bacterial counts made from 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/g of sample. The current study describes resistance of isolated strains to high salinity, UV radiation and toxic metal ions. The majority of isolated strains were halotolerant. Isolates from volcanic ash showed high resistance level to UV radiation--LD99,99 made 1000-1440 J/m2; resistance level for isolates from the soil of Puyo Botanical Garden and isolates from rock lichen (Papallacta) LD99,99 made 1160 and 800 J/m2 respectively. Strains isolated from mountain jungle (La Favorita) showed lower UV-resistance. In highland biotopes of Ecuador occurred bacteria resistant to toxic metal ions. The highest resistance to Hg2+ was shown by isolate of lichen from mountain jungle, the maximal growth concentration was 0.025 g/L; to Cr(VI)--by isolate from lichen rock massif--3,0 g/L. Correlation between metal-resistance, halotolerace and UV resistance for studied strains was not detected, probably because of different microbial cell damage/repair mechanisms under the action of these factors. PMID:25639037

  15. Single cell genomics of subsurface microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanauskas, R.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C.; Kieft, T. L.; Woyke, T.; Rinke, C.; Sczyrba, A.; van Heerden, E.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed unexpected abundance and diversity of microorganisms in terrestrial and marine subsurface, providing new perspectives over their biogeochemical significance, evolution, and the limits of life. The now commonly used research tools, such as metagenomics and PCR-based gene surveys enabled cultivation-unbiased analysis of genes encoded by natural microbial communities. However, these methods seldom provide direct evidence for how the discovered genes are organized inside genomes and from which organisms do they come from. Here we evaluated the feasibility of an alternative, single cell genomics approach, in the analysis of subsurface microbial community composition, metabolic potential and microevolution at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), South Dakota, and the Witwaterstrand Basin, South Africa. We successfully recovered genomic DNA from individual microbial cells from multiple locations, including ultra-deep (down to 3,500 m) and low-biomass (down to 10^3 cells mL^-1) fracture water. The obtained single amplified genomes (SAGs) from SURF contained multiple representatives of the candidate divisions OP3, OP11, OD1 and uncharacterized archaea. By sequencing eight of these SAGs, we obtained the first genome content information for these phylum-level lineages that do not contain a single cultured representative. The Witwaterstrand samples were collected from deep fractures, biogeochemical dating of which suggests isolation from tens of thousands to tens of millions of years. Thus, these fractures may be viewed as "underground Galapagos", a natural, long-term experiment of microbial evolution within well-defined temporal and spatial boundaries. We are analyzing multiple SAGs from these environments, which will provide detailed information about adaptations to life in deep subsurface, mutation rates, selective pressures and gene flux within and across microbial populations.

  16. Biodegradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Theresa M; Seech, Alan G; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T

    2005-08-01

    The organochlorine pesticide Lindane is the gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Technical grade Lindane contains a mixture of HCH isomers which include not only gamma-HCH, but also large amounts of predominantly alpha-, beta- and delta-HCH. The physical properties and persistence of each isomer differ because of the different chlorine atom orientations on each molecule (axial or equatorial). However, all four isomers are considered toxic and recalcitrant worldwide pollutants. Biodegradation of HCH has been studied in soil, slurry and culture media but very little information exists on in situ bioremediation of the different isomers including Lindane itself, at full scale. Several soil microorganisms capable of degrading, and utilizing HCH as a carbon source, have been reported. In selected bacterial strains, the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the initial degradation of Lindane have been cloned, sequenced, expressed and the gene products characterized. HCH is biodegradable under both oxic and anoxic conditions, although mineralization is generally observed only in oxic systems. As is found for most organic compounds, HCH degradation in soil occurs at moderate temperatures and at near neutral pH. HCH biodegradation in soil has been reported at both low and high (saturated) moisture contents. Soil texture and organic matter appear to influence degradation presumably by sorption mechanisms and impact on moisture retention, bacterial growth and pH. Most studies report on the biodegradation of relatively low (sources or other soil amendments is scattered and inconclusive. More in-depth assessments of amendment effects and evaluation of bioremediation protocols, on a large scale, using soil with high HCH concentrations, are needed.

  17. [Metagenomics as a Tool for the Investigation of Uncultured Microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, N V; Mardanova, A V; Skryabin, K G

    2015-05-01

    Uncultured microorganisms represent a significant part of the Earth's biodiversity. Natural ecosystems contain less than 0.1-1% of the microorganisms that can be cultured in the laboratory. Therefore, new methodological approaches are required for the identification and description of uncultured microorganisms, for studies of their genetic diversity and the structure of microbial associations, and for an understanding of their ecological importance in the biosphere. Metagenomics, a method of analyzing the collective genome.of a microbial community without cultivation, makes it possible to unravel fundamental matters of the microbiology and ecology of microorganisms. Another efficient method of analysis of uncultured forms of microorganisms is "single cell genomics," which involves the isolation of single cells from microbial communities and the sequencing of their genomes. Developed in the last decade, the high throughput technologies of next-generation sequencing provide important input into the investigation of genome reconstruction for all of the microorganisms residing and interacting within ecosystems. This review describes the major methodological approaches used in metagenomic analysis of microbial communities, as well as accomplishments in the search for new uncultured microorganism, the unraveling of their genomes, and an elucidation of their role in ecosystems.

  18. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  19. Participation of microorganisms in processes of waste biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kolomoets

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is shown, that microorganisms can be used for utilisation of products of waste degradation. The influence of microelements small doses on the ability of secured cultures of soil microorganisms to grow on poor nutrient medium was studied. The cultures simulate the relationship of the end products of waste pyrolysis. The positive influence of MnCl2, K2HPO4, NH4NО3 as well as the complex of microelements on the ability of secured microorganisms to accumulate the biomass and assimilate the substrate is shown. Among two secured and studied germ culturesthe genus of –Bacillus is more promising.

  20. Airborne Pollen Grains Of Afyon, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Süheyla ERGUN; Sevcan TATLIDIL; Hulusi MALYER; Sabri OZYURT; Ahmet AKKAYA; Nihat SAPAN

    2002-01-01

    The airborne pollen grains of Afyon have been studied for a two-year period (1999-2000) with a Durham sampler. A total of 14 367 pollen grains belonging to 40 taxa have been identified and recorded with some unidentified ones. Of them, 6 732 were identified in 1999 and 7 635 in 2000. Of the total pollen grains, 69.67% were arboreal, 26.64% non-arboreal and 3.68 % unidentified. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinus, Gramineae, Cupressaceae, Platanus, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Quercus, Ailanthus, Moraceae, Juglans, Salix, Cedrus and Rosaceae. The highest level of pollen grains was in May.

  1. Voxel inversion of airborne EM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;

    2013-01-01

    We present a geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which allows for straightforward integration of different data types in joint inversion, for informing geological/hydrogeological models directly and for easier incorporation...... for jointly inverting airborne and ground-based geophysical data. Furthermore, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid not correlated to the geophysical model space, and incorporating the geophysical data into the geological/hydrological modelling grids is problematic. We...... present a voxel grid inversion routine that overcomes these problems and we discuss in detail the algorithm implementation....

  2. 1. Airborne 2. Hangár

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Hangár, Bakelit Multi Art Center 7th L1 Dance Festival, Budapest, Hungary Installation, 2008 AIRBORNE (projection-sound-monitor installation) was sited in the Hangár, B.A.C. as part of the 7th L1 Dance Festival in Budapest, Hungary (March 2008). This work continues Johnson's interest in and use of 'found' material (16mm wind tunnel footage), and performative methods (sound recording of Channel 9 on United Airlines). This immersive work explores the turbulence of suspension and sets ...

  3. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Denizli

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENSEN, Aykut; ÇELİK, Ali; TOPUZ, Bülent; ÖZTÜRK, Münir

    2013-01-01

    Airborne pollen distribution in Denizli Province was measured volumetrically during 2 consecutive years, 2005 and 2006, on a weekly basis. A total of 11,981 pollen grains/m3 belonging to 42 taxa were determined. In 2005 the total was 5368 pollen grains/m3 and in 2006 it was 6613 pollen grains/m3. Among the taxa recorded, 26 belonged to arboreal and 16 to nonarboreal taxa. At the end of the 2 years total pollen counts comprised 79.68% arboreal, 19.48% nonarboreal, and 0.84% unidentified taxa. ...

  4. Moving Target Indication for Multi-channel Airborne Radar Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.

    2010-01-01

    Moving target indication (MTI) using radar is of great interest in civil and military applications. Its uses include airborne or space-borne surveillance of ground moving vehicles (cars, trains) or ships at sea, for instance. Airborne (space-borne) radar offers several advantages when compared to op

  5. Monitoring of airborne radioactivity (radon, thoron and daughters; radioactive dust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes resulting in airborne radioactivity from uranium and thorium ores are discussed. Measurement methods for radioactive dust, radon and thoron gas and radon and thoron daughters are described and assessed. The monitoring equipment required for measurement of airborne radioactivity is described

  6. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  7. Detection in Urban Scenario Using Combined Airborne Imaging Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renhorn, I.; Axelsson, M.; Benoist, K.W.; Bourghys, D.; Boucher, Y.; Xavier Briottet, X.; Sergio De CeglieD, S. De; Dekker, R.J.; Dimmeler, A.; Dost, R.; Friman, O.; Kåsen, I.; Maerker, J.; Persie, M. van; Resta, S.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Shimoni, M.; Vegard Haavardsholm, T.

    2012-01-01

    The EDA project “Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors” (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The proje

  8. Detection in Urban Scenario using Combined Airborne Imaging Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renhorn, I.; Axelsson, M.; Benoist, K.W.; Bourghys, D.; Boucher, Y.; Xavier Briottet, X.; Sergio De CeglieD, S. De; Dekker, R.J.; Dimmeler, A.; Dost, R.; Friman, O.; Kåsen, I.; Maerker, J.; Persie, M. van; Resta, S.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Shimoni, M.; Vegard Haavardsholm, T.

    2012-01-01

    The EDA project “Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors” (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The proje

  9. SOFIA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors: An External Evaluation of Cycle 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a partnership between NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The observatory itself is a Boeing 747 SP that has been modified to serve as the world's largest airborne research observatory. The SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a component of SOFIA's…

  10. Stellar Occultations from Airborne Platforms: 1988 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Amanda S.; Dunham, Edward W.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Person, Michael J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2016-10-01

    Observing a stellar occultation by a solar system body with an airborne telescope requires precise positioning of the observer within the shadow cast onto the Earth. For small bodies like Pluto and Kuiper Belt objects, smaller than the Earth, the challenge is particularly intense, with the accuracy of the astrometric and flight planning determining whether the observation succeeds or fails. From our first airborne occultation by Pluto in 1988 aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), to our most recent event by Pluto in 2015 aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), we have refined our astrometric and flight planning systems to the point where we can now place an airborne observer into the small central flash zone. We will discuss the history of airborne observation of occultations while detailing the improvements in the astrometric processes. Support for this work was provided by NASA SSO grant NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory.

  11. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  12. SELECTION OF MICROORGANISMS FOR FERMENTATION OF MEAT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylenko S. G.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Principal criteria for the selection of microorganisms with a wide range of biological and technological properties for fermentation of raw meats are considered. Attention is paid to the main groups of microorganisms such as Micrococсus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Propionibacterium which are promising for creation of bacterial preparations. To create bacterial preparations, the basic criteria of selection for microorganisms were determined as follows: the ability of microorganisms to be developed within the specific ecological niche (raw meat materials and their influence on flavor characteristics of the final product under the conditions of intensification of production technologies of meat products. Methods used for search and retrieval of technologically promising strains from different natural sources (fresh meats, minced meats, meat, dairy and sour-milk products, vegetables, fruit, brines and mixtures for salting are considered.

  13. Marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Nam, Seung Yun; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-11-01

    The use of marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is a relatively new field of research with considerable prospects. This method is eco-friendly, time saving, and inexpensive and can be easily scaled up for large-scale synthesis. The increasing need to develop simple, nontoxic, clean, and environmentally safe production methods for nanoparticles and to decrease environmental impact, minimize waste, and increase energy productivity has become important in this field. Marine microorganisms are tiny organisms that live in marine ecosystems and account for >98% of biomass of the world's ocean. Marine microorganisms synthesize metallic nanoparticles either intracellularly or extracellularly. Marine microbially-produced metallic nanoparticles have received considerable attention in recent years because of their expected impact on various applications such as medicine, energy, electronic, and space industries. The present review discusses marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their potential applications. PMID:26920850

  14. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  15. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  16. Architecture and Algorithms for an Airborne Network

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Arunabha; Silva, Tiffany; Das, Nibedita; Kundu, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force currently is in the process of developing an Airborne Network (AN) to provide support to its combat aircrafts on a mission. The reliability needed for continuous operation of an AN is difficult to achieve through completely infrastructure-less mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper we first propose an architecture for an AN where airborne networking platforms (ANPs - aircrafts, UAVs and satellites) form the backbone of the AN. In this architecture, the ANPs can be viewed as mobile base stations and the combat aircrafts on a mission as mobile clients. The combat aircrafts on a mission move through a space called air corridor. The goal of the AN design is to form a backbone network with the ANPs with two properties: (i) the backbone network remains connected at all times, even though the topology of the network changes with the movement of the ANPs, and (ii) the entire 3D space of the air corridor is under radio coverage at all times by the continuously moving ANPs. In addition to proposing an...

  17. Laser Systems For Use With Airborne Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsky, Joseph

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes a family of airborne laser systems in use for terrain profiling, surveying, mapping, altimetry, collision avoidance and shipboard landing systems using fixed and rotary wing aircraft as the platforms. The laser altimeter has also been used in systems compatible with the Army T-16 and. T-22 carrier missiles (platform). Both pulsed gallium arsenide and Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped, yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser rangefinders have been used for these applications. All of these systems use ACCI's advanced measurement techniques that permit range accuracies of 8 cm, single shot, 1 cm averaged, to be achieved. Pulse rates up to 4 Khz are employed for airborne profiling. This high data density rate provides 1 data point every 2" along the aircraft flight line at aircraft speed of 500 knots. Scanning modes for some applications are employed. Systems have been integrated with all current inertial navigation systems (Litton, Ferranti and Honeywell), as well as a number of microwave positioning systems. Removal of aircraft motion from the laser range measurements by use of an accelerometer is described. Flight data from a number of program performed by U.S. and Canadian Federal Agencies, in addition to those of commercial surveying and mapping companies are described.

  18. Airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiming; Wang, Jianyu; Shu, Rong; He, Zhiping; Ma, Yanhua

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system that consists of an imaging spectrometer, a three-line scanner, a laser ranger, a position & orientation subsystem and a stabilizer PAV30. The imaging spectrometer is composed of two sets of identical push-broom high spectral imager with a field of view of 22°, which provides a field of view of 42°. The spectral range of the imaging spectrometer is from 420nm to 900nm, and its spectral resolution is 5nm. The three-line scanner is composed of two pieces of panchromatic CCD and a RGB CCD with 20° stereo angle and 10cm GSD(Ground Sample Distance) with 1000m flying height. The laser ranger can provide height data of three points every other four scanning lines of the spectral imager and those three points are calibrated to match the corresponding pixels of the spectral imager. The post-processing attitude accuracy of POS/AV 510 used as the position & orientation subsystem, which is the aerial special exterior parameters measuring product of Canadian Applanix Corporation, is 0.005° combined with base station data. The airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system was implemented successfully, performed the first flying experiment on April, 2005, and obtained satisfying data.

  19. Auxiliary DCP data acquisition system. [airborne system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, R. V.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne DCP Data Aquisition System has been designed to augment the ERTS satellite data recovery system. The DCP's are data collection platforms located at pertinent sites. With the appropriate sensors they are able to collect, digitally encode and transmit environmental parameters to the ERTS satellite. The satellite in turn relays these transmissions to a ground station for processing. The satellite is available for such relay duty a minimum of two times in a 24-hour period. The equipment is to obtain continuous DCP data during periods of unusual environmental activity--storms, floods, etc. Two circumstances contributed to the decision to design such a system; (1) Wallops Station utilizes surveillance aircraft in support of rocket launches and also in support of earth resources activities; (2) the area in which Wallops is located, the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay areas, are fertile areas for DCP usage. Therefore, by developing an airborne DCP receiving station and installing it on aircraft more continuous DCP data can be provided from sites in the surrounding areas at relatively low cost.

  20. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  1. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Meuleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB by using the Control Test Master (CTM, the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC, quality flagging (QF and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF, and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b helping the understanding of the Earth’s complex mechanisms.

  2. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  3. Evolution, Metabolism and Biotechnological Usage of Methylotrophic Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Mosin; Ignat Ignatov

    2014-01-01

    Methylotrophs – aerobic chemoheterotrophic microorganisms submitted by cocci and bacilli mobile forms, are inhabitants of reservoirs and soils of various type, where there are going on various processes of decomposition of organic substances with formation of the one-carbon С1-compounds and some С2-, and С3-compounds, capable to be assimilated by methylotrophs. These microorganisms assimilating carbon on ribuloso-5-monophospate and serine pathways, are allocated from soil ground, the sewage c...

  4. Microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to inhibitors and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Shihui

    2014-07-29

    The present invention provides genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced tolerance to stress and/or inhibitors such as sodium acetate and vanillin. The enhanced tolerance can be achieved by increasing the expression of a protein of the Sm-like superfamily such as a bacterial Hfq protein and a fungal Sm or Lsm protein. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using the genetically modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  5. Microorganisms -indicators of the level of soil pollution with lead

    OpenAIRE

    Stavreva Veselinovska, Snezana

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution with heavy metals present a real threat to wildlife because the metals cannot be naturally decomposed as is the case with organic pollutants, and as such they can survive in the environment while accumulating the heavy metals in different parts. Pollution with metals can affect different organisms in the environment, such as microorganisms, plants and animals, but the degree of toxicity depends on the species. Microorganisms have different mechanisms of coping with...

  6. The microorganisms as a renewable source of ecological clean fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five families of microorganisms (Bacillaceae, Rhodospirillaceae, Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae) as hydrogen producers were tested and the conditions that are necessary for hydrogen photoproduction were investigated. It was shown, that the most effective producers of hydrogen were Rhodobacter spheroides, Clostridium sp.; Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Addition of glucose, iron and vanadium salts resulted in the increase of hydrogen production. Polycultures consisted of two or three microorganisms were more effective hydrogen producers compared to separate monocultures. (authors)

  7. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhakal; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kwang-Hyun Baek

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and als...

  8. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhakal; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kwang-Hyun Baek

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has...

  9. Investigation of heavy metal stress on chemoheterotrophic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Monballiu, Annick; Chiang, Yi Wai; Cardon, Nele; Cornelly, Christel; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching uses microorganisms to extract valuable metals from minerals. It has risen as a sustainable alternative to conventional metal recovery processes for low grade ores and industrial waste materials such as incineration ashes as it could be more economical and environmentally friendly [1-2]. However, inherently to these materials is the presence of the hazardous heavy metals that can become toxic to the bioleaching microorganisms when released from its solid form, and potentially can ...

  10. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  11. Diversity and adaptations of deep-sea microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    from moderately barophilic or barotolerant microorganisms. The effect of pressure on cell membrane, protein and gene expression are studied in detail in some of these microorganisms. Cold temperatures and high pressures decrease membrane fluidity... and affect a number of membrane-associated processes including ion and nutrient flux and DNA replication (Bartlett, 1992). A barotolerant strain of Alteromonas isolated from 4033 m in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench, Japan showed an increase in the proportion...

  12. Interactions between novel micro-organisms and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, P; Franciosa, G

    2002-09-01

    Microbial strains traditionally used to ferment food have a long history of safe use and are, therefore, considered as generally recognised as safe. Many of these micro-organisms have also functional attributes and are included among probiotics. New species and strains of bacteria with desirable technological and functional properties are constantly being identified; in addition, micro-organisms can be engineered by recently developed biotechnological tools in order to accelerate strain improvement. Although the potentialities of novel micro-organisms with better probiotic and technological properties are promising, it cannot be assumed that they share the safety record of traditional micro-organisms, since they may pose unique challenges for human health. The risk assessment and safety evaluation of novel micro-organisms must focus, primarily, on their potential harmful effects, both direct and indirect, upon host resident intestinal microflora. Genetically modified micro-organisms need further assessment for the complete characterisation of the DNA rearrangement and of the final product, in order to establish the "substantial equivalence" with the parental strain. PMID:12408436

  13. Characteristics of an airborne demonstrator for MERLIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.; Wirth, M.; Dieter, H.; Löhring, J.; Klein, V.

    2012-12-01

    After three years development time, first test measurements on DLR's (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) CO2 and CH4 airborne Lidar have started. It is an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and CH4 columns, designed for operation onboard the new German research aircraft HALO. In the framework of the project "CHARM-F", funded by the German ministry of education and research, the lidar was developed in collaboration with Fraunhofer Institut für Lasertechnik and Kayser-Threde. Due to the special features of the aircraft, such as the maximum flight altitude of 15 km and its long range, as well as the special design of the lidar, the system is particularly suitable to be an airborne demonstrator for the French-German MERLIN project, a spaceborne IPDA lidar sounder for methane. The layout of the receiver optics allows a large field of view, i.e. a large laser footprint on ground is possible, comparable to the size obtained by a spaceborne system. So, important features that come along with ground reflectivity issues, such as albedo variations on different spatial scales, can be taken into account in the same way and can be investigated in detail. Furthermore, two detector types are used, PIN photodiodes and APDs, each with specially adapted telescopes, to compare their respective properties. The basic design of the transmitter is identical to the one envisaged for MERLIN. Also important subsystems of the presented lidar, like wavelengths stabilization and output power monitoring, can serve as demonstrators for the satellite system. The main features of the airborne system are: Two almost identical laser systems for CH4 and CO2. Nd:YAG lasers serve as the pump sources for optical parametric oscillators (OPO), injection seeded by laser diodes, to generate the desired online and offline wavelengths in single mode operation. The online wavelength is tuned to an absorption line of the measured trace gas, the

  14. Alternative analysis of airborne laser data collected within conventional multi-parameter airborne geophysical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Andreas; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.; Schattauer, I.

    2010-05-01

    For the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry as well as airborne electromagnetics it is of great importance to determine the distance between the geophysical sensor and the ground surface. Since radar altimeters do not penetrate vegetation, laser altimeters became popular in airborne geophysics over the past years. Currently the airborne geophysical platform of the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) is equipped with a Riegl LD90-3800VHS-FLP high resolution laser altimeter, measuring the distances according to the first and the last reflected pulse. The goal of the presented study was to explore the possibilities of deriving additional information about the survey area from the laser data and to determine the accuracy of such results. On one hand the difference between the arrival time of the first and the last reflected pulse can be used to determine the height of the vegetation. This parameter is for example important for the correction of damping effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements caused by vegetation. Moreover especially for groundwater studies at catchment scale, this parameter can also be applied to support the spatial assessment of evapotranspiration. In combination with the altitude above geoid, determined by a GPS receiver, a rough digital elevation model of the survey area can be derived from the laser altimetry. Based on a data set from a survey area in the northern part of Austria, close to the border with the Czech Republic, the reliability of such a digital elevation model and the calculated vegetation height was tested. In this study a mean deviation of -1.4m, with a standard deviation of ±3.4m, between the digital elevation model from Upper Austria (25m spatial resolution) and the determined elevation model was determined. We also found an obvious correlation between the calculated vegetation heights greater 15m and the mapped forest published by the ‘Department of Forest Inventory' of the ‘Federal Forest Office' of Austria

  15. Airborne laser: a tool to study landscape surface features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landscape surface features related to erosion and hydrology were measured using an airborne laser profiler. The airborne laser profiler made 4,000 measurements per second with a recording accuracy of 5 cm (1.9 inches) on a single measurement. Digital data from the laser are recorded and analyzed with a personal computer. These airborne laser profiles provide information on surface landscape features. Topography and canopy heights, cover, and distribution of natural vegetation were determined in studies in South Texas. Laser measurements of shrub cover along flightlines were highly correlated (R2 = 0.98) with ground measurements made with line-intercept methods. Stream channel cross sections on Goodwin Creek in Mississippi were measured quickly and accurately with airborne laser data. Airborne laser profile data were used to measure small gullies in a level fallow field and in field with mature soybeans. While conventional ground-based techniques can be used to make these measurements, airborne laser profiler techniques allow data to be collected quickly, at a high density, and in areas that are essentially inaccessible for ground surveys. Airborne laser profiler data can quantify landscape features related to erosion and runoff, and the laser proler has the potential to be a useful tool for providing other data for studying and managing natural resources

  16. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  17. Airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1992-01-01

    Proper interpretation of airborne gravimetry and altimetry requires good knowledge of aircraft trajectory. Recent advances in precise navigation with differential GPS have made it possible to measure gravity from the air with accuracies of a few milligals, and to obtain altimeter profiles of terrain or sea surface correct to one decimeter. These developments are opening otherwise inaccessible regions to detailed geophysical mapping. Navigation with GPS presents some problems that grow worse with increasing distance from a fixed receiver: the effect of errors in tropospheric refraction correction, GPS ephemerides, and the coordinates of the fixed receivers. Ionospheric refraction and orbit error complicate ambiguity resolution. Optimal navigation should treat all error sources as unknowns, together with the instantaneous vehicle position. To do so, fast and reliable numerical techniques are needed: efficient and stable Kalman filter-smoother algorithms, together with data compression and, sometimes, the use of simplified dynamics.

  18. Wavelet Based Fractal Analysis of Airborne Pollen

    CERN Document Server

    Degaudenzi, M E

    1999-01-01

    The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self protection of pollen allergy is possible through the information of future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pol len concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of the daily pollen forecasts have resulted in failures. Previous analysis of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen time series indicate that the system can be described by a low dimensional chaotic map. We apply the wavelet transform to study the multifractal characteristics of an a irborne pollen time series. We find the persistence behaviour associated to low pollen concentration values and to the most rare events of highest pollen co ncentration values. The information and the correlation dimensions correspond to a chaotic system showing loss of information with time evolution.

  19. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

  20. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, GuoQiang; Li, Chen; Tan, ChengJun; Ge, LiangQuan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energy calibration. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, effectively measuring energy from 20keV to 10MeV is possible.

  1. Determination of airborne nanoparticles from welding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João Fernando Pereira; Albuquerque, Paula Cristina Silva; Miranda, Rosa Maria Mendes; Vieira, Maria Teresa Freire

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in welding processes (tungsten inert gas [TIG], metal active gas [MAG] of carbon steel, and friction stir welding [FSW] of aluminum) in terms of deposited area in pulmonary alveolar tract using a nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) analyzer. The obtained results showed the dependence of process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles compared to background levels. Data indicated that the process that resulted in the lowest levels of alveolar deposited surface area (ADSA) was FSW, followed by TIG and MAG. However, all tested processes resulted in significant concentrations of ultrafine particles being deposited in humans lungs of exposed workers.

  2. Photothermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Airborne Samples with Mechanical String Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Shoko; Schmid, Silvan; Larsen, Tom;

    2013-01-01

    -scale airborne samples. Airborne sample material is directly collected on the microstring with an efficient nondiffusion limited sampling method based on inertial impaction. Resonance frequency shifts, proportional to the absorbed heat in the microstring, are recorded as monochromatic IR light is scanned over...... the mid-infrared range. As a proof-of-concept, we sample and analyze polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and the IR spectrum measured by photothermal spectroscopy matches the reference IR spectrum measured by an FTIR spectrometer. We further identify the organic surface coating of airborne TiO2 nanoparticles...

  3. NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Instrument Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David B.; Cook, Anthony; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John W.; Mack, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) recently developed the LaRC Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make measurements of aerosol and cloud distribution and optical properties. The Airborne HSRL has undergone as series of test flights and was successfully deployed on the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field mission in March 2006 (see Hair et al. in these proceedings). This paper provides an overview of the design of the Airborne HSRL and descriptions of some key subsystems unique to this instrument.

  4. Control of Airborne Infectious Diseases in Ventilated Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    We protect ourselves from airborne cross-infection in the indoor environment by supplying fresh air to a room by natural or mechanical ventilation. The air is distributed in the room according to different principles: mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, etc. A large amount of air...... is supplied to the room to ensure a dilution of airborne infection. Analyses of the flow in the room show that there are a number of parameters that play an important role in minimizing airborne cross-infection. The air flow rate to the room must be high, and the air distribution pattern can be designed...

  5. Microbial and 'de novo' transformation of dicarboxylic acids by three airborne fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, Valerie; Kos, Gregor [McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 801 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Mortazavi, Roya [McGill University, Department of Chemistry, 805 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Ariya, Parisa A. [McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 801 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6 (Canada); McGill University, Department of Chemistry, 805 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6 (Canada)], E-mail: parisa.ariya@mcgill.ca

    2008-02-15

    Micro-organisms and organic compounds of biogenic or anthropogenic origins are important constituents of atmospheric aerosols, which are involved in atmospheric processes and climate change. In order to investigate the role of fungi and their metabolisation activity, we collected airborne fungi using a biosampler in an urban location of Montreal, Quebec, Canada (45{sup o} 28' N, 73{sup o} 45' E). After isolation on Sabouraud dextrose agar, we exposed isolated colonies to dicarboxylic acids (C{sub 2}-C{sub 7}), a major group of organic aerosols and monitored their growth. Depending on the acid, total fungi numbers varied from 35 (oxalic acid) to 180 CFU/mL (glutaric acid). Transformation kinetics of malonic acid, presumably the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.00 mM for isolated airborne fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Thysanophora with the fastest transformation rate are presented. The initial concentration was halved within 4.5 and 11.4 days. Other collected fungi did not show a significant degradation and the malonic acid concentration remained unchanged (0.25 and 1.00 mM) within 20 days. Degradation of acid with formation of metabolites was followed using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as monitoring of {sup 13}C labelled malonic acid degradation with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Using GC/MS we identified two processes driving chemical modifications of organic aerosol solutions: (I) formation of metabolites within several days, and (II) rapid release ({<=} 2 min) of organic molecules from fungal species upon the insertion of taxa in organic aerosol solutions. Metabolites included aromatic compounds and alcohols (e.g. trimethylbenzene and butanol). Potential atmospheric implications of our results are discussed.

  6. Assessment of composition and origin of airborne bacteria in the free troposphere over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Yamada, Maromu; Matsuki, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2013-08-01

    Long-range transport of airborne microorganisms through the free troposphere significantly impacts biological ecosystems, human life, and atmospheric processes in downwind areas. However, microbial communities in the free troposphere have rarely been investigated because the direct collection of microbial cells at high altitudes requires sophisticated sampling techniques. In this study, tropospheric air sampling was performed using a balloon and an aircraft at 800 m and 3000 m, respectively, over the Noto Peninsula in Japan (37.5°N, 137.4°E) where free tropospheric winds carry aerosols from continental areas. The air samples were collected during four different sampling periods when air masses came from desert regions of Asian continent (west samples) and from Siberia of Russia North Asia (north samples). The west samples contained higher levels of aerosols, and bacteria from the west samples grew in culture media containing up to 15% NaCl. In contrast, bacteria from the north samples could not be cultured in the same media. All isolates obtained from the NaCl-amended cultures were similar to Bacillus subtilis and classified as Firmicutes. A 16S rDNA clone library prepared from the west samples was mainly composed of one phylotype of Firmicutes that corresponded to the cultured B. subtilis sequence. A clone library prepared from the north samples consisted primarily of two phyla, i.e., Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which are known to dominantly inhabit low-temperature environments of North Asia. Our results suggest that airborne bacterial communities at high altitudes include several species that vary by the direction and interaction of free tropospheric winds.

  7. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP, Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  8. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2016-02-18

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Extremophile Microorganisms with Significance to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bej, Asim K.

    2003-01-01

    It is now well recognized that microorganisms thrive in extreme ecological conditions such as geothermal vents, polar region, acid and alkaline lakes, and the cold pressurized depth of the ocean floor of this planet. Morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic adaptations to extreme environments by these extremophile microorganisms have generated immense interest amongst astrobiologists who increasingly believe in the existence of extraterrestrial life. The evidence collected by NASA's space probe Galileo suggested the presence of liquid water and volcanic activity on Mars and Jupiter's satellite Europa. Volcanic activity provides some of the heat necessary to keep the water on Europa from freezing that could provide important dissolved chemicals needed by living organisms. The possibility of the existence of hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters on Mars, and a layer of liquid water under the ice on Europa provide sufficient 'raison d'etre' to study microorganisms in similar extreme environments on Earth, which could provide us with a model that would help establish the existence of extraterrestrial life on other planetary bodies. The objectives of the summer research project were as follows: (1) application of molecular approaches to help establish new species of extremophile microorganisms isolated from a hypersaline alkaline lake; and (2) identification of a major cold-shock gene (cspA) homolog from a psychrotolerant microorganism, PmagG1.

  10. Mini-review: Inhibition of biofouling by marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Abed, Raeid M M; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Any natural or artificial substratum exposed to seawater is quickly fouled by marine microorganisms and later by macrofouling species. Microfouling organisms on the surface of a substratum form heterogenic biofilms, which are composed of multiple species of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, protozoa and fungi. Biofilms on artificial structures create serious problems for industries worldwide, with effects including an increase in drag force and metal corrosion as well as a reduction in heat transfer efficiency. Additionally, microorganisms produce chemical compounds that may induce or inhibit settlement and growth of other fouling organisms. Since the last review by the first author on inhibition of biofouling by marine microbes in 2006, significant progress has been made in the field. Several antimicrobial, antialgal and antilarval compounds have been isolated from heterotrophic marine bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi. Some of these compounds have multiple bioactivities. Microorganisms are able to disrupt biofilms by inhibition of bacterial signalling and production of enzymes that degrade bacterial signals and polymers. Epibiotic microorganisms associated with marine algae and invertebrates have a high antifouling (AF) potential, which can be used to solve biofouling problems in industry. However, more information about the production of AF compounds by marine microorganisms in situ and their mechanisms of action needs to be obtained. This review focuses on the AF activity of marine heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi and covers publications from 2006 up to the end of 2012.

  11. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Gudiña

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens, and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments.

  12. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2016-02-01

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments. PMID:26901207

  13. Isolation and evaluation of microorganisms for MEOR process; Yuyo biseibutsu no tansaku to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M.; Asaumi, H.; Yonebayashi, E. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    JNOC has been carrying out isolation of microorganisms for MEOR since 1988. This process strongly depends on abilities of microorganisms. To increase temperature criterion for MEOR, a survey of thermophilic microorganisms has been carried out. As a result, five microorganisms which can survive at 80-85 degree C and produce gas and/or show emulsification were isolated. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 725.12 - Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of microorganisms for... MICROORGANISMS General Provisions and Applicability § 725.12 Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and...) Taxonomic designation. The taxonomic designation of a microorganism must be provided for the donor...

  15. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  16. Potential role of microorganisms in the pathogenesis of rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Anna D

    2013-12-01

    Rosacea is a skin condition of abnormal inflammation and vascular dysfunction. The active contribution of a microbial agent in the development or progression of rosacea continues to be debated. Research supports the presence of commensal Demodex folliculorum mites at increased density in the skin and associates Helicobacter pylori infection of the gut with rosacea. Fewer studies implicate Staphylococcus epidermidis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and the Demodex-associated bacteria Bacillus oleronius. No research, however, provides a mechanism by which colonization by a microorganism translates to manifestation of the condition. Prevailing and emerging principles in the biology of the microbiome and the pathophysiology of rosacea may help to reconcile these lingering questions. Here the microorganisms implicated in rosacea are reviewed and the reaction of the microbiome to inflammation and to changes in microenvironments and macroenvironments are discussed to explain potential roles for microorganisms in rosacea pathophysiology.

  17. Opportunistic microorganisms in individuals with lesions of denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Toledo, Bruna Costa; Santos, Camila Teles; Pereira Costa, Anna Carolina Borges; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Kaminagakura, Estela; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, identify, and compare opportunistic microorganisms (Candida and Staphylococcus genera and Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae families) from prosthesis-fitting surfaces, the hard palate, and mouth rinses of individuals wearing removable maxillary prosthesis with (50) and without (50) lesions of denture stomatitis (DS). The strains were collected and identified using phenotypic, biochemical and molecular tests. The counts of microorganisms were significantly higher in the group of individuals with DS (P < 0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast species in both groups, following by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Six isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the most frequent Staphylococcus species in both groups. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species in both groups. The association between Candida spp. and bacteria isolated in this study with DS suggests that these microorganisms may play important roles in the establishment and persistence of this disease.

  18. Optical Biosensors for the Detection of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms are causative agents of various infectious diseases that are becoming increasingly serious worldwide. For the successful treatment of pathogenic infection, the rapid and accurate detection of multiple pathogenic microorganisms is of great importance in all areas related to health and safety. Among various sensor systems, optical biosensors allow easy-to-use, rapid, portable, multiplexed, and cost-effective diagnosis. Here, we review current trends and advances in pathogen-diagnostic optical biosensors. The technological and methodological approaches underlying diverse optical-sensing platforms and methods for detecting pathogenic microorganisms are reviewed, together with the strengths and drawbacks of each technique. Finally, challenges in developing efficient optical biosensor systems and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:26506111

  19. Inactivation of microorganisms with microwaves at reduced temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozempel, M F; Annous, B A; Cook, R D; Scullen, O J; Whiting, R C

    1998-05-01

    We developed a pilot-plant nonthermal flow process using microwave energy to inactivate microorganisms. The process consists of multiple passes through the microwave generator. Each passed material goes to a receiving tank for subsequent passes. The flow rate was 0.96 to 1.26 kg/min and the dwell time per pass was 1.1 to 1.5 min. Five passes were used. The microwave energy is instantaneously and simultaneously applied to the system, and thermal energy is removed by a cooling tube within the process line in the microwave generator. The cooling tube maintains the temperature below 40 degrees C. There was significant reduction in microorganisms in water, 10% glucose solution, and apple juice, and in yeast in beer. There was a slight decrease in microorganisms in tomato juice, pineapple juice, apple cider, and beer; and no effect in skim milk. PMID:9709231

  20. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  1. Advances and perspectives in bathymetry by airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Chenxi; Li, Mingyan; Wang, Yuefeng; Ye, Siqi; Han, Caiyun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the history of the airborne lidar and the development stages of the technology are reviewed. The basic principle of airborne lidar and the method of processing point-cloud data were discussed. At present, single point laser scanning method is widely used in bathymetric survey. Although the method has high ranging accuracy, the data processing and hardware system is too much complicated and expensive. For this reason, this paper present a kind of improved dual-frequency method for bathymetric and sea surface survey, in this method 176 units of 1064nm wavelength laser has been used by push-broom scanning and due to the airborne power limits still use 532nm wavelength single point for bathymetric survey by zigzag scanning. We establish a spatial coordinates for obtaining the WGS-84 of point cloud by using airborne POS system.

  2. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN02 (2013 & 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  3. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  4. Thermal Mapping Airborne Simulator for Small Satellite Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance, inexpensive, airborne simulator that will serve as the prototype for a small satellite based imaging system capable of mapping thermal anomalies...

  5. A Web-Based Airborne Remote Sensing Telemetry Server Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Web-based Airborne Remote Sensing Telemetry Server (WARSTS) is proposed to integrate UAV telemetry and web-technology into an innovative communication, command,...

  6. Airborne Magnetic Trackline and Survey Data (Vector and Scalar Observations)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receive airborne magnetic survey data from US and non-US...

  7. Research on airborne infrared leakage detection of natural gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xu, Xu; Wang, Hongchao; Yu, Dongliang; Tian, Shengjie

    2011-12-01

    An airborne laser remote sensing technology is proposed to detect natural gas pipeline leakage in helicopter which carrying a detector, and the detector can detect a high spatial resolution of trace of methane on the ground. The principle of the airborne laser remote sensing system is based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The system consists of an optical unit containing the laser, camera, helicopter mount, electronic unit with DGPS antenna, a notebook computer and a pilot monitor. And the system is mounted on a helicopter. The principle and the architecture of the airborne laser remote sensing system are presented. Field test experiments are carried out on West-East Natural Gas Pipeline of China, and the results show that airborne detection method is suitable for detecting gas leak of pipeline on plain, desert, hills but unfit for the area with large altitude diversification.

  8. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An autonomous airborne imaging system for earth science research, disaster response, and fire detection is proposed. The primary goal is to improve information to...

  9. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced airborne imaging system for fire detection/mapping is proposed. The goal of the project is to improve control and management of wildfires in order to...

  10. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES03 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia, Delaware, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data...

  11. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...

  12. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  13. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES01 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida, the Bahamas, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition...

  14. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN03 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2014 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  15. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN05 (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  16. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS06 (2012 & 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2012 & 2013 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  17. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN09 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set...

  18. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  19. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN04 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Michigan and Lake Huron collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...

  20. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS02 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  1. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN10 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the...

  2. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS03 (2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas and Louisiana collected in 2009 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  3. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  4. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alabama and Florida collected in 2008 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  5. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for PN01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for California and Oregon collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  6. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  7. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment. PMID:26857464

  8. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  9. The next generation airborne polarimetric Doppler weather radar

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekanandan, J.; W.-C. Lee; E. Loew; Salazar, J. L.; Grubišić, V.; J. Moore; Tsai, P

    2014-01-01

    Results from airborne field deployments emphasized the need to obtain concurrently high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of 3-D winds and microphysics. A phased array radar on an airborne platform using dual-polarization antenna has the potential for retrieving high resolution, collocated 3-D winds and microphysical measurements. Recently, ground-based phased array radar (PAR) demonstrated the high time resolution estimation of accurate Doppler velocity and reflecti...

  10. The next generation airborne polarimetric Doppler weather radar

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekanandan, J.; W.-C. Lee; E. Loew; Salazar, J. L.; Grubišić, V.; J. Moore; Tsai, P

    2014-01-01

    Results from airborne field deployments emphasized the need to obtain concurrently high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of 3-D winds and microphysics. A phased array radar on an airborne platform using dual-polarization antenna has the potential for retrieving high-resolution, collocated 3-D winds and microphysical measurements. Recently, ground-based phased array radar (PAR) has demonstrated the high time-resolution estimation of accurate Doppler velocity and...

  11. Airborne geophysical mapping of environmental features - examples from Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michael; Appleton, James; Beamish, David; Cuss, Robert; Van Dam, Christiaan; Jones, David; Lahti, Mari; Miles, Jon; Rawlins, Barry; Scheib, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Northern Ireland completed a low-level regional airborne geophysical survey of Northern Ireland during 2005-6 as part of the Tellus Project. The survey was flown by the Joint Airborne Geoscience Capability, a partnership of the British Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Finland. The aircraft, a De Havilland Twin Otter, was equipped with two magnetometer sensors, a four-frequency electromagnetic system and a 256-channel gamma-ray spectrometer. The traverse-...

  12. User definition and mission requirements for unmanned airborne platforms, revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhner, M. B.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The airborne measurement requirements of the scientific and applications experiment user community were assessed with respect to the suitability of proposed strawman airborne platforms. These platforms provide a spectrum of measurement capabilities supporting associated mission tradeoffs such as payload weight, operating altitude, range, duration, flight profile control, deployment flexibility, quick response, and recoverability. The results of the survey are used to examine whether the development of platforms is warranted and to determine platform system requirements as well as research and technology needs.

  13. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic isoprene over California

    OpenAIRE

    Misztal, P. K.; T. Karl; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; A. H. Goldstein

    2014-01-01

    © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Biogenic isoprene fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene over...

  14. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds over California

    OpenAIRE

    Misztal, P. K.; T. Karl; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; A. H. Goldstein

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK + MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ∼10 000 km of flight...

  15. Calibration for Radiation Protection Equipment for the Measuring Airborne Tritium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; SHEN; En-wei; WEI; Ke-xin; WANG; Kong-zhao; LI; Hou-wen; GE; Jian-an; LV; Xiao-xia

    2012-01-01

    <正>Monitoring airborne tritium is an important routine work in heavy water reactor nuclear power stations and the units related with tritium. Nowadays direct measuring instruments like hand carrying tritium monitors are more often used in routine workshop environment check. Need for calibrating such monitors was suggested. A trial work about the calibration for radiation protection equipment for measuring airborne tritium was carried out with a domestic standard EJ/T 1077-1998 equivalent that of IEC 710.

  16. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on motile microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of slightly increased UV-B radiation was studied in four taxonomically very different microorganisms: the gliding prokaryotic cyanobacterium, Phormidium, the unicellular green alga Cosmarium, the flagellate Euglena and the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. UV-B doses which can be expected as a result of a slight decrease of the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere, do not kill or damage the microorganisms visibly. However, such UV-B doses impair the development, motility and photoorientation of these organisms. Due to the inhibition of these physiological important parameters the organisms cannot respond adequately to the changing factors in their environment, which prevents the survival of the populations. (orig.)

  17. Gut Microorganisms Found Necessary for Successful Cancer Therapy | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Humans play host to trillions of microorganisms that help our bodies perform basic functions, like digestion, growth, and fighting disease. In fact, bacterial cells outnumber the human cells in our bodies by 10 to 1.1 The tens of trillions of microorganisms thriving in our intestines are known as gut microbiota, and those that are not harmful to us are referred to as commensal microbiota. In a recent paper in Science, NCI scientists described their discovery that, in mice, the presence of commensal microbiota is needed for successful response to cancer therapy.

  18. An Ecological Survey of Microorganisms Associated with Plantain Roots (Rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Bello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Micro-organisms are more predominant around root zone and as such play a vital role to plant. Micro-organisms are diverse and have property modification which are beneficial to plant growth and root development. Approach: The lack of knowledge on the specific microorganisms associated with plantain roots in Cross River State soils (which inturn leads to an avoidable loss of crop if appropriate management methods were employed led to the need for this study. Different ecological zones have different population of micro-organisms. The purpose of this study is to: to enumerate the rhizosphere microorganisms (bacteria and fungi associated with plantain roots at different locations across the ecological zones of the state and to identify the rhizosphere microorganisms associated with plantain roots of different location representing the ecological zones of the state. Results: To ascertain this, it was necessary to isolate micro-organisms from the roots of plantain in order to determine the different populations of microorganisms in different ecological zones across Cross River State, Nigeria. The isolation of bacteria and fungi colonizing the root of plantain were determined at six locations across the state, as follows: Obanliku, Boki, Etung, Obubra Biase and Odukpani Local Government Area. The activity growing roots of plantain were removed with the attached suckers and transferred to the laboratory for microbial analysis. Serial dilution method was used to determine the population of bacteria and fungi present in the root samples collected. Also, staining reaction as well as biochemical taste were carried out to identify the types of bacteria present and their biochemical reactions. Conclusion/Recommendations: The result showed that several types of bacteria and fungi were present around the roots of plantain. The types of bacteria and fungi are listed below; Bacteria: Micrococus, Rhizobium, Azomonas-agilis, Pseudomonads

  19. Stringy and membranic theory of swimming of micro-organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, M; Kawamura, Masako; Sugamoto, Akio

    1996-01-01

    When the swimming of micro-organisms is viewed from the string and membrane theories coupled to the velocity field of the fluid, a number of interesting results are derived; 1) importance of the area (or volume) preserving algebra, 2) usefulness of the N-point Reggeon (membranic) amplitudes, and of the gas to liquid transition in case of the red tide issues, 3) close relation between the red tide issue and the generation of Einstein gravity, and 4) possible understanding of the three different swimming ways of micro-organisms from the singularity structure of the shape space.

  20. Effects of heat-activated persulfate oxidation on soil microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsitonaki, Aikaterini; Smets, Barth F.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2008-01-01

    The effects of heat-activated persulfate on indigenous microorganisms and microcosms augmented with Pseudomonas putida KT2440 were studied in laboratory batch reactors with aquifer material. Microscopic enumeration was used to measure the changes in cell density, and acetate consumption was used to....../L). The results emphasize the necessity of using multiple toxicity assays and indigenous cultures in order to realistically assess the potential effects of in situ chemical oxidation on soil microorganisms. A comparison to other studies suggests that the effects of activated persulfate on soil...

  1. Conceptualizing "suicidal genetically engineered microorganisms" for bioremediation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gunjan; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2005-02-18

    Use of genetically modified microorganisms (GEMs) for pollution abatement has been limited because of risks associated with their release in the environment. Recent developments in the area of recombinant DNA technologies have paved the way for conceptualizing "suicidal genetically engineered microorganisms" (S-GEMS) to minimize such anticipated hazards and to achieve efficient and safer bioremediation of contaminated sites. Our strategy of designing a novel S-GEM is based on the knowledge of killer-anti-killer gene(s) that would be susceptible to programmed cell death after detoxification of any given contaminated site(s). PMID:15649393

  2. Antimicrobial activity of magnolol and honokiol against periodontopathic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B; Lee, Y; Ku, Y; Bae, K; Chung, C

    1998-05-01

    Magnolol (1) and honokiol (2), main compounds from the stem bark of Magnolia obovata Thunb., were evaluated for an antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic microorganisms, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, and Veillonella disper, and a cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that magnolol and honokiol, although less potent than chlorhexidine, show a significant antimicrobial activity against these microorganisms, and a relatively low cytotoxic effect on human gingival cells. Thus, it is suggested that magnolol and honokiol may have a potential therapeutic use as a safe oral antiseptic for the prevention and the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:9619121

  3. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms and their polymer-hidrolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Carolina M.M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms are found as normal inhabitants of continental and submarine volcanic areas, geothermally heated sea-sediments and hydrothermal vents and thus are considered extremophiles. Several present or potential applications of extremophilic enzymes are reviewed, especially polymer-hydrolysing enzymes, such as amylolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. The purpose of this review is to present the range of morphological and metabolic features among those microorganisms growing from 70oC to 100°C and to indicate potential opportunities for useful applications derived from these features.

  4. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  5. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATIREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two f light series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of supersaturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor. This presentation

  6. Locating spilled oil with airborne laser fluorosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Nelson, Robert D.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1999-02-01

    Locating oil in marine and terrestrial environments is a daunting task. There are commercially available off the shelf (COTS) sensors with a wide field-of-view (FOV) which can be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These generic sensors, however, lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. The problem is exacerbated along beach and shoreline environments where a variety of organic and inorganic substrates are present. One sensor that can detect and classify oil in these environments is the laser fluorosensor. Laser fluorosensors have been under development by several agencies around the world for the past two decades. Environment Canada has been involved with laser fluorosensor development since the early 1990s. The prototype system was known as the Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF). The LEAF has recently been modified to provide real-time oil spill detection and classification. Fluorescence spectra are collected and analyzed at the rate of 100 Hz. Geo-referenced maps showing the locations of oil contamination are produced in real-time onboard the aircraft. While the LEAF has proven to be an excellent prototype sensor and a good operational tool, it has some deficiencies when it comes to oil spill response operations. A consortium including Environment Canada and the Minerals Management Service has recently funded the development of a new fluorosensor, called the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF). The SLEAF was designed to detect and map oil in shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. Oil tends to pile up in narrow bands along the high tide line on beaches. A nadir-looking, small footprint sensor such as the LEAF would have difficulty locating oil in this situation. The SLEAF employs a pair of conical scanning mirrors to direct the laser beam in a circular pattern below the aircraft. With a sampling rate of 400 Hz and real-time spectral analysis

  7. POTENTIAL OF AIRBORNE IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY AT CZECHGLOBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hanuš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS. Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences. CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy. FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600 that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out

  8. Potential of Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy at Czechglobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Fabiánek, T.; Fajmon, L.

    2016-06-01

    Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS). Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences). CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy). FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600) that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out with all

  9. The Development of Airborne Data for Assessing Models (ADAM) - A central repository of airborne field campaign data archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Kleb, M. M.; Aknan, A. A.; Brown, C. C.; Mangosing, D. C.; Thornhill, A.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    NASA, NOAA, and NSF have conducted over 30 airborne campaigns during the past three decades aimed at gaining an understanding of the tropospheric chemical and physical processes related to climate change and air-quality issues. In recent years, the scientific value of this accumulated airborne data has been increasingly recognized for use in satellite validation and model assessment and evaluation activities. In addition to the high spatial-temporal resolutions, the airborne data, especially from the more recent studies, offers a comprehensive view of the atmosphere through a large suite of the simultaneously observed atmospheric species/parameters, ranging from photochemical precursors to products as well as particle chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. To better facilitate the model assessment and evaluation activities, we are actively engaged in the development of a web-based central airborne data archive: ADAM (Airborne Data for Assessing Models). This effort is sponsored by the NASA MEaSUREs program and is intended to archive data from tropospheric chemistry airborne field campaign since the 1980s. The principal design philosophy of the ADAM web site is to provide an intuitive user interface that allows users to browse, visualize, subset (both spatially and temporally), merge, and download the airborne data, as well as providing adequate metadata associated with the data archive. A working version of the web site which shows the ADAM user interface and functionalities will be presented. Also presented are conventions to establish common names for the atmospheric variables which are often observed during airborne campaigns as well as the approaches to handle missing data and limit of detections. This presentation is intended to serve the purpose of getting feedback from the broad atmospheric community, including both modelers and measurement experts.

  10. An intercomparison of airborne VOC measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) 2000 ambient air samples were analyzed on-board the NSF/NCAR ELECTRA research aircraft by two VOC measurement techniques: 1) an in-situ gas chromatograph named TACOH (Tropospheric Airborne Chromatograph for Oxy-hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbons), operated by NOAA's Aeronomy Laboratory, and 2) a chemical ionization mass spectrometer named PTR-MS (Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer) and operated by the University of Innsbruck. The sample protocols were quite different for the two methods: the TACOH system collected air samples for 15-60 sec (depending upon altitude) every 15 min, the PTR-MS system monitored selected VOCs on a time-shared basis for 2 sec respectively, once every 4-20 sec, depending upon the number of monitored species. Simultaneous measurements of acetaldehyde, isoprene, the sum of acetone and propanal, the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (PTR-MS does not distinguish between isobaric species) and toluene show good agreement despite being performed in the complex and highly polluted Houston air matrix. (author)

  11. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  12. Airborne silica levels in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the exposure levels of the general population we studied the concentrations of silica particles in the inhalable particulate fraction (PM10) in different meteorological-climate periods in an urban area of Rome. In order to determine the concentration and the granulometric spectrum of silica particles, PM10 sampled by a cascade impactor was analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Over the period September 2004-October 2005 the abundance of silica particles as evaluated by SEM/EDX ranged from 1.6 to 10.4% of the total PM10 particulate, with a weight concentration of free crystalline silica, evaluated by XRD, in the range 0.25-2.87 μg/m3. The mean diameter of silica particles ranged from 0.3 to 10.5 μm, with more than 87% of particles having a diameter of less than 2.5 μm. The correlations between SEM/EDX and XRD data seem to suggest that the airborne silica particles in the urban location studied were mainly in the form crystalline silica. A strong relationship was found between the meteorological-climate conditions and the concentration level of free crystalline silica. This result suggests that the Southern winds from the Sahara desert carry an important amount of silica particles into Mediterranean Europe

  13. Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, B.J.; Abraham, J.D.; Smith, B.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Voss, C.I.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Walvoord, M.A.; Wylie, B.K.; Anderson, L.; Ball, L.B.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Wellman, T.P.; Ager, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of permafrost in cold regions is inextricably connected to hydrogeologic processes, climate, and ecosystems. Permafrost thawing has been linked to changes in wetland and lake areas, alteration of the groundwater contribution to streamflow, carbon release, and increased fire frequency. But detailed knowledge about the dynamic state of permafrost in relation to surface and groundwater systems remains an enigma. Here, we present the results of a pioneering ???1,800 line-kilometer airborne electromagnetic survey that shows sediments deposited over the past ???4 million years and the configuration of permafrost to depths of ???100 meters in the Yukon Flats area near Fort Yukon, Alaska. The Yukon Flats is near the boundary between continuous permafrost to the north and discontinuous permafrost to the south, making it an important location for examining permafrost dynamics. Our results not only provide a detailed snapshot of the present-day configuration of permafrost, but they also expose previously unseen details about potential surface-groundwater connections and the thermal legacy of surface water features that has been recorded in the permafrost over the past ???1,000 years. This work will be a critical baseline for future permafrost studies aimed at exploring the connections between hydrogeologic, climatic, and ecological processes, and has significant implications for the stewardship of Arctic environments. ?? 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, C., E-mail: balducci@iia.cnr.it [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Nervegna, G.; Cecinato, A. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ({Delta}{sup 9}-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm{sup -3} of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  15. Palinocam Network: airborne pollen vigilance in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cervigón Morales

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma Regional Programme started to give up in 1992 with four big areas. Palinocam network project was first set up in Madrid as a part of Asthma Regional Programme, comprised in a wider Environmental Subprogram: Palynological Network of Madrid Region (PALINOCAM NETWORK.Palynological network is a multidisciplinary organization which has been working since 1993. In that moment an Experts Committee was created with This Experts Committee is coordinated by the Public Health Institute, under the technical Direction of Faculty of Pharmacy and is integrated by all of the involved institutions. This juridical framework is completed with individual agreements signed between the Councils and the Public Health Department, and with a Collaboration Agreement signed with the Madrid ́s Complutense University Faculty of Pharmacy.This network main aim is to watch for aerobiological content in Madrid's air, for a best knowledge of patients expositions in each geographical area in en different moment. This information has a great interest for Public Health.Palinocam Network is a useful tool in Public Health for offering information of aerobiological levels by Internet and Telephonic Service yearly .In this way allergic patients, sanitarians and media can know the most frequent pollen types in each season and its airborne level.

  16. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals. PMID:14762640

  17. Sedimentation behavior of indoor airborne microparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; WU Chao; PAN Wei

    2008-01-01

    Experiments on the behavior of airborne microparticle sediments and their adhesion on glass slides were conducted in a laboratory located on the first floor of a teaching building. Clean tiles and glass slides were placed at different angles (0°, 45° and 90°) with respect to the horizontal plane in the laboratory. The sedimentation of microparticles was investigated at certain time intervals (1 d, 3 d, 10 d and 30 d). The results of testing, at day 30, show that the diameters of particles on the horizontal tiles varied from 20 to 80 μm; few particles with diameter less than 0.5 μm or greater than 100 μm were found. The amount of particle sediment on all the slides increased along over time, while the average diameter of particles was not correlated with time, nor with the angle of placement. The maximum particle size, the total particle surface area, the total perimeter of all particles and the cover ratio of light (the proportion of total area of particles to the observed area of the slides surfaces) did not change significantly within the first 10 days. Inspection of all the samples for the last 20 days, however, showed that these variables increased substantially with the passage of time and were in reverse proportion to the placement angles, which indicates a concentration of particles, as well as physical and chemical changes.

  18. Multiple model adaptive tracking of airborne targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Over the past ten years considerable work has been accomplished at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) towards improving the ability of tracking airborne targets. Motivated by the performance advantages in using established models of tracking environment variables within a Kalman filter, an advanced tracking algorithm has been developed based on adaptive estimation filter structures. A multiple model bank of filters that have been designed for various target dynamics, which each accounting for atmospheric disturbance of the Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor data and mechanical vibrations of the sensor platform, outperforms a correlator tracker. The bank of filters provides the estimation capability to guide the pointing mechanisms of a shared aperture laser/sensor system. The data is provided to the tracking algorithm via an (8 x 8)-pixel tracking Field of View (FOV) from the FLIR image plane. Data at each sample period is compared by an enhanced correlator to a target template. These offsets are measurements to a bank of linear Kalman filters which provide estimates of the target's location in azimuth and elevation coordinates based on a Gauss-Markov acceleration model, and a reduced form of the atmospheric jitter model for the disturbance in the IR wavefront carrying future measurements.

  19. Airborne radiometric: Data evaluation and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne geophysical system of the BGR (German Geological Survey) consists of a helicopter equipped with an electromagnetic system with two transmittors and two receivers, a proton resonance magnetometer and a 16 L NaJ-crystal with four channel recording. All these data together with navigation data and flight altitude above ground are recorded each second on a nine track magnetic tape for further data evaluation. Different corrections have to be applied to the rough data such as: smoothing by means of a digital filter to reduce statistical noise, altitude correction, Compton-correction, and drift correction (cross-profile evaluation). Then the corrected measuring data are combined with the navigation data in order to be able to produce iso-line maps. The final results are presented as: line plots for U, Th, and K (and EM-data and magnetometer data); actual flight line plots; iso-line maps for U, Th, and K; iso-line maps for conductivity; depth of conducting layer; and magnetometry maps. The procedures of correction and evaluation of the above mentioned data as well as the calibration of the NaJ-detector in terms of ppm U, Th, and %K are dicussed in the paper. (author)

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Gel-entrapped catechins toward oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Muneaki; Saito, Hideo; Kikuchi, Kuniyoshi; Ishigami, Tomohiko; Toyama, Yoshio; Takami, Masao; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2011-01-01

    The oral cavity contains almost half of the commensal bacterial population present in the human body. An increase in the number of these microorganisms may result in systemic diseases such as infective endocarditis and aspiration pneumonia as well as oral infections. It is essential to control the total numbers of these microorganisms in order to suppress disease onset. Thus, we examined the antimicrobial activity of a newly developed gel-entrapped catechin (GEC) preparation against oral microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GEC was determined based on the relationship between a modified agar diffusion method and a broth microdilution method. GEC inhibited the growth of the Actinomyces, periodontopathic bacteria and Candida strains tested, but did not inhibit the growth of the oral streptococci that are important in the normal oral flora. Commercially available moisture gels containing antimicrobial components showed antimicrobial activity against all of the tested strains. After a series of washes and after a 24-h incubation, GEC retained the antimicrobial activity of the catechins. Catalase prevented GEC-induced growth inhibition of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans suggesting that hydrogen peroxide may be involved in the antimicrobial activity of catechins. These results suggest that GEC may be useful for controlling oral microorganism populations and reducing the accumulation of dental plaque, thereby helping to prevent periodontal disease and oral candidiasis. PMID:21532150

  1. Alkalizing reactions streamline cellular metabolism in acidogenic microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Arioli

    Full Text Available An understanding of the integrated relationships among the principal cellular functions that govern the bioenergetic reactions of an organism is necessary to determine how cells remain viable and optimise their fitness in the environment. Urease is a complex enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbonic acid. While the induction of urease activity by several microorganisms has been predominantly considered a stress-response that is initiated to generate a nitrogen source in response to a low environmental pH, here we demonstrate a new role of urease in the optimisation of cellular bioenergetics. We show that urea hydrolysis increases the catabolic efficiency of Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium that is widely used in the industrial manufacture of dairy products. By modulating the intracellular pH and thereby increasing the activity of β-galactosidase, glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase, urease increases the overall change in enthalpy generated by the bioenergetic reactions. A cooperative altruistic behaviour of urease-positive microorganisms on the urease-negative microorganisms within the same environment was also observed. The physiological role of a single enzymatic activity demonstrates a novel and unexpected view of the non-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that govern the bioenergetics of a bacterial cell, highlighting a new role for cytosol-alkalizing biochemical pathways in acidogenic microorganisms.

  2. Sugarcane residue decomposition by white and brown rot microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvesting sugarcane with chopper harvesters results in up to 10 tons of field crop residue per acre. Residue management by soil microorganism decomposition offers numerous ecological and economical benefits to growers; however, this natural process is dependent on the biotic density, diversity and...

  3. The metabolism and biotechnological application of betaine in microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huibin; Chen, Ningning; Shi, Mengxun; Xian, Mo; Song, Yimin; Liu, Junhong

    2016-05-01

    Glycine betaine (betaine) is widely distributed in nature and can be found in many microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, and fungi. Due to its particular functions, many microorganisms utilize betaine as a functional chemical and have evolved different metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis and catabolism of betaine. As in animals and plants, the principle role of betaine is to protect microbial cells against drought, osmotic stress, and temperature stress. In addition, the role of betaine in methyl group metabolism has been observed in a variety of microorganisms. Recent studies have shown that betaine supplementation can improve the performance of microbial strains used for the fermentation of lactate, ethanol, lysine, pyruvate, and vitamin B12, during which betaine can act as stress protectant or methyl donor for the biosynthesis of structurally complex compounds. In this review, we summarize the transport, synthesis, catabolism, and functions of betaine in microorganisms and discuss potential engineering strategies that employ betaine as a methyl donor for the biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolites such as a variety of vitamins, coenzymes, and antibiotics. In conclusion, the biocompatibility, C/N ratio, abundance, and comprehensive metabolic information of betaine collectively indicate that this molecule has great potential for broad applications in microbial biotechnology. PMID:27005411

  4. Screening of microorganisms for microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Japan Food Research Laboratiories, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Microbiology; Ono, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to screen effective microorganisms for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process (or simply as MEOR). Samples of drilling cuttings, formation water, and soil were collected from domestic drilling sites and oil fields. Moreover, samples of activated-sludge and compost were collected from domestic sewage treatment facility and food treatment facility. At first, microorganisms in samples were investigated by incubation with different media; then they were isolated. By two stage-screening based on metabolizing ability, 4 strains (Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322, Bacillus subtilis TRC-4118, and Bacillus subtilis TRC-4126) were isolated as effective microorganisms for oil recovery. B. licheniformis TRC-18-2-a is a multifunctional microorganism possessing excellent surfactant productivity, and in addition it has gas, acid and polymer productivities. E. cloacae TRC-332 has gas and acid producing abilities. B. subtilis TRC-4118 and TRC-4126 are effective biosurfactant producers, and they reduce the interfacial tension to 0.04 and 0.12 dyne/cm, respectively. (author)

  5. System for identification of microorganism and detection of infectious disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for the identification of microorganisms or infectious disorders are disclosed, comprising obtaining a suitable sample from sources such as persons, animals, plants, food, water or soil. The methods also comprise providing tailored nucleic acid substrate(s) designed to react with a type 1...

  6. Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1...

  7. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Holmes, B.; Nichols, S.A.; Blanch, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were ide

  8. Antarctic bacteria inhibit growth of foodborne microorganisms at low temperatures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. O'Brien; R. Sharp; N.J. Russell; S. Roller

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Antarctic microorganisms with the ability to produce cold-active antimicrobial compounds with potential for use in chilled food preservation. Colonies (4496) were isolated from 12 Antarctic soil samples and tested against Listeria innocua, Pseudomonas fragi and

  9. Alkalizing Reactions Streamline Cellular Metabolism in Acidogenic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Stefania; Ragg, Enzio; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Fessas, Dimitrios; Signorelli, Marco; Karp, Matti; Daffonchio, Daniele; De Noni, Ivano; Mulas, Laura; Oggioni, Marco; Guglielmetti, Simone; Mora, Diego

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the integrated relationships among the principal cellular functions that govern the bioenergetic reactions of an organism is necessary to determine how cells remain viable and optimise their fitness in the environment. Urease is a complex enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbonic acid. While the induction of urease activity by several microorganisms has been predominantly considered a stress-response that is initiated to generate a nitrogen source in response to a low environmental pH, here we demonstrate a new role of urease in the optimisation of cellular bioenergetics. We show that urea hydrolysis increases the catabolic efficiency of Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium that is widely used in the industrial manufacture of dairy products. By modulating the intracellular pH and thereby increasing the activity of β-galactosidase, glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase, urease increases the overall change in enthalpy generated by the bioenergetic reactions. A cooperative altruistic behaviour of urease-positive microorganisms on the urease-negative microorganisms within the same environment was also observed. The physiological role of a single enzymatic activity demonstrates a novel and unexpected view of the non-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that govern the bioenergetics of a bacterial cell, highlighting a new role for cytosol-alkalizing biochemical pathways in acidogenic microorganisms. PMID:21152088

  10. Fossil Microorganisms and Formation of Early Precambrian Weathering Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, A. Yu; Astafieva, M. M.; Vrevsky, A. B.; Alfimova, N. A.; Matrenichev, V. A.; Hoover, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Weathering crusts are the only reliable evidences of the existence of continental conditions. Often they are the only source of information about exogenous processes and subsequently about conditions under which the development of the biosphere occurred. A complex of diverse fossil microorganisms was discovered as a result of Scanning Electron Microscope investigations. The chemical composition of the discovered fossils is identical to that of the host rocks and is represented by Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg. Probably, the microorganisms fixed in rocks played the role of catalyst. The decomposition of minerals comprising the rocks and their transformation into clayey (argillaceous) minerals, most likely occurred under the influence of microorganisms. And may be unique weathering crusts of Early Precambrian were formed due to interaction between specific composition of microorganism assemblage and conditions of hypergene transformations. So it is possible to speak about colonization of land by microbes already at that time and about existence of single raw from weathering crusts (Primitive soils) to real soils.

  11. 21 CFR 866.2660 - Microorganism differentiation and identification device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microorganism differentiation and identification device. 866.2660 Section 866.2660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology...

  12. Nitrification in acid soils: micro-organisms and mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrification in acid soils was first reported in the beginning of the 20th century. Although this finding has been well substantiated by countless studies since then, it has until recently remained unclear which micro-organisms were responsible for nitrate production at low pH. Substantial evidence

  13. Microorganisms in metalworking fluids: current issues in research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafny, Elżbieta A

    2013-03-01

    The microbial contamination of water miscible metalworking fluids (MWFs) is a serious problem in metal industry. A good maintenance of MWF re-circulation systems can extend the lifetime of coolants and ensure the quality of the tools produced. In MWFs, as in the other water-based environments, microorganisms usually live in the form of biofilms, the communities of bacteria and fungi attached to the surface of sumps, metal parts and also to each other. Biofilms exhibit very high resistance to biocides. The effect of biocides that are used as additives to MWFs to control the growth of the bacterial and fungal microbiomes (microorganisms characteristic to the individual coolant system) have become the subject of research only in recent years. There are also only sparse reports on the impact of biocides on microorganisms growing in biofilms in MWF installations. Fast growing mycobacteria are important members of these biofilm communities. Their presence has recently been linked with the occurrence of cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a serious respiratory disorder in the metal industry employees. The new, relatively fast and inexpensive techniques to assess the species diversity within MWF microbiomes and their population size should be developed in order to control the microorganisms' proliferation in MWFs and to diminish the occupational exposure to harmful bioaerosols in metal industry. PMID:23526197

  14. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Azizur, E-mail: Mohammad.Rahman@uts.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Hassler, Christel [Marine and Lake Biogeochemistry, Institute F. A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 rte de Suisse, Versoix, 1290 Switzerland (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As{sup V}, which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As{sup III}, which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As{sup V}, biotransform it to As{sup III}, then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As{sup III} is more toxic than As{sup V}, As{sup III} is much more easily excreted from the cells than As{sup V}. Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As{sup V} to As{sup III} as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA{sup V}, dimethylarsonate; DMA{sup V}, and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO{sup V}) and trimethylarsine (TMAO{sup III}). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsenite (DMA{sup III}), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data.

  15. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Ito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been

  16. L-methionine degradation potentialities of cheese-ripening microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnarme, P; Lapadatescu, C; Yvon, M; Spinnler, H E

    2001-11-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds are major flavouring compounds in many traditional fermented foods including cheeses. These compounds are products of the catabolism of L-methionine by cheese-ripening microorganisms. The diversity of L-methionine degradation by such microorganisms, however, remains to be characterized. The objective of this work was to compare the capacities to produce volatile sulphur compounds by five yeasts, Geotrichum candidum, Yarrowia lipolytica, Kluyveromyces lactis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and five bacteria, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus lutens and Staphylococcus equorum of technological interest for cheese-ripening. The ability of whole cells of these microorganisms to generate volatile sulphur compounds from L-methionine was compared. The microorganisms produced a wide spectrum of sulphur compounds including methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide, dimethyltrisulfide and also S-methylthioesters, which varied in amount and type according to strain. Most of the yeasts produced methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and dimethyltrisulfide but did not produce S-methylthioesters, apart from G. candidum that produced S-methyl thioacetate. Bacteria, especially Arth. sp. and Brevi. linens, produced the highest amounts and the greatest variety of volatile sulphur compounds includling methanethiol, sulfides and S-methylthioesters, e.g. S-methyl thioacetate, S-methyl thiobutyrate, S-methyl thiopropionate and S-methyl thioisovalerate. Cell-free extracts of all the yeasts and bacteria were examined for the activity of enzymes possibly involved in L-methionine catabolism, i.e. L-methionine demethiolase, L-methionine aminotransferase and L-methionine deaminase. They all possessed L-methionine demethiolase activity, while some (K. lactis, Deb. hansenii, Arth. sp., Staph. equorum) were deficient in L-methionine aminotransferase, and none produced L-methionine deaminase

  17. Halophilic microorganisms in deteriorated historic buildings: insights into their characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Pietrzak, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Historic buildings are constantly being exposed to numerous climatic changes such as damp and rainwater. Water migration into and out of the material's pores can lead to salt precipitation and the so-called efflorescence. The structure of the material may be seriously threatened by salt crystallization. A huge pressure is produced when salt hydrates occupy larger spaces, which leads at the end to cracking, detachment and material loss. Halophilic microorganisms have the ability to adapt to high salinity because of the mechanisms of inorganic salt (KCl or NaCl) accumulation in their cells at concentrations isotonic to the environment, or compatible solutes uptake or synthesis. In this study, we focused our attention on the determination of optimal growth conditions of halophilic microorganisms isolated from historical buildings in terms of salinity, pH and temperature ranges, as well as biochemical properties and antagonistic abilities. Halophilic microorganisms studied in this paper could be categorized as a halotolerant group, as they grow in the absence of NaCl, as well as tolerate higher salt concentrations (Staphylococcus succinus, Virgibacillus halodenitrificans). Halophilic microorganisms have been also observed (Halobacillus styriensis, H. hunanensis, H. naozhouensis, H. litoralis, Marinococcus halophilus and yeast Sterigmatomyces halophilus). With respect to their physiological characteristics, cultivation at a temperature of 25-30°C, pH 6-7, NaCl concentration for halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms, 0-10% and 15-30%, respectively, provides the most convenient conditions. Halophiles described in this study displayed lipolytic, glycolytic and proteolytic activities. Staphylococcus succinus and Marinococcus halophilus showed strong antagonistic potential towards bacteria from the Bacillus genus, while Halobacillus litoralis displayed an inhibiting ability against other halophiles. PMID:26894235

  18. Open Source Software Reuse in the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudikyan, S. E.; Hart, A. F.; Hardman, S.; Freeborn, D.; Davoodi, F.; Resneck, G.; Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Earth science airborne missions play an important role in helping humans understand our climate. A challenge for airborne campaigns in contrast to larger NASA missions is that their relatively modest budgets do not permit the ground-up development of data management tools. These smaller missions generally consist of scientists whose primary focus is on the algorithmic and scientific aspects of the mission, which often leaves data management software and systems to be addressed as an afterthought. The Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE), developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to support Earth Science Airborne Program, is a reusable, multi-mission data system environment for NASA airborne missions. ACCE provides missions with a cloud-enabled platform for managing their data. The platform consists of a comprehensive set of robust data management capabilities that cover everything from data ingestion and archiving, to algorithmic processing, and to data delivery. Missions interact with this system programmatically as well as via browser-based user interfaces. The core components of ACCE are largely based on Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT), an open source information integration framework at the Apache Software Foundation (ASF). Apache OODT is designed around a component-based architecture that allows for selective combination of components to create highly configurable data management systems. The diverse and growing community that currently contributes to Apache OODT fosters on-going growth and maturation of the software. ACCE's key objective is to reduce cost and risks associated with developing data management systems for airborne missions. Software reuse plays a prominent role in mitigating these problems. By providing a reusable platform based on open source software, ACCE enables airborne missions to allocate more resources to their scientific goals, thereby opening the doors to increased scientific discovery.

  19. Validation of Airborne CO2 Laser Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Kooi, S.; Fenn, M. A.; Choi, Y.; Vay, S. A.; Harrison, F. W.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    This paper discusses the flight test validation of a unique, multi-frequency, intensity-modulated, single-beam laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates near 1.57 μm for remote column CO2 measurements. This laser system is under development for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of regional-scale CO2 sources and sinks, which is the objective of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions during Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. A prototype of this LAS system, called the Multi-frequency Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), was developed by ITT, and it has been flight tested in nine airborne campaigns since May 2005. This paper focuses on the most recent results obtained over the last two years of flight-testing where the MFLL remote CO2 column measurements were evaluated against airborne in situ CO2 profile measurements traceable to World Meteorological Organization standards. A comprehensive multiple-aircraft flight test program was conducted over Oklahoma and Virginia in July-August 2009. The MFLL obtained surface reflectance and average CO2 column variations along the 50-km flight legs over the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility (CF) in Lamont, Oklahoma; over rural Virginia and North Carolina; and over the Chesapeake Bay. For a flight altitude of 4.6 km, the average signal to noise ratio (SNR) for a 1-s CO2 column measurement was found to be 760, which is the equivalent of a CO2 mixing ratio precision of 0.60 ppmv, and for a 10-s average the SNR was found to be 2002 or 0.20 ppmv. Absolute comparisons of MFLL-derived and in situ-derived CO2 column measurements were made for all daytime flights conducted over Oklahoma and Virginia with an average agreement to within 0.32 ppmv. A major ASCENDS flight test campaign was conducted using the NASA DC-8 during 6-18 July 2010. The MFLL system and associated in situ CO2 instrumentation were operated on DC-8 flights over the Central Valley

  20. Recent advances in airborne radiometric technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its inception, the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory has made dramatic innovations in airborne radiometric technology. In the past few years there have been at least four major changes in operational philosophy. (1) The helicopter is now the prime radiation survey vehicle. Surveys are conducted at low speed and low altitude, with lines spaced only a few hundred feet apart. Radiation anomalies and subtle changes in background can be readily identified. (2) Much greater emphasis is now placed on accurate, detailed analysis and interpretation of radiation data. Dramatic improvements in survey hardware and software provide much more data of considerably better quality. (3) Recent Laboratory research has been concentrated on error-free, positive identification of point radiation sources. In the past, the extent and magnitude of dispersed sources were the major concerns. (4) Integrated remote sensing has been strongly emphasized at the Laboratory in recent years. This involves the simultaneous use of radiation detectors, aerial cameras, and the multispectral scanner imagery. The synergistic effects of such data correlation are of significantly greater value in analyzing the terrestrial environment. Many of the changes in operational philosophy are directly traceable to new or dramatically improved hardware and software employed at the Laboratory. Six items have been instrumental in the above technological advances: (1) the UHF Transponder System and its predecessor, the Microwave Ranging System; (2) Model IC of the REDAR data acquisition system; (3) the development of the search algorithm; (4) continued improvements in the REDACA data analysis system; (5) deployment of polyscin sodium iodide radiation detectors; and (6) development of the Graphic Overview System

  1. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  2. Progress in georeferencing airborne laser altimeter measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, C.R. [NASA/GSFC Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA (United States); Bufton, J.L. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Facility, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including its Wallops Flight Facility, has conducted a series of airborne missions to collect transacts of pulsed-laser measured distances to the Earth`s surface. The primary purpose of these missions was to geolocate the points where the laser hit the earth. We present how we make these measurements with sufficient accuracy that a point on the earth can be geolocated in height to about 10 cm with-respect-to the WGS-84 ellipsoid. We give particular attention to determining the instantaneous spatial orientation of the laser beam and its transit time to the earth and back to the receiver. We also discuss the difficulty in assessing the accuracy of the ellipsoidal latitude and longitude of the point. From 1991 through 1994 we flew a nadir-pointing system in either a P3-B Orion or a T-39 Sabreline aircraft owned and operated by the Wallops Flight Facility. Flights in 1993 at an altitude of 500 to 600 meters over Lake Crowley, California (the Long Valley reservoir) gave a mean lake height that agreed to better than 10 cm with an accurate tide gage at the dam - after the local geoid undulation was removed from the laser data. In 1995 we built a new pulsed-laser ranger that raster-scans at 60 times per second, operates at a 523 run wavelength, fires 5000 pulses per second, and produces a 12 degrees wide scan line. We present preliminary results from this system. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Forest Delineation Based on Airborne LIDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The delineation of forested areas is a critical task, because the resulting maps are a fundamental input for a broad field of applications and users. Different national and international forest definitions are available for manual or automatic delineation, but unfortunately most definitions lack precise geometrical descriptions for the different criteria. A mandatory criterion in forest definitions is the criterion of crown coverage (CC, which defines the proportion of the forest floor covered by the vertical projection of the tree crowns. For loosely stocked areas, this criterion is especially critical, because the size and shape of the reference area for calculating CC is not clearly defined in most definitions. Thus current forest delineations differ and tend to be non-comparable because of different settings for checking the criterion of CC in the delineation process. This paper evaluates a new approach for the automatic delineation of forested areas, based on airborne laser scanning (ALS data with a clearly defined method for calculating CC. The new approach, the ‘tree triples’ method, is based on defining CC as a relation between the sum of the crown areas of three neighboring trees and the area of their convex hull. The approach is applied and analyzed for two study areas in Tyrol, Austria. The selected areas show a loosely stocked forest at the upper timberline and a fragmented forest on the hillside. The fully automatic method presented for delineating forested areas from ALS data shows promising results with an overall accuracy of 96%, and provides a beneficial tool for operational applications.

  4. Airborne Lidar Point Cloud Density Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, P. T.; Huang, C.-M.

    2006-12-01

    Airborne lidar is useful for collecting a large volume and high density of points with three dimensional coordinates. Among these points are terrain points, as well as those points located aboveground. For DEM production, the density of the terrain points is an important quality index. While the penetration rate of laser points is dependent on the surface type characteristics, there are also different ways to present the point density. Namely, the point density could be measured by subdividing the surveyed area into cells, then computing the ratio of the number of points in each respective cell to its area. In this case, there will be one density value for each cell. The other method is to construct the TIN, and count the number of triangles in the cell, divided by the area of the cell. Aside from counting the number of triangles, the area of the largest, or the 95% ranking, triangle, could be used as an index as well. The TIN could also be replaced by Voronoi diagrams (Thiessen Polygon), and a polygon with even density could be derived from human interpretation. The nature of these indices is discussed later in this research paper. Examples of different land cover types: bare earth, built-up, low vegetation, low density forest, and high density forest; are extracted from point clouds collected in 2005 by ITRI under a contract from the Ministry of the Interior. It is found that all these indices are capable of reflecting the differences of the land cover type. However, further investigation is necessary to determine which the most descriptive one is.

  5. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  6. Dispersion model for airborne particulates inside a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical model has been developed for the spread of airborne radioactive particles after they are released inside a building. The model has been useful in performing safety analyses of actinide materials facilities at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These facilities employ the multiple-air-zone concept; that is, ventilation air flows from rooms or areas of least radioactive material hazard, through zones of increasing hazard, to a treatment system. A composite of the data for dispersion of airborne activity during 12 actual case incidents at SRP forms the basis for this model. These incidents occurred during approximately 90 plant-years of experience at SRP with the chemical and metallurgical processing of purified neptunium and plutonium after their recovery from irradiated uranium. The model gives ratios of the airborne activity concentrations in rooms and corridors near the site of the release. The multiple-air-zone concept has been applied to many designs of nuclear facilities as a safety feature to limit the spread of airborne activity from a release. The model illustrates the limitations of this concept: it predicts an apparently anomalous behavior of airborne particulates; namely, a small migration against the flow of the ventilation air

  7. Airborne Gravity Data Enhances NGS Experimental Gravimetric Geoid in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, S. A.; Childers, V. A.; Li, X.; Roman, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Geodetic Survey [NGS], through their Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum [GRAV-D] program, continues to update its gravimetry holdings by flying new airborne gravity surveys over a large fraction of the USA and its territories. By 2022, NGS intends that all orthometric heights in the USA will be determined in the field by using a reliable national gravimetric geoid model to transform from geodetic heights obtained from GPS. Several airborne campaigns have already been flown over Alaska and its coastline. Some of this Alaskan coastal data have been incorporated into a new NGS experimental geoid model - xGEOID14. The xGEOID14 model is the first in a series of annual experimental geoid models that will incorporate NGS GRAV-D airborne data. This series provides a useful benchmark for assessing and improving current techniques by which the airborne and land-survey data are filtered and cleaned, and then combined with satellite gravity models, elevation data (etc.) with the ultimate aim of computing a geoid model that can support a national physical height system by 2022. Here we will examine the NGS GRAV-D airborne data in Alaska, and assess its contribution to xGEOID14. Future prospects for xGEOID15 will also be considered.

  8. Detection Range of Airborne Magnetometers in Magnetic Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne magnetometers are utilized for the small-range search, precise positioning, and identification of the ferromagnetic properties of underwater targets. As an important performance parameter of sensors, the detection range of airborne magnetometers is commonly set as a fixed value in references regardless of the influences of environment noise, target magnetic properties, and platform features in a classical model to detect airborne magnetic anomalies. As a consequence, deviation in detection ability analysis is observed. In this study, a novel detection range model is proposed on the basis of classic detection range models of airborne magnetometers. In this model, probability distribution is applied, and the magnetic properties of targets and the environment noise properties of a moving submarine are considered. The detection range model is also constructed by considering the distribution of the moving submarine during detection. A cell-averaging greatest-of-constant false alarm rate test method is also used to calculate the detection range of the model at a desired false alarm rate. The detection range model is then used to establish typical submarine search probabilistic models. Results show that the model can be used to evaluate not only the effects of ambient magnetic noise but also the moving and geomagnetic features of the target and airborne detection platform. The model can also be utilized to display the actual operating range of sensor systems.

  9. Glass characterization to assess the airborne sound isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main contribution of this paper is the formulation of an alternative to experimental determination of loss factor and, consequently, to improve the predictions of airborne sound insulation for any type of monolithic or laminated glass. In addition, a review of the standards related to measurement of mechanical parameters of glass is carried out, with particular interest in laminated glass Indeed, one of the problems that arise in the current context of building acoustics is to meet the requirements of facades airborne sound insulation of existing Building Technical Code (BTC). It is known that the blind and the hollow part of the facade should be distinguished. The weakest part regarding to airborne sound insulation is the empty one (consisting of glass, woodwork and other elements). Choosing an adequate woodwork makes the glass surface become the limiting factor. The Constructive Elements Catalog (CEC) of the BTC, the UNE-EN 12758:2011 standard, as well as some, increasingly, data vendors provide information about airborne sound insulation for monolithic glass, laminated glass and double glazing. In the case of laminated glass, these data are limited only to those with a single intermediate layer, and also nonacoustic. Can therefore be said that there is a gap of knowledge in this regard. To obtain reliable predictions of airborne sound insulation of multilayer partitions, such as laminated glass, mechanical characteristics must be known, being loss factor one of the most important. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. SURVEY OF AIRBORNE POLLEN IN HUBEI PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-hui Liu; Rong-fei Zhu; Wei Zhang; Wen-jing Li; Zhong-xi Wang; Huan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the genera and seasonal distribution of airborne pollen in Hubei province of China,and its relationship with pollinosis.Methods From November 2003 to October 2004,an airborne pollen investigation was performed in 16 chosen areas in 12 cities of Hubei province using gravity sedimentation technique.Meanwhile,univalent skin prick tests of pollens were performed and the invasion season was studied on 2 300 patients with pollinosis.Among them,352 eases underwent the airway responsiveness measurements,and the correlation between airway responsiveness and results of pollen count was analyzed.Results A total of 61 pollen genera were observed and 257 520 pollens were collected.The peak of airborne pollen distribution occurred in two seasons each year:spring (March and April) and autumn (from August to October).The attack of pollinosis corresponded to the peak of pollen distribution.There was a significantly negative relationship between the provocation dose causing a 20% decrease of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from baseline and airborne pollen concentration (r=-0.6829,P<0.05).Conclusion This study provides useful information for airborne pollen epidemiology of Hubei province,and it provides important insights to clinical prevention,diagnosis,and treatment of pollen-related allergic diseases.

  11. Biophysical influence of airborne carbon nanomaterials on natural pulmonary surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Russell P; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y

    2015-05-26

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air-water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handle NP-PS interactions in the liquid phase. This technical limitation, inherent in current in vitro methodologies, makes it impossible to simulate how airborne NP deposit at the PS film and interact with it. Existing in vitro NP-PS studies using liquid-suspended particles have been shown to artificially inflate the no-observed adverse effect level of NP exposure when compared to in vivo inhalation studies and international occupational exposure limits (OELs). Here, we developed an in vitro methodology called the constrained drop surfactometer (CDS) to quantitatively study PS inhibition by airborne CNM. We show that airborne multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets induce a concentration-dependent PS inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. The CNM aerosol concentrations controlled in the CDS are comparable to those defined in international OELs. Development of the CDS has the potential to advance our understanding of how submicron airborne nanomaterials affect the PS lining of the lung.

  12. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-08-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers-Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  13. Data fusion techniques for object space classification using airborne laser data and airborne digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong Yong

    The objective of this research is to investigate possible strategies for the fusion of airborne laser data with passive optical data for object space classification. A significant contribution of our work is the development and implementation of a data-level fusion technique, direct digital image georeferencing (DDIG). In DDIG, we use navigation data from an integrated system (composed of global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU)) to project three-dimensional data points measured with the University of Florida's airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) system onto digital aerial photographs. As an underlying math model, we use the familiar collinearity condition equations. After matching the ALSM object space points to their corresponding image space pixels, we resample the digital photographs using cubic convolution techniques. We call the resulting images pseudo-ortho-rectified images (PORI) because they are orthographic at the ground surface but still exhibit some relief displacement for elevated objects; and because they have been resampled using a interpolation technique. Our accuracy tests on these PORI images show that they are planimetrically correct to about 0.4 meters. This accuracy is sufficient to remove most of the effects of the central perspective projection and enable a meaningful fusion of the RGB data with the height and intensity data produced by the laser. PORI images may also be sufficiently accurate for many other mapping applications, and may in some applications be an attractive alternative to traditional photogrammetric techniques. A second contribution of our research is the development of several strategies for the fusion of data from airborne laser and camera systems. We have conducted our work within the sensor fusion paradigm formalized in the optical engineering community. Our work explores the fusion of these two types of data for precision mapping applications. Specifically, we combine three different types of

  14. Biological Synthesis of Nanoparticles from Plants and Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yu-Jin; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology has become one of the most promising technologies applied in all areas of science. Metal nanoparticles produced by nanotechnology have received global attention due to their extensive applications in the biomedical and physiochemical fields. Recently, synthesizing metal nanoparticles using microorganisms and plants has been extensively studied and has been recognized as a green and efficient way for further exploiting microorganisms as convenient nanofactories. Here, we explore and detail the potential uses of various biological sources for nanoparticle synthesis and the application of those nanoparticles. Furthermore, we highlight recent milestones achieved for the biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles by controlling critical parameters, including the choice of biological source, incubation period, pH, and temperature.

  15. Food environments select microorganisms based on selfish energetic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eMora

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient richness, and specifically the abundance of mono- and disaccharides that characterize several food matrixes, such as milk and grape juice, has allowed the speciation of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts with a high fermentation capacity instead of energetically favorable respiratory metabolism. In these environmental contexts, rapid sugar consumption and lactic acid or ethanol production, accumulation and tolerance, together with the ability to propagate in the absence of oxygen, are several of the ‘winning’ traits that have apparently evolved and become specialized to perfection in these fermenting microorganisms. Here, we summarize and discuss the evolutionary context that has driven energetic metabolism in food-associated microorganisms, using the dairy species Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus among prokaryotes and the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among eukaryotes as model organisms.

  16. Release of marine sedimentary microorganisms by enzymes-antibiotic association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisou, J.F. (Hopital d' Instruction des Armees, Ecole d' Application des Medecins de la Marine, Sainte-Anne, 83 - Toulon (France)); Makhlouf, B. (Institut Pasteur, Alger (Algeria))

    1982-12-06

    Polysaccharases release microorganisms from their natural seat, marine sediments for example. The enzymatic activity works both on the microbial adherence polysaccharides and on the support surfaces (cellulose, pectine, etc.). Dosages of glucose confirm polysaccharase activity. An association of bacitracine, thiophenicol and a few enzymes: cellulase, pectinase, amyloglucosidase, alpha amylase, hyaluronidase, release a considerable number of bacteria. The culture on specific mediums confirm the specificity of this release. E. coli polyresistant strain where isolated by amylo-glucosidase, glucuronidase association in a mixture of thiophenicol and bacitracine. Bacillus and other Gram positif bacteria are frequently isolated by this method. The number of colonizer microorganisms on solid media are considerably higher with sediments treated by enzymes, or by enzyme, antibiotic mixtures, than with untreated ones.

  17. MICROORGANISMS ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY DETERMINATION IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalova O.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays Urinary tract infections (UTI are considered to be the most common bacterial infections. Escherichia coli is the most frequently uropathogen. Other microorganisms of the genera Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Morganella, Citrobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Candida are also isolated with variable frequency. In recent years there has been a decreasing tendency of the causative agents of UTI sensitivity to various antibiotics, which causes growth of an inefficiency treatment risk. In connection with the above the investigations were carried out with the purpose to identify the actual causative agents of bacteriuria and their sensitivity to antibiotics and antifungal drugs. Materials and methods. Bacteriological examination of urine was performed at 42 patients of SI "Sytenko Institute of Spine and Joint Pathology, AMS of Ukraine" clinic. The bacteriological method for determining the number of bacteria in the test material, cultural and bacterioscopic methods for identifying microorganisms and disk-diffusion method for sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics determining were used. The clinical material for the study was an average portion of the morning urine or urine collected by catheter. The biological material collection and bacteriological examination was carried by quantitative method, the isolated microorganisms identification and their sensitivity to antibiotics determining was performed by standard methods in accordance with current guidelines. We used the following antibiotics group to determine the microorganisms sensitivity: penicillin, cephalosporin, karbapenems, tetracyclines, aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolones, oxazolidinones, macrolides, lincosamides, glycopeptides, antifungal antibiotics. Results and discussion. During the biological material study 55 isolates of bacterial and fungal pathogens were obtained. The microorganisms’ concentration in urine was in

  18. Direct measurement of the flow field around swimming microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    Drescher, Knut; Michel, Nicolas; Polin, Marco; Tuval, Idan

    2010-01-01

    Swimming microorganisms create flows that influence their mutual interactions and modify the rheology of their suspensions. While extensively studied theoretically, these flows have not been measured in detail around any freely-swimming microorganism. We report such measurements for the microphytes Volvox carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The minute ~0.3% density excess of V. carteri over water leads to a strongly dominant Stokeslet contribution, with the widely-assumed stresslet flow only a correction to the subleading source dipole term. This implies that suspensions of V. carteri have features similar to suspensions of sedimenting particles. The flow in the region around C. reinhardtii where significant hydrodynamic interaction is likely to occur differs qualitatively from a "puller" stresslet, and can be described by a simple three-Stokeslet model.

  19. Experimental studies of biodegradation of asphalt by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the geological disposal system of the radioactive wastes, the activities of the microorganisms that could degrade the asphalt might be significant for the assessment of the system performance. As the main effects of the biodegradation of the asphalt, the fluctuation of leaching behavior of the nuclides included in asphalt waste has been indicated. In this study, the asphalt biodegradation test was carried out. The microorganism of which asphalt degradation ability was comparatively higher under aerobic condition and anaerobic condition was used. The asphalt biodegradation rate was calculated and it was evaluated whether the asphalt biodegradation in this system could occur. The results show that the asphalt biodegradation rate under anaerobic and high alkali condition will be 300 times lower than under aerobic and neutral pH. (author)

  20. Degradation of crude oil by indigenous microorganisms supplemented with nutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Wen-xiang; ZHENG Xi-lai; LI Jin-cheng; SONG Zhi-wen; ZHOU Li; SUN Hao-fen

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of mineral nutrients( NO3-N, NH4-N and PO4-P) were applied in the simulated oil-polluted seawater for enhancing oil biodegradation in the N/P ratio 10:1 and 20: 1. Although indigenous microorganisms have the ability to degrade oil, adding nutrients accelerated biodegradation rates significantly. For the group amended with NO3-N and PO4-P in the ratio 10:1, the reaction rate coefficient was 4 times higher than the natural biodegradation. Chemical and microbiological analysis showed that the optimal N/P ratio in the system is 10:1, and microorganisms tend to utilize nitrate rather than ammonium as N source.

  1. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Caijuan; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microor...

  2. [Ecological relationships between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its companion microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue-liang; Mao, Zhen-chuan; Chen, Guo-hua; Xie, Bing-yan

    2011-03-01

    Pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a notorious invasive species from North America, which can kill a large amount of pine trees and causes economic losses and ecosystem destruction. There is a close relationship and ecological interaction between B. xylophilus and its companion microorganisms. This paper listed the species of companion microorganisms, reviewed their important ecological roles in the propagation and pathogenicity of the nematode, and discussed the pine wilt disease from the viewpoint of microecosystem. The companion fungi can supply food for B. xylophilus, hold the cycle of second infection of the nematode, increase the proportions of dauer juveniles, and benefit the infection and distribution of B. xylophilus. The companion bacteria can enhance the pathogenicity of B. xylophilus, promote the propagation of the nematode, benefit the pinene degradation, and thereby, promote the adaptability of the nematode. PMID:21657042

  3. Direct measurement of the flow field around swimming microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Marco; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Michel, Nicolas; Tuval, Idan

    2010-11-01

    Swimming microorganisms create flows that influence their mutual interactions and modify the rheology of their suspensions. While extensively studied theoretically, these flows have not been measured in detail around any freely-swimming microorganism. We report such measurements for the microphytes Volvox carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The minute (˜0.3%) density excess of V. carteri over water leads to a strongly dominant Stokeslet contribution, with the widely-assumed stresslet flow only a correction to the subleading source dipole term. This implies that suspensions of V. carteri have features similar to suspensions of sedimenting particles. The flow in the region around C. reinhardtii where significant hydrodynamic interaction is likely to occur differs qualitatively from a "puller" stresslet, and can be described by a simple three-Stokeslet model.

  4. Metal-microorganism interactions; Interactions metaux-microorganismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France); Thouand, G. [Departement de Biologie Appliquee, La Roch sur Yon (France); Redercher, S.; Boualam, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France); Texier, A.Cl.; Hoeffer, R. [Centre du Genie des Procedes de l`Environnement, Ecole des Mines de Nantes (France)

    1997-10-01

    The physico-chemical procedures of treating the metalliferous effluents are not always adapted to de polluting the slightly concentrated industrial wastes. An alternative idea was advanced, implying the ability of some microorganisms to fix in considerable amounts the metal ions present in aqueous solutions, possibly in a selective way. This approach has been investigated thoroughly during the last 30 years, particularly from a mechanistic point of view. The advantage of the microorganisms lies mainly in the large diversity of bacteria and in their chemical state dependent interaction with metals, as well as, in the possibilities of developing their selective and quantitative separation properties. A biomass from Mycobacterium smegmatis, an acidic alcoholic resistant bacteria, has been used to prepare a bio-sorption support allowing the preferential sorption of thorium as compared to uranium and lanthanum. These studies have been extended to biological polymers such as chitosan and to studies related to bioaccumulation mechanisms and/or to the microbial resistances towards metals

  5. Effect of effective microorganisms on soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective Microorganisms solution is being used in various parts of Sindh as fertilizer substitute in the agriculture fields since years. Soils of two locations at Bozdar Wada Khairpur Mir's and Nawazabad farm Mirpurkhas were surveyed. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.6 and 6-12 inches. Using analytical methods, given in the Laboratory manual for Soil Analysis, carried out the Physico-chemical analysis. The comparative study of 20-Acre land area of both soils, the one treated with EM (Effective Microorganisms) technology and the other without treatment was carried out. The soil color, soil texture/Particle size analysis, soil moisture, bulk density, soil pH, Electric conductivity, and organic matter were determined. The analysis showed positive results, and it is observed that the quality of the soil was improved by using EM technology. (author)

  6. Influence of swimming strategy on microorganism separation by asymmetric obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Berdakin, I; Moshchalkov, V V; Venken, L; Dierckx, S; Vanderleyden, S J; Silhanek, A V; Condat, C A; Marconi, V I

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that a nanoliter chamber separated by a wall of asymmetric obstacles can lead to an inhomogeneous distribution of self-propelled microorganisms. Although it is well established that this rectification effect arises from the interaction between the swimmers and the non-centrosymmetric pillars, here we demonstrate numerically that its efficiency is strongly dependent on the detailed dynamics of the individual microorganism. In particular, for the case of run-and-tumble dynamics, the distribution of run lengths, the rotational diffusion and the partial preservation of run orientation memory through a tumble are important factors when computing the rectification efficiency. In addition, we optimize the geometrical dimensions of the asymmetric pillars in order to maximize the swimmer concentration and we illustrate how it can be used for sorting by swimming strategy in a long array of parallel obstacles.

  7. Influence of swimming strategy on microorganism separation by asymmetric obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdakin, I.; Jeyaram, Y.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Venken, L.; Dierckx, S.; Vanderleyden, S. J.; Silhanek, A. V.; Condat, C. A.; Marconi, V. I.

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that a nanoliter chamber separated by a wall of asymmetric obstacles can lead to an inhomogeneous distribution of self-propelled microorganisms. Although it is well established that this rectification effect arises from the interaction between the swimmers and the noncentrosymmetric pillars, here we demonstrate numerically that its efficiency is strongly dependent on the detailed dynamics of the individual microorganism. In particular, for the case of run-and-tumble dynamics, the distribution of run lengths, the rotational diffusion, and the partial preservation of run orientation memory through a tumble are important factors when computing the rectification efficiency. In addition, we optimize the geometrical dimensions of the asymmetric pillars in order to maximize the swimmer concentration and we illustrate how it can be used for sorting by swimming strategy in a long array of parallel obstacles.

  8. Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles by Microorganisms and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of eco-friendly technologies in material synthesis is of considerable importance to expand their biological applications. Nowadays, a variety of inorganic nanoparticles with well-defined chemical composition, size, and morphology have been synthesized by using different microorganisms, and their applications in many cutting-edge technological areas have been explored. This paper highlights the recent developments of the biosynthesis of inorganic nanoparticles including metallic nanoparticles, oxide nanoparticles, sulfide nanoparticles, and other typical nanoparticles. Different formation mechanisms of these nanoparticles will be discussed as well. The conditions to control the size/shape and stability of particles are summarized. The applications of these biosynthesized nanoparticles in a wide spectrum of potential areas are presented including targeted drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy and DNA analysis, antibacterial agents, biosensors, enhancing reaction rates, separation science, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The current limitations and future prospects for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles by microorganisms are discussed.

  9. Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wright, C. Wayne; Krabill, William B.; Buntzen, Rodney R.; Gilbert, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    The airborne lidar detection and cross-sectional mapping of submerged oceanic scattering layers are reported. The field experiment was conducted in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of Assateague Island, VA. NASA's Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was operated in the bathymetric mode to acquire on-wavelength 532-nm depth-resolved backscatter signals from shelf/slope waters. Unwanted laser pulse reflection from the air-water interface was minimized by spatial filtering and off-nadir operation. The presence of thermal stratification over the shelf was verified by the deployment of airborne expendable bathythermographs. Optical beam transmission measurements acquired from a surface truthing vessel indicated the presence of a layer of turbid water near the sea floor over the inner portion of the shelf.

  10. Polar gravity fields from GOCE and airborne gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Yidiz, Hasan;

    2011-01-01

    Airborne gravity, together with high-quality surface data and ocean satellite altimetric gravity, may supplement GOCE to make consistent, accurate high resolution global gravity field models. In the polar regions, the special challenge of the GOCE polar gap make the error characteristics...... of combination models especially sensitive to the correct merging of satellite and surface data. We outline comparisons of GOCE to recent airborne gravity surveys in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. The comparison is done to new 8-month GOCE solutions, as well as to a collocation prediction from GOCE gradients...... in Antarctica. It is shown how the enhanced gravity field solutions improve the determination of ocean dynamic topography in both the Arctic and in across the Drake Passage. For the interior of Antarctica, major airborne gravity programs are currently being carried out, and there is an urgent need...

  11. Problems of radome design for modern airborne radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulf, B.

    1985-01-01

    The operation of airborne radar involves a discrimination between targets and ground clutter. A solution of the resulting problems requires the design of antennas with special characteristics. Efforts of the antenna designer, however, will be defeated if the antenna is protected by a radome which fails to provide the same high performance as the antenna. The present investigation is concerned with problems arising in the design of high-performance radomes, taking into account two important airborne radar systems. The first example involves the E-3A (AWACS), the most modern airborne surveillance radar system now in operation. The second example is related to a typical fire-control radar in a modern tactical aircraft.

  12. Measuring canopy structure with an airborne laser altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantification of vegetation patterns and properties is needed to determine their role on the landscape and to develop management plans to conserve our natural resources. Quantifying vegetation patterns from the ground, or by using aerial photography or satellite imagery is difficult, time consuming, and often expensive. Digital data from an airborne laser altimeter offer an alternative method to quantify selected vegetation properties and patterns of forest and range vegetation. Airborne laser data found canopy heights varied from 2 to 6 m within even-aged pine forests. Maximum canopy heights measured with the laser altimeter were significantly correlated to measurements made with ground-based methods. Canopy shape could be used to distinguish deciduous and evergreen trees. In rangeland areas, vegetation heights, spatial patterns, and canopy cover measured with the laser altimeter were significantly related with field measurements. These studies demonstrate the potential of airborne laser data to measure canopy structure and properties for large areas quickly and quantitatively

  13. Airborne bacteria in the atmosphere: Presence, purpose, and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Wenke; Moretti, Serena; Denys, Siegfried; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Numerous recent studies have highlighted that the types of bacteria present in the atmosphere often show predictable patterns across space and time. These patterns can be driven by differences in bacterial sources of the atmosphere and a wide range of environmental factors, including UV intensity, precipitation events, and humidity. The abundance of certain bacterial taxa is of interest, not only for their ability to mediate a range of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, such as cloud formation and ice nucleation, but also for their implications -both beneficial and detrimental-for human health. Consequently, the widespread importance of airborne bacteria has stimulated the search for their applicability. Improving air quality, modelling the dispersal of airborne bacteria (e.g. pathogens) and biotechnological purposes are already being explored. Nevertheless, many technological challenges still need to be overcome to fully understand the roles of airborne bacteria in our health and global ecosystems.

  14. The airborne survey of natural gamma radiation level in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingkao, Hu; Renkang, Gu; Jiangqi, Fang; Chongtao, Qiu [Airborne Survey and Remote Sensing Center of Nuclear Industry, Shijiazhuang (China)

    2002-07-01

    Airborne survey of natural gamma radiation level is a fast and effective method for evaluating environment radiation. This paper introduces some results about the investigation of gamma radiation level using airborne gamma ray spectrometer and associated NaI(Tl) crystal detector system by Airborne Survey and Remote Sensing Center of Nuclear Industry. The results of the natural radiation level in the regions surrounding Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and Shanghai City were showed and analyzed emphatically. Air absorbed dose rate belongs to normal to low. The average is 52.6 nGy/h in Qinshan and 52.2 nGy/h in Shanghai. Among, the maximum is up to 72.5 nGy/h in the mountain forest, the second is approximately 68.4 nGy/h in town, 50{approx}60 nGy/h in cropland, and 25 nGy/h in beach.

  15. Analysis of the origin and composition of airborne particulate pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed for determination of airborne particulate pollution sources and origins from airborne particulate measurements, analyses of particulate constituents and routine meteorological measurements. The results obtained provide the basis for quantification of the long- and short-time impacts of these pollution sources on immission. The methods were tested in a densely populated urban area (West Berlin) and in a rural district (Waldhof, District of Uelzen) by collecting airborne particulates (fine and coarse particulates) at six measuring points by use of dichotomous collectors and high-volume collectors. The measurements were taken twice a day from November 1989 to November 1990. Analyses were made of the compounds and of the constituents Al, Fe, Si, Ca, Mg, K, Na, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sb, Se, V, Zn, Cl-, NO-3, SO2-4, NH+4, organic carbons (OC) and inorganic elementary (EC) carbons. (orig.). 104 refs., 66 tabs., 79 figs

  16. Risk factors for injuries during airborne static line operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Steelman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    US Army airborne operations began in World War II. Continuous improvements in parachute technology, aircraft exit procedures, and ground landing techniques have reduced the number of injuries over time from 27 per 1,000 descents to about 6 per 1,000 jumps. Studies have identified a number of factors that put parachutists at higher injury risk, including high wind speeds, night jumps, combat loads, higher temperatures, lower fitness, heavier body weight, and older age. Airborne injuries can be reduced by limiting risker training (higher wind speeds, night jumps, combat load) to the minimum necessary for tactical and operational proficiency. Wearing a parachute ankle brace (PAB) will reduce ankle injuries without increasing other injuries and should be considered by all parachutists, especially those with prior ankle problems. A high level of upper body muscular endurance and aerobic fitness is not only beneficial for general health but also associated with lower injury risk during airborne training.

  17. Characterization of airborne uranium from test firing of XM774 ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland, to characterize the airborne depleted uranium (DU) resulting from the test firings of 105-mm, APFSDS-T XM774 ammunition. The goal was to obtain data pertinent to evaluations of human inhalation exposure to the airborne DU. Data was desired concerning the following: (1) size distribution of airborne DU; (2) quantity of airborne DU; (3) dispersion of airborne DU from the target vicinity; (4) amount of DU deposited on the ground; (5) solubility of airborne DU compounds in lung fluid; and (6) oxide forms of airborne and fallout DU. The experiments involved extensive air sampling for total airborne DU particulates and respirable DU particles both above the targets and at distances downwind. Fallout and fragments were collected around the target area. High-speed movies of the smoke generated from the impact of the penetrators were taken to estimate the cloud volumes. Results of the experiments are presented

  18. Photodynamic/photocatalytic effects on microorganisms processed by nanodyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy uses laser, LED or lamp light sources in combination with dyes - exogenous photosensitizers for the enhancement and localization of photodynamic effects within the human body. We are developing a new approach of improvement of the efficiency of antimicrobial phototherapy via combined application of photosensitizers and the photocatalysts to pathogenic microorganisms. The main goal of the paper is to conduct experiments to study the action of nanodyes, based on mixtures of nanoparticles and photosensitizers, in combination with LED irradiation of pathogens.

  19. Preparation and characterization of gelatin scaffold containing microorganism fermented cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang; Lee, Byeong Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Yeong; Lee, Jong Dae; Song, Sung Gi [Quegenbiotech, Co., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cellulose, chitin, chitosan and hyaluronic acid are well known as polysaccharides. These polysaccharides have many effects on cell growth and differentiation. Cell activation increases with increasing the polysaccharides concentration. In this study, gelatin scaffold containing microorganism fermented cellulose, citrus gel were prepared by using irradiation technique. Physical properties of the scaffolds were investigated as a function of the concentrations of gelatin and citrus gel and the cell attachment, cell morphology and inflammation of the scaffolds also were characterized for regeneration of skin tissue.

  20. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB. PMID:27682089

  1. Mitigating abiotic stress in crop plants by microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Nada A.; Marinković Jelena B.; Tintor Branislava B.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms could play an important role in adaptation strategies and increase of tolerance to abiotic stresses in agricultural plants. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mitigate most effectively the impact of abiotic stresses (drought, low temperature, salinity, metal toxicity, and high temperatures) on plants through the production of exopolysaccharates and biofilm formation. PGPR mitigate the impact of drought on plants through a process so-called induced systemic tolera...

  2. Metabolic shifts in microorganisms: the case of Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, A.

    2013-01-01

      A commonly observed organismal response to changing growth rate is a metabolic shift from one mode of metabolism to another. This phenomenon is potentially interesting from a fundamental and industrial perspective because it can influence cellular choices and can limit the capacity of industrial microorganisms to channel nutrients to desired products. The mechanistic cause of the metabolic shift may vary between species, but the presence of such shifts from bacteria to man suggests fun...

  3. Biotransformation of citrus aromatics nootkatone and valencene by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-11-01

    Biotransformations of the sesquiterpene ketone nootkatone from the crude drug Alpiniae Fructus and grapefruit oil, and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon valencene from Valencia orange oil were carried out with microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Fusarium culmorum to afford structurally interesting metabolites. Their stereostructures were established by a combination of high-resolution NMR spectral and X-ray crystallographic analysis and chemical reaction. Metabolic pathways of compounds and by A. niger are proposed. PMID:16272725

  4. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL. The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  5. Isolation of Microorganisms Able To Metabolize Purified Natural Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Heisey, R. M.; Papadatos, S.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria able to grow on purified natural rubber in the absence of other organic carbon sources were isolated from soil. Ten isolates reduced the weight of vulcanized rubber from latex gloves by >10% in 6 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed the ability of the microorganisms to colonize, penetrate, and dramatically alter the physical structure of the rubber. The rubber-metabolizing bacteria were identified on the basis of fatty acid profiles and cell wall characteristics. Seve...

  6. Reducing of microorganisms in meat products - effect of storage temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Záhorová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I deal with the influence of storage temperature on reducing the number of microorganisms in meat products. In this work is analyzed cooling and freezing storage of meat and meat products. The next section provides an overview of the major contributors to food-borne illness (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, etc.). At the end of research is the mention of the HACCP system. The research was focused on the refrigerated storage o...

  7. General Purpose Segmentation for Microorganisms in Microscopy Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sebastian H. Nesgaard; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rankl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for achieving generalized segmentation of microorganisms in mi- croscopy images. It employs a pixel-wise classification strategy based on local features. Multilayer percep- trons are utilized for classification of the local features and is trained for each...... specific segmentation problem using supervised learning. This approach was tested on five different segmentation problems in bright field, differential interference contrast, fluorescence and laser confocal scanning microscopy. In all instance good results were achieved with the segmentation quality...

  8. Store data from experiments with microorganisms used in food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bosakova-Ardenska, Atanaska

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present results from collaboration of computer engineers and experimenters in microbiology working with molecular-genetic methods. The experimenters in microbiological laboratory at the University of Food Technologies use ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) analyses and DNA sequencing processed with BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) algorithm to identify some microorganisms. Their results have been accumulated in designed database. This wil...

  9. Tolerance of sewage treatment plant microorganisms to mosquitocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, N S; Olson, M A; Hester, P G; Moore, J J

    1993-12-01

    Beneficial protozoa and rotifers collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Panama City, FL, were tested for tolerance to 11 commonly used mosquito larvicides and adulticides in the laboratory. The acute effects were assessed using selected concentrations of the adulticides fenthion, malathion, naled, permethrin, and resmethrin; and the larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, diflubenzuron, larviciding oil, methoprene, and temephos for the following microorganism taxa: ameoboids, flagellates, free-swimming ciliates, stalked ciliates, and rotifers. PMID:8126488

  10. In vivo investigations of genetically modified microorganisms using germ-free rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund jacobsen, Bodil

    Risk evaluation of genetically modified microorganism (GMMO) in relation to human health effects brings into consideration the ability of the microorganism to survive and colonise the gastrointestinal tract and the potential gene transfer to the resident microbiota. Different biological containment...

  11. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  12. Engineering biofuel tolerance in non-native producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hu; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of renewable biofuels through microbiological processes has drawn significant attention in recent years, mostly due to the increasing concerns on the petroleum fuel shortages and the environmental consequences of the over-utilization of petroleum-based fuels. In addition to native biofuel-producing microbes that have been employed for biofuel production for decades, recent advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have made it possible to produce biofuels in several non-native biofuel-producing microorganisms. Compared to native producers, these non-native systems carry the advantages of fast growth, simple nutrient requirements, readiness for genetic modifications, and even the capability to assimilate CO2 and solar energy, making them competitive alternative systems to further decrease the biofuel production cost. However, the tolerance of these non-native microorganisms to toxic biofuels is naturally low, which has restricted the potentials of their application for high-efficiency biofuel production. To address the issues, researches have been recently conducted to explore the biofuel tolerance mechanisms and to construct robust high-tolerance strains for non-native biofuel-producing microorganisms. In this review, we critically summarize the recent progress in this area, focusing on three popular non-native biofuel-producing systems, i.e. Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

  13. Diversity of Phosphate-Dissolving Microorganisms in Corn Rhizosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-rong; LIN Qi-mei; LI Bao-guo

    2003-01-01

    Rhizosphere and nonrhizopshere soils were sampled during corn growth. Total, inorganic phosphate-dissolving and lecithin-mineralizing bacteria, fungi and actinomyctes were determined by plate counting method. Generally, the rhizosphere soil contained around 5 to 100 times more of these bacteria and fungi than the non-rhizosphere soil. However, the actinomycetes in the rhizosphere soil were significantly lower than those in the non-rhizosphere soil. The numbers of these microorganisms didnt significantly change during corn growth in the soils. However, the proportion of the phosphate-dissolving microorganisms in the total changed markedly during corn growth. Generally there were much higher percentages of phosphate-dissolving bacteria and phosphate-dissolving fungi in the rhizosphere soil than the nonrhizosphere soil. More than 90% of the fungi in rhizosphere dissolved inorganic phosphate at the seedling period, but this proportion declined to 20 %at the harvesting time. The community of phosphate-dissolving microorganisms also changed during corn growth. Bacillus was dominant in the nonrhizosphere soil. However, in the rhizosphere, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter became predominant. Penicillium and Streptomyces were the main fungi and actinomycetes capable of dissolving phosphate.

  14. Detection of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane Beatriz Vermelho

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available We present herein an improved assay for detecting the presence of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates. Using different substrates (gelatin, BSA, hemoglobin incorporated into the agar and varying the culture medium composition, we were able to detect proteolytic activities from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Serratia marcescens as well as the influence that these components displayed in the expression of these enzymes. For all microorganisms tested we found that in agar-BHI or yeast extract medium containing gelatin the sensitivity of proteinase detection was considerably greater than in BSA-agar or hemoglobin-agar. However, when BSA or hemoglobin were added to the culture medium, there was an increase in growth along with a marked reduction in the amount of proteinase production. In the case of M. luteus the incorporation of glycerol in BHI or yeast extract gelatin-agar induced protease liberation. Our results indicate that the technique described here is of value for detecting extracellular proteases directly in the culture medium, by means of a qualitative assay, simple, inexpensive, straight forward method to assess the presence of the proteolytic activity of a given microorganism colony with great freedom in substrate selection.

  15. The diversity of microorganisms associated with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biological techniques are dramatically changing our view of microbial diversity in almost any environment that has so far been investigated. This study presents a systematic survey of the microbial diversity associated with a population of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants. In contrast to previous studies on social insects, which targeted specific groups of symbionts occurring in the gut (termites, Tetraponera ants or in specialised cells (Camponotus ants the objective of our present study was to do a total screening of all possible micro-organisms that can be found inside the bodies of these leafcutter ants. Results We amplified, cloned and sequenced SSU rRNA encoding gene fragments from 9 microbial groups known to have insect-associated representatives, and show that: (1 representatives of 5 out of 9 tested groups are present, (2 mostly several strains per group are present, adding up to a total of 33 different taxa. We present the microbial taxa associated with Acromymex ants in a phylogenetic context (using sequences from GenBank to assess and illustrate to which known microorganisms they are closely related. The observed microbial diversity is discussed in the light of present knowledge on the evolutionary history of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants and their known mutualistic and parasitic symbionts. Conclusions The major merits of the screening approach documented here is its high sensitivity and specificity, which allowed us to identify several microorganisms that are promising candidates for further study of their interactions with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants or their gardens.

  16. Magnetization of microorganism cells by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; ZHAN TianZhuo; LIAN ZhiYang; ZHANG DeYuan

    2008-01-01

    Microorganism cells could be used as templates during fabrication of magnetic or conductive microstructures in different standard shapes.In this paper,feasibility of magnetizing microorganism cells by sol-gel method,which is to coat cells of Spirulina (a type of natural micro-helical microorganism) with the ferrite (a kind of magnetic material),was discussed and investigated.Then the cell form,compo-nents and the phase structure were observed and analyzed using various tools including optical microscopy,scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dis-persive X-ray detector (EDX),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD).Results showed that spirulina cells could be coated with ferrite after the sol-gel process,with the shape of natural helixes well kept,that the components of different sampling points on the surface layer were consistent and the thickness of layer was uniform,and that the type of the surface ferrite layer formed was cubic Fe304.It was also observed that there were nano-parUcles yielded in the cells and certain deposit on the walls between cells.The kinetics of the cell magnetization technology by sol-gel was also discussed.

  17. Magnetization of microorganism cells by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Microorganism cells could be used as templates during fabrication of magnetic or conductive microstructures in different standard shapes. In this paper, feasibility of magnetizing microorganism cells by sol-gel method, which is to coat cells of Spirulina (a type of natural micro-helical microorganism) with the ferrite (a kind of magnetic material), was discussed and investigated. Then the cell form, components and the phase structure were observed and analyzed using various tools including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that spirulina cells could be coated with ferrite after the sol-gel process, with the shape of natural helixes well kept, that the components of different sampling points on the surface layer were consistent and the thickness of layer was uniform, and that the type of the surface ferrite layer formed was cubic Fe3O4. It was also observed that there were nano-particles yielded in the cells and certain deposit on the walls between cells. The kinetics of the cell magnetization technology by sol-gel was also discussed.

  18. Pseudallescheria angusta, A LIGNINOLYTIC MICROORGANISM FOR WOOD FIBRES BIOMODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Guisado,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the discovery of lignocellulolytic microorganisms that are better adapted to operational conditions while exhibiting the strong degrading activities is highly desired for successful lignocellulose biotransformation processes. In this study, microorganisms were isolated from lignocellulose-rich composting materials by selective methods. A screening of isolates known to have lignocellulolytic abilities was performed using several tests. Seven microorganisms showed ligninolytic potential and were subjected for further analysis according to their degrading activity. The fungus Pseudallescheriaangusta MF4 demonstrated high decolorization rates for three aromatic dyes: Poly R-478, Poly S-119, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R. In addition, the fungus showed a high production rate of ligninolytic enzymes in the presence of inducers. This fungus achieved the highest values of growth after 21 days of incubation on sawdust without any additional nutrients. Owing to its proven ligninolytic activity and capability of growing on a lignocellulosic substrate, the application of this isolate could be of interest in different biotechnological applications, particularly in biological treatment of wood fibres in order to improve the production of wood-based composites.

  19. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

  20. [Secretion of proteolytic enzymes by three phytopathogenic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteinases from three phytopathogenic microorganisms that belong to different fungal families and cause diseases in potatoes were studied and characterized. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and the fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum were shown to secrete serine proteinases. An analysis of the substrate specificity of these enzymes and their sensitivity to synthetic and protein inhibitors allowed us to refer them to trypsin- and subtilisin-like proteinases. The correlation between the trypsin- and subtilisin-like proteinases depended on the composition of the culture medium, particularly on the form of the nitrogen source. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out. In contrast to basidiomycetes R. solani, ascomycetes F. culmorum and oomycetes P. infestans produced a similar set of exoproteinases, although they had more distant phylogenetic positions. This indicated that the secretion of serine proteinases by various phytopathogenic microorganisms also depended on their phylogenetic position. These results allowed us to suggest that exoproteinases from phytopathogenic fungi play a different role in pathogenesis. They may promote the adaptation of fungi if the range of hosts is enlarged. On the other hand, they may play an important role in the survival of microorganisms in hostile environements outside their hosts. PMID:25508654

  1. Raft-Like Membrane Domains in Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnoud, Amir M.; Toledo, Alvaro M.; Konopka, James B.; Del Poeta, Maurizio; London, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is thought to be compartmentalized by the presence of lipid-protein microdomains. In eukaryotic cells, microdomains composed of sterols and sphingolipids packed in a liquid-ordered state, commonly known as lipid rafts, are believed to exist. While less studied in bacterial cells, reports on the presence of sterol or protein-mediated microdomains in bacterial cell membranes are also appearing with increasing frequency. Recent efforts have been focused on addressing the biophysical and biochemical properties of lipid rafts. However, most studies have been focused on synthetic membranes, mammalian cells, and/or model, non-pathogenic microorganisms. Much less is known about microdomains in the plasma membrane of pathogenic microorganisms. This review attempts to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of lipid rafts in pathogenic fungi and the developing field of microdomains in pathogenic bacteria. The current literature on the structure and function and of microdomains is reviewed and the potential role of microdomains in growth, pathogenesis, and drug resistance of pathogens are discussed. Better insight into the structure and function of membrane microdomains in pathogenic microorganisms might lead to a better understanding of the process of pathogenesis and development of raft-mediated approaches for new methods of therapy. PMID:26015285

  2. Biosorption and recycling of gold using various microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Takehiko

    2004-08-01

    In order to obtain basic information on the biosorption and recycling of gold from aqueous systems using microbial cells, the biosorption of gold by various microorganisms was investigated. Of 75 strains of microorganisms tested (25 bacteria, 19 actinomycetes, 17 fungi and 14 yeasts), high abilities of gold biosorption from a solution containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) were found in some gram-negative bacterial strains, such as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and P. maltophilia. Most of the gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and yeasts had a lower ability for gold biosorption than gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, all of the microorganisms tested adsorbed far smaller amounts of gold from a solution containing gold dicyanoaurate (I). The biosorption of gold from a solution containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) using P. maltophilia having a high adsorbing ability for gold was very rapid and was affected by the pH of the solution, external gold concentration, and cell amounts. P. maltophilia cells immobilized with polyacrylamide gel also have a high ability for gold biosorption. The gold adsorbed on the immobilized cells is easily desorbed with 0.1 M thiourea solution. The immobilized P. maltophilia cells can be used repeatedly in biosorption-desorption cycles. PMID:15754248

  3. The plastic-associated microorganisms of the North Pacific Gyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microorganisms mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic. • North Pacific Gyre (NPG) plastics were examined with scanning-electron microscopy. • Bacillus bacteria and pennate diatoms dominated the NPG plastic fouling community. • Bacterial abundance was patchily distributed but increased on foamed polystyrene. • Diatom abundance increased on rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic density. -- Abstract: Microorganisms likely mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic pollution, including degradation, chemical adsorption, and colonization or ingestion by macroorganisms. We investigated the relationship between plastic-associated microorganism communities and factors such as location, temperature, salinity, plankton abundance, plastic concentration, item size, surface roughness, and polymer type. Small plastic items from the surface of the North Pacific Gyre in 2011 were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Bacillus bacteria (mean 1664 ± 247 individuals mm−2) and pennate diatoms (1097 ± 154 mm−2) were most abundant, with coccoid bacteria, centric diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and radiolarians present. Bacterial abundance was patchy, but increased on foamed polystyrene. Diatom abundance increased on items with rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic concentrations. Morphotype richness increased slightly on larger fragments, and a biogeographic transition occurred between pennate diatom groups. Better characterizing this community will aid in understanding how it interacts with plastic pollution

  4. Microorganisms in metalworking fluids: Current issues in research and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta A. Trafny

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination of water miscible metalworking fl uids (MWFs is a serious problem in metal industry. A good maintenance of MWF re-circulation systems can extend the lifetime of coolants and ensure the quality of the tools produced. In MWFs, as in the other water-based environments, microorganisms usually live in the form of biofi lms, the communities of bacteria and fungi attached to the surface of sumps, metal parts and also to each other. Biofi lms exhibit very high resistance to biocides. The effect of biocides that are used as additives to MWFs to control the growth of the bacterial and fungal microbiomes (microorganisms characteristic to the individual coolant system have become the subject of research only in recent years. There are also only sparse reports on the impact of biocides on microorganisms growing in biofi lms in MWF installations. Fast growing mycobacteria are important members of these biofi lm communities. Their presence has recently been linked with the occurrence of cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a serious respiratory disorder in the metal industry employees. The new, relatively fast and inexpensive techniques to assess the species diversity within MWF microbiomes and their population size should be developed in order to control the microorganisms’ proliferation in MWFs and to diminish the occupational exposure to harmful bioaerosols in metal industry.

  5. Procedure for Adaptive Laboratory Evolution of Microorganisms Using a Chemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Sang J; Kim, Pil

    2016-01-01

    Natural evolution involves genetic diversity such as environmental change and a selection between small populations. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) refers to the experimental situation in which evolution is observed using living organisms under controlled conditions and stressors; organisms are thereby artificially forced to make evolutionary changes. Microorganisms are subject to a variety of stressors in the environment and are capable of regulating certain stress-inducible proteins to increase their chances of survival. Naturally occurring spontaneous mutations bring about changes in a microorganism's genome that affect its chances of survival. Long-term exposure to chemostat culture provokes an accumulation of spontaneous mutations and renders the most adaptable strain dominant. Compared to the colony transfer and serial transfer methods, chemostat culture entails the highest number of cell divisions and, therefore, the highest number of diverse populations. Although chemostat culture for ALE requires more complicated culture devices, it is less labor intensive once the operation begins. Comparative genomic and transcriptome analyses of the adapted strain provide evolutionary clues as to how the stressors contribute to mutations that overcome the stress. The goal of the current paper is to bring about accelerated evolution of microorganisms under controlled laboratory conditions. PMID:27684991

  6. Shiftable Leading Point Method for High Accuracy Registration of Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Cheng; Lihua Tong; Yang Wu; Yanming Chen; Manchun Li

    2015-01-01

    A new automated approach to the high-accuracy registration of airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data is proposed, which has three primary steps. Firstly, airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data are used to extract building corners, known as airborne corners and terrestrial corners, respectively. Secondly, an initial matching relationship between the terrestrial corners and airborne corners is automatically derived using a matching technique based on maximum matching corner pairs with minimum errors ...

  7. Removal and Recovery of Uranium using Microorganisms Isolated from North American Uranium Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Takehiko Tsuruta

    2007-01-01

    Some attempts were made to remove and recover uranium that may be present in nuclear fuel effluents and mine tailings using microorganisms isolated from North American uranium deposits. To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, hundreds strains of microorganisms were screened. Of these strains of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium accumulating ability was found in some bacteria isolated from North American uranium deposits. These bacterial strains, such as Arth...

  8. Innovativ Airborne Sensors for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, M. O.; Kemper, G.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management by analyzing changes in the DSM before and after the "event". Advantage of Lidar is that beside rain and clouds, no other weather conditions limit their use. As an active sensor, missions in the nighttime are possible. The new mid-format cameras that make use CMOS sensors (e.g. Phase One IXU1000) can capture data also under poor and difficult light conditions and might will be the first choice for remotely sensed data acquisition in aircrafts and UAVs. UAVs will surely be more and more part of the disaster management on the detailed level. Today equipped with video live cams using RGB and Thermal IR, they assist in looking inside buildings and behind. Thus, they can continue with the aerial survey where airborne anomalies have been detected.

  9. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection.

  10. Development of airborne remote sensing data assimilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an airborne remote sensing data assimilation system for China Airborne Remote Sensing System is introduced. This data assimilation system is composed of a land surface model, data assimilation algorithms, observation data and fundamental parameters forcing the land surface model. In this data assimilation system, Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model is selected as the land surface model, which also serves as the main framework of the system. Three-dimensional variation algorithm, four-dimensional variation algorithms, ensemble Kalman filter and Particle filter algorithms are integrated in this system. Observation data includes ground observations and remotely sensed data. The fundamental forcing parameters include soil parameters, vegetation parameters and the meteorological data

  11. Airborne bathymetric charting using pulsed blue-green lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory and airborne experiments have proven the feasibility and demonstrated the techniques of an airborne pulsed laser system for rapidly mapping coastal water bathymetry. Water depths of 10 plus or minus 0.25 m were recorded in waters having an effective attenuation coefficient of 0.175 m. A 2-MW peak power Nd:YAG pulsed laser was flown at an altitude of 600 m. An advanced system, incorporating a mirror scanner, a high pulsed rate laser, and a good signal processor, could survey coastal zones at the rate of several square miles per hour.

  12. An airborne microwave radiometer and measurements of cloud liquid water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Hengchi; JIN Dezhen; WEI Chong; SHEN Zhilai

    2003-01-01

    A single-channel (9.5 mm) airborne microwave radiometer with one antenna is developed. The retrieval methods and primary observation results of cloud liquid water and super-cooled cloud liquid water are discussed. The aircraft experiments show that the cloud liquid water and super-cooled liquid water can be sensitively monitored at some level of accuracy by the radiometer. The results of cloud liquid water content are reasonable and correspond well with the surface radar echo intensity. The design of the airborne radiometer and its retrieval methods are feasible, giving it application value.

  13. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, C P; Binks, R A; Lam, S H K; Du, J; Tilbrook, D L; Mitchell, E E; MacFarlane, J C; Lee, J B; Turner, R; Downey, M; Maddever, A

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods.

  14. Airborne campaigns for CryoSat prelaunch calibration and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Hanson, Susanne; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk;

    2011-01-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite is planned for spring 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA’s CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the prelaunch performance...... of the CryoSat radar altimeter (SIRAL), an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) has been flown together with a laser scanner in 2006 and 2008. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of the radar altimeter over both land- and sea ice. This can be done by comparing the radar...

  15. EUFAR training opportunities to advance European airborne research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusen, I.; Brenguier, J.-L.; Brown, P.; Wendish, M.

    2009-04-01

    EUFAR, EUropean Facilities for Airborne Research, is an FP7 project (http://www.eufar.net) funded by the European Commission with 33 partners that aims at providing and improving the access to European airborne facilities (i.e. aircraft, airborne instruments, data processing centres) for researchers in environmental and geo-sciences through Networking Activities, Transnational Access and Joint Research Activities. This paper reports on the training opportunities within EUFAR for European researchers. In EUFAR three types of training opportunities are offered: 1) Participate in training courses (ET-TC) 2) Join an existing field campaign (ET-EC) 3) Participate in the design of a new field campaign (ET-TA), in the frame of EUFAR Transnational Access and tutored by more experienced researchers. During the 4-year EUFAR project (2008-2012), 4 training courses covering the complete chain from acquisition to interpretation of airborne data and images will be organised during spring/summer for early-stage researchers as well as university lecturers (new in FP7 EUFAR) in airborne research. The training courses will have an equal focus on theory and practical training/demonstration and each training course will be accompanied by a "student" airborne field campaign. Participants will be trained by top-class scientists, aircraft and/or instrument operators and each participant will get the opportunity to design his/her own experiment and to participate to that flight experiment. Furthermore, researchers have the opportunity to join an existing field campaign and work with more experienced researchers, aircraft and/or instrument operators. The list of airborne field campaigns open to join and the eligibility criteria, can be consulted at the EUFAR website. Finally, researchers have the opportunity to participate in the design of a new field campaign in the frame of EUFAR Transnational Access (TA). TA provides access to either aircraft or instrumentation that are not otherwise

  16. Parametric estimation of time varying baselines in airborne interferometric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1996-01-01

    A method for estimation of time varying spatial baselines in airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is described. The range and azimuth distortions between two images acquired with a non-linear baseline are derived. A parametric model of the baseline is then, in a least square...... sense, estimated from image shifts obtained by cross correlation of numerous small patches throughout the image. The method has been applied to airborne EMISAR imagery from the 1995 campaign over the Storstrommen Glacier in North East Greenland conducted by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing. This has...

  17. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - Model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloster, John; Jones, Andrew; Redington, Alison;

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route, with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics....... Atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to assess airborne spread of FMDV in a number of countries, including the UK, Denmark, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada. These models were compared at a Workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office in 2008. Each modeller was provided...

  18. Airborne pollution. Compendium of studies presenting analysis and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of emission and transport of radioactive matter into the atmosphere and the subsequent exposure pathways are dealt with in the survey. The description of emissions is based on both measured and theoretically elaborated parameters, the latter being applicable only to nuclides such as noble gases. The diffusion of airborne substances is dealt with in terms of the most common Gauss distribution models, taking into consideration local effects. Questions on exposure pathways of the airborne pollution are examined. The dose rate factors required for the calculation of submersion for all nuclides in question, considering the shielding effects of differently thick skin and superposition of tissue are discussed. (DG)

  19. The yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the denitrification unit biocenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Sláviková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic studies of the yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the denitrification unit biocenosis were carried out. A set of 13 strains of these microorganisms were examined for their morphological and physiological characters. Considering their special features and some relation to the known species, the isolated microorganisms were classified to the 3 genera: Candida, Geotrichium and Hansenula.

  20. Classification of root canal microorganisms using electronic-nose and discriminant analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Özbilge Hatice; Kaya Esma; Er Özgür; Kahraman Yasemin; Asyalı Musa H; Aksebzeci Bekir H; Kara Sadık

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Root canal treatment is a debridement process which disrupts and removes entire microorganisms from the root canal system. Identification of microorganisms may help clinicians decide on treatment alternatives such as using different irrigants, intracanal medicaments and antibiotics. However, the difficulty in cultivation and the complexity in isolation of predominant anaerobic microorganisms make clinicians resort to empirical medical treatments. For this reason, identific...

  1. DMPD: Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17303405 Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Curr ...Opin Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;19(2):185-91. Epub 2007 Feb 15. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signaling pathwa...ys activated by microorganisms. PubmedID 17303405 Title Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Auth

  2. 9 CFR 114.5 - Micro-organisms used as seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Micro-organisms used as seed. 114.5 Section 114.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.5 Micro-organisms used as seed. Micro-organisms used in the preparation...

  3. Airborne Remote Sensing of River Flow and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, S.; Anderson, S. P.; McLean, J.; Redford, R.

    2014-12-01

    River morphology, surface slope and flow are some of the fundamental measurements required for surface water monitoring and hydrodynamic research. This paper describes a method of combining bathymetric lidar with space-time processing of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imagery to simultaneously measure bathymetry, currents and surface slope from an airborne platform. In May 2014, Areté installed a Pushbroom Imaging Lidar for Littoral Surveillance (PILLS) and a FLIR SC8000 MWIR imaging system sampling at 2 Hz in a small twin-engine aircraft. Data was collected over the lower Colorado River between Picacho Park and Parker. PILLS is a compact bathymetric lidar based on streak-tube sensor technology. It provides channel and bank topography and water surface elevation at 1 meter horizontal scales and 25 cm vertical accuracy. Surface currents are derived from the MWIR imagery by tracking surface features using a cross correlation algorithm. This approach enables the retrieval of currents along extended reaches at the forward speed of the aircraft with spatial resolutions down to 5 m with accuracy better than 10 cm/s. The fused airborne data captures current and depth variability on scales of meters over 10's of kilometers collected in just a few minutes. The airborne MWIR current retrievals are combined with the bathymetric lidar data to calculate river discharge which is then compared with real-time streamflow stations. The results highlight the potential for improving our understanding of complex river environments with simultaneous collections from multiple airborne sensors.

  4. AIRBORNE PESTICIDES AND POPULATION DECLINES OF A CALIFORNIA ALPINE FROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of ...

  5. First demonstration of an X-band airborne FMCW SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hakkaart, P.; Zwan, F. van der; Hoogeboom, P.; Ligthart, L.P.

    2006-01-01

    At the Delft University of Technology, an X-band airborne FMCW SAR demonstrator system has been designed anddeveloped. The combination of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology and Synthetic Aperture Technique (SAR) has led to a compact, low power consuming imaging system with high re

  6. Health Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter Trace Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG GAO; QI YU; LI-MIN CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) trace elements on health are widely concerned nowadays. Many achievements have been made while many unknowns exist. This article reports the recent research progresses, describes the effects of exposure to PM trace elements on health epidemiological evidence, toxicology findings, and raises some questions for future studies.

  7. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS08 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for CS08 collected in 2006 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  8. Experimental Evaluation of a Coplanar Airborne Separation Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Brantegem, K. C. R.; Van Paassen, M. M.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, an active conflict resolution task and a passive situation awareness assessment, were conducted that compared two versions of a constraint-based coplanar airborne separation assistance display. A baseline display showed a maneuver space based on 2-D projections of traffic and perfor

  9. Airborne Gamma-Ray Survey in Latvia 1995/96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Based on Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometry measurements performed with the Danish AGS equipment in 1995 and 1996 maps of the natural radioactivity have been produdced for selected areas in Latvia. The calibration of the quipment have been improved by comparisons with soil sample measurements....

  10. Detection and tracking of humans from an airborne platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Burghouts, G.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne platforms are recording large amounts of video data. Extracting the events which are needed to see is a timedemanding task for analysts. The reason for this is that the sensors record hours of video data in which only a fraction of the footage contains events of interest. For the analyst, i

  11. ALGORITMA ESTIMASI KANDUNGAN KLOROFIL TANAMAN PADI DENGAN DATA AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Sukmono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klorofil merupakan pigmen yang paling penting dalam proses fotosintesis. Tanaman sehat yang mampu tumbuh maksimum umumnya  memiliki jumlah klorofil yang lebih besar daripada tanaman yang tidak sehat. Dalam Estimasi kandungan klorofil tanaman padi dengan airborne hyperspectral dibutuhkan algoritma khusus untuk mendaaptkan akurasi yang baik. Objek dari penelitian ini mengembangkan reflektan in situ menjadi model algoritma   estimasi kandungan klorofil tanaman padi untuk airborne hyperspectral.  Dalam penelitian ini beberapa indeks vegetasi seperti normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, modified simple ratio (MSR  , modified/transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI, TCARI dan bentuk integrasi (MCARI/OSAVI and TCARI/OSAVI digunakan untuk membentuk model estimasi dengan metode regresi linear. Selain itu juga digunakan  Blue/Green/Yellow/Red Edge Absorption Clhorophyll Index. Dari proses regresi di dapatkan tiga ground model yang mempunyai korelasi kuat (R2≥0.5 terhadap klorofil tanaman padi. Ketiga model tersebut yaitu MSR (705,750 dengan R2 sebesar 0.51, TCARI/OSAVI (705, 750 dengan R2 sebesar 0.52 dan REACL 2 dengan R2 sebesar 0.57. Dari ketiga tersebut dipilih groun model terbaik REACL 2 untuk di upscalling ke model algoritma airborne hyperspectral.  Pembentukan algoritma dengan data airborne hyperspectral sensor Hymap dan REACL 2 menghasilkan model algoritma ( Klorofil (SPAD unit = 3.031((B22-B18/(B18-B13 + 31.596 dengan R2 sebesar 0.78

  12. Citrus greening detection using airborne hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging can provide unique spectral signatures for diseased vegetation. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect potentially infected trees over a large area for rapid detection of infected zones. This paper proposes a method to detect the citrus greening...

  13. Segmentation and classification of airborne laser scanner data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sithole, G.

    2005-01-01

    Various methods have been developed to measure the physical presence of objects in a landscape with high positional accuracy. A new method that has been gaining popularity is Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS). ALS works by scanning a landscape (the collection of ground, buildings, vegetation, etc.,) in

  14. Tree filtering for high density airborne LiDAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution Airborne LiDAR data creates better opportunity for an individual tree measurement and provides valuable results for more precise forest inventory. This paper presents tree filtering approach that able to separate dominant tree and undergrowth vegetation. The results can be used for

  15. Reducing Statistical Noise in Airborne Gamma-Ray Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens; Grasty, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    By using the Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition (NASVD) technique it is possible to reconstruct the measured airborne gamma-ray spectra with a noise content that is significant smaller than the noise contained in the original measured spectra. The method can be used for improving the out...

  16. ANIMAL MODELS FOR ASSESSING THE NEUROBEHAVIORAL IMPACT OF AIRBORNE POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a long-standing tradition of experimentation on laboratory animals and the behavioral effects of airborne pollutants. hese studies provide a scientific basis for investigating many of the pressing issues on indoor-air pollution. everal different procedures are revi...

  17. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site

  18. Immune Alterations in Rats Exposed to Airborne Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of lunar dust on human physiology. This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and systemic immune parameters.

  19. Methane airborne measurements and comparison to global models during BARCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Veronika; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph; Bergamaschi, Peter; Bruhwiler, Lori; Houweling, Sander; Rockmann, Thomas; Kolle, Olaf; Steinbach, Julia; Koch, Thomas; Sapart, Celia J.; van der Veen, Carina; Frankenberg, Christian; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Longo, Karla M.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical regions, especially the Amazon region, account for large emissions of methane (CH4). Here, we present CH4 observations from two airborne campaigns conducted within the BARCA (Balanco Atmosferico Regional de Carbono na Amazonia) project in the Amazon basin in November 2008 (end of the dry se

  20. Fire Airborne Simulator Arrangement: in progress status report

    OpenAIRE

    Di Stefano, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Buongiorno, M. F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Amici, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Romeo, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Badiali, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Mari, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione AC, Roma, Italia; Pippi, I.; IFAC-CNR, Firenze, Italia; Marcoionni, P.; IFAC-CNR, Firenze, Italia; Cherubini, G.; Galileo Avionica, Campi Bisenzio Italia; Lindermeier, E.; DLR, Germany

    2004-01-01

    The FASA project in collaboration with the DLR and the financing of ASI was started in order to combine bi-spectral imager and high-resolution FTIR- spectrometer (MIROR) for airborne remote sensing and gas analyis of high temperature events such as volcanoes and wild fires.

  1. SGA-WZ: A New Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Inertial navigation systems and gravimeters are now routinely used to map the regional gravitational quantities from an aircraft with mGal accuracy and a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. However, airborne gravimeter of this kind is limited by the inaccuracy of the inertial sensor performance, the integrated navigation technique and the kinematic acceleration determination. As the GPS technique developed, the vehicle acceleration determination is no longer the limiting factor in airborne gravity due to the cancellation of the common mode acceleration in differential mode. A new airborne gravimeter taking full advantage of the inertial navigation system is described with improved mechanical design, high precision time synchronization, better thermal control and optimized sensor modeling. Apart from the general usage, the Global Positioning System (GPS after differentiation is integrated to the inertial navigation system which provides not only more precise altitude information along with the navigation aiding, but also an effective way to calculate the vehicle acceleration. Design description and test results on the performance of the gyroscopes and accelerations will be emphasized. Analysis and discussion of the airborne field test results are also given.

  2. A comparison of stable platform and strapdown airborne gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glennie, C.L.; Schwarz, K.P.; Bruton, A.M.;

    2000-01-01

    To date, operational airborne gravity results have been obtained using either a damped two-axis stable platform gravimeter system such as the LaCoste and Romberg (LCR) S-model marine gravimeter or a strapdown inertial navigation system (INS), showing comparable accuracies. In June 1998 three flight...

  3. Mismatch in aeroallergens and airborne grass pollen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Galán, C.

    2016-11-01

    An accurate estimation of the allergen concentration in the atmosphere is essential for allergy sufferers. The major cause of pollinosis all over Europe is due to grass pollen and Phl p 5 has the highest rates of sensitization (>50%) in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy. However, recent research has shown that airborne pollen does not always offer a clear indicator of exposure to aeroallergens. This study aims to evaluate relations between airborne grass pollen and Phl p 5 concentrations in Córdoba (southern Spain) and to study how meteorological parameters influence these atmospheric records. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Hirst-type volumetric spore trap was used for pollen collection, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA). Aeroallergen sampling was performed using a low-volume cyclone sampler, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Besides, the influence of main meteorological factors on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was surveyed. A significant correlation was observed between grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations during the pollen season, but with some sporadic discrepancy episodes. The cumulative annual Pollen Index also varied considerably. A significant correlation has been obtained between airborne pollen and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation, during the three studied years. However, there is no clear relationship between allergens and weather variables. Our findings suggest that the correlation between grass pollen and aeroallergen Phl p 5 concentrations varies from year-to-year probably related to a complex interplay of meteorological variables.

  4. DOMECair: An Airborne Campaign in Antarctica Supporting SMOS Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl;

    2013-01-01

    In search for a stable, well characterized terrestrial calibration target for SMOS, an airborne campaign was carried out in January 2013 over the Dome C area of Antarctica, and the surface was measured by an L-band radiometer. The focus was on homogeneity, and an area of 350 × 350 km around...

  5. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5001 Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. Except as... industrial Hygienists by writing to 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Attn: Customer Service, Cincinnati, OH...

  6. Quantification of airborne African Swine Fever virus after experimental infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Weesendorp, E.; Quak, S.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on African Swine Fever (ASF) transmission routes can be useful when designing control measures against the spread of ASF virus (ASFV). Few studies have focused on the airborne transmission route, and until now no data has been available on quantities of ASF virus (ASFV) in the air. Our aim

  7. SLAR = USGS Side Looking Airborne Radar Mosaics: 1981 - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) is an image-producing system that derives its name from the fact that the radar beam is transmitted from the side of the...

  8. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN05 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  9. ISRO's dual frequency airborne SAR pre-cursor to NISAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, V. Manavala; Suneela, T. J. V. D.; Bhan, Rakesh

    2016-05-01

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly embarked on NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) operating in L-band and S-band, which will map Earth's surface every 12 days. As a pre-cursor to the NISAR mission, ISRO is planning an airborne SAR (L&S band) which will deliver NISAR analogue data products to the science community. ISRO will develop all the hardware with the aim of adhering to system design aspects of NISAR to the maximum extent possible. It is a fully polarimetric stripmap SAR and can be operated in single, dual, compact, quasi-quad and full polarimetry modes. It has wide incidence angle coverage from 24°-77° with swath coverage from 5.5km to 15 km. Apart from simultaneous imaging operations, this system can also operate in standalone L/S SAR modes. This system is planned to operate from an aircraft platform with nominal altitude of 8000meters. Antenna for this SAR will be rigidly mounted to the aircraft, whereas, motion compensation will be implemented in the software processor to generate data products. Data products for this airborne SAR will be generated in slant & ground range azimuth dimension and geocoded in HDF5/Geotiff formats. This airborne SAR will help to prepare the Indian scientific community for optimum utilization of NISAR data. In-order to collect useful science data, airborne campaigns are planned from end of 2016 onwards.

  10. Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroutil, Robert T.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.; Miller, David P.; Cardarelli, John; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy; Kudaraskus, Paul

    2010-08-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75 missions that included over 250 hours of flight operation. ASPECT's initial mission responsibility was to provide air quality monitoring (i.e., identification of vapor species) during various oil burning operations. The ASPECT airborne wide-area infrared remote sensing spectral data was used to evaluate the hazard potential of vapors being produced from open water oil burns near the Deepwater Horizon rig site. Other significant remote sensing data products and innovations included the development of an advanced capability to correctly identify, locate, characterize, and quantify surface oil that could reach beaches and wetland areas. This advanced identification product provided the Incident Command an improved capability to locate surface oil in order to improve the effectiveness of oil skimmer vessel recovery efforts directed by the US Coast Guard. This paper discusses the application of infrared spectroscopy and multispectral infrared imagery to address significant issues associated with this national crisis. More specifically, this paper addresses the airborne remote sensing capabilities, technology, and data analysis products developed specifically to optimize the resources and capabilities of the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command structure personnel and their remediation efforts.

  11. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN04 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  12. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS01 (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2008 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  13. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS05 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2014 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  14. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN02 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  15. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES02 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida and the Gulf of Mexico collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...

  16. Resolution analyses for selecting an appropriate airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; Lawrie, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The choice of an appropriate airborne electromagnetic system for a given task should be based on a comparative analysis of candidate systems, consisting of both theoretical considerations and field studies including test lines. It has become common practice to quantify the system...

  17. Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2006-08-01

    Samples from soil and leaf litter were obtained at a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza; 25.0°S, 31.5°E) and their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) were measured using the out-of-plane scatterometer located in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Diffuser Calibration Facility (DCaF). BRDF was measured using P and S incident polarized light over a range of incident and scatter angles. A monochromator-based broadband light source was used in the ultraviolet (uv) and visible (vis) spectral ranges. The diffuse scattered light was collected using an uv-enhanced silicon photodiode detector with output fed to a computer-controlled lock-in amplifier. Typical measurement uncertainties of the reported laboratory BRDF measurements are found to be less than 1% (k=1). These laboratory results were compared with airborne measurements of BRDF from NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) instrument over the same general site where the samples were obtained. This study presents preliminary results of the comparison between these laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements and identifies areas for future laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements. This paper presents initial results in a study to try to understand BRDF measurements from laboratory, airborne, and satellite measurements in an attempt to improve the consistency of remote sensing models.

  18. Study of airborne particles generated by the impact of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid droplet impinging onto surfaces occurs in many industrial and natural processes. The study of this phenomenon is fundamental in order to determine the potential sources of contamination in the case of scenarios of liquid falls such as dripping. There are very few data in the literature in the case of the impact of millimeter-size droplets. The purpose of our work is to study experimentally the particle emission during the impact of droplets onto a liquid film. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of the velocity and the diameter of the droplets, the height of the liquid film, the surface tension and viscosity of the liquid on the airborne particles. Our results, original, have made it possible to examine the relevance of existing relations, describing the transition between deposition and splash regimes, in order to determine the presence or not of airborne particles. The micro droplets produced, with diameters less than fifty micrometers, are characterised in terms of total mass and size distribution. Our results also show the influence of a combination of several factors on the production of airborne particles. For this reason, it is interesting to use dimensionless numbers, to describe the relationship between the inertial, viscosity and surface tension forces, in order to understand physically the emission of airborne particles. (author)

  19. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  20. ASHRAE IAQ 2010: Airborne infection controlventilation, IAQ & energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekhar, Chandra; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    . • Knowledge that proximity to an infected person affects infection rate, but the continued lack of certainty about whether that is due to large "ballistic" droplets or just a higher concentration of smaller airborne particles. Besides the papers from the IAQ 2010 conference mentioned above, this special issue...

  1. Airborne gravimetry used in precise geoid computations by ring integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kearsley, A.H.W.; Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard;

    1998-01-01

    Two detailed geoids have been computed in the region of North Jutland. The first computation used marine data in the offshore areas. For the second computation the marine data set was replaced by the sparser airborne gravity data resulting from the AG-MASCO campaign of September 1996. The results...

  2. Airborne ultrasound enters the ear through the eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Musical spectrum above 20000 Hz has been demonstrated to influence human judgments and physiology. Moreover airborne ultrasonic noise has been implicated in hearing loss, tinnitus, and other subjective effects such as headaches and fullness in the ear. Contact ultrasound, i.e., with a transducer affixed to the skin of the head/neck, is audible; assumed by bone conduction. However, lightly touching the soft tissues of the head, avoiding bone, can also produce audibility. When contact ultrasound is applied to the head, energy from 25 to ~60 kHz can be recorded from the closed eyelid, with care to avoid sensor contact with the orbit. If the same frequency band of noise is passed through a transducer in from of the eye, with just air coupling, the same response is again recordable on the head. An acrylic barrier between the eye and the transducer eliminates the response. Once airborne ultrasound exceeds the impedance mismatch of the eye it readily propagates through the soft tissues of the eye and brain via one of the fluid windows (end lymphatic, perilymphatic or vascular) to the cochlea. The eye fenestration explains how people can detect airborne ultrasonic components in music and develop ear effects from airborne ultrasonic noise.

  3. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN06 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  4. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS04 (2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  5. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  6. From Airborne EM to Geology, some examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnink, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Airborne Electro Magnetics (AEM) provide a model of the 3-dimensional distribution of resistivity of the subsurface. These resistivity models were used for delineating geological structures (e.g. Buried Valleys and salt domes) and for geohydrological modeling of aquifers (sandy sediments) and aquitards (clayey sediments). Most of the interpretation of the AEM has been carried out manually, by interpretation of 2 and 3-dimensional resistivity models into geological units by a skilled geologists / geophysicist. The manual interpretation is tiresome, takes a long time and is prone to subjective choices of the interpreter. Therefore, semi-automatic interpretation of AEM resistivity models into geological units is a recent research topic. Two examples are presented that show how resistivity, as obtained from AEM, can be "converted" to useful geological / geohydrolocal models. Statistical relation between borehole data and resistivity In the northeastern part of the Netherlands, the 3D distribution of clay deposits - formed in a glacio-lacustrine environment with buried glacial valleys - was modelled. Boreholes with description of lithology, were linked to AEM resistivity. First, 1D AEM resistivity models from each individual sounding were interpolated to cover the entire study area, resulting in a 3-dimensional model of resistivity. For each interval of clay and sand in the boreholes, the corresponding resistivity was extracted from the 3D resistivity model. Linear regression was used to link the clay and non-clay proportion in each borehole interval to the Ln(resistivity). This regression is then used to "convert" the 3D resistivity model into proportion of clay for the entire study area. This so-called "soft information" is combined with the "hard data" (boreholes) to model the proportion of clay for the entire study area using geostatistical simulation techniques (Sequential Indicator Simulation with collocated co-kriging). 100 realizations of the 3

  7. Inter-agency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telemetry Systems (IWGADTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Chris; Freudinge, Lawrence; Sorenson, Carl; Myers, Jeff; Sullivan, Don; Oolman, Larry

    2009-01-01

    The Interagency Coordinating Committee for Airborne Geosciences Research and Applications (ICCAGRA) was established to improve cooperation and communication among agencies sponsoring airborne platforms and instruments for research and applications, and to serve as a resource for senior level management on airborne geosciences issues. The Interagency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telecommunications Systems (IWGADTS) is a subgroup to ICCAGRA for the purpose of developing recommendations leading to increased interoperability among airborne platforms and instrument payloads, producing increased synergy among research programs with similar goals, and enabling the suborbital layer of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems.

  8. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V.A.; Ott, C.M.; Garcia, V.M.; John, J.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Pierson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including the concentration and the characteristics of the infectious agent. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the microorganisms aboard spacecraft is essential in mitigating infectious disease risk to the crew. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The translation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria from the SWAB experiment to nominal operations has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to previous conventional methodology. The incorporation of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) into the capabilities of the laboratory has provided a methodology to track microorganisms between crewmembers and their environment. Both 16S ribosomal DNA

  9. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  10. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  11. Rhamnolipids as active protective agents for microorganisms against toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbial biosurfactants decreases the toxicity of chlorophenols towards Pseudomonas putida 2A cells. The rhamnolipid-originating micelles selectively entrapped chlorophenol molecules, which resulted in their lower bioavailability to microbial cells. It was observed that the effective concentrations causing 50% growth inhibition increased by 0.5, 0.35 and 0.15 for phenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2.4-dichlorophenol, accordingly. The application of surfactants as protective agents for microorganisms brings about new possibilities of using this phenomenon in bioremediation techniques.

  12. Purification of soil contaminated by oil with microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Kazankapova; N. Toleukhanova; Mikhail Nauryzbayev

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studying the influence of strains of Pseudomonas mendoсina H-3 and Oscillatoria С-3 on soil contaminated with petroleum and hydrocarbons. The changes in chemical composition of hydrocarbons were determined. The influence of strain on the soil was studied by IR spectroscopy and chromatography. It was found that microorganisms can break down paraffinic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

  13. Purification of soil contaminated by oil with microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Kazankapova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying the influence of strains of Pseudomonas mendoсina H-3 and Oscillatoria С-3 on soil contaminated with petroleum and hydrocarbons. The changes in chemical composition of hydrocarbons were determined. The influence of strain on the soil was studied by IR spectroscopy and chromatography. It was found that microorganisms can break down paraffinic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

  14. Volcanism and soil mercury on Mars - Consequences for terrestrial microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    An earth-Mars depletion formula proposed by Anders and Owen for volatiles is used to calculate a range of putative Hg levels for Martian volcanic soils based upon analyzed samples from Hawaii. The range is about 50-150 microgram per kg. When applied either in conventional or special media (e.g., basalt powder), these levels of Hg are effective inhibitors of the growth of earth microorganisms. Taken together with other hostile chemical and physical factors, volcanic toxicants would appear to provide a further deterrent to the accidental establishment of terrestrial microbiota on Mars.

  15. Oscillatory Flows Induced by Microorganisms Swimming in Two-dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P

    2010-01-01

    We present the first time-resolved measurements of the oscillatory velocity field induced by swimming unicellular microorganisms. Confinement of the green alga C. reinhardtii in stabilized thin liquid films allows simultaneous tracking of cells and tracer particles. The measured velocity field reveals complex time-dependent flow structures, and scales inversely with distance. The instantaneous mechanical power generated by the cells is measured from the velocity fields and peaks at 15 fW. The dissipation per cycle is more than four times what steady swimming would require.

  16. Microbial and biochemical studies on phytase enzyme in some microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed calcium and magnesium salts of phytic acid myoinositol hexa phosphoric acid are widely distributed in food stuffs of plant origin, they may bind essential proteins, phospholipids and microelements to form indigestible compounds. In this concern, destruction of phytic acid and its salts by different methods is very important, one of them is by using microbial phytase. This study aims to produce phytase enzyme from microorganisms and study the best conditions of production and purification and also the properties of the partially purified phytase. 22 figs., 29 tabs., 61 refs

  17. Effect of Mixing on Microorganism Growth in Loop Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Al Taweel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mixing on the promotion of microorganism growth rate has been analyzed using a multiphase forced-circulation pipe-loop reactor model capable of identifying conditions under which it is possible to convert natural gas into Single-Cell Protein. The impact of mixing in the interphase mass transfer was found to exert a critical role in determining the overall productivity of the bioreactor, particularly at the high cell loadings needed to reduce the capital costs associated with the large-scale production needed for the production of relatively low-value SCP in a sustainable manner.

  18. Phenomenological modeling of the motility of self-propelled microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    Zaoli, Silvia; Formentin, Marco; Azaele, Sandro; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2014-01-01

    The motility of microorganisms in liquid media is an important issue in active matter and it is not yet fully understood. Previous theoretical approaches dealing with the microscopic description of microbial movement have modeled the propelling force exerted by the organism as a Gaussian white noise term in the equation of motion. We present experimental results for ciliates of the genus Colpidium, which do not agree with the Gaussian white noise hypothesis. We propose a new stochastic model that goes beyond such assumption and displays good agreement with the experimental statistics of motion, such as velocity distribution and velocity autocorrelation.

  19. Real-time detection of viable microorganisms by intracellular phototautomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuren Frank

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, the detection of live microorganisms present in the environment or involved in infections is carried out by enumeration of colony forming units on agar plates, which is time consuming, laborious and limited to readily cultivable microorganisms. Although cultivation-independent methods are available, they involve multiple incubation steps and do mostly not discriminate between dead or live microorganisms. We present a novel generic method that is able to specifically monitor living microorganisms in a real-time manner. Results The developed method includes exposure of cells to a weak acid probe at low pH. The neutral probe rapidly permeates the membrane and enters the cytosol. In dead cells no signal is obtained, as the cytosolic pH reflects that of the acidic extracellular environment. In live cells with a neutral internal pH, the probe dissociates into a fluorescent phototautomeric anion. After reaching peak fluorescence, the population of live cells decays. This decay can be followed real-time as cell death coincides with intracellular acidification and return of the probe to its uncharged non-fluorescent state. The rise and decay of the fluorescence signal depends on the probe structure and appears discriminative for bacteria, fungi, and spores. We identified 13 unique probes, which can be applied in the real-time viability method described here. Under the experimental conditions used in a microplate reader, the reported method shows a detection limit of 106 bacteria ml-1, while the frequently used LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ Syto9 and propidium iodide stains show detection down to 106 and 107 bacteria ml-1, respectively. Conclusions We present a novel fluorescence-based method for viability assessment, which is applicable to all bacteria and eukaryotic cell types tested so far. The RTV method will have a significant impact in many areas of applied microbiology including research on biocidal activity, improvement of

  20. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy